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Sample records for abanicos aluviales distales

  1. Comparison of Maxillary Molar Distalization with an Implant-Supported Distal Jet and a Traditional Tooth-Supported Distal Jet Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Cozzani, Mauro; Pasini, Marco; Zallio, Francesco; Ritucci, Robert; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Mazzotta, Laura; Giuca, Maria Rita; Piras, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate and compare the efficiency of two appliances for molar distalization: the bone-anchored distal screw (DS) and the traditional tooth-supported distal jet (DJ) for molar distalization and anchorage loss. Methods. Tests (18 subjects) were treated with a DS and controls (18 subjects) were treated with a DJ. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before and at the end of molar distalization and were analysed. Shapiro Wilk test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were applied according to values distribution. The α level was fixed at 0.05. Results. Maxillary first molars were successfully distalized into a Class I relationship in all patients. The mean molar distalization and treatment time were similar in both groups. The DS group exhibited a spontaneous distalization (2.1 ± 0.9 mm) of the first premolar with control of anchorage loss, distal tipping, extrusion, and skeletal changes. Conclusions. The DS is an adequate compliance-free distalizing appliance that can be used safely for the correction of Class II malocclusions. In comparison to the traditional DJ, the DS enables not only a good rate of molar distalization, but also a spontaneous distalization of the first premolars. PMID:25018770

  2. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation.

  3. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer

    PubMed Central

    Sodagar, A.; Ahmad Akhoundi, M. S.; Rafighii, A.; Arab, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. The screws were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance. Results Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was 0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH) decreased 1.28±1.36 mm. Conclusion BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance. PMID:22457837

  4. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael...treatment of a 56-year-old man with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon . The mechanism of injury, symptoms, and findings at physical...be used in pre-operative planning. Introduction Rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively uncommon injury, but delayed diagnosis may

  5. Comparative evaluation of molar distalization therapy using pendulum and distal screw appliances

    PubMed Central

    Cafagna, Alessandra; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare dentoalveolar and skeletal changes produced by the pendulum appliance (PA) and the distal screw appliance (DS) in Class II patients. Methods Forty-three patients (19 men, 24 women) with Class II malocclusion were retrospectively selected for the study. Twenty-four patients (mean age, 12.2 ± 1.5 years) were treated with the PA, and 19 patients (mean age, 11.3 ± 1.9 years) were treated with the DS. The mean distalization time was 7 months for the PA group and 9 months for the DS group. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at T1, before treatment, and at T2, the end of distalization. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of the two groups between T1 and T2. Results PA and DS were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (4.7 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molars showed less distal tipping in the DS group than in the PA group (3.2° vs. 9.0°, respectively). Moreover, significant premolar anchorage loss (2.7 mm) and incisor proclination (5.0°) were noted in the PA group, whereas premolar distal movement (1.9 mm) and no significant changes at the incisor (0.1°) were observed in the DS group. No significant sagittal or vertical skeletal changes were detected between the two groups during the distalization phase. Conclusions PA and DS seem to be equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars; however, greater distal molar tipping and premolar anchorage loss can be expected using PA. PMID:26258063

  6. Evaluation of maxillary molar distalization with the distal jet: a comparison with other contemporary methods.

    PubMed

    Bolla, Eugenio; Muratore, Filippo; Carano, Aldo; Bowman, S Jay

    2002-10-01

    Maxillary molar distalization is an increasingly popular option for the resolution of Class II malocclusions. This communication describes the effects of one particular molar distalizing appliance, the distal jet, in a sample of 20 consecutively treated and growing subjects (11 females, nine males; mean starting age of 13) and compares these effects with those of similar devices. Pre- and postdistalization cephalometric radiographs and dental models were analyzed to determine the dental and skeletal effects. The distal jet appliances were constructed using a biomechanical couple to direct the distalizing force to the level of the maxillary first molar's center of resistance. The distal jet was the only appliance used during the distalization phase of treatment. Examination of the cephalometric tracings demonstrated that the crowns of the maxillary first molars were distalized an average of 3.2 mm into a Class I molar relationship. In the process, the first molars were tipped distally an average of 3.1 degrees, however, the amount of tipping in each case was influenced by the state of eruption of the second molar. In subjects whose second molars had erupted only to the level of the apical third of the first molar roots, distal tipping was almost twice that seen when the second molar had completed their eruption. Anchorage loss measured at the first premolars averaged 1.3 mm, but the crowns tipped 3.1 degrees distally because of the design of the appliance. The maxillary incisors were proclined an average of 0.6 degrees with minimal effect on the mandibular plane angle and lower facial height. This study suggests that the distal jet appliance effectively moves the maxillary molars distally into a Class I molar relationship with minimal distal tipping, however, some loss of anchorage is to be expected during this process. The distal jet appliance compares favorably with other intraoral distalization devices and with mechanics featuring mandibular protraction for the

  7. [Distal clavicle fracture].

    PubMed

    Seppel, G; Lenich, A; Imhoff, A B

    2014-06-01

    Reposition and fixation of unstable distal clavicle fractures with a low profile locking plate (Acumed, Hempshire, UK) in conjunction with a button/suture augmentation cerclage (DogBone/FibreTape, Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA). Unstable fractures of the distal clavicle (Jäger and Breitner IIA) in adults. Unstable fractures of the distal clavicle (Jäger and Breitner IV) in children. Distal clavicle fractures (Jäger and Breitner I, IIB or III) with marked dislocation, injury of nerves and vessels, or high functional demand. Patients in poor general condition. Fractures of the distal clavicle (Jäger and Breitner I, IIB or III) without marked dislocation or vertical instability. Local soft-tissue infection. Combination procedure: Initially the lateral part of the clavicle is exposed by a 4 cm skin incision. After reduction of the fracture, stabilization is performed with a low profile locking distal clavicle plate. Using a special guiding device, a transclavicular-transcoracoidal hole is drilled under arthroscopic view. Additional vertical stabilization is arthroscopically achieved by shuttling the DogBone/FibreTape cerclage from the lateral portal cranially through the clavicular plate. The two ends of the FibreTape cerclage are brought cranially via adjacent holes of the locking plate while the DogBone button is placed under the coracoid process. Thus, plate bridging is achieved. Finally reduction is performed and the cerclage is secured by surgical knotting. Use of an arm sling for 6 weeks. Due to the fact that the described technique is a relatively new procedure, long-term results are lacking. In the short term, patients postoperatively report high subjective satisfaction without persistent pain.

  8. Comparison of standard laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy using the da Vinci S system.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiro; Asano, Yukio; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Uyama, Ichiro; Horiguchi, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures for pancreatic pathologies are increasingly being used, including distal pancreatectomy. This study aimed to assess the indications for and outcomes of the da Vinci distal pancreatectomy procedure. We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent pancreatic head resection from April 2009 to September 2013. Four patients (mean age, 52.7 years) underwent da Vinci distal pancreatectomy and 10 (mean age, 68.0 +/- 12.1 years) underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. The mean surgical duration was 292 +/- 153 min and 306 +/- 29 min, the mean blood loss was 153 +/- 71 mL and 61.7 +/- 72 mL, and the mean postoperative length of stay was 24 +/- 11 days and 14 +/- 3 days in the da Vinci distal pancreatectomy and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy groups, respectively. One patient who underwent da Vinci distal pancreatectomy developed a pancreatic fistula, while 2 patients in the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy group developed splenic ischemia and gastric torsion, respectively. Laparoscopic and robotic pancreatic resection were both safe and feasible in selected patients with distal pancreatic pathologies. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of robotic surgery in the advanced laparoscopic era.

  9. Distal protection in cardiovascular medicine: current status.

    PubMed

    Ali, Onn Akbar; Bhindi, Ravinay; McMahon, Aisling C; Brieger, David; Kritharides, Leonard; Lowe, Harry C

    2006-08-01

    Iatrogenic and spontaneous downstream microembolization of atheromatous material is increasingly recognized as a source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Devising ways of reducing this distal embolization using a variety of mechanical means--distal protection--is currently under intense and diverse investigation. This review therefore summarizes the present status of distal protection. It examines the problem of distal embolization, describes the available distal protection devices, reviews those areas of cardiovascular medicine where distal protection devices are being investigated, and discusses potential future developments.

  10. Distal chevron osteotomy with distal soft tissue procedure for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long Bin; Lee, Keun Bae; Seo, Chang Young; Song, Eun Kyoo; Yoon, Taek Rim

    2010-08-01

    Distal chevron osteotomy has been widely employed to treat mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. We reviewed 76 patients (86 feet) that underwent distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. At a mean followup of 31 months, all patients were evaluated using subjective, objective and radiographic measurements. Ninety-four percent of the patients were very satisfied or satisfied. Average AOFAS score improved from 54.7 points preoperatively to 92.9 at final followup. Average hallux valgus angle changed from 36.2 degrees preoperatively to 12.4 degrees at final followup, and average first-second intermetatarsal angle changed from 17.1 to 7.3 degrees. Average tibial sesamoid position changed from 2.4 preoperatively to 1.2 at final followup. Dorsal angulation of the head was observed in two feet, and plantaflexion of the head in four feet. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head. Our results indicate that distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure provides an effective and reliable means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity, and that it does so with high levels of patient satisfaction and low incidence of complications.

  11. [New anterolateral approach of distal femur for treatment of distal femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min; Zou, Fan; Luo, Song; Li, Binhua; Qiu, Ping; Nie, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the new anterolateral approach of the distal femur for the treatment of distal femoral fractures. Between July 2007 and December 2009, 58 patients with distal femoral fractures were treated by new anterolateral approach of the distal femur in 28 patients (new approach group) and by conventional approach in 30 patients (conventional approach group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, affected side, type of fracture, disease duration, complication, or preoperative intervention (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, hospitalization days, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score of knee were recorded. Operation was successfully completed in all patients of 2 groups, and healing of incision by first intention was obtained; no vascular and nerves injuries occurred. The operation time and intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency of new approach group were significantly less than those of conventional approach group (P < 0.05). But the intraoperative blood loss and the hospitalization days showed no significant difference between 2 groups (P > 0.05). All patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 19.8 months). Bone union was shown on X-ray films; the fracture healing time was (12.62 +/- 2.34) weeks in the new approach group and was (13.78 +/- 1.94) weeks in the conventional approach group, showing no significant difference (t=2.78, P=0.10). The knee HSS score at last follow-up was 94.4 +/- 4.2 in the new approach group, and was 89.2 +/- 6.0 in the conventional approach group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (t=3.85, P=0.00). New anterolateral approach of the distal femur for distal femoral fractures has the advantages of exposure plenitude, minimal tissue trauma, and early function rehabilitation training so as to enhance the function recovery of knee joint.

  12. Proximal—distal pattern formation in Drosophila: cell autonomous requirement for Distal-less gene activity in limb development

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephen M.; Jürgens, Gerd

    1989-01-01

    Limb development in the Drosophila embryo requires a pattern-forming system to organize positional information along the proximal–distal axis of the limb. This system must function in the context of the well characterized anterior–posterior and dorsal–ventral pattern-forming systems that are required to organize the body plan of the embryo. By genetic criteria the Distal-less gene appears to play a central role in limb development. Lack-of-function Distal-less mutations cause the deletion of a specific subset of embryonic peripheral sense organs that represent the evolutionary remnants of larval limbs. Distal-less activity is also required in the imaginal discs for the development of adult limbs. This requirement is cell autonomous and region specific within the developing limb primordium. Production of genetically mosaic imaginal discs, in which clones of cells lack Distal-less activity, indicates the existence of an organized proximal–distal positional information in very young imaginal disc primordia. We suggest that this graded positional information may depend on the activity of the Distal-less gene. Images PMID:16453891

  13. Genetics Home Reference: distal arthrogryposis type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Distal arthrogryposis type 1 Distal arthrogryposis type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal arthrogryposis type 1 is a disorder ...

  14. A Biomechanical Comparison of Distal Fixation for Bridge Plating in a Distal Radius Fracture Model.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Ram K; Bougioukli, Sofia; Stevanovic, Milan; Ghiassi, Alidad

    2017-09-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of second versus third metacarpal distal fixation when using a radiocarpal spanning distraction plate in an unstable distal radius fracture model. Biomechanical evaluation of the radiocarpal spanning distraction plate comparing second versus third metacarpal distal fixation was performed using a standardized model of an unstable wrist fracture in 10 matched-pair cadaveric specimens. Each fixation construct underwent a controlled cyclic loading protocol in flexion and extension. The resultant displacement and stiffness were calculated at the fracture site. After cyclic loading, each specimen was loaded to failure. The stiffness, maximum displacement, and load to failure were compared between the 2 groups. Cyclic loading in flexion demonstrated that distal fixation to the third metacarpal resulted in greater stiffness compared with the second metacarpal. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regards to maximum displacement at the fracture site in flexion. Cyclic loading in extension demonstrated no significant difference in stiffness or maximum displacement between the 2 groups. The average load to failure was similar for both groups. Fixation to the third metacarpal resulted in greater stiffness in flexion. All other biomechanical parameters were similar when comparing distal fixation to the second or third metacarpal in distal radius fractures stabilized with a spanning internal distraction plate. The treating surgeon should choose distal metacarpal fixation primarily based on fracture pattern, alignment, and soft tissue integrity. If a stiffer construct is desired, placement of the radiocarpal spanning plate at the third metacarpal is preferred. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Manual aspiration thrombectomy through proximal and distal supporting technique for the treatment of procedural distal A2 emboli: A technical case report.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Park, Jung Soo

    Disrupted clots that form during endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke can cause distal embolization. It is not easy to recanalize occluded vessels resulting from distal emboli. In particular, endovascular treatment of distal A2 emboli is very challenging because it is difficult to access such a distal location and maintain microcatheter stability throughout the procedure. We report a case of successful recanalization of A2 occlusion caused by procedural-induced distal emboli through a proximal and distal supporting technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  16. Distal Fibula Fractures in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Mack, Christina; Franke, Kristina; Barnes, Ronnie P; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-09-01

    Despite the frequency of distal fibula fractures in elite athletes and the significant potential impact on the athletes' season and future careers, little data exist characterizing the epidemiology of these injuries or, more importantly, return to competition. To (1) evaluate the incidence of acute distal fibula fractures in National Football League (NFL) athletes, including isolated distal fibula and combined ankle fracture patterns; (2) analyze distal fibula fracture rates in NFL athletes by position, type of play, and contact type; (3) determine the rates of distal fibula fracture surgery in NFL athletes; and (4) report the days missed due to distal fibula fractures in NFL athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. A retrospective review of distal fibula fractures reported to the NFL from 2000 to 2014 was performed using the NFL Injury Surveillance System. All distal fibula fractures were included, along with isolated and combined fracture patterns. Stress fractures and proximal fibula fractures were excluded. Epidemiological data and rates of surgery were determined. Return to sport was calculated and stratified by injury pattern and management. Overall, 237 distal fibula fractures in NFL athletes from 2000 to 2014 were included; 197 (83%) were isolated distal fibula fractures. A mean of 16 distal fibula fractures occurred each year (median, 16 per year). Fractures occurred most frequently on running (38%) and passing (24%) plays, but the frequency was next highest on kickoffs (16%), despite the relative infrequency of kickoffs during the average game compared with other play types. Surgery was reported for more than half of all distal fibula fractures (n = 128, 54%). Overall, patients who underwent surgery missed significantly more days (mean, 123.8 days) than players who did not undergo surgery (mean, 75.3 days) ( P < .001). Players with isolated distal fibula fractures had significantly fewer days missed (mean, 93.6 days) compared with those with combined

  17. Contact areas of the scaphoid and lunate with the distal radius in neutral and extension: correlation of falling strategies and distal radial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y R; Wu, Y F; Tang, J B; Giddins, G

    2014-05-01

    The functional neutral of wrist movement is about 10° extension yet the distal radius has a volar tilt. This has not previously been explained. Assuming that the contact area between the carpus and the distal radius increased in wrist extension this would also help stabilize the carpus on the distal radius in positions where typically there is greater loading. To test this hypothesis we reconstructed three-dimensional structures of the carpal bones and distal radius using computed tomography scans of 13 normal wrists. The contact areas of the scaphoid with the distal radius were measured and were found progressively increased from flexion 20°, neutral, extension 20°, to extension 40°. The maximal increases in the contact area of the scaphoid and the distal radius was at full wrist extension. No significant changes in the contact areas of the lunate with the distal radius were found between the different positions. The contact characteristics provide greater stability to the carpus on the distal radius, and to help spread forces from impact to the wrist reducing the transmitted peak forces and thus the risk of distal radius and carpal injuries.

  18. Effects of unilateral molar distalization with a modified pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Stefan F; Gedrange, Tomas; Zellmann, Markus R; Harzer, Winfried

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dentoalveolar changes due to unilateral distalization and to determine side effects. Cephalograms and dental casts before and after distal movement of the maxillary molars with pendulum appliances in 15 consecutively treated patients (5 girls and 10 boys, 12.06 +/- 1.32 years), were included in this study. The duration of distalization was 8.46 +/- 2.23 months. Cephalometric analysis showed no remarkable growth between the 2 measurement times. The mean value for distalization of the first molars was 3.83 +/- 1.09 mm, with distal tipping of 6.45 degrees . The maxillary second molars were also moved distally 2.83 +/- 1.32 mm and tipped distally 14.7 degrees . No significant changes in the position of the third molars were measured. The mean reciprocal mesial movement of the premolars was 1.18 +/- 1.31 mm, with distal tipping of 1.94 degrees . The incisors moved 0.84 +/- 0.79 mm mesially, with mesial tipping of 0.02 degrees and extrusion of 1.21 mm. There was also a significant influence on the contralateral anchorage unit. However, unilateral distalization reduced incisor proclination and induced moderate distal movement of the contralateral anchorage unit based on rotation around a virtual axis perpendicular to the Nance button. Effective distal molar movement and less anchorage loss at the front teeth are advantages of unilateral distalization.

  19. Combined open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for distal arch aneurysms: an alternative to total debranching.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Andreas; Sanchez, Luis A; Moon, Marc R

    2009-07-01

    We present herein a novel, combined, simultaneous open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for complex distal aortic arch aneurysms involving the descending aorta. In the first surgical step, the transverse arch is opened during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and a Dacron graft (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) is positioned down the descending aorta in an elephant trunk-like fashion with its proximal free margin sutured circumferentially to the aorta just distal to the left subclavian or left common carotid artery. With the graft serving as the new proximal landing zone, subsequent endovascular repair is performed antegrade during rewarming through the ascending aorta.

  20. Pediatric distal femur fixation by proximal humeral plate.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Amr Atef; Kanlic, Enes M

    2013-12-01

    Distal femoral metaphyseal fractures are common injuries in children. Multiple treatment options have been described for this type of injury. For older children with distal metaphyseal fracture, there is still no optimal method of fixation. We propose that the commonly used proximal humeral plate can provide good method of fixation for this fracture in adolescents. Two children (12 and 14 years old) with distal metaphyseal femoral fracture were treated with proximal humeral plate. We describe the surgical technique and postoperative management. The two children healed with good alignment and full range of motion of the knee. No external immobilization (other than knee immobilizer for the first 2 weeks) was used. We concluded that proximal humeral plate can provide adequate fixation for teenagers with distal femoral metaphyseal fracture. It is readily available; provide multiple options for screw fixation in the distal part of the fracture and fits easily on the distal part of the femur proximal to the physis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Distal clavicle fractures. Classifications and management].

    PubMed

    Ockert, Ben; Wiedemann, E; Haasters, F

    2015-05-01

    Fractures of the distal third of the clavicle represent 10-30% of all clavicle fractures . Frequently, these fractures result in instability due to a combination of bony and ligamentous injury. Thus, assessment of the stability is essential for adequate treatment of these fractures. This article presents a review of the different classification systems for distal clavicle fractures with respect to anatomical and functional factors to allow for comprehensive assessment of stability. Furthermore, the different treatment options for each fracture type are analyzed. Fractures to the distal third of the clavicle without instability can be treated conservatively with satisfactory outcome. In contrast, instability may result in symptomatic non-union under conservative treatment; therefore, distal clavicle fractures with instability should be treated operatively with respect to the functional demands of the patient. Operative treatment with locked plating in combination with coracoclavicular fixation results in excellent functional results. Arthroscopically assisted fracture fixation may be beneficial in terms of a minimally invasive approach as well as assessment and treatment of associated glenohumeral lesions.

  3. Volar plating for distal radius fractures--do not trust the image intensifier when judging distal subchondral screw length.

    PubMed

    Park, Derek H; Goldie, Boyd S

    2012-09-01

    The use of the volar plate to treat distal radius fractures is increasing but despite the theoretical advantages of a volar approach there have been reports of extensor tendon ruptures due to prominent screw tips protruding past the dorsal cortex. The valley in the intermediate column between Lister tubercle and the sigmoid notch of the distal radius makes it difficult to rely on fluoroscopy to judge screw length. Our aim was to quantify the dimensions of this valley and to demonstrate the danger of relying on intraoperative image intensification fluoroscopy to determine lengths of distal screws. We measured the depth of this valley in the intermediate column of the distal radius in 33 patients with computed tomographic (9 patients) or magnetic resonance image (24 patients) scans of the wrist. There was a consistent valley in all images examined [average 1.8 mm (95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.0 mm)]. Thirty-nine percent of wrists had a valley depth of at least 2 mm. Standard lateral views or rotation of the forearm to obtain oblique views does not identify prominent screw tips; and whatever the rotation of the forearm, screw tips protruding beyond dorsal cortex may look as if it is within the bone when in fact it is out. When drilling we suggest noting the depth at which the drill bit just penetrates dorsal cortex and routinely downsize the distal screw length by 2 mm. We caution against relying on flourosocopy when judging the length of the distal subchondral screws.

  4. The distal biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T

    2013-04-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures continue to be an important injury seen and treated by upper extremity surgeons. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis has been placed on techniques that limit complications or improve initial tendon-to-bone fixation strength. Recently, basic science research has expanded the knowledge base regarding the biceps tendon structure, footprint anatomy, and biomechanics. Clinical data have further delineated the results of conservative and surgical management of both partial and complete tears in acute or chronic states. The current literature on the distal biceps tendon is described in detail. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of distal humeral coronal shear fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515

  6. Comparative morphology of the pollical distal phalanx.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, M M; Marzke, M W; Linscheid, R L; Reece, S P

    2003-05-01

    Functional analysis of human pollical distal phalangeal (PDP) morphology is undertaken to establish a basis for the assessment of fossil hominid PDP morphology. Features that contribute to the effectiveness of grips involving the distal thumb and finger pulp areas include: 1) distal thumb interphalangeal joint morphology, facilitating PDP conjunct pronation with flexion; 2) differentiation of a proximal, mobile pulp region from a distal, stable pulp region, providing for firm precision pinch grips and precision handling of objects; and 3) asymmetric attachment of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon fibers, favoring PDP conjunct pronation. A proportionately larger size of the ulnar vs. radial ungual spine suggests differential loading intensity of the ulnar side of the proximal ungual pulp and supporting nail bed. Stresses at the distal interphalangeal joint are indicated by the presence of a sesamoid bone within the volar (palmar) plate, which also increases the length of the flexor pollicis longus tendon moment arm. Dissections of specimens from six nonhuman primate genera indicate that these human features are shared variably with individuals in other species, although the full pattern of features appears to be distinctively human. Humans share variably with these other species all metric relationships examined here. The new data identify a need to systematically review long-standing assumptions regarding the range of precision and power manipulative capabilities that might reasonably be inferred from morphology of the distal phalangeal tuberosity and from the FPL tendon insertion site on the PDP. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. External fixation techniques for distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Capo, John T; Swan, Kenneth G; Tan, Virak

    2006-04-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are common injuries. Low-energy or high-energy mechanisms may be involved. Unstable distal radius fractures present a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. External fixation is a valuable instrument for fracture reduction and stabilization. Limited open incisions, early range of motion, and treatment of complex wounds are a few of the benefits of external fixation. Fixators may be spanning or nonbridging and may be used alone or in combination with other stabilization methods to obtain and maintain distal radius fracture reduction. Augmentation with percutaneous wires allows for optimal fracture stabilization with physiologic alignment of the wrist. Moderate distraction at the carpus does not induce postoperative stiffness. The distal radioulnar joint must be assessed and may need to be stabilized. Complications of external fixation are usually minor, but must be anticipated and treated early. Level V (expert opinion).

  8. Predictive Power of Distal Radial Metaphyseal Tenderness for Diagnosing Occult Fracture.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z; Hinojosa, Lauren; Eden, Claire M; Balutis, Elaine; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis W

    2017-10-01

    To correlate the physical examination finding of distal radial metaphyseal tenderness with plain radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging after acute wrist injury to diagnose occult distal radius fractures. We hypothesized that persistent distal radial metaphyseal tenderness 2 weeks after acute injuries is predictive of an occult fracture. Twenty-nine adult patients presented, after acute trauma, with distal radial metaphyseal tenderness and initial plain radiographs and/or fluoroscopic images that did not show a distal radius fracture. Patients were reevaluated clinically and radiographically at approximately 2 weeks after initial presentation. Patients with persistent distal radial tenderness and negative radiographs underwent magnetic resonance imaging to definitively diagnose an occult distal radius fracture. We calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value for persistent distal radial metaphyseal tenderness using a 95% confidence interval and standard formulas. Both radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were used as our endpoint diagnosis for a distal radius fracture. We diagnosed 28 occult distal radius fractures, 8 by follow-up radiograph and 20 by magnetic resonance imaging. The positive predictive value for patients who completed the protocol was 96%. One patient who did not have an occult distal radius fracture had a fracture of the ulnar styloid. Tenderness of the distal radial metaphysis after wrist injury is strongly suggestive of a distal radius fracture despite both normal plain radiographs and fluoroscopic images. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of pendulum, K-loop, and distal jet distalization techniques in growing children and its effects on anchor unit: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marure, Pravinkumar S; Patil, Raju Umaji; Reddy, Sumitra; Prakash, Amit; Kshetrimayum, Nillachandra; Shukla, Rajeevkumar

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy to correct Class II malocclusions using a nonextraction protocol in children is to move the maxillary molars distally using molar distalization appliances, which usually derive their anchorage from maxillary premolars, causing mesialization of premolars and protrusion of incisors. To evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes produced by three different distalizing appliances, namely, pendulum, K-loop, and distal jet appliances. Sixty-six children of mean age 14.13 years requiring molar distalization were divided into three groups: Group I (pendulum appliance), Group II (K-loop), and Group III (distal jet). Lateral cephalometric films were taken before and after 5 months of molar distalization and following cephalometric parameters were used to assess the effects of maxillary molar distalization, namely, anteroposterior skeletal (SNA/SNB/ANB), vertical skeletal (face height ratio/Frankfort-mandibular plane [FMA]/angle formed between Maxillary plane & Mandibular plane (MM)), interdental (overjet/overbite), maxillary dentoalveolar, and soft tissue parameters. There was no significant age difference between the three groups. In overall treatment changes among the three groups, the Anteroposterior skeletal changes were not statistically significant, vertically FMA angle increased by 1.79° ± 2.25° and overbite reduced by 2.38 ± 1.83 mm. The maxillary first molars were distalized by an average of 4.70 ± 3.01 mm (Upper 6 [U6] to pterygoid vertical [PTV]). The maxillary central incisor labial tipping increased to an average of 1.61 ± 2.73 mm and cant of upper lip increased by 3.40° ± 5.88° are statistically significant (P < 0.05). All three distalization techniques in growing children produced significant effects on anchor unit. There was an increase in FMA angle, significant bite opening, proclination of the maxillary incisors and increase in the cant of the upper lip.

  10. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L.; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, “Do chimpanzees display distal communication?” Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. PMID:26292996

  11. Distal technologies and type 1 diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Duke, Danny C; Barry, Samantha; Wagner, David V; Speight, Jane; Choudhary, Pratik; Harris, Michael A

    2018-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes requires intensive self-management to avoid acute and long-term health complications. In the past two decades, substantial advances in technology have enabled more effective and convenient self-management of type 1 diabetes. Although proximal technologies (eg, insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors, closed-loop and artificial pancreas systems) have been the subject of frequent systematic and narrative reviews, distal technologies have received scant attention. Distal technologies refer to electronic systems designed to provide a service remotely and include heterogeneous systems such as telehealth, mobile health applications, game-based support, social platforms, and patient portals. In this Review, we summarise the empirical literature to provide current information about the effectiveness of available distal technologies to improve type 1 diabetes management. We also discuss privacy, ethics, and regulatory considerations, issues of global adoption, knowledge gaps in distal technology, and recommendations for future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of distal locking on the need for fibular plating in intramedullary nailing of distal metaphyseal tibiofibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Attal, R; Maestri, V; Doshi, H K; Onder, U; Smekal, V; Blauth, M; Schmoelz, W

    2014-03-01

    Using human cadaver specimens, we investigated the role of supplementary fibular plating in the treatment of distal tibial fractures using an intramedullary nail. Fibular plating is thought to improve stability in these situations, but has been reported to have increased soft-tissue complications and to impair union of the fracture. We proposed that multidirectional locking screws provide adequate stability, making additional fibular plating unnecessary. A distal tibiofibular osteotomy model performed on matched fresh-frozen lower limb specimens was stabilised with reamed nails using conventional biplanar distal locking (CDL) or multidirectional distal locking (MDL) options with and without fibular plating. Rotational stiffness was assessed under a constant axial force of 150 N and a superimposed torque of ± 5 Nm. Total movement, and neutral zone and fracture gap movement were analysed. In the CDL group, fibular plating improved stiffness at the tibial fracture site, albeit to a small degree (p = 0.013). In the MDL group additional fibular plating did not increase the stiffness. The MDL nail without fibular plating was significantly more stable than the CDL nail with an additional fibular plate (p = 0.008). These findings suggest that additional fibular plating does not improve stability if a multidirectional distal locking intramedullary nail is used, and is therefore unnecessary if not needed to aid reduction.

  13. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed

    Leavens, David A; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, "Do chimpanzees display distal communication?" Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Endoscopic-assisted Distal Biceps Footprint Repair.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures have been treated successfully with a variety of techniques; however, no current technique is able to restore the biceps to its native footprint on the ulnar surface of the radial tuberosity. We describe a technique, using an endobutton that better recreates the anatomic distal biceps footprint. This is likely to better restore absoloute and repetitive supination strength, which is not reliably achieved with current techniques.

  15. Distal displacement of the maxilla and the upper first molar.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Molthen, R; West, E E; Miller, D M

    1979-06-01

    Data from a sample of 198 Class II cases treated with various appliances which deliver distally directed forces to the maxilla were examined to determine the frequency of absolute distal displacement of the upper first molar and of the maxilla. Analysis revealed that such distal displacement is possible and that it is, in fact, a frequent finding following treatment. Long-range stability of distal displacement was not assessed.

  16. Management of Complications of Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Mathews, Alexandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Treating a fracture of the distal radius may require the surgeon to make a difficult decision between surgical treatment and nonsurgical management. The use of surgical fixation has recently increased owing to complications associated with conservative treatment. However, conservative action may be necessary depending on certain patient factors. The treating surgeon must be aware of the possible complications associated with distal radius fracture treatments to prevent their occurrence. Prevention can be achieved with a proper understanding of the mechanism of these complications. This article discusses the most recent evidence on how to manage and prevent complications following a fracture of the distal radius. PMID:25934197

  17. In vitro assessment of six aspiration catheters using a distal protection filter.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tatsuhiro; Okamura, Takayuki; Ando, Miyuki; Uchida, Kousuke; Tone, Takashi; Yonezawa, Fumio; Yano, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We assessed performance of 6 aspiration catheters for distal embolization using a distal protection filter in an in vitro experiment. In acute myocardial infarction, a distal protection filter is used for lesions likely to induce a distal embolism. Which aspiration cathether is most effective when used with a distal protection filter remains still unclear. A 0.5-cm3 bolus of gelatin as a model of stagnant pools of coronary plaque debris was captured in the distal protection filter and aspirated by 6 aspiration catheters. We measured and compared the length of the suspended embolus matter. Among the 6 catheters evaluated, the use of the Export Advance catheter (Medtronic) resulted in significantly shorter lengths of the suspended embolus matter compared to the use of the TVAC II (Nipro), Thrombuster III SL (Kaneka), and Rebirth Pro (Goodman) catheters (p < 0.01). The residual embolus matter in all cases had drained distally to the distal protection filter when the filter was retrieved. The use of the Export Advance catheter showed better performance using a distal protection filter in this in vitro experiment, and its use might be more effective in preventing distal embolisms in combination with a distal protection filter.

  18. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. PMID:27528796

  19. Risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenting; Ni, Cheng; Yu, Ren; Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Zheren; Zheng, Guoqing

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Compared with the control group, the 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures had a higher body mass index (BMI). Advanced age and higher BMI were more common in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P <0.05). A higher proportion of the 611 postmenopausal women with a distal radius fracture had fallen in the last 12 months than in the control group. Comorbidities and the frequency of falls in the last 12 months were higher in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P < 0.05). A higher proportion of the control group was taking calcium supplements, while the proportion taking calcium supplementation in the unstable fracture group was lower than that in the stable fracture group (P < 0.05). Osteoporosis in the two fracture groups (P < 0.05) was significantly higher than in the control group and was the highest in the unstable fracture group (P < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, obesity, falls, unknown osteoporosis status, and osteoporosis are associated with high risk of distal radius fracture. If comorbidities and advanced age are also present, this group of persons may be at higher risk for unstable distal radius fractures.

  20. Distinct subclassification of DRG neurons innervating the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra based on the electrophysiological current signature

    PubMed Central

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Brian Y.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal sensory neurons innervating visceral and mucocutaneous tissues have unique microanatomic distribution, peripheral modality, and physiological, pharmacological, and biophysical characteristics compared with those neurons that innervate muscle and cutaneous tissues. In previous patch-clamp electrophysiological studies, we have demonstrated that small- and medium-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be subclassified on the basis of their patterns of voltage-activated currents (VAC). These VAC-based subclasses were highly consistent in their action potential characteristics, responses to algesic compounds, immunocytochemical expression patterns, and responses to thermal stimuli. For this study, we examined the VAC of neurons retrogradely traced from the distal colon and the glans penis/distal urethra in the adult male rat. The afferent population from the distal colon contained at least two previously characterized cell types observed in somatic tissues (types 5 and 8), as well as four novel cell types (types 15, 16, 17, and 18). In the glans penis/distal urethra, two previously described cell types (types 6 and 8) and three novel cell types (types 7, 14, and 15) were identified. Other characteristics, including action potential profiles, responses to algesic compounds (acetylcholine, capsaicin, ATP, and pH 5.0 solution), and neurochemistry (expression of substance P, CGRP, neurofilament, TRPV1, TRPV2, and isolectin B4 binding) were consistent for each VAC-defined subgroup. With identification of distinct DRG cell types that innervate the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra, future in vitro studies related to the gastrointestinal and urogenital sensory function in normal as well as abnormal/pathological conditions may be benefitted. PMID:24872531

  1. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005) in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005), and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01). In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05), increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001), and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005). Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05). Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  2. Molar distalization with 2K appliance: one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Singh, Navneet

    2017-01-01

    Correction of class II molars in growing patients with acceptable facial profile can be performed by distalization of maxillary first molars. However, in patients where compliance is difficult intraoral means of molar distalization is required. This case report describes the use and effectiveness of a novel 2K appliance in an 11-year-old female having an orthognathic profile, skeletal Class I relation, and Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion with crowding of 8 mm and 3 mm in the maxillary and mandibular arches, respectively. Nonextraction treatment was planned with bilateral distalization of the maxillary first molars. The amount of distalization achieved by 2K appliance was 3.5 mm with only 1° distal tipping. The 2K appliance required minimal patient cooperation, produced bodily movement of molars with minimal tipping/rotation, and prevented anchorage loss of the anterior teeth. This 2K molar distalization appliance was found to be an effective technique to control molars in all three planes of space. PMID:28717634

  3. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Yu, Guangrong

    2012-05-01

    To review the progress in the diagnosis and treatment of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury. Different kinds of documents were widely collected, current developments of the diagnosis and treatment of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury were summarized. The disease history (damage mechanism), clinical examination, and imaging examination (X-ray, CT scan, and MRI) can assist the diagnosis of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury. Patients with unstable distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury needs active surgery treatment, and the principle is anatomical reduction and fixation so as to avoid the instability of the ankle joint, long-term chronic pain, and traumatic arthritis. The diagnosis of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury is still lack of specific quantitative parameters, so clinical study for large sample is needed to explicit the effectiveness.

  4. Distinct subclassification of DRG neurons innervating the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra based on the electrophysiological current signature.

    PubMed

    Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Brian Y; Johnson, Richard D

    2014-09-15

    Spinal sensory neurons innervating visceral and mucocutaneous tissues have unique microanatomic distribution, peripheral modality, and physiological, pharmacological, and biophysical characteristics compared with those neurons that innervate muscle and cutaneous tissues. In previous patch-clamp electrophysiological studies, we have demonstrated that small- and medium-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be subclassified on the basis of their patterns of voltage-activated currents (VAC). These VAC-based subclasses were highly consistent in their action potential characteristics, responses to algesic compounds, immunocytochemical expression patterns, and responses to thermal stimuli. For this study, we examined the VAC of neurons retrogradely traced from the distal colon and the glans penis/distal urethra in the adult male rat. The afferent population from the distal colon contained at least two previously characterized cell types observed in somatic tissues (types 5 and 8), as well as four novel cell types (types 15, 16, 17, and 18). In the glans penis/distal urethra, two previously described cell types (types 6 and 8) and three novel cell types (types 7, 14, and 15) were identified. Other characteristics, including action potential profiles, responses to algesic compounds (acetylcholine, capsaicin, ATP, and pH 5.0 solution), and neurochemistry (expression of substance P, CGRP, neurofilament, TRPV1, TRPV2, and isolectin B4 binding) were consistent for each VAC-defined subgroup. With identification of distinct DRG cell types that innervate the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra, future in vitro studies related to the gastrointestinal and urogenital sensory function in normal as well as abnormal/pathological conditions may be benefitted. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Giant distal humeral geode.

    PubMed

    Maher, M M; Kennedy, J; Hynes, D; Murray, J G; O'Connell, D

    2000-03-01

    We describe the imaging features of a giant geode of the distal humerus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, which presented initially as a pathological fracture. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing this diagnosis is emphasized.

  6. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Distal median nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy that affects the movement of or sensation in ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  7. Endovascular treatment of distal intracranial aneurysms with Onyx 18/34.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Hasan, David; Alkhalili, Kenan; Dumont, Aaron S; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Surgical clipping and coil embolization of distally located intracranial aneurysms can be challenging. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of treatment of distal aneurysms with the liquid embolic agent Onyx 18/34. Sixteen patients were treated with Onyx 18/34 for distally located aneurysms in our institution between March 2009 and September 2012. The technique consists of occluding the aneurysm as well as the parent vessel at the level of aneurysm with Onyx 18 or 34. Candidates for this treatment were patients with distal aneurysms including mycotic aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, and pseudoaneurysms in which coiling was considered impossible. Of the 16 patients, 12 presented with subarachnoid and/or intracerebral hemorrhage. Median aneurysm size was 4.6mm. Aneurysm locations were as follows: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n=5), distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (n=3), distal pericallosal (n=3), distal anterior cerebral artery (n=3), lenticulostriate artery (n=1), and anterior ethmoidal artery (n=1). There were 4 mycotic aneurysms. Complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in all 6 patients with available angiographic follow-up. There was only 1 (6.3%) symptomatic complication in the series. There were no instances of reflux or accidental migration of embolic material. Favorable outcomes were noted in 82% of patients at discharge. Two patients with mycotic aneurysms died from cardiac complications of endocarditis. No aneurysm recanalization or rehemorrhage were seen. Parent vessel trapping with Onyx 18/34 offers a simple, safe, and effective means of achieving obliteration of distal challenging aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation between obesity and severity of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Olivo, C; Gonzalez-Saldivar, J C; Villarreal-Villarreal, G; Torres-Botello, A; Gomez-Garcia, E; Tamez-Mata, Y; Peña-Martinez, V

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased significantly worldwide. Our hypothesis was that patients with obesity have a more severe distal radius fracture and we realized a study to evaluate this correlation between obesity and severity of distal radius fractures caused by low-energy injuries. A total of 114 patients with distal radius fracture were examined in a cross-sectional, observational study. Fractures were classified according to the international AO-Müller/Orthopedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) classification in order to determine the severity. The patient's Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated and a Pearson correlation was performed. The patients were predominantly female, and left side was more frequently affected. Most of the fractures were AO/OTA type A (71 patients). The majority of the involved patients in our study were overweighed or obese. We do not observe a direct correlation between grade of obesity and distal radius fracture severity. Based on the results of this study obesity and severity of distal radius fractures do not correlate. Prognostic. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of proximal and distal muscle activity during handwriting tasks.

    PubMed

    Naider-Steinhart, Shoshana; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2007-01-01

    In this study we sought to describe upper-extremity proximal and distal muscle activity in typically developing children during a handwriting task and to explore the relationship between muscle activity and speed and quality of writing. We evaluated 35 third- and fourth-grade Israeli children using the Alef-Alef Ktav Yad Hebrew Handwriting Test. Simultaneously, we recorded the participants' upper trapezius and thumb muscle activity by surface electromyography. Using the coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided by mean amplitude) as a measure of variability within each muscle, we analyzed differences in muscle activity variability within and between muscles. The proximal muscle displayed significantly less variability than the distal muscles. Decreased variability in proximal muscle activity was associated with decreased variability in distal muscle activity, and decreased variability in the distal muscles was significantly associated with faster speed of writing. The lower amount of variability exhibited in the proximal muscle compared with the distal muscles seems to indicate that the proximal muscle functions as a stabilizer during a handwriting task. In addition, decreased variability in both proximal and distal muscle activity appears to be more economical and is related to faster writing speed. Knowledge of the type of proximal and distal muscle activity used during handwriting can help occupational therapists plan treatment for children with handwriting disabilities.

  10. Limited distal clavicle excision of acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gokkus, K; Saylik, M; Atmaca, H; Sagtas, E; Aydin, A T

    2016-05-01

    Resection of the distal aspect of clavicle has a well-documented treatment modality in case of acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis resistant to conservative treatment. Limited (mean ∼0.5cm distal end of clavicle resection) distal clavicle excision of A-C joint arthritis in cases resistant to conservative treatment may reduce the pain and improve the shoulder function. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the results of limited distal clavicle excision of acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis resistant to conservative treatment. All patients were evaluated by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and UCLA shoulder rating scale (University of California Los Angeles), either before surgery or final follow-up period for pain and functional results, respectively. A total of 110 patients (48 male, 62 female) with AC joint arthritis, treated between the years of 2008-2012, were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 30 patients (12 male, 18 female) who failed to show improvement with conservative treatment underwent limited surgical open excision of distal clavicle. The mean age of the study population was 52.5±1.2 years. The mean follow-up period was 27±1.3 months. The mean preoperative VAS score was 83.6±5.58 (range, 70-90) while mean VAS was 26.6±9.3 (range, 10-50) at the final follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative VAS scores in patients who had treated by surgical approach (P<0.001). The mean UCLA score of the patients increased postoperatively from 11.5 (range, 9-14) to 29.2 (range, 27-32) at the final follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference between the two time periods with respect to UCLA scores (P<0.001). In patients with AC osteoarthritis resistant to conservative therapy, the hypothesized limited clavicle excision (mean ∼0.5cm distal end of clavicle resection with preserving coracoclavicular ligaments and inferior capsule) reduced the pain and improved the shoulder function

  11. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Printable PDF Open All Close All ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  12. The role of imaging in diagnosing diseases of the distal radioulnar joint, triangular fibrocartilage complex, and distal ulna.

    PubMed

    Squires, Judy H; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, biomechanics, and multimodality imaging findings of common and uncommon distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ), triangular fibrocartilage complex, and distal ulna abnormalities. The DRUJ is a common site for acute and chronic injuries and is frequently imaged to evaluate chronic wrist pain, forearm dysfunction, and traumatic forearm injury. Given the complex anatomy of the wrist, the radiologist plays a vital role in the diagnosis of wrist pain and dysfunction.

  13. Topographical Anatomy of the Distal Ulna Attachment of the Radioulnar Ligament.

    PubMed

    Shin, Won-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Pil; Yang, Hun-Mu; Lee, Eun-Young; Go, Jai-Hyang; Heo, Kang

    2017-07-01

    The deep component of the distal radioulnar ligament provides translational stability and rotational guidance to the forearm. However, controversy exists regarding the importance of this structure as well as the nature of its attachment to the distal ulna. We aimed to evaluate the topographic anatomy of the distal ulna attachment of both the superficial and the deep components of the radioulnar ligament and to assess the relationship between its internal and its external morphometry. Thirteen human distal ulnae attached by ulnar part of the distal radioulnar ligament were scanned using micro-computed tomography and reconstructed in 3 dimensions. In addition, the distal radioulnar ligaments were examined under polarized light microscopy to determine the histological characteristics of collagen contained within the ligaments. The deep limbs have broad marginal insertions at the fovea, whereas the superficial limbs have a circular and condensed insertion to the ulnar styloid. The center of the deep limb was separated from the base of the ulnar styloid by a mean of 2.0 ± 0.76 mm, and this distance was positively correlated with the width of the ulnar styloid. The mean distance between the center of the ulnar head and the center of the fovea was 2.4 ± 0.58 mm. The proportion of collagen type I was lower in the deep limb than in the superficial limb. This new observation of the footprint of the radioulnar ligament in the distal ulna indicates that the deep limb may serve as an internal capsular ligament of the distal radioulnar joint, whereas the superficial limb as the external ligament. Knowledge of the topographic anatomy of the radioulnar ligament's attachment to the distal ulna may provide a better understanding of distal radioulnar ligament-related pathologies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficiency of molar distalization associated with second and third molar eruption stage.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; McGrath, Lisa; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of molar distalization associated with the second and third molar eruption stage. A systematic computerized database search was conducted using several databases. Adaptations of the terms molar distalization and distalizing appliances were used. The reference lists of all the selected articles were also searched for any potential articles that might have been missed in the electronic search. The data provided in the selected publications were grouped and analyzed in terms of molar distalization with respect to various eruption stages of maxillary second and third molars. Out of the 13 initially identified articles only four fulfilled the final selection criteria. Three of the four studies showed no statistical significance in linear molar distalization based on the eruptive stage of the second and/or third molars, while one study found that the amount of distal movement of the first molars was significantly greater in the group with unerupted second molars. Only one study found that the amount of molar tipping that occurred as a result of distalization was related to the eruption stage of the maxillary molars. Similarly, three of the four studies found that molar distalization time was not significantly affected by eruption of the second or third molars. The effect of maxillary second and third molar eruption stage on molar distalization-both linear and angular distalization-appears to be minimal. This conclusion is only based on low-level of evidence clinical trials. The large variability in the outcomes should be considered clinically.

  15. Differences in the morphology of distal border synovial invaginations of the distal sesamoid bone in the horse as evaluated by computed tomography compared with radiography.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, H J; Van Der Veen, H; Duchateau, L; Raes, E V; Saunders, J H

    2012-11-01

    Distal border synovial invaginations of the distal sesamoid bone are radiographically assessed during the selection process of horses admitted as breeding stallions or in purchase examinations. Nowadays, many moderately or some deeply penetrating proximally enlarged synovial invaginations are considered as moderate or severe radiographic findings. To measure the difference between and agreement of the morphology of distal border synovial invaginations on radiography vs. computed tomography (CT). It was hypothesised that the morphology of distal border synovial invaginations would be better evaluable on CT compared with radiography. Computed tomography scans and 3 dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique (DPr-PaDiO) radiographs were obtained on 50 cadaver forefeet from 25 Warmblood horses. Computed tomography was assumed to be the gold standard. The number, shape and depth of penetration of distal border synovial invaginations into the distal sesamoid bone were evaluated with both methods, and the comparison of their measurements was statistically described. A statistically significant mean difference for number of distal synovial invaginations between CT and all 3 DPr-PaDiO projections was found and was approximately equal to 2, meaning that CT permits visualisation of an average of 2 more invaginations than radiography. In none of the cases did radiography have a higher number observed than CT. A large variation in the difference of measurements for depth of penetration against their mean difference between CT and the 3 radiographic projections was seen. Radiography underestimated the depth of invaginations, and more so when these were deeper. There was no statistically significant mean difference found between the techniques for depth. A moderate to good agreement between measurements on CT and the three DPr-PaDiO projections for shape was seen, in which the D55°Pr-PaDiO projection showed the best agreement. A high specificity (90-99%) and low sensitivity (65%) for

  16. Anatomic Considerations for Plating of the Distal Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Antony; Nemeth, Nicole; Bindra, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to examine the anatomy of the distal ulna and identify an interval that would be amenable to plating and would not cause impingement during wrist rotation nor irritation to the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon. Methods Six cadaveric forearms were dissected and the arc of the articular surface of the distal ulna was measured. The distal ulna was divided up as a clock face, with the ulnar styloid being assigned the 12 o'clock position, and the location of the ECU was identified accordingly. The distance from the ulnar styloid to where the dorsal sensory ulnar nerve crosses from volar to dorsal was also measured. Based on these measurements a safe zone was defined. Results A safe zone was identified between the 12 and 2 o'clock position on the right wrist, and between the 10 and 12 o'clock on the left wrist. The dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve crossed from volar to dorsal position at a variable location near the ulnar styloid. Two commercially available plates were utilized and could be placed in our designated interval and did not cause impingement when the forearm was rotated fully. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a location for plating of the distal ulna that avoids impingement during forearm rotation and that is outside of the footprint of the ECU subsheath. Clinical Relevance Plating of the distal ulna may be necessary with distal ulna fracture, and although plate placement may be dictated by the fracture pattern, it is important to understand the implications of plate placement. Although the ideal plate may not be possible because of comminution, the patient can be educated in regards to potential for tendon irritation, loss of motion, or need for hardware removal. PMID:26261745

  17. Distal movement of maxillary molars in nongrowing patients with the skeletal anchorage system.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Junji; Kanzaki, Reiko; Takahashi, Ichiro; Nagasaka, Hiroshi; Nanda, Ravindra

    2006-06-01

    It is now possible to predictably move maxillary molars distally in nongrowing patients with the skeletal anchorage system (SAS) and to improve malocclusions without having to extract the premolars and regardless of the patient's compliance. The purposes of this study were to investigate the amount of distal movement of the maxillary first molars, the type of movement, the difference between actual and predicted amounts of distalization, and the relationship between the amount of distalization and age. Twenty-five nongrowing patients (22 female, 3 male) successfully treated with the SAS were the subjects in this study. The amount and the type of distalization, the difference between predicted and resulting amounts of distalization, and the relationship between the patient's age and the amount of distalization were analyzed with wide-opening cephalometric radiographs. The average amount of distalization of the maxillary first molars was 3.78 mm at the crown level and 3.20 mm at the root level. The amount of distalization at the crown level was significantly correlated with the average value of treatment goals (3.60 mm). The maxillary molars were predictably distalized in accordance with the individualized treatment goals without regard to patient age and extraction of the third or second molars. The SAS is a viable noncompliance modality to move maxillary molars for distally correcting maxillary protrusions and malocclusions characterized by maxillary incisor crowding.

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Spyridakis, L K; Crowell, W A

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic failure was found in a chronically anorectic cat. Simultaneous blood and urine pH determinations established a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. The cat did not respond to treatment. Necropsy revealed distal tubular nephrosis and hepatic lipidosis. The finding of distal renal tubular acidosis in a cat with hepatic lipidosis emphasizes the importance of complete evaluation of acid-base disorders in patients.

  19. Comparison of Chevron and Distal Oblique Osteotomy for Bunion Correction.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Brandon M; DeVries, J George

    2016-01-01

    The chevron osteotomy is a standard procedure by which bunions are corrected. One of us routinely performs a distal oblique osteotomy, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described for the correction of bunion deformities. The purpose of the present study was to compare the short- and medium-term results of the distal oblique and chevron osteotomies for bunion correction. We performed a retrospective clinical and radiographic comparison of patients who had undergone a distal oblique or chevron osteotomy for the correction of bunion deformity. In addition, a prospective patient satisfaction survey was undertaken. A total of 55 patients were included in the present study and were treated from January 2012 to November 2014. Of the 55 patients, 27 (49.2%) were in the chevron group and 28 (50.8%) in the distal oblique group. Radiographically, no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to postoperative first intermetatarsal angle (p < .0001) and hallux valgus angle (p < .0001), but a greater change was found in the intermetatarsal angle in the distal oblique group (p = .467). Prospective patient satisfaction scores were available for 33 patients (60%), 16 (29%) in the chevron group and 17 (31%) in the distal oblique group. When converting the satisfaction score to a numerical score, the chevron group scored 3.3 ± 1.1 and the distal oblique group scored 3.2 ± 0.8 (p = .812). We found that the distal oblique osteotomy used in the present study is simple and reliable and showed radiographic correction and patient satisfaction equivalent to those in the chevron osteotomy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Distal Clavicle Osteolysis.

    PubMed

    DeFroda, Steven F; Nacca, Christopher; Waryasz, Gregory R; Owens, Brett D

    2017-03-01

    Distal clavicle osteolysis is an uncommon condition that most commonly affects weight lifters and other athletes who perform repetitive overhead activity. Although this condition most commonly presents in young active men, it is becoming increasing more common in women with the rise in popularity of body building and extreme athletics. Distal clavicle osteolysis can be debilitating, especially in those with rigorous training regimens, preventing exercise because of pain with activities such as bench presses and chest flies. Aside from a careful history and physical examination, radiographic evaluation is essential in distinguishing isolated distal clavicle osteolysis from acromioclavicular joint pathology, despite a potentially similar presentation of the 2 conditions. Nonoperative therapy that includes activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cortisone injections is the first-line management for this condition. Patients whose conditions are refractory to nonoperative modalities may benefit from distal clavicle resection via either open or arthroscopic techniques. Arthroscopic techniques typically are favored because of improved cosmesis and the added benefit of the ability to assess the glenohumeral joint during surgery to rule out concomitant pathology. There are varying operative techniques even within arthroscopic management, with pros and cons of a direct and an indirect surgical approach. Patients often do well after such procedures and are able to return to their preinjury level of participation in a relatively short period. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):119-124.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.

  2. An evaluation of distal hair cortisol concentrations collected at delivery.

    PubMed

    Orta, Olivia R; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L; Coull, Brent A; Gelaye, Bizu; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2018-04-04

    Distal hair segments collected at delivery may allow for the assessment of maternal cortisol secretion in early pregnancy, an important time window for fetal development. Therefore, an investigation of the validity of distal hair cortisol concentrations is warranted. We examined the concordance between proximal and distal hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), both representing the first trimester of pregnancy. The study population was comprised of a random sample of 97 women participating in the Pregnancy Outcomes Maternal and Infant Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Each participant provided two hair samples: once at enrollment [mean gestational age (GA) = 13.1 weeks] and again at full-term delivery (mean GA = 39.0 weeks). Hair segments reflecting the first trimester were: 3 cm hair segments closest to the scalp on the first hair sample (proximal) and 6-9 cm from the scalp on the second hair sample (distal). HCC was determined using Luminescence Immunoassay. A subset (N = 28) had both hair segments additionally analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HCC values were log-transformed (logHCC), and proximal-distal differences tested using paired sample t-tests. Concordance was evaluated within and across assay types. LogHCC, measured using immunoassay, in distal hair segments was lower compared to proximal hair segments (1.35 versus 1.64 respectively; p = .02). No difference was observed using LC-MS/MS (1.99 versus 1.83, respectively; p=.33). Proximal-distal concordance was low within assay (immunoassay: Pearson = 0.27 and κ = 0.10; LC-MS/MS: Pearson = 0.37 and κ = 0.07). High correlation was observed across assays for both distal (Pearson = 0.78, p < .001; κ = 0.64) and proximal segments (Pearson = 0.96, p < .001; κ = 0.75). In conclusion, distal first-trimester hair segments collected at delivery have lower

  3. Ultrasound-guided diagnosis of fractures of the distal forearm in children.

    PubMed

    Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Ringe, M J; Visel, D; Graf, M; Müller, D; Siewe, J

    2015-06-01

    Distal radius and forearm fractures are injuries that are frequently seen in trauma surgery outpatient clinics. Usually, the wrist is X-rayed in 2 planes as standard diagnostic procedure. In contrast, we evaluate in our study the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing these fractures. This prospective study includes the patients who presented at two trauma surgery clinics with a presumptive diagnosis of distal radius or forearm fracture between January and December 2012. After a clinical examination, US imaging of the distal forearm was first carried out on 6 standardized planes followed by radiographs of the wrist made in two planes. The age limit was set at the end of 11 years. In total, 201 patients between 4 and 11 years of age were recruited with an average age of 9.5 years at the time of the trauma. There were 104 (51.7%) fractures distributed as follows: 89 (85.9%) injuries of the distal radius, 9 (8.7%) injuries of the distal ulna, and 6 (5.8%) combined injuries (radius and ulna). Sixty-five greenstick fractures were detected. Surgery was necessary in 34 cases. Specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound diagnosis were 99.5%. Ultrasound imaging is suitable to demonstrate fractures of the distal forearm. It is a highly sensitive procedure in detecting distal forearm fractures. In our opinion, a negative result in ultrasound may reduce the need for further radiographs in children with distal forearm lesions. But in any doubtful situation the need for conventional radiographs remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of distal residue participation in enzyme catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Brodkin, Heather R; DeLateur, Nicholas A; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Mills, Caitlyn L; Novak, Walter R; Beuning, Penny J; Ringe, Dagmar; Ondrechen, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    A scoring method for the prediction of catalytically important residues in enzyme structures is presented and used to examine the participation of distal residues in enzyme catalysis. Scores are based on the Partial Order Optimum Likelihood (POOL) machine learning method, using computed electrostatic properties, surface geometric features, and information obtained from the phylogenetic tree as input features. Predictions of distal residue participation in catalysis are compared with experimental kinetics data from the literature on variants of the featured enzymes; some additional kinetics measurements are reported for variants of Pseudomonas putida nitrile hydratase (ppNH) and for Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP). The multilayer active sites of P. putida nitrile hydratase and of human phosphoglucose isomerase are predicted by the POOL log ZP scores, as is the single-layer active site of P. putida ketosteroid isomerase. The log ZP score cutoff utilized here results in over-prediction of distal residue involvement in E. coli alkaline phosphatase. While fewer experimental data points are available for P. putida mandelate racemase and for human carbonic anhydrase II, the POOL log ZP scores properly predict the previously reported participation of distal residues. PMID:25627867

  5. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Quality: Distal and Proximal Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…

  6. Fishtail deformity--a delayed complication of distal humeral fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Srikala; Shailam, Randheer; Grottkau, Brian E; Nimkin, Katherine

    2015-06-01

    Concavity in the central portion of the distal humerus is referred to as fishtail deformity. This entity is a rare complication of distal humeral fractures in children. The purpose of this study is to describe imaging features of post-traumatic fishtail deformity and discuss the pathophysiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis of seven cases of fishtail deformity after distal humeral fractures. Seven children ages 7-14 years (five boys, two girls) presented with elbow pain and history of distal humeral fracture. Four of the seven children had limited range of motion. Five children had prior grade 3 supracondylar fracture treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. One child had a medial condylar fracture and another had a lateral condylar fracture; both had been treated with conservative casting. All children had radiographs, five had CT and three had MRI. All children had a concave central defect in the distal humerus. Other imaging features included joint space narrowing with osteophytes and subchondral cystic changes in four children, synovitis in one, hypertrophy or subluxation of the radial head in three and proximal migration of the ulna in two. Fishtail deformity of the distal humerus is a rare complication of distal humeral fractures in children. This entity is infrequently reported in the radiology literature. Awareness of the classic imaging features can result in earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  7. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Laing distal myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Muscular Dystrophy Association: Facts About Rare Muscular Dystrophies (PDF) Muscular Dystrophy Canada Muscular Dystrophy UK National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Distal Myopathy Resource list ...

  9. Osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robert A; Lögters, Tim T; Verbruggen, Gust; Windolf, Joachim; Goitz, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Osteoarthritis occurs with the highest prevalence in the distal interphalangeal joint of the hand and has been divided into an erosive and a nonerosive form. The pathogenesis of the early stages of osteoarthritis is poorly understood, but considerable emphasis has been placed on the role of cartilage and subchondral bone as well as soft tissue structures such as collateral ligaments and tendons. Radiographic evaluation represents the most standardized method to quantify disease progression, with different systems having been developed for defining and grading radiographic features. This current concepts article examines the recent knowledge base regarding the etiology, pathogenesis, and evaluation of osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Distal gap junctions and active dendrites can tune network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saraga, Fernanda; Ng, Leo; Skinner, Frances K

    2006-03-01

    Gap junctions allow direct electrical communication between CNS neurons. From theoretical and modeling studies, it is well known that although gap junctions can act to synchronize network output, they can also give rise to many other dynamic patterns including antiphase and other phase-locked states. The particular network pattern that arises depends on cellular, intrinsic properties that affect firing frequencies as well as the strength and location of the gap junctions. Interneurons or GABAergic neurons in hippocampus are diverse in their cellular characteristics and have been shown to have active dendrites. Furthermore, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic neurons, also known as basket cells, can contact one another via gap junctions on their distal dendrites. Using two-cell network models, we explore how distal electrical connections affect network output. We build multi-compartment models of hippocampal basket cells using NEURON and endow them with varying amounts of active dendrites. Two-cell networks of these model cells as well as reduced versions are explored. The relationship between intrinsic frequency and the level of active dendrites allows us to define three regions based on what sort of network dynamics occur with distal gap junction coupling. Weak coupling theory is used to predict the delineation of these regions as well as examination of phase response curves and distal dendritic polarization levels. We find that a nonmonotonic dependence of network dynamic characteristics (phase lags) on gap junction conductance occurs. This suggests that distal electrical coupling and active dendrite levels can control how sensitive network dynamics are to gap junction modulation. With the extended geometry, gap junctions located at more distal locations must have larger conductances for pure synchrony to occur. Furthermore, based on simulations with heterogeneous networks, it may be that one requires active dendrites if phase-locking is to occur in networks formed

  11. Maxillary molar distalization with MGBM-system in class II malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Maino, Giuliano; Mariani, Lisa; Bozzo, Ida; Maino, Giovanna; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment effects of the MGBM-System (G.B Maino, A. Giannelly, R. Bernard, P. Mura), a new intraoral device to treat Class II malocclusions Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare the pre-distalization and post-distalization cephalograms and dental model casts of 30 patients (15 male, 15 female) with Class II malocclusion treated with MGBM-System. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 13.3 years (standard deviation 3.3). Angular, horizontal and vertical measurements were recorded to monitor skeletal and dental-alveolar changes. Molar movements in horizontal plane were monitored by making dental measurements on dental model casts. Results: The MGBM-System produced a rapid molar distalization and Class II relationship was corrected in 8 months ± 2.05, on average. The maxillary first molars were distalized of 4.14 (PTV-6 cemento-enamel junction), associated with a significant distal axis incline of 10. 5° referred to SN and a significant intrusion of 1.3 mm (PP). As for anchorage loss, the first premolar exhibited a significant mesial movement of 0.86 mm, associated with a significant mesial axis incline of 2.46°. No significative changes in either sagittal or vertical skeletal relationship were observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that the MGBM-System is an efficient and reliable device for distalizing the maxillary permanent first and second molars. PMID:24987649

  12. Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon repair: case report.

    PubMed

    Storti, Thiago Medeiros; Paniago, Alexandre Firmino; Faria, Rafael Salomon Silva

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare clinical entity, seldom reported in the literature and with unclear therapeutic setting. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old white man who suffered a simultaneous bilateral rupture while working out. When weightlifting with elbows at 90° of flexion, he suddenly felt pain on the anterior aspect of the arms, coming for evaluation after two days. He presented bulging contour of the biceps muscle belly and ecchymosis in the antecubital fossa, extending distally to the medial aspect of the forearm, as well as a marked decrease of supination strength and pain in active elbow flexion. MRI confirmed the rupture with retraction of the distal biceps bilaterally. The authors opted for performing the tendon repairs simultaneously through the double incision technique and fixation to the bicipital tuberosity with anchors. The patient progressed quite well, with full return to labor and sports activities, being satisfied with the result after two years of surgery. In the literature search, few reports of simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps were retrieved, with only one treated in the acute phase of injury. Therefore, the authors consider this procedure to be a good option to solve this complex condition.

  13. Prediction of distal residue participation in enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Brodkin, Heather R; DeLateur, Nicholas A; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Mills, Caitlyn L; Novak, Walter R; Beuning, Penny J; Ringe, Dagmar; Ondrechen, Mary Jo

    2015-05-01

    A scoring method for the prediction of catalytically important residues in enzyme structures is presented and used to examine the participation of distal residues in enzyme catalysis. Scores are based on the Partial Order Optimum Likelihood (POOL) machine learning method, using computed electrostatic properties, surface geometric features, and information obtained from the phylogenetic tree as input features. Predictions of distal residue participation in catalysis are compared with experimental kinetics data from the literature on variants of the featured enzymes; some additional kinetics measurements are reported for variants of Pseudomonas putida nitrile hydratase (ppNH) and for Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP). The multilayer active sites of P. putida nitrile hydratase and of human phosphoglucose isomerase are predicted by the POOL log ZP scores, as is the single-layer active site of P. putida ketosteroid isomerase. The log ZP score cutoff utilized here results in over-prediction of distal residue involvement in E. coli alkaline phosphatase. While fewer experimental data points are available for P. putida mandelate racemase and for human carbonic anhydrase II, the POOL log ZP scores properly predict the previously reported participation of distal residues. 2015 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  14. Limited distal organelles and synaptic function in extensive monoaminergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Juan; Bulgari, Dinara; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2017-08-01

    Organelles such as neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and mitochondria travel down axons to supply synaptic boutons. DCV distribution among en passant boutons in small axonal arbors is mediated by circulation with bidirectional capture. However, it is not known how organelles are distributed in extensive arbors associated with mammalian dopamine neuron vulnerability, and with volume transmission and neuromodulation by monoamines and neuropeptides. Therefore, we studied presynaptic organelle distribution in Drosophila octopamine neurons that innervate ∼20 muscles with ∼1500 boutons. Unlike in smaller arbors, distal boutons in these arbors contain fewer DCVs and mitochondria, although active zones are present. Absence of vesicle circulation is evident by proximal nascent DCV delivery, limited impact of retrograde transport and older distal DCVs. Traffic studies show that DCV axonal transport and synaptic capture are not scaled for extensive innervation, thus limiting distal delivery. Activity-induced synaptic endocytosis and synaptic neuropeptide release are also reduced distally. We propose that limits in organelle transport and synaptic capture compromise distal synapse maintenance and function in extensive axonal arbors, thereby affecting development, plasticity and vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Distal extension mandibular removable partial denture with implant support

    PubMed Central

    Bural, Canan; Buzbas, Begum; Ozatik, Sebnem; Bayraktar, Gulsen; Emes, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the fabrication of a distal extension removable partial denture (RPD) of a 65-year-old man with implant support. Loss of fibroelasticity of the peripheral tissues and reduced mandibular vestibular sulcular depth due to a previous surgical resection and radiotherapy at the right side were the main clinical factors that created difficulty for denture retention and stability. The fabrication of a mandibular RPD supported by anterior teeth and two bilaterally placed implants in the molar area to convert from Kennedy Class 1 design to Kennedy Class 3 implant-bounded RPD is reported. Retention and stability of the denture were improved with implant support on the distal extension site of the RPD. The common clinical problems about distally extended RPDs are lack of retention and stability due to the movement around the rotational axis. Dental implant placement to the distal edentulous site minimizes the potential dislodgement of the RPD is popular. Implant-supported RPD can be suggested as an advantageous and cost-effective treatment option for the partially edentulous patients. PMID:28042277

  16. The V-Shaped Distal Triceps Tendon Repair: A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheiderer, Bastian; Imhoff, Florian B; Morikawa, Daichi; Lacheta, Lucca; Obopilwe, Elifho; Cote, Mark P; Imhoff, Andreas B; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Siebenlist, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Restoring footprint anatomy, minimizing gap formation, and maximizing the strength of distal triceps tendon repairs are essential factors for a successful healing process and return to sport. The novel V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique with unicortical button fixation closely restores footprint anatomy, provides minimal gap formation and high ultimate failure load, and minimizes iatrogenic fracture risk in acute/subacute distal triceps tendon tears. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four cadaveric elbows (mean ± SD age, 66 ± 5 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 repair groups: the transosseous cruciate repair technique (gold standard), the knotless suture-bridge repair technique, and the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique. Anatomic measurements of the central triceps tendon footprint were obtained in all specimens with a 3-dimensional digitizer before and after the repair. Cyclic loading was performed for a total of 1500 cycles at a rate of 0.25 Hz, pulling in the direction of the triceps. Displacements were measured on the medial and lateral tendon sites with 2 differential variable reluctance transducers. Load to failure and construct failure mode were recorded. The mean triceps bony insertion area was 399.05 ± 81.23 mm 2 . The transosseous cruciate repair technique restored 36.6% ± 16.8% of the native tendon insertion area, which was significantly different when compared with the knotless suture-bridge repair technique (85.2% ± 14.8%, P = .001) and the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique (88.9% ± 14.8%, P = .002). Mean displacement showed no significant difference between the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique (medial side, 0.75 ± 0.56 mm; lateral side, 0.99 ± 0.59 mm) and the knotless suture-bridge repair technique (1.61 ± 0.97 mm and 1.29 ± 0.8 mm) but significance between the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique and the transosseous cruciate repair technique (4.91 ± 1.12 mm and 5

  17. Hand Surgeon Reporting of Tendon Rupture Following Distal Radius Volar Plating

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Nathan A.; Dwyer, C. Liam; Ferikes, Alex J.; Lubahn, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures. PMID:27698628

  18. Hand Surgeon Reporting of Tendon Rupture Following Distal Radius Volar Plating.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Nathan A; Dwyer, C Liam; Ferikes, Alex J; Lubahn, John D

    2016-09-01

    Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures.

  19. Dynamics and function of distal regulatory elements during neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Garding, Angela; Tiwari, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulation in mammals involves a complex interplay between promoters and distal regulatory elements that function in concert to drive precise spatiotemporal gene expression programs. However, the dynamics of the distal gene regulatory landscape and its function in the transcriptional reprogramming that underlies neurogenesis and neuronal activity remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a combinatorial analysis of genome-wide data sets for chromatin accessibility (FAIRE-seq) and the enhancer mark H3K27ac, revealing the highly dynamic nature of distal gene regulation during neurogenesis, which gets progressively restricted to distinct genomic regions as neurons acquire a post-mitotic, terminally differentiated state. We further find that the distal accessible and active regions serve as target sites for distinct transcription factors that function in a stage-specific manner to contribute to the transcriptional program underlying neuronal commitment and maturation. Mature neurons respond to a sustained activity of NMDA receptors by epigenetic reprogramming at a large number of distal regulatory regions as well as dramatic reorganization of super-enhancers. Such massive remodeling of the distal regulatory landscape in turn results in a transcriptome that confers a transient loss of neuronal identity and gain of cellular plasticity. Furthermore, NMDA receptor activity also induces many novel prosurvival genes that function in neuroprotective pathways. Taken together, these findings reveal the dynamics of the distal regulatory landscape during neurogenesis and uncover novel regulatory elements that function in concert with epigenetic mechanisms and transcription factors to generate the transcriptome underlying neuronal development and activity. PMID:26170447

  20. Distal protection filter device efficacy with carotid artery stenting: comparison between a distal protection filter and a distal protection balloon.

    PubMed

    Iko, Minoru; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Go, Yoshinori; Nii, Kouhei; Abe, Gorou; Ye, Iwae; Nomoto, Yasuyuki; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the embolization prevention mechanism of two types of embolic protection device (EPD)-a distal protection balloon (DPB) and a distal protection filter (DPF). Subjects were 164 patients scheduled to undergo carotid artery stenting: a DPB was used in 82 cases (DPB group) from April 2007 until June 2010, and a DPF was used in 82 cases (DPF group) from July 2010 to July 2011. Rates of positive findings on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and stroke incidence were compared. Positive postoperative DWI results were found in 34 cases in the DPB group (41.4 %), but in only 22 cases in the DPF group (26.8 %), and there was only a small significant difference within the DPF group. In the DPB group, there was one case of transient ischemic attack (TIA) (1.2 %) and four cases of brain infarction (2 minor strokes, 2 major strokes; 4.9 %), compared to the DFP group with one case of TIA (1.2 %) and no cases of minor or major strokes. In this study, significantly lower rates of occurrence of DWI ischemic lesions and intraoperative embolization were associated with use of the DPF compared to the DPB.

  1. Haematoma block in reduction of distal radial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ogunlade, S O; Omololu, A B; Alonge, T O; Salawu, S A; Bamgboye, E A

    2002-01-01

    A total of 35 patients who presented in the Accident and Emergency Department of University College Hospital with displaced distal radial fracture between January 2000 and March 2001 had reduction of the fracture under haematoma block using 10ml of 2% lignocaine. There was significant reduction of the pain following infiltration of the fracture site with lignocaine and significant pain reduction during manipulation compared to pain score at presentation. All the patients had satisfactory reduction of the fracture. The fracture was mobilised in Plaster of Paris 6 weeks in patients with Collens' fracture and 3 weeks in patients with distal radial epiphyseal injury. All patients had good range of movement at 8 weeks after removal of Plaster of Paris and patients expressed satisfaction with this method. We recommend the use of Haematoma block for patients of 15 years and above with displaced distal radial fracture in the Accident and Emergency Department.

  2. Pancreatoduodenectomy with portal vein resection for distal cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maeta, T; Ebata, T; Hayashi, E; Kawahara, T; Mizuno, S; Matsumoto, N; Ohta, S; Nagino, M

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the value of portal vein (PV) resection in distal cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of PV resection in distal cholangiocarcinoma. Patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for distal cholangiocarcinoma between 2001 and 2010 at one of 31 hospitals in Japan were reviewed retrospectively with special attention to PV resection. Short- and long-term outcomes were evaluated. In the study interval, 453 consecutive patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma underwent PD, of whom 31 (6·8 per cent) had combined PV resection. The duration of surgery (510 versus 427 min; P = 0·005) and incidence of blood transfusion (48 versus 30·7 per cent; P = 0·042) were greater in patients who had PV resection than in those who did not. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were no different in the two groups. Several indices of tumour progression, including high T classification, lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, pancreatic invasion and lymph node metastasis, were more common in patients who had PV resection. Consequently, the incidence of R1/2 resection was higher in this group (32 versus 11·8 per cent; P = 0·004). Survival among the 31 patients with PV resection was worse than that for the 422 patients without PV resection (15 versus 42·4 per cent at 5 years; P < 0·001). Multivariable analyses revealed that age, blood loss, histological grade, perineural invasion, pancreatic invasion, lymph node metastasis and surgical margin were independent risk factors for overall survival. PV resection was not an independent risk factor. PV invasion in distal cholangiocarcinoma is associated with locally advanced disease and several negative prognostic factors. Survival for patients who have PV resection is poor even after curative resection. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molar distalization with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes efficient techniques for distalization of maxillary and mandibular molars with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs). There are numerous occasions where the distalization of molars is required in lieu of the odontectomy of bicuspids. In the past, extra-oral force has been used, (i.e. Cervical or Combination Head Gear, or intra-oral force, i.e. Posterior Sagittal Appliance, Modified Greenfield Appliance, Williams DMJ 20001, CD Distalizer, Magill Sagittal, Pendulum Appliance, etc.). All the intra-oral appliances have a common denominator the orthodontic clinician has to deal with, the undesirable expression of the Third Law of Newton. The utilization of TADs allows us to circumvent this shortcoming, establishing an absolute anchorage, and thus completely negate the expression of the Third Law of Newton.

  4. Resection margin influences survival after pancreatoduodenectomy for distal cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Terence C; Mittal, Anubhav; Arena, Jenny; Sheen, Amy; Gill, Anthony J; Samra, Jaswinder S

    2017-06-01

    Distal cholangiocarcinoma remains a rare cancer associated with a dismal outcome. There is a lack of effective treatment options and where disease is amendable to resection, surgery affords the best potential for long-term survival. The aim of this study was to examine the survival outcomes and prognostic factors of patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for distal cholangiocarcinoma. Between January 2004 to May 2016, patients who had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy with histologically proven distal cholangiocarcinoma were identified. Clinicopathologic data and survival outcomes were reported. Pancreatoduodenectomy alone was performed in 20 patients (71%) and eight patients (29%) required concomitant vascular resection. The major complication rate was 43% (n = 12). Nineteen patients (68%) had node positive disease. Eighteen patients (64%) had R0 resection. The median survival was 36 months (95%CI 9.7 to 63.8) and 5-year survival rate was 24%. Univariate analysis identified ASA (P < 0.001), tumor grade (P = 0.009) and margin status (P = 0.042) as prognostic factors associated with survival. Long-term survival may be achieved in selected patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for distal cholangiocarcinoma, especially in patients who achieved an R0 resection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implant Size Availability Affects Reproduction of Distal Femoral Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Morris, William Z; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Goldberg, Victor M; Wera, Glenn D

    2016-07-01

    A total knee arthroplasty system offers more distal femoral implant anterior-posterior (AP) sizes than its predecessor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of increased size availability on an implant system's ability to reproduce the AP dimension of the native distal femur. We measured 200 cadaveric femora with the AP-sizing guides of Zimmer (Warsaw, IN) NexGen (8 sizes) and Zimmer Persona (12 sizes) total knee arthroplasty systems. We defined "size deviation" as the difference in the AP dimension between the anatomic size of the native femur and the closest implant size. We defined satisfactory reproduction of distal femoral dimensions as < 1 mm difference between the implant and native femur size. The NexGen system was associated with a mean 0.46 mm greater implant size deviation than Persona (p < 0.001). When using a 1 mm size deviation as a cutoff for satisfactory replication of the native distal femoral anatomy, 85/200 specimens (42.5%) were a poor fit by NexGen, but a satisfactory fit by Persona. Only 1/200 specimens (0.5%) was a poor fit by Persona, but a satisfactory fit by NexGen (p < 0.001). The novel knee system with 12 versus 8 sizes reproduces the AP dimension of the native distal femur more closely than its predecessor. Further study is needed to determine the clinical impact of these differences. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Use of mechanical devices for distal hemoperfusion during balloon catheter coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Heibig, J; Angelini, P; Leachman, D R; Beall, M M; Beall, A C

    1988-01-01

    Previous attempts to protect the dependent myocardium during balloon catheter coronary angioplasty in animals and humans have had generally unsatisfactory results. This paper summarizes the authors' experience in investigating commercially available mechanical pumps for distal coronary hemoperfusion during balloon angioplasty. Both roller and piston pumps can attain adequate distal perfusion without significant side effects in the majority of patients. Our goal was to suppress angina for at least 5 min to prolong balloon inflation in awake patients. Minor T-wave changes without concomitant angina pectoris can be expected when the distal coronary bed is perfused with hypothermic blood. Side branch occlusion by the inflated balloon prevents effective protection of the corresponding part of the dependent myocardium during distal hemoperfusion, which may result in persistent angina and ST-T changes uncorrected by increasing the hemoperfusion rate. Distal coronary diffuse spasm, rare and transient, was the only immediate complication of this procedure. It is suggested that intense local wall stimulation could occur with a higher flow rate (jet effect). Improved balloon catheter pressure/flow characteristics and on-line continuous mechanical pumps should soon make distal coronary hemoperfusion through balloon catheters an accepted clinical technique.

  7. The impact of distal embolization and distal protection on long-term outcome in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction randomized to primary percutaneous coronary intervention--results from a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Jacob; Kelbæk, Henning; Helqvist, Steffen; Holmvang, Lene; Jørgensen, Erik; Saunamäki, Kari; Kløvgaard, Lene; Kaltoft, Anne; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Lassen, Jens F; Thuesen, Leif; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Clemmensen, Peter; Køber, Lars; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The impact of angiographically visible distal embolization (DE) and distal protection occurring during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on long-term outcome has not been studied in a contemporary ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort. To evaluate the association between DE and long-term outcome in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI with or without distal protection. In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized study, 591 STEMI patients were randomized to conventional primary PCI or primary PCI with distal protection and followed for 5 years. There was no statistically significant difference in MACE rate between patients treated with or wthout distal protection (19% versus 25%; p=0.10). There seemed to be interaction between distal protection and DE in major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (p=0.08), mortality (p=0.02) and reinfarction (p=0.06), but not admission for heart failure (p=0.40). DE was related to increased risk of admission for heart failure independently of distal protection (12.0% versus 5.0; p=0.015). The MACE rate for patients treated with standard PCI with DE was 31.3% compared to 24.8% for patients without DE (p=0.30), and 44.4% for patients treated with distal protection with DE compared to 17.9% for patients without DE (p=0.005). DE was not related to mortality (p=0.52) or reinfarction (p=0.52) among patients treated with standard PCI, but was related to higher rates of mortality (p=0.012) and reinfarction (p=0.008) when distal protection was used. DE occurred in 11% of STEMI patients treated with conventional primary PCI, and was associated with increased risk of development of heart failure. Distal protection did not improve the 5-years MACE rate, and might even aggravate the prognosis following DE, but this should only be considered hypothesis-generating. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  8. Recent advances in distal tubular potassium handling

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Aylin R.; Cheng, Chih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that sodium reabsorption and aldosterone play important roles in potassium secretion by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Sodium- and aldosterone-independent mechanisms also exist. This review focuses on some recent studies that provide novel insights into the sodium- and aldosterone-independent potassium secretion by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. In addition, we discuss a study reporting on the regulation of the mammalian potassium kidney channel ROMK by intracellular and extracellular magnesium, which may be important in the pathogenesis of persistent hypokalemia in patients with concomitant potassium and magnesium deficiency. We also discuss outstanding questions and propose working models for future investigation. PMID:21270092

  9. Contemporary Management of Primary Distal Urethral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Samer L; Witjes, Johannes Alfred; Kassouf, Wassim

    2016-11-01

    Primary urethral cancer is one of the rare urologic tumors. Distal urethral tumors are usually less advanced at diagnosis compared with proximal tumors and have a good prognosis if treated appropriately. Low-stage distal tumors can be managed successfully with a surgical approach in men or radiation therapy in women. There are no clear-cut indications for the choice of the most appropriate treatment modality. Organ-preserving modalities have shown effective and should be used whenever they do not compromise the oncological safety to decrease the physical and psychological trauma of dismemberment or loss of sexual/urinary function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonographic variations are present in the distal sesamoidean impar ligament of clinically sound horses.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jessica Lauren; Richter, Ruth-Anne; Wimer, Christine L

    2018-05-11

    Ultrasonography is an established diagnostic test for evaluating horses with foot pain due to suspected podotrochlear apparatus pathology. However, variations from the previously reported normal appearance of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament have not always coincided with lameness. The objective of this prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was to characterize variations in the ultrasonographic appearance of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament in sound horses using the transcuneal approach. Transcuneal ultrasonography of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament was performed on sound horses, and images were evaluated for fiber pattern, echogenicity, and thickness. Varying echogenicities of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament compared to the deep digital flexor tendon were found. Hypoechogenic or hyperechogenic focal areas were noted in the mid-body of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament or at its attachment to the navicular bone or the distal phalanx. In some of the sound horses, an anechoic linear area between the deep digital flexor tendon and distal sesamoidean impar ligament was observed as well as multifocal areas of hyperechogenicity or hypoechogenicity, irregular fiber pattern, and measurable thickening of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament. Several findings were bilaterally symmetrical, and no finding was always bilaterally symmetrical each time it was noted. This study supports transcuneal ultrasonography as an ancillary diagnostic tool for evaluating the equine distal sesamoidean impar ligament, describes sonographic variations in clinically sound horses, and suggests that the clinical significance of a lesion may not be determined by comparison of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament in the contralateral limb. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Treatment effects of microimplant-aided sliding mechanics on distal retraction of posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Hee; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to quantify the treatment effects of microimplant-aided mechanics on group distal retraction of the posterior teeth. The pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs and dental casts of 23 patients (mean age, 22.1 ± 5.17 years), treated with distalization of the posterior teeth against microimplant anchorage and without extraction of the premolars or other teeth except the third molars, were used. The soft-tissue, skeletal, and dental measurements in the vertical and anteroposterior dimensions were analyzed. The changes in interpremolar and intermolar widths and rotations of the molars were analyzed with dental casts. The upper and lower lips were repositioned distally. The Frankfort horizontal to mandibular plane angle was decreased in the adult group. The maxillary posterior teeth were distalized by 1.4 to 2.0 mm with approximately 3.5° of distal tipping, and the mandibular posterior teeth were also distalized by 1.6 to 2.5 mm with approximately 6.6° to 8.3° of distal tipping. The maxillary posterior teeth showed intrusion by 1 mm. There were increases in arch widths at the premolars and molars. The overall success of microimplants was 89.7%; a well-experienced clinician had a higher success rate (98%) than did novices in this sample. The mean treatment time was 20 ± 4.9 months. With microimplant-aided sliding mechanics, clinicians can distalize all posterior teeth together with less distal tipping. The technique seems effective and efficient to treat patients who have mild arch length discrepancy without extractions. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Proximal-Distal Economic Projections of the Benefits of Childhood Preventive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Eric P.; Becker, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the steps and decisions involved in proximal-distal economic modeling, in which social, behavioral, and academic outcomes data for children may be used to inform projections of the economic consequences of interventions. Economic projections based on proximal-distal modeling techniques may be used in cost-benefit analyses when information is unavailable for certain long term outcomes data in adulthood or to build entire cost-benefit analyses. Although examples of proximal-distal economic analyses of preventive interventions exist in policy reports prepared for governmental agencies, such analyses have rarely been completed in conjunction with research trials. The modeling decisions on which these prediction models are based are often opaque to policymakers and other end-users. This paper aims to illuminate some of the key steps and considerations involved in constructing proximal-distal prediction models and to provide examples and suggestions that may help guide future proximal-distal analyses. PMID:24337979

  13. Distal clavicular osteolysis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Ishak, Charbel; Elman, Michael; Gelber, Jonathan; Strauss, David N; Jazrawi, Laith M

    2008-01-01

    Acute distal clavicular osteolysis was first described in 1936. Since then, distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) has been separated into traumatic and atraumatic pathogeneses. In 1982 the first series of male weight trainers who developed ADCO was reported. The association of weightlifting and ADCO is especially important considering how routine a component weights are to the male athlete's training. The pathogenesis of DCO has often been debated. The most widely accepted etiology involves a connection between microfractures of the subchondral bone and subsequent attempts at repair, which is consistent with repetitive microtrauma. Symptoms usually begin with an insidious aching pain in the AC region that is exacerbated by weight training. On examination, patients have point tenderness over the affected AC joint and pain with a cross-body adduction maneuver. Although DCO may seem like an easy and quick diagnosis, one must rule out other possibilities. Avoidance of provocative maneuvers, modification of weight training techniques, ice massage, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) constitute the basis of initial treatment. Much of the literature supports the same general indications for surgery. These include point tenderness of the AC joint, evident abnormal signs with AC joint scintigraphy and AC radiographs, lack of response to conservative treatment, and an unwillingness to give up or modify weight training or manual labor. Distal clavicle resection has provided good results. Distal clavicle osteolysis is a unique disease most likely due to an overuse phenomenon.

  14. Dynamic features of carboxy cytoglobin distal mutants investigated by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cong; Du, Weihong

    2016-04-01

    Cytoglobin (Cgb) is a member of hemoprotein family with roles in NO metabolism, fibrosis, and tumourigenesis. Similar to other hemoproteins, Cgb structure and functions are markedly influenced by distal key residues. The sixth ligand His(81) (E7) is crucial to exogenous ligand binding, heme pocket conformation, and physiological roles of this protein. However, the effects of other key residues on heme pocket and protein biological functions are not well known. In this work, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of two single mutants in CO-ligated Cgb (L46FCgbCO and L46VCgbCO) and two double mutants (L46FH81QCgbCO and L46VH81QCgbCO) was conducted to explore the effects of the key distal residues Leu(46)(B10) and His(81)(E7) on Cgb structure and functions. Results indicated that the distal mutation of B10 and E7 affected CgbCO dynamic properties on loop region fluctuation, internal cavity rearrangement, and heme motion. The distal conformation change was reflected by the distal key residues Gln(62) (CD3) and Arg(84)(E10). The hydrogen bond between heme propionates with CD3 or E10 residues were evidently influenced by B10/E7 mutation. Furthermore, heme pocket rearrangement was also observed based on the distal pocket volume and occurrence rate of inner cavities. The mutual effects of B10 and E7 residues on protein conformational rearrangement and other dynamic features were expressed in current MD studies of CgbCO and its distal mutants, suggesting their crucial role in heme pocket stabilization, ligand binding, and Cgb biological functions. The mutation of distal B10 and E7 residues affects the dynamic features of carboxy cytoglobin.

  15. Re-rupture rate of primarily repaired distal biceps tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Hinchey, John W; Aronowitz, Jessica G; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F

    2014-06-01

    Distal biceps tendon rupture is a common injury, and primary repair results in excellent return of function and strength. Complications resulting from distal biceps tendon repairs are well reported, but the incidence of re-ruptures has never been investigated. A search of the Mayo Clinic's Medical/Surgical Index was performed, and all distal biceps tendon repairs from January 1981 through May 2009 were identified. All patients who completed 12 months or more of follow-up were included. All charts were reviewed and patients contacted as necessary to identify a re-rupture. We also investigated the situation causing the re-rupture. We identified a total of 190 distal biceps tendon ruptures that underwent repair and met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 190 repairs, 172 (90.5%) were performed by the Mayo modification of the Boyd-Anderson 2-incision technique. Bilateral ruptures occurred in 13 patients (7.3%). Six primary ruptures (3.2%) occurred in women, 4 of the 6 being partial ruptures. Partial ruptures were found to be statistically more common than complete ruptures in women (P = .05). We identified 3 re-ruptures (1.5%), all occurring within 3 weeks of the index surgery. The re-rupture rate after primary repair of the distal biceps tendon is low at 1.5% and occurs within 3 weeks of index repair. This appears to be due to patient compliance and excessive force placed on repairs. We also found the incidence of women who sustain a distal biceps tendon tear to be 3.2%, with partial tears being statistically more common than complete ruptures. Level IV, case series, treatment study Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental and skeletal changes after intraoral molar distalization with sectional jig assembly.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S; Kharbanda, O P; Parkash, H

    1998-09-01

    The present study was conducted on 10 subjects to evaluate dental and skeletal changes after intraoral molar distalization. The maxillary molars were distalized with a sectional jig assembly. Sentalloy open coil springs were used to exert 150 gm of force for a period of 12 weeks. A modified Nance appliance was the main source of anchorage. The pre- and postdistalization records included dental study casts, clinical photographs, and cephalograms. A total of 665 readings recorded from lateral cephalograms and dental casts were subjected to statistical analysis. The mean distal movement of the first molar was 2.78 mm, which was highly significant (o < 0.001). It moved distally at the rate of 0.86 mm/month. There was clinically some distal tipping (3.50 degrees) and distopalatal rotation (2.40 degrees). These changes were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The second molars accompanied the first molars and moved distally by nearly the same amount. There was 1.00 mm increase in the overjet and 2.60 degrees mesial tip of second premolar. The changes in the facial skeleton and dentition bases were minimal and statistically not significant. However, there was clockwise rotation of the mandible of 1.30 degrees that was statistically significant. This was the result of molar extrusion (1.60 mm).

  17. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances: Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C.; Price, Raymond S.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Peripheral neuropathy is a highly prevalent and morbid condition affecting 2–7% of the population. Patients frequently suffer from pain and are at risk of falls, ulcerations, and amputations. We aimed to review recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances in peripheral neuropathy in distal symmetric polyneuropathy, the most common subtype of peripheral neuropathy. Observations and Advances Current evidence supports limited routine laboratory testing in patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Patients without a known cause should have a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, B12, serum protein electrophoresis with immunofixation, fasting glucose, and a glucose tolerance test. The presence of atypical features such as asymmetry, non-length-dependence, motor predominance, acute or subacute onset, and/or prominent autonomic involvement should prompt a consultation with a neurologist or neuromuscular specialist. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging of the neuroaxis are the main drivers of the cost of the diagnostic evaluation, but evidence supporting their use is lacking. Strong evidence supports the use of tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and voltage-gated calcium channel ligands in the treatment of neuropathic pain. More intensive glucose control substantially reduces the incidence of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but does not in type 2 diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance The opportunity exists to improve guideline concordant testing in distal symmetric polyneuropathy patients. Moreover, the role of electrodiagnostic tests needs to be further defined, and interventions to reduce magnetic resonance imaging use in this population are needed. Even though several efficacious medications exist for neuropathic pain treatment, pain is still under-recognized and undertreated. New disease modifying medications are needed to prevent and treat

  18. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of distal ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Bubeck, J R; Hautmann, R

    1986-01-01

    To date, the use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been limited to renal calculi and ureteral calculi above the pelvic brim. Modifying the position of the patient on the support of the Dornier lithotripter HM3, we were able to localize and treat distal ureteral calculi. Until April 1986, 43 patients with stones in the lower ureter underwent contact-free lithotripsy. Treatment was successful in 39 patients (90%), 2 of these requiring 2 sessions. In 4 patients treatment failed and stone removal was accomplished using ureteroscopy or open surgery. No complications or adverse side effects were encountered in the whole series. ESWL is now the method of choice for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi in our department.

  19. Korean Type Distal Radius Anatomical Volar Plate System: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jihyeung; Kim, Min Bom; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Distal radius fracture is the most common fracture of the upper extremity, and approximately 60,000 distal radius fractures occur annually in Korea. Internal fixation with an anatomical volar locking plate is widely used in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. However, most of the currently used distal radius anatomical plate systems were designed based on the anatomical characteristics of Western populations. Recently, the Korean-type distal radius anatomical volar plate (K-DRAVP) system was designed and developed based on the anatomical characteristics of the distal radius of Koreans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of the new K-DRAVP system, and to compare its radiologic and functional results with those of the other systems. Methods From March 2012 to October 2012, 46 patients with acute distal radius fractures who were treated with the K-DRAVP system at three hospitals were enrolled in this study. Standard posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were obtained to assess fracture healing, and three radiographic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination, and radial length) were assessed to evaluate radiographic outcomes. The range of motion and grip strength, the Gartland and Werley scoring system, and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes. Results All radiologic parameters were restored to normal values, and maintained without any loosening or collapse until the time of final follow-up. Grip strength was restored to 84% of the value for the unaffected side. The mean range of motion of the wrist at final follow-up was restored to 77%-95% of the value for the unaffected side. According to the Gartland and Werley scoring system, there were 16 excellent, 26 good, and 4 fair results. The mean DASH score was 8.4 points. There were no complications after surgery. Conclusions The newly developed K-DRAVP system could be used to

  20. Proximal and distal alignment of normal canine femurs: A morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Sevil-Kilimci, Figen; Dilek, Ömer Gürkan; Onar, Vedat

    2018-05-01

    Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°-29.50° and 144.97°-147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°-94.08° and 89.09°-91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in

  1. Distal Nerve Transfers: A Perspective on the Future of Reconstructive Microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, David Chwei-Chin

    2018-05-16

     Nerve transfer can be broadly separated into two categories: proximal nerve graft and/or transfer and distal nerve transfer. The superiority of proximal nerve graft/transfer over distal nerve transfer strategy has been debated extensively, but which strategy is the best has not yet been defined. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, proximal nerve graft/transfer is still the main reconstructive procedure based on the principle of "no diagnosis, then no treatment." Proximal nerve transfer can avoid iatrogenic injury where the lesion is still in continuity and neurolysis is the only procedure without further cutting the nerve.  Our clinical and experimental study show that proximal nerve grafts/transfers yield at least equal or better results compared to distal nerve transfers. Proximal nerve grafts/transfers remain the mainstay of my reconstructive strategy. Proximal nerve graft/transfer offers more accurate diagnosis and proper treatment to restore shoulder and elbow functions simultaneously. Distal nerve transfers can offer more efficient elbow flexion.  Combined, both strategies in primary nerve reconstruction are especially recommended when there is no healthy or not enough donor nerve available Distal nerve transfers should be considered as a complementary option for proximal nerve grafts/ transfers. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.

    1991-05-01

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecroticmore » ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.« less

  3. Distal Oblique Bundle Reinforcement for Treatment of DRUJ Instability.

    PubMed

    Brink, Peter R G; Hannemann, Pascal F W

    2015-08-01

    Background Chronic, dynamic bidirectional instability in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is diagnosed clinically, based on the patient's complaints and the finding of abnormal laxity in the vicinity of the distal ulna. In cases where malunion is ruled out or treated and there are no signs of osteoarthritis, stabilization of the DRUJ may offer relief. To this end, several different techniques have been investigated over the past 90 years. Materials and Methods In this article we outline the procedure for a new technique using a tendon graft to reinforce the distal edge of the interosseous membrane. Description of Technique A percutaneous technique is used to harvest the palmaris longus tendon and to create a tunnel, just proximal to the sigmoid notch, through the ulna and radius in an oblique direction. By overdrilling the radial cortex, the knotted tendon can be pulled through the radius and ulna and the knot blocked at the second radial cortex, creating a strong connection between the radius and ulna at the site of the distal oblique bundle (DOB). The tendon is fixed in the ulna with a small interference screw in full supination, preventing subluxation of the ulna out of the sigmoid notch during rotation. Results Fourteen patients were treated with this novel technique between 2011 and October 2013. The QuickDASH score at 25 months postoperatively (range 16-38 months) showed an improvement of 32 points. Similarly, an improvement of 33 points (67-34 months) was found on the PRWHE. Only one recurrence of chronic, dynamic bidirectional instability in the DRUJ was observed. Conclusion This simple percutaneous tenodesis technique between radius and ulna at the position of the distal edge of the interosseous membrane shows promise in terms of both restoring stability and relieving complaints related to chronic subluxation in the DRUJ.

  4. Steroids alter ion transport and absorptive capacity in proximal and distal colon.

    PubMed

    Sellin, J H; DeSoignie, R C

    1985-07-01

    Steroids are potent absorbagogues, increasing Na and fluid absorption in a variety of epithelia. This study characterizes the in vitro effects of pharmacological doses of gluco- and mineralocorticoids on transport parameters of rabbit proximal and distal colon. Treatment with methylprednisolone (MP, 40 mg im for 2 days) and desoxycortone acetate (DOCA, 12.5 mg im for 3 days) resulted in a significant increase in short-circuit current (Isc) in distal colon, suggesting an increase in basal Na absorption. Amiloride (10(-4) M) caused a significantly negative Isc in MP-treated tissue, demonstrating a steroid-induced, amiloride-insensitive electrogenic ion transport in distal colon. The effect of two absorbagogues, impermeant anions (SO4-Ringer) and amphotericin, were compared in control and steroid-treated distal colon. In controls, both absorbagogues increased Isc. Impermeant anions caused a rise in Isc in both MP and DOCA tissues, suggesting that the high rate of basal Na absorption had not caused a saturation of the Na pump. The steroid-treated colons, however, did not consistently respond to amphotericin. Amiloride inhibited the entire Isc in MP-treated distal colon that had been exposed to amphotericin; this suggested that amphotericin had not exerted its characteristic effect on the apical membrane of steroid-treated colon. In proximal colon, steroids did not alter basal rates of transport; however, epinephrine-induced Na-Cl absorption was significantly greater in MP-treated vs control (P less than 0.005). Steroids increase the absorptive capacity of both proximal and distal colon for Na, while increasing basal Na absorption only in the distal colon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The effect of incremental distal gastric myotomy lengths on EGJ distensibility during POEM for achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Sternbach, Joel M.; Khoury, Rym El; Soper, Nathaniel J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Background During peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM) for the treatment of achalasia, the optimal distal gastric myotomy length is unknown. In this study we used a functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) to intraoperatively measure the effect of variable distal myotomy lengths on esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility. Methods EGJ distensibility index (DI) (minimum cross-sectional area divided by intra-bag pressure) was measured with FLIP after each operative step. Each patient's myotomy was performed in four increments from proximal to distal: 1) an esophageal myotomy (from 6cm proximal to the EGJ, to 1cm proximal to it), 2) a myotomy ablating the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) complex (from 1cm proximal to the EGJ, to 1cm distal to it), 3) an initial gastric extension (from 1cm distal to the EGJ, to 2cm distal), and 4) a final gastric extension (from 2cm distal to the EGJ, to 3cm distal). Results Measurements were performed in 16 achalasia patients during POEM. POEM resulted in an overall increase in DI (pre 1.2 vs. post 7.2 mm2/mmHg, p<.001). Initial creation of the submucosal tunnel resulted in a 3-fold increase in DI (1.2 vs. 3.6 mm2/mmHg, p<.001). When the myotomy was then performed in a stepwise fashion from proximal to distal, the initial esophageal myotomy component had no effect on DI. Subsequent myotomy extension across the LES complex resulted in an increase in DI, as did the initial gastric myotomy extension (to 2cm distal to the EGJ). The final gastric myotomy extension (to 3cm distal) had no further effect. Conclusions During POEM, creation of the submucosal tunnel prior to myotomy resulted in a marked improvement in EGJ physiology. Myotomy extension across the LES complex and to 2cm onto the gastric wall resulted in normalization of EGJ distensibility, whereas subsequent extension to 3cm distal to the EGJ did not increase compliance further. PMID:26092005

  6. Skill-dependent proximal-to-distal sequence in team-handball throwing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The importance of proximal-to-distal sequencing in human performance throwing has been reported previously. However, a comprehensive comparison of the proximal-to-distal sequence in team-handball throwing in athletes with different training experience and competition is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the ball velocity and proximal-to-distal sequence in the team-handball standing throw with run-up of players of different skill (less experienced, experienced, and elite). Twenty-four male team-handball players (n = 8 for each group) performed five standing throws with run-up with maximal ball velocity and accuracy. Kinematics and ball trajectories were recorded with a Vicon motion capture system and joint movements were calculated. A specific proximal-to-distal sequence, where elbow flexion occurred before shoulder internal rotation, was found in all three groups. These results are in line with previous studies in team-handball. Furthermore, the results of the present study suggest that in the team-handball standing throw with run-up, increased playing experience is associated with an increase in ball velocity as well as a delayed start to trunk flexion.

  7. Complete mucosal healing of distal lesions induced by twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam promoted clinical remission of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation: double-blind, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Makoto; Aoyama, Nobuo; Tada, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Hirai, Fumihito; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2018-04-01

    Budesonide foam is used for the topical treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. This phase III study was performed to confirm mucosal healing and other therapeutic effects of twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis including left-sided colitis and pancolitis. This was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 126 patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with active inflammation in the distal colon were randomized to two groups receiving twice-daily budesonide 2 mg/25 ml foam or placebo foam. The primary endpoint was the percentage of complete mucosal healing of distal lesions (endoscopic subscore of 0) at week 6. Some patients continued the treatment through week 12. Drug efficacy and safety were evaluated. The percentages of both complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission were significantly improved in the budesonide as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0035). Subgroup analysis showed similar efficacy of budesonide foam for complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission regardless of disease type. The clinical remission percentage tended to be higher in patients achieving complete mucosal healing of distal lesions than in other patients. There were no safety concerns with budesonide foam. This study confirmed for the first time complete mucosal healing with twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation. The results also indicated that complete mucosal healing of distal lesions by budesonide foam promotes clinical remission of ulcerative colitis. Clinical trial registration no.: Japic CTI-142704.

  8. [A novel technique for distal ureterectomy and bladder cuff excision].

    PubMed

    Sotelo, R; Ramírez, D; Carmona, O; di Grazia, E; de Andrade, R; Giedelman, C; Pascal, Z; Gill, I; Desai, M

    2011-03-01

    We describe a novel endoscopic approach and provide a literature review for the "en bloc" dissection of the distal ureter and bladder cuff during laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy using a transvesical single port approach under pneumovesicum. The procedure was performed in an 80-year old male with a history of gross hematuria due to left renal pelvic TCC and no history of prior bladder TCC. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy was performed and the ureter was dissected down to the bladder and clipped. A single-port device was inserted transvesically and pneumovesicum established. A full thickness incision of the bladder around the ureter was performed with progressive intravesical mobilization of the distal ureter. Subsequently, a water-tight closure of the bladder defect was achieved. The distal ureter, together with the bladder cuff, was then delivered en bloc laparoscopically with the specimen. The operating time (LESS radical nephroureterectomy, RPLND, and bladder cuff excision) was 6hours and 15minutes. The bladder cuff time was 45minutes. There were no intra or postoperative complications and the catheter was removed after 6 days. Histopathological analysis showed kidney-invasive papillary urothelial cancer, pT3 pN0 (0/7) G3. The distal ureter and bladder cuff techniques have not yet been standardized. Management of the bladder cuff with a single port is feasible. Additional studies are needed to identify the best approach for management of the distal ureter at the time of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. Copyright © 2010 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Distal hereditary motor neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Devic, P; Petiot, P

    2011-11-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), also known as spinal muscular atrophy, represents a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by degenerations of spinal motor neurons and leading to distal muscle weakness and wasting. Nerve conduction studies reveal a pure motor axonopathy and needle examination shows chronic denervation. dHMN were initially subdivided into seven subtypes according to mode of inheritance, age at onset, and clinical evolution. Recent studies have shown that these subtypes are still heterogeneous at the molecular genetic level and novel clinical and genetic entities have been characterized. To date, mutations in 11 different genes have been identified for autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, and X-linked recessive dHMN. Most of the genes encode protein involved in housekeeping functions, endosomal trafficking, axonal transport, translation synthesis, RNA processing, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dHMN seem to be related to the "length-dependent" death of motor neurons of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, likely because their large axons have higher metabolic requirements for maintenance. dHMN remain heterogeneous at the clinical and molecular genetic level. The molecular pathomechanisms explaining why mutations in these ubiquitously expressed housekeeping genes result in the selective involvement of spinal motor neurons remain to be unravelled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Distal vein patch as a form of autologus modification for infragenicular prosthetic bypass.

    PubMed

    Totic, Dragan; Rustempasic, Nedzad; Djedovic, Muhamed; Solakovic, Sid; Vukas, Haris; Aslani, Ilijas; Krvavac, Alma; Rudalija, Dzejra; Ahmetasevic, Alen

    2013-01-01

    Preferred graft for infragenicular bypass is autologus vein. The problem is when there is not available autologus vein. Literature suggest that in these situations, prosthetic graft with some form of modification of distal anastomosis with autogenic tissue is valuable adjunctive. Frequently used modifications are Miller's cuff, Taylor's patch and St. Mary's boot. Recently, there are reports on "Distal vein patch" as a form of autologus modification which, due to its simplicity and patency rate, attracted attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate benefits of this novel modification by comparing its patencies with other autologus modification of distal anastomosis. Study was performed on 60 patients, diabetics, with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Patients were divided in two groups: Group with distal vein patch modification; and group with some other form modification - control group. Patients were followed at least 22 months. We examined patency of grafts by physical examination or using Color Doppler. For statistical purposes we used KIaplan Meier analysis and curve. Significance was determined by Mann-Whitney, Fisher's exact, Pearsons chi square or Student T test as appropriate. P value less than 0,05 was considered significant. Groups were fairly matched relative to demographics, risk factors, operative intervention and distal anastomosis site. There was not statistical difference in two year primary patency between distal vein patch and control group--50% vs 53% respectivly (X2 = 0,08; p = 0,773). Also, there was not statistically significant difference in extremity survival (77% vs 77%) and patient survival between groups (89% vs 93%; X2 = 2,458; p = 0,117). This study proved equivalent patencies of infragenicular prosthetic bypasses performed using distal vein patch technique as with any other modification of distal anastomosis.

  11. Genome-wide characterization of mammalian promoters with distal enhancer functions.

    PubMed

    Dao, Lan T M; Galindo-Albarrán, Ariel O; Castro-Mondragon, Jaime A; Andrieu-Soler, Charlotte; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Souaid, Charbel; Charbonnier, Guillaume; Griffon, Aurélien; Vanhille, Laurent; Stephen, Tharshana; Alomairi, Jaafar; Martin, David; Torres, Magali; Fernandez, Nicolas; Soler, Eric; van Helden, Jacques; Puthier, Denis; Spicuglia, Salvatore

    2017-07-01

    Gene expression in mammals is precisely regulated by the combination of promoters and gene-distal regulatory regions, known as enhancers. Several studies have suggested that some promoters might have enhancer functions. However, the extent of this type of promoters and whether they actually function to regulate the expression of distal genes have remained elusive. Here, by exploiting a high-throughput enhancer reporter assay, we unravel a set of mammalian promoters displaying enhancer activity. These promoters have distinct genomic and epigenomic features and frequently interact with other gene promoters. Extensive CRISPR-Cas9 genomic manipulation demonstrated the involvement of these promoters in the cis regulation of expression of distal genes in their natural loci. Our results have important implications for the understanding of complex gene regulation in normal development and disease.

  12. Fractures of the distal tibia treated with polyaxial locking plating.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Luo, Cong-Feng; Zhou, Zu-Bin; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the healing rate, complications, and functional outcomes in 32 adult patients with very short metaphyseal fragments in fractures of the distal tibia treated with a polyaxial locking system. The average distance from the distal extent of the fracture to the tibial plafond was 11 mm. All fractures healed and the average time to union was 14 weeks. Six patients (19%) reported occasional local disturbance over the medial malleolus. There were two cases of postoperative superficial infections and evidence of delayed wound healing. Using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle score, the average functional score was 87.3 points (of 100 total possible points). Our results show the polyaxial locking plates, which offer more fixation versatility, may be a reasonable treatment option for distal tibia fractures with very short metaphyseal segments.

  13. Intraoral distalizer effects with conventional and skeletal anchorage: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa; Janson, Guilherme; Branco, Nuria Castello; Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia; Patel, Mayara Paim; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando

    2013-05-01

    The aims of this meta-analysis were to quantify and to compare the amounts of distalization and anchorage loss of conventional and skeletal anchorage methods in the correction of Class II malocclusion with intraoral distalizers. The literature was searched through 5 electronic databases, and inclusion criteria were applied. Articles that presented pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric values were preferred. Quality assessments of the studies were performed. The averages and standard deviations of molar and premolar effects were extracted from the studies to perform a meta-analysis. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 studies were included in the systematic review. After the quality analysis, 2 articles were classified as high quality, 27 as medium quality, and 11 as low quality. For the meta-analysis, 6 studies were included, and they showed average molar distalization amounts of 3.34 mm with conventional anchorage and 5.10 mm with skeletal anchorage. The meta-analysis of premolar movement showed estimates of combined effects of 2.30 mm (mesialization) in studies with conventional anchorage and -4.01 mm (distalization) in studies with skeletal anchorage. There was scientific evidence that both anchorage systems are effective for distalization; however, with skeletal anchorage, there was no anchorage loss when direct anchorage was used. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Locking Compression Plate in Distal Femoral Intra-Articular Fractures: Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kiran Kumar, G. N.; Sharma, Gaurav; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Vijay; Ratan, Ratnav; Yadav, Sanjay; Lakhotia, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intra-articular fractures of distal femur present a huge surgical challenge. The aim of this study is to evaluate functional outcome, fracture healing, and the complications of distal femoral intra-articular fractures using locking compression plates. Material and Methods. We reviewed 46 distal femoral fractures treated with distal femoral locking compression plates between 2009 to 2012. There were 36 men and 10 women with mean age of 35 years (range 20–72). More than half of the patients were of type C3 (AO classification) and had been caused by high energy trauma with associated injuries. Results. 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 44 patients, the mean follow-up period was 25 months (range 18–36). The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 10–18) except 2 patients which had gone for nonunion. At the latest follow up ROM >120° is noted in 32 patients, 90–120 in 10 patients, and 70–90 in 2 patients. 38 patients (86%) had good/excellent outcome. Conclusion. Use of standard lateral approach for simple intra-articular distal femoral fractures (C1) and transarticular/minimally invasive techniques for complex intra-articular fractures (C2/C3) results in improved exposure of the knee joint and better union rates with low incidence of bone grafting. PMID:27355064

  15. Vertebral artery origin stent placement with distal protection: technical and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A I; Kirmani, J F; Harris-Lane, P; Divani, A A; Ahmed, S; Ebrihimi, A; Al Kawi, A; Janjua, N

    2006-05-01

    To report the feasibility, safety, and 1-month results of performing stent placement for vertebral origin stenosis with the use of a distal protection device. Distal protection devices have been shown to reduce the number of cerebral emboli and subsequent ischemic events when used as adjuncts to percutaneous carotid intervention; however, one case of the use of a distal protection device for vertebral artery has been reported in the literature. We retrospectively determined rates of technical success and 1-month stroke or death associated with stent placement by using distal protection (Filter EX; Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass) in patients with symptomatic vertebral artery origin stenosis. Technical success was defined as successful deployment of distal protection device and stent at target lesion followed by successful retrieval of the device and a final residual stenosis of less than 30%. Other outcomes ascertained included any stroke, death, and semiquantitative assessment of particulate material retained by the filter device. The mean age of the 12 treated patients was 68 years (range, 52-88 years) and the group included 9 men and 3 women. The mean percentage of vertebral artery origin stenosis was 71 +/- 6%. Femoral and radial approaches were used in 9 and 3 cases, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 11 of the 12 patients in whom distal protection device placement was attempted. Postprocedure residual stenosis was 5 +/- 4%. Eight devices held macroscopically visible embolic debris (large and small amounts in 3 and 5 devices, respectively). No stroke or death was observed in the 1-month follow-up. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of performing stent placement for vertebral artery origin stenosis by using a distal protection device. Further studies are required to determine the effectiveness of this approach for vertebral artery origin atherosclerosis.

  16. Distal tibia fractures: locked or non-locked plating?

    PubMed Central

    Khalsa, Amrit S; Toossi, Nader; Tabb, Loni P; Amin, Nirav H; Donohue, Kenneth W; Cerynik, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Although plating is considered to be the treatment of choice in distal tibia fractures, controversies abound regarding the type of plating for optimal fixation. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate and compare the outcomes of locked plating and non-locked plating in treatment of distal tibia fractures. Patients and methods A systematic review was conducted using PubMed to identify articles on the outcomes of plating in distal tibia fractures that were published up to June 2012. We included English language articles involving a minimum of 10 adult cases with acute fractures treated using single-plate, minimally invasive techniques. Study-level binomial regression on the pooled data was conducted to determine the effect of locking status on different outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, and other independent variables. Results 27 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis of 764 cases (499 locking, 265 non-locking). Based on descriptive analysis only, delayed union was reported in 6% of cases with locked plating and in 4% of cases with non-locked plating. Non-union was reported in 2% of cases with locked plating and 3% of cases with non-locked plating. Comparing locked and non-locked plating, the odds ratio (OR) for reoperation was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03–0.57) and for malalignment it was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02–0.42). Both values were statistically significant. Interpretation This study showed that locked plating reduces the odds of reoperation and malalignment after treatment for acute distal tibia fracture. Future studies should accurately assess causality and the clinical and economic impact of these findings. PMID:24758325

  17. Increased Endothelin Activity Mediates Augmented Distal Nephron Acidification Induced by Dietary Protein

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Apurv; Simoni, Jan; Hacker, Callenda; Duran, Marie-Josée; Wesson, Donald E

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased dietary protein augments distal nephron acidification through an endothelin-dependent mechanism. Munich-Wistar rats ate minimum electrolyte diets of 50% (HiPro) and 20% (CON) casein-provided protein, the latter comparable to standard chow. HiPro vs. CON had higher distal nephron H+ secretion (41.3 ± 4.0 vs. 23.0 ± 2.1 pmol/mm.min, p < 0.002) mediated by augmented Na+/H+ exchange and H+-ATPase activity. Renal cortex of HiPro vs. CON had higher ET-1 addition to microdialysate and higher ET-1 mRNA, consistent with increased renal ET-1 production. Bosentan, an endothelin A/B receptor antagonist, decreased HiPro distal nephron H+ secretion (28.4 ± 2.4 vs. 41.3 ± 4.0 pmol/mm.min, p < 0.016) through decreased Na+/H+ exchange and decreased H+-ATPase activity. Increased dietary protein augments distal nephron acidification through an endothelin-sensitive increase in Na+/H+ exchange and H+-ATPase activity, supporting an endothelin role in the distal nephron response to this common challenge to acid-base status. PMID:16555618

  18. Atypical distal radial fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Paul D; Kiely, Patrick J; Stephens, Micheal M; Dowling, Frank E

    2004-05-01

    In a prospective study of paediatric injuries secondary to the use of the non-motorized microscooter, we found a high rate of upper limb trauma, and a distinct injury associated with the scooter. The most common single injury was a fracture of the distal third of radius and ulna, characterized by volar angulation of the distal fragment. This injury, akin to the Smiths fracture in adults, was predictive of scooter use in all cases. This pattern of injury was not repeated by any another mechanism of injury during the course of the study period. The mechanism of injury, seemingly specific to the scooter, is produced by a fall while continuing to clutch the handlebars, leading to palmar flexion and pronation of the wrist as they strike the ground. Fourteen children required admission and manipulation under anaesthesia. Four of these patients subsequently needed remanipulation under anaesthesia. This study suggests that the scooter is associated with a forearm fracture which is both distinctive and unstable.

  19. Robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C; Sgarbura, O; Tudor, S; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is the removal of the pancreatic tissue at the left side of the superior mesenteric vein and it is traditionally approached by an open or laparoscopic exposure. Preservation of the spleen is optional but appears to have a better immunological outcome. We present the case of a 53-year old patient with a 2.4/2.2 tumor located in the tail of the pancreas, with high tumour marker values for whom we decided to perform a robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (RSPDP). The postoperative outcome was satisfactory. In conclusion, we recommend this type of approach for small pancreatic tail lesions.

  20. [Incidence and influencing factors of distal external iliac lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yueju; Sheng, Xiugui; Li, Xinglan; Li, Dapeng; Han, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-06-01

    The distal external iliac lymph nodes are located along the external iliac artery between the deep circumflex iliac vein and the inguinal canal. Our study aimed to investigate the incidence of metastasis in distal external iliac lymph nodes and its association with clinicopathological factors in patients with early stage cervical cancer, and to determine the role of distal external iliac lymph nodes dissection in the surgery. Five hundred and twenty-four patients with early stage cervical cancer underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the Shandong Province Cancer Hospital between June 1995 and December 2011, and their clinicopathological features were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 524 patients, 124 (23.7%) had pelvic lymph node metastasis. The metastasis rates were 16.2% (85 of 524 patients) in the obturator lymph nodes, 12.2% (64 of 524 patients) in the internal and external iliac lymph nodes, 2.9% (15 of 524 patients) in the common iliac lymph nodes, 2.1% (11 of 524 patients) in the distal external iliac lymph nodes, and 1.7% (9 of 524 patients) in the para-aortic nodes. The incidence of isolated positive distal external iliac lymph nodes was 0.2%. Univariate analysis showed that lymphovascular space invasion, pelvic lymph node metastases (excluding distal external iliac lymph nodes) were significantly associated with distal external iliac lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding distal external iliac lymph nodes) was the independent risk factor for metastasis to distal external iliac lymph nodes. In early stage cervical cancer, distal external iliac lymph node metastasis is rare, especially in cases with stage IA or without pelvic lymph node metastasis. Less extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy may be considered in these patients in order to reduce operative complications and improve patients' quality of life. The deep circumflex iliac vein may be an

  1. Malpractice in distal radius fracture management: an analysis of closed claims.

    PubMed

    DeNoble, Peter H; Marshall, Astrid C; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z

    2014-08-01

    Distal radius fractures comprise the majority of hand- and wrist-related malpractice claims. We hypothesized that a majority of lawsuits would be for malunions resulting from nonsurgical treatment. Additional goals of this study were to quantify costs associated with claims, determine independent risk factors for making an indemnity payment, and illustrate trends over time. Seventy closed malpractice claims filed for alleged negligent treatment of distal radius fractures by orthopedic surgeons insured by the largest medical professional liability insurer in New York State (NYS) from 1981 to 2005 were reviewed. We separately reviewed defendants' personal closed malpractice claim histories from 1975 to 2011. Overall incidence of malpractice claims among distal radius fractures treated in NYS was calculated using the NYS Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database and the 2008 American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons census data. The overall incidence of malpractice claims for distal radius fracture management was low. Malunion was the most common complaint across claims regardless of treatment type. Claims for surgically treated fractures increased over time. A majority of claims documented poor doctor-patient relationships. Male plaintiffs in this group were significantly older than males treated for distal radius fractures in NYS. Most defendants had a history of multiple malpractice suits, all were male, and only a small percentage were fellowship-trained in hand surgery. Defendants lacking American Board of Orthopedic Surgery certification were significantly more likely to make indemnity payments. Thirty-eight of 70 cases resulted in an indemnity payment. Malunion and poor doctor-patient relationships are the major features of malpractice litigation involving distal radius fracture management. Older defendant age and lack of American Board of Orthopedic Surgery certification increase the likelihood of making an indemnity payment. Economic and

  2. [Chronic ankle joint instability: in unrecognized distal rupture of the syndosmosis and malunion of the distal fibula].

    PubMed

    Michelitsch, C; Acklin, Y P; Stoffel, K; Bereiter, H

    2014-04-01

    It is often difficult in the acute phase to diagnose a lesion of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. If this lesion is overlooked, the patient will develop an incongruity of the upper ankle joint with a pathological external rotation of the talus. The risk of a possible premature arthritis is clearly increased. In this case study a distal rupture of the syndesmosis in a young patient was overlooked in the initial diagnostic work-up. A search of the relevant literature and a case report. In the case described the shortened fibula and chronic instability of the tibiofibular syndesmosis were repaired with a lengthening and derotational osteotomy and reconstruction using the gracilis muscle tendon. Through this method an exact reconstruction of the normal anatomy could be achieved. Posttraumatic misalignment in the ankle joint is associated with a high risk of secondary degenerative lesions. In cases with suspicion of a syndesmosis lesion, confirmation of the diagnosis is imperative so as to perform an anatomic repositioning and reconstruction of stability.

  3. A recurrent WARS mutation is a novel cause of autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Soong, Bing-Wen; Mademan, Inès; Huang, Yen-Hua; Liu, Chia-Rung; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Wu, Hung-Ta; Liu, Tze-Tze; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Tseng, Yen-Ting; Lin, Kon-Ping; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L; Chan, Chih-Chiang; De Jonghe, Peter; Cheng, Tzu-Hao; Liao, Yi-Chu; Züchner, Stephan; Baets, Jonathan; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies characterized by distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Although at least 15 genes have been implicated in distal hereditary motor neuropathy, the genetic causes remain elusive in many families. To identify an additional causal gene for distal hereditary motor neuropathy, we performed exome sequencing for two affected individuals and two unaffected members in a Taiwanese family with an autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy in which mutations in common distal hereditary motor neuropathy-implicated genes had been excluded. The exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.770A > G (p.His257Arg), in the cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) gene (WARS) that co-segregates with the neuropathy in the family. Further analyses of WARS in an additional 79 Taiwanese pedigrees with inherited neuropathies and 163 index cases from Australian, European, and Korean distal hereditary motor neuropathy families identified the same mutation in another Taiwanese distal hereditary motor neuropathy pedigree with different ancestries and one additional Belgian distal hereditary motor neuropathy family of Caucasian origin. Cell transfection studies demonstrated a dominant-negative effect of the p.His257Arg mutation on aminoacylation activity of TrpRS, which subsequently compromised protein synthesis and reduced cell viability. His257Arg TrpRS also inhibited neurite outgrowth and led to neurite degeneration in the neuronal cell lines and rat motor neurons. Further in vitro analyses showed that the WARS mutation could potentiate the angiostatic activities of TrpRS by enhancing its interaction with vascular endothelial-cadherin. Taken together, these findings establish WARS as a gene whose mutations may cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy and alter canonical and non-canonical functions of TrpRS. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  4. Distal triceps injuries (including snapping triceps): A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shuttlewood, Kimberley; Beazley, James; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-06-18

    To review current literature on types of distal triceps injury and determine diagnosis and appropriate management. We performed a systematic review in PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE using the terms distal triceps tears and snapping triceps on the 10 th January 2017. We excluded all animal, review, foreign language and repeat papers. We reviewed all papers for relevance and of the papers left we were able to establish the types of distal triceps injury, how these injuries are diagnosed and investigated and the types of management of these injuries including surgical. The results are then presented in a review paper format. Three hundred and seventy-nine papers were identified of which 65 were relevant to distal triceps injuries. After exclusion we had 47 appropriate papers. The papers highlighted 2 main distal triceps injuries: Distal triceps tears and snapping triceps. Triceps tear are more common in males than females occurring in the 4 th -5 th decade of life and often due to a direct trauma but are also strongly associated with weightlifting and American football. The tears are diagnosed by history and clinically with a palpable gap. Diagnosis can be confirmed with the use of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment depends on type of tear. Partial tears can be treated conservatively with bracing and physio whereas acute tears need repair either open or arthroscopic using suture anchor or bone tunnel techniques with similar success. Chronic tears often need augmenting with tendon allograft or autograft. Snapping triceps are also seen more in men than women but at a mean age of 32 years. They are characterized by a snapping sensation mostly medially and can be associated with ulna nerve subluxation and ulna nerve symptoms. US is the diagnostic modality of choice due to its dynamic nature and to differentiate between snapping triceps tendon or ulna nerve. Treatment is conservative initially with activity avoidance and if that fails surgical

  5. Distal triceps injuries (including snapping triceps): A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shuttlewood, Kimberley; Beazley, James; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    AIM To review current literature on types of distal triceps injury and determine diagnosis and appropriate management. METHODS We performed a systematic review in PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE using the terms distal triceps tears and snapping triceps on the 10th January 2017. We excluded all animal, review, foreign language and repeat papers. We reviewed all papers for relevance and of the papers left we were able to establish the types of distal triceps injury, how these injuries are diagnosed and investigated and the types of management of these injuries including surgical. The results are then presented in a review paper format. RESULTS Three hundred and seventy-nine papers were identified of which 65 were relevant to distal triceps injuries. After exclusion we had 47 appropriate papers. The papers highlighted 2 main distal triceps injuries: Distal triceps tears and snapping triceps. Triceps tear are more common in males than females occurring in the 4th-5th decade of life and often due to a direct trauma but are also strongly associated with weightlifting and American football. The tears are diagnosed by history and clinically with a palpable gap. Diagnosis can be confirmed with the use of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment depends on type of tear. Partial tears can be treated conservatively with bracing and physio whereas acute tears need repair either open or arthroscopic using suture anchor or bone tunnel techniques with similar success. Chronic tears often need augmenting with tendon allograft or autograft. Snapping triceps are also seen more in men than women but at a mean age of 32 years. They are characterized by a snapping sensation mostly medially and can be associated with ulna nerve subluxation and ulna nerve symptoms. US is the diagnostic modality of choice due to its dynamic nature and to differentiate between snapping triceps tendon or ulna nerve. Treatment is conservative initially with activity avoidance and if that fails

  6. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Expression in Distal Radius Fracture.

    PubMed

    Hoberück, Sebastian; Michler, Enrico; Kaiser, Daniel; Röhnert, Anne; Zöphel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Jörg

    2018-06-12

    A 79-year old man with prostate cancer under active surveillance for 5 years was referred for a PSMA-PET/MRI for re-evaluation because of a rising prostate-specific antigen value. PET/MRI revealed a ribbonlike tracer accumulation in a healing fracture of the distal radius. This case illustrates that PSMA expression may occur in healing bone fractures in the distal radius. It can be assumed that benign causes of tracer accumulations in the upper extremities are missed in PET/CT due to elevated position of the arms during image acquisition.

  7. Distally Based Sural Artery Peroneus Flap (DBSPF) for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahiem, Ahmed Ali; Manas, Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of soft-tissue defects in lower third of leg, ankle, and foot has been a challenge and reconstructive surgeons have been trying to innovate different flaps. To solve this issue, we propose a distally based sural artery peroneus flap (DBSPF) in which we include superficial portion of the peroneus brevis muscle and its blood supply with the peroneal artery distally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and its usefulness over conventional distal sural artery flap or other local options available. Methods: This is a case series of 20 patients that include a DBSPF that was done for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot caused by trauma or tumor ablation within the period of June 2013 to March 2015 in Kasralainy Hospital, Cairo. All cases were evaluated according to flap vascularity, distal reach of flap, aesthetic outcome, and donor-site morbidity. Results: All flaps survived. One flap developed venous congestion that subsided spontaneously with limb elevation. The flap dimension ranged from 42 cm to 442 cm2, and it reached the midfoot easily. The pivot point was kept as low as 2–6 cm from lateral malleolus according to location of perforators. The ankle stability was maintained, and the desired aesthetic outcome was achieved. Conclusions: The DBSPF is an addition to the armamentarium in plastic surgery for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot. It is an easy and swift procedure as compared with complex microsurgical reconstruction. PMID:28507850

  8. Blowhole colostomy for the urgent management of distal large bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Kevin R; Midura, Emily F; Davis, Bradley R; Rafferty, Janice F; Paquette, Ian M

    2014-05-01

    Complete obstruction of the distal colon or rectum often presents as a surgical emergency. This study evaluated the efficacy of blowhole colostomy versus transverse loop colostomy for the emergent management of distal large intestinal obstruction. Retrospective chart review of all colostomy procedures (CPT 44320) performed for complete distal large bowel obstruction during the past 6 y in a university hospital practice was undertaken. Blowhole was compared with loop colostomy with a primary endpoint of successful colonic decompression. One hundred forty-one patients underwent colostomy creation during the study period. Of these, 61 were completed for acute obstruction of the distal colon or rectum (19 blowhole versus 42 loop colostomy). No differences between study groups were seen in age, gender, body mass index, malnutrition, American Society of Anesthesiology class, time to liquid or regular diet, 30-d or inhospital mortality, or rates of complications. Patients undergoing blowhole colostomy had significantly higher cecal diameters at diagnosis (9.14 versus 7.31 cm, P = 0.0035). Operative time was shorter in blowhole procedures (43 versus 51 min, P = 0.017). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter for blowhole colostomy (6 versus 8 d, P = 0.014). The primary endpoint of successful colonic decompression was met in all colostomy patients. Diverting blowhole colostomy is a safe, quick, and effective procedure for the urgent management of distal colonic obstruction associated with obstipation and massive distention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology of race-day distal limb fracture in flat racing Thoroughbreds in Great Britain (2000 to 2013).

    PubMed

    Rosanowski, S M; Chang, Y M; Stirk, A J; Verheyen, K L P

    2018-05-28

    A key focus of the racing industry is to minimise the number of race-day distal limb fractures, although no studies have identified risk factors for both fatal and non-fatal distal limb fractures. To determine risk factors for race-day distal limb fractures experienced by Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat racing in Great Britain (GB). Retrospective cohort. Information was collected from all flat racing starts occurring on GB racecourses between 2000 and 2013, including horse, race, course, trainer and jockey data for each horse start and race-day injury data as reported by on-course veterinarians. Associations between exposure variables and cases of distal limb fracture were assessed using mixed effects logistic regression analyses using data from all starts, and turf starts only. A total of 806,764 starts and 624 cases of distal limb fracture were included, of which 548,571 starts and 379 cases of distal limb fracture occurred on turf surfaces. In both models, increasing firmness of the going, increasing racing distance and horses in their first year of racing were at a higher risk of distal limb fracture, while increasing number of previous race starts were protective. Trainer performance was associated with distal limb fracture. Generally, the risk of distal limb fracture increased with increasing horse age. Starts in selling or claiming races or Group 1, Group 3 or claiming races were at higher odds of distal limb fracture in the all starts and turf models, respectively. Clinical diagnosis of distal limb fracture and all types of distal limb fracture considered as one outcome. This study confirmed previously identified risk factors for distal limb fracture including going, race distance and number of horse starts. Novel risk factors were related to trainer and horse performance, and race type. Identification of at risk groups will help inform interventions to reduce distal limb fracture occurrence in flat racing horses. This article is protected by

  10. Distalization of Maxillary First Permanent Molar by Pendulum Appliance in Mixed Dentition Period.

    PubMed

    Paranna, Sujatha; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Anandakrishna, Latha; Rawat, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Mesial drifting of molar teeth in maxillary arch is corrected by movement of the molars distally. In addition to traditional distal movement techniques, such as extraoral force application and removable appliances, various intra-arch devices have been introduced since 1980s. These intra-arch appliances have nearly eliminated the need for patient cooperation. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of 10-year-old male patient with loss of space in maxillary molar teeth treated by intra-arch appliance-pendulum appliance by distalization of maxillary first permanent molar teeth. Distaliza-tion of the permanent molar teeth helped in proper eruption of second premolar teeth without any extensive treatment procedures. In the present case report, the treatment of developing malocclusion was corrected by utilizing the concept of interceptive orthodontics. Hence, correction of space loss in mixed dentition period using pendulum appliance can eliminate the fixed orthodontic therapy. Paranna S, Shetty P, Anandakrishna L, Rawat A. Distalization of Maxillary First Permanent Molar by Pendulum Appliance in Mixed Dentition Period. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):299-301.

  11. Distinct distal myopathy phenotype caused by VCP gene mutation in a Finnish family.

    PubMed

    Palmio, Johanna; Sandell, Satu; Suominen, Tiina; Penttilä, Sini; Raheem, Olayinka; Hackman, Peter; Huovinen, Sanna; Haapasalo, Hannu; Udd, Bjarne

    2011-08-01

    Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is caused by mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene. We report a new distal phenotype caused by VCP gene mutation in a Finnish family with nine affected members in three generations. Patients had onset of distal leg muscle weakness and atrophy in the anterior compartment muscles after age 35, which caused a foot drop at age 50. None of the siblings had scapular winging, proximal myopathy, cardiomyopathy or respiratory problems during long-term follow-up. Three distal myopathy patients developed rapidly progressive dementia, became bedridden and died of cachexia and pneumonia and VCP gene mutation P137L (c.410C>T) was then identified in the family. Late onset autosomal dominant distal myopathy with rimmed vacuolar muscle pathology was not sufficient for exact diagnosis in this family until late-occurring dementia provided the clue for molecular diagnosis. VCP needs to be considered in the differential diagnostic work-up in patients with distal myopathy phenotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. One size does not fit all: distal radioulnar joint dysfunction after volar locking plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lawson, Richard D

    2014-02-01

    Background Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common injuries treated by orthopedic surgeons worldwide. Failure to restore distal radius alignment can lead to fracture malunion and poor clinical outcomes, including distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability and limitation of motion. Case Description We present a unique case of DRUJ dysfunction following volar plate fixation of bilateral distal radius fractures and analyze the biomechanical causes of this complication. As a result of a relatively excessive tilt of the precontoured locking plate (in comparison to the patient's particular anatomy), the fracture on one side was "over-reduced," disrupting the biomechanics of the DRUJ, causing a supination block. Clinical Relevance Volar locking plates are not a panacea to all distal radius fractures. Plate selection and fixation technique must include consideration of patient anatomy. Robust plates offer the advantage of providing rigid fixation but can be difficult to contour when reconstructing normal anatomy. Restoration of patient-specific anatomy is crucial to the management of distal radius fractures.

  13. Diurnal blood pressure variations are associated with changes in distal-proximal skin temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, Kurt; Gompper, Britta; Hauenstein, Daniela; Flammer, Josef; Pflüger, Marlon; Studerus, Erich; Schötzau, Andy; Orgül, Selim

    2012-11-01

    It is generally assumed that skin vascular resistance contributes only to a small extent to total peripheral resistance and hence to blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of skin blood flow (SBF) changes on the diurnal variations of BP under ambulatory conditions. The main aim of the study was to determine whether diurnal patterns of distal SBF are related to mean arterial BP (MAP). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory measurements of BP, heart rate (HR) and distal (mean of hands and feet) as well as proximal (mean of sternum and infraclavicular region) skin temperatures were carried out in 51 patients (men/women = 18/33) during a 2-d eye hospital investigation. The standardized ambulatory protocol allowed measurements with minimal interference from uncontrolled parameters and, hence, some conclusive interpretations. The distal minus proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG) provided a measure for distal SBF. Individual cross-correlation analyses revealed that the diurnal pattern of MAP was nearly a mirror image of DPG and hence of distal SBF. Scheduled lunch and dinner induced an increase in DPG and a decline in MAP, while HR increased. Low daytime DPG (i.e. low distal SBF) levels significantly predicted sleep-induced BP dipping (r = -.436, p = .0014). Preliminary path analysis suggested that outdoor air temperature and atmospheric pressure may act on MAP via changed distal SBF. Changes in distal SBF may contribute to diurnal variation in MAP, including sleep-induced BP dipping and changes related to food intake. This finding might have an impact on individual cardiovascular risk prediction with respect to diurnal, seasonal and weather variations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered.

  14. Longitudinal Deformation of Distal Edge in a New-Generation Stent Caused by Guidewire Entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Taleb, Adam; Parikh, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal stent deformation, described in some older stent geometries, prompted design modifications such as reinforcing struts on the proximal end. However, distal edges of stents—also subject to longitudinal force—have not been reinforced. We report a case of guidewire entrapment that deformed the distal edge of a new-generation stent during percutaneous coronary intervention, and we describe our efforts to restore the stent to its initial length. This case highlights the risk of manipulating equipment beyond the position of a newly deployed stent, the ongoing potential for deformation of distal edges in newer stent platforms, and the advisability of treating distal lesions before proximal ones. PMID:29556153

  15. Early Reconstruction of Distal Leg and Foot in Acute High-Voltage Electrical Burn: Does Location of Pedicle in the Zone of Injury Affect the Outcome of Distally Based Sural Flap?

    PubMed

    Asʼadi, Kamran; Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Shoar, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Distally based fasciocutaneous sural flap is popular in the reconstruction of distal leg and foot burns. However, utilization of this technique in high-voltage electrical injury has been challenging. The present study aimed to compare the outcome of early aggressive debridement and coverage of contact point of acute high-voltage electrical injury using distally based fasciocutaneous sural flap between high-risk and low-risk patients defined by the anatomic proximity of the flap pedicle to the zone of injury. A total of 51 patients with contact point of high-voltage electrical burn (HVEB) in distal leg and foot undergoing distally based fasciocutaneous sural flap were included in this prospective clinical study. In 28 patients, the flap pedicle was not involved in the contact point of high-voltage electrical injury (low risk/control group), whereas in 21 patients, it was located inside the zone of injury (high-risk/case group). Patients were followed up for a median of 21 months (range, 12-44 months). Wound dimensions to be covered were relatively similar between the 2 groups. Complications of flap survival (primary outcome) and other minor early and late complications (secondary outcome) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Provided that early and completed debridements of contact points of HVEB were achieved, distally based sural flap is feasible and there is reliable coverage in HVEB even in patients with flap pedicle located in vicinity of the zone of injury.

  16. Changes consequent to maxillary molar distalization with the bone-anchored pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Cambiano, Aldo Otazú; Janson, Guilherme; Fuziy, Acácio; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Lorenzoni, Diego Coelho

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the dentoalveolar, skeletal, and soft tissue effects obtained with bone-anchored pendulum appliance in patients with Class II malocclusion. A total of 18 patients (4 male, 14 female) at a mean pretreatment age of 14.0 years (+1.08) were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with the bone-anchored pendulum appliance for an average duration of 4.8 months. Only the active distalization period was evaluated with predistalization and postdistalization lateral cephalograms. Skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue variables were obtained. Based on these variables, the treatment effects were evaluated with dependent t -test. Correction of Class II molar relationship resulted from distal movement of 3.45 mm and tipping of 11.24° of the first maxillary molars. The premolars were distalized accompanying the molars. The bone-anchored pendulum appliance proved to be an effective method for distalization of maxillary molars in cases that require maximum anchorage, avoiding reciprocal mesial movement of premolars and incisors.

  17. Intra- and interobserver agreement in the classification and treatment of distal third clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Julie Y; Jones, Grant L; Lewis, Brian; Pedroza, Angela

    2015-04-01

    In treatment of distal third clavicle fractures, the Neer classification system, based on the location of the fracture in relation to the coracoclavicular ligaments, has traditionally been used to determine fracture pattern stability. To determine the intra- and interobserver reliability in the classification of distal third clavicle fractures via standard plain radiographs and the intra- and interobserver agreement in the preferred treatment of these fractures. Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Thirty radiographs of distal clavicle fractures were randomly selected from patients treated for distal clavicle fractures between 2006 and 2011. The radiographs were distributed to 22 shoulder/sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons. Fourteen surgeons responded and took part in the study. The evaluators were asked to measure the size of the distal fragment, classify the fracture pattern as stable or unstable, assign the Neer classification, and recommend operative versus nonoperative treatment. The radiographs were reordered and redistributed 3 months later. Inter- and intrarater agreement was determined for the distal fragment size, stability of the fracture, Neer classification, and decision to operate. Single variable logistic regression was performed to determine what factors could most accurately predict the decision for surgery. Interrater agreement was fair for distal fragment size, moderate for stability, fair for Neer classification, slight for type IIB and III fractures, and moderate for treatment approach. Intrarater agreement was moderate for distal fragment size categories (κ = 0.50, P < .001) and Neer classification (κ = 0.42, P < .001) and substantial for stable fracture (κ = 0.65, P < .001) and decision to operate (κ = 0.65, P < .001). Fracture stability was the best predictor of treatment, with 89% accuracy (P < .001). Fracture stability determination and the decision to operate had the highest interobserver agreement

  18. Distal Nerve Transfer: Perspective of Reconstructive Microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazuteru

    2018-04-01

    Recent articles have strongly emphasized the superiority of distal nerve transfers despite indefinite assessment. I would like to introduce the problems associated with functional evaluation following nerve transfers. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Transfer of Motor Learning Is More Pronounced in Proximal Compared to Distal Effectors in Upper Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Aune, Tore K.; Aune, Morten A.; Ingvaldsen, Rolf P.; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2017-01-01

    The current experiment investigated generalizability of motor learning in proximal versus distal effectors in upper extremities. Twenty-eight participants were divided into three groups: training proximal effectors, training distal effectors, and no training control group (CG). Performance was tested pre- and post-training for specific learning and three learning transfer conditions: (1) bilateral learning transfer between homologous effectors, (2) lateral learning transfer between non-homologous effectors, and (3) bilateral learning transfer between non-homologous effectors. With respect to specific learning, both training groups showed significant, similar improvement for the trained proximal and distal effectors, respectively. In addition, there was significant learning transfer to all three transfer conditions, except for bilateral learning transfer between non-homologous effectors for the distal training group. Interestingly, the proximal training group showed significantly larger learning transfer to other effectors compared to the distal training group. The CG did not show significant improvements from pre- to post-test. These results show that learning is partly effector independent and generalizable to different effectors, even though transfer is suboptimal compared to specific learning. Furthermore, there is a proximal-distal gradient in generalizability, in that learning transfer from trained proximal effectors is larger than from trained distal effectors, which is consistent with neuroanatomical differences in activation of proximal and distal muscles. PMID:28943857

  20. Maxillary molar distalization: Pendulum and Fast-Back, comparison between two approaches for Class II malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Beretta, Matteo; Lanteri, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    To compare the dento-alveolar and skeletal effects produced by two different molar intraoral distalization appliances, Pendulum and Fast-Back, both followed by fixed appliances, in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. 41 patients for Pendulum (18 males and 23 females) and 35 for Fast-Back (14 males and 21 females) were selected, with a mean age at the start of treatment of 12.11 years in the Pendulum group and 13.3 for in the Fast-Back group. The durations of the distalization phase were 8 months in the Pendulum group and 9 months in the Fast-Back group, and the durations of the second phase of treatment with fixed appliances were 19 months in the Pendulum group and 20 months in the Fast-Back group. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at 3 observation times: before treatment, after distalization and after comprehensive orthodontic treatment. During molar distalization the Pendulum subjects showed greater distal molar movement and less anchorage loss at both the premolars and maxillary incisors than the Fast-Back subjects. Pendulum and Fast-Back produced similar amounts of distal molar movement and overcorrection of molar relationship at the end of distalization though the Fast-Back induced a more bodily movement. Very little change occurred in the inclination of the mandibular plane at the end of the 2-phase treatment in both groups. At the end of treatment the maxillary first molars were on average 1mm more distal in the Pendulum group compared to the Fast-Back group, while the total molar correction was 3.2mm with 3.9° of distal inclination for the Pendulum and 2mm with 1.1° of mesial inclination for the Fast-Back. Both appliance were equally effective in inducing a satisfactory Class I relationship in 97.2% of the cases. The Pendulum and the Fast-Back induce similar dentoskeletal effects. The use of the two distalization devices, therefore, can be considered clinically equivalent. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier

  1. Pseudotumor of the distal common bile duct at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Justin H.; Coakley, Fergus V; Wang, Zhen J.; Poder, Liina; Webb, Emily; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior studies have described a pseudocalculus appearance in the distal common bile duct as a normal variant at cholangiography. The objective of this study is to describe the occurrence of pseudotumor in the distal common bile duct at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods Nine patients who underwent ERCP between May 2004 and July 2008 were identified as having a transient eccentric mural-based filling defect in the distal common bile duct. A single reader systematically reviewed all studies and recorded the imaging findings. Results The mean diameter of the filling defect was 9 mm (range, 5 to 11). Eight patients had resolution of the filling defect during the same ERCP or on a subsequent ERCP, and in 2 of these patients the inferior border of the filling defect was not well visualized. The other patient underwent surgical resection of a presumed tumor with no evidence of malignancy on surgical pathology. Conclusion An eccentric mural-based filling defect in the distal common bile duct can be artifactual in nature and may reflect transient contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. Recognition of this pseudotumor may help avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:21724120

  2. Future treatment and research directions in distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Jesse

    2012-05-01

    Whether or not they will have their lives dramatically extended in the next few decades, it is clear that people are living longer, healthier, and more active lives. The two peak incidences of distal radius fractures will remain within the pediatric and geriatric age groups, with the latter experiencing a substantial increase in the coming years. This article attempts to project future developments with regard to epidemiology, risk and prevention, fracture assessment, and treatment of distal radius fractures, and the ever increasing concern for the economic impact of this prevalent injury. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Ofd1, a human disease gene, regulates the length and distal structure of centrioles.

    PubMed

    Singla, Veena; Romaguera-Ros, Miriam; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2010-03-16

    Centrosomes and their component centrioles represent the principal microtubule organizing centers of animal cells. Here, we show that the gene underlying orofaciodigital syndrome 1, Ofd1, is a component of the distal centriole that controls centriole length. In the absence of Ofd1, distal regions of centrioles, but not procentrioles, elongate abnormally. These long centrioles are structurally similar to normal centrioles but contain destabilized microtubules with abnormal posttranslational modifications. Ofd1 is also important for centriole distal appendage formation and centriolar recruitment of the intraflagellar transport protein Ift88. To model OFD1 syndrome in embryonic stem cells, we replaced the Ofd1 gene with missense alleles from human OFD1 patients. Distinct disease-associated mutations cause different degrees of excessive or decreased centriole elongation, all of which are associated with diminished ciliogenesis. Our results indicate that Ofd1 acts at the distal centriole to build distal appendages, recruit Ift88, and stabilize centriolar microtubules at a defined length. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conservative management of distal leg necrosis in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Aigner, F; Husmann, M; Huber, L C; Benden, C; Schuurmans, M M

    2017-05-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) with distal leg necrosis in lung transplant recipients (LTR) is associated with a high risk for systemic infection and sepsis. Optimal management of CLI has not been defined so far in LTR. In immunocompetent individuals with leg necrosis, surgical amputation would be indicated and standard care. We report on the outcome of four conservatively managed LTR with distal leg necrosis due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with medial calcification of the distal limb vessels. Time interval from lung transplantation to CLI ranged from four years (n = 1) to more than a decade (n = 3). In all cases a multimodal therapy with heparin, acetylsalicylic acid, iloprost and antibiotic therapy was performed, in addition to a trial of catheter-based revascularization. Surgical amputation of necrosis was not undertaken due to fear of wound healing difficulties under long-term immunosuppression and impaired tissue perfusion. Intensive wound care and selective debridement were performed. Two patients developed progressive gangrene followed by auto-amputation during a follow-up of 43 and 49 months with continued ambulation and two patients died of unrelated causes 9 and 12 months after diagnosis of CLI. In conclusion, we report a conservative treatment strategy for distal leg necrosis in LTR without surgical amputation and recommend this approach based on our experience. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

  6. Is distal motor and/or sensory demyelination a distinctive feature of anti-MAG neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Ribrag, Vincent; Adams, David; Brisset, Marion; Vignon, Marguerite; Baron, Marine; Malphettes, Marion; Theaudin, Marie; Arnulf, Bertrand; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    To report the frequency of the different patterns of sensory and motor electrophysiological demyelination distribution in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy in comparison with patients with IgM neuropathy without MAG reactivity (IgM-NP). Thirty-five anti-MAG patients at early disease stage (20.1 months) were compared to 23 patients with IgM-NP; 21 CIDP patients and 13 patients with CMT1a neuropathy were used as gold standard neuropathies with multifocal and homogeneous demyelination, respectively. In all groups, standard motor and sensory electrophysiological parameters, terminal latency index and modified F ratio were investigated. Motor electrophysiological demyelination was divided in four profiles: distal, homogeneous, proximal, and proximo-distal. Distal sensory and sensorimotor demyelination were evaluated. Anti-MAG neuropathy is a demyelinating neuropathy in 91 % of cases. In the upper limbs, reduced TLI is more frequent in anti-MAG neuropathy, compared to IgM-NP. But, predominant distal demyelination of the median nerve is encountered in only 43 % of anti-MAG neuropathy and is also common in IgM-NP (35 %). Homogeneous demyelination was the second most frequent pattern (31 %). Concordance of electrophysiological profiles across motor nerves trunks is low and median nerve is the main site of distal motor conduction slowing. Reduced sensory conduction velocities occurs in 14 % of patients without evidence of predominant distal slowing. Simultaneous sensory and motor distal slowing was more common in the median nerve of anti-MAG neuropathy than IgM-NP. Electrophysiological distal motor demyelination and sensory demyelination are not a distinctive feature of anti-MAG reactivity. In anti-MAG neuropathy it is mainly found in the median nerve suggesting a frequent nerve compression at wrist.

  7. Distal and Proximal Vision: A Multi-Perspective Research in Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancola, Orazio; Viteritti, Assunta

    2014-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from the research conducted in Italian schools involved in the reform process, the article proposes to investigate two visions in the research on Sociology of Education: one distal and the other proximal. The distal vision is offered by quantitative research nowadays supported by extensive public funding and framed as…

  8. Distal radius reconstruction with vascularized proximal fibular autograft after en-bloc resection of recurrent giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Fa; Wang, Jian-Wei; Huang, Pin; Xu, Zhong-He

    2016-08-17

    Giant cell tumors (GCTs) located in the distal radius are likely to recur, and the treatment of such recurrent tumors is very difficult. Here, we report our clinical experience in distal radius reconstruction with vascularized proximal fibular autografts after en-bloc excision of the entire distal radius in 17 patients with recurrent GCT (RGCT) of the distal radius. All 17 patients with RGCT in distal radius underwent plain radiography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the distal radius as the initial evaluation after hospitalization. Then the distal radius were replaced by vascularized proximal fibular autografts after en-bloc RGCT resection. We assessed all patients by using clinical examinations, plain radiography of the wrist and chest, and Mayo wrist scores in the follow-ups. After an average follow-up of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-10.0 years), no lung metastasis or local recurrence was detected in any of the 17 patients. In total, 14 patients had excellent or good functional wrist scores, 16 were pain free or had occasional pain, and 15 patients returned to work. The mean range of motion of the wrist was 101° (flexion-extension), and the mean grip strength was 77.2 % of the contralateral normal hand. En-bloc excision of the entire distal radius and distal radius reconstruction with a vascularized proximal fibular autograft can effectively achieve local tumor control and preserve wrist function in patients with RGCT of the distal radius.

  9. Systematic Review: Rectal Therapies for the Treatment of Distal Forms of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Russell D; Dalal, Sushila R

    2015-07-01

    Many therapeutic options are available for patients with distal forms of ulcerative colitis (UC). Rectal therapies (e.g., suppositories, foams, gels, and enemas) may be recommended either alone or in combination with oral treatment. Compared with oral therapies, rectal therapies are underused in patients with distal forms of UC, although rectal therapies have favorable efficacy and safety profiles. This systematic review identified 48 articles for inclusion after a comprehensive PubMed search and the identification of additional relevant articles through other sources. Inclusion criteria were clinical studies examining efficacy and safety of 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroid, and non-5-aminosalicylic acid rectal therapies (suppositories, foams, gels, and enemas) that induce or maintain remission in patients with ulcerative proctitis, ulcerative proctosigmoiditis, or left-sided colitis (i.e., distal forms of UC). The quality of the evidence presented was evaluated using the GRADE system. Overall, a greater percentage of patients with distal forms of UC receiving 5-aminosalicylic acids or corticosteroid rectal formulations derived greater therapeutic benefit after treatment compared with patients receiving placebo. Furthermore, most uncontrolled studies of rectal therapies reported that patients with distal forms of UC had marked improvement from baseline after treatment. The overall safety profile of rectal therapies was favorable. Treatment with second-generation corticosteroids, such as budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate, did not increase the incidence of steroid-related adverse effects. The current literature supports the use of rectal therapies for both induction and maintenance of remission in patients with distal forms of UC.

  10. Distalization of Maxillary First Permanent Molar by Pendulum Appliance in Mixed Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; Anandakrishna, Latha; Rawat, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mesial drifting of molar teeth in maxillary arch is corrected by movement of the molars distally. In addition to traditional distal movement techniques, such as extraoral force application and removable appliances, various intra-arch devices have been introduced since 1980s. These intra-arch appliances have nearly eliminated the need for patient cooperation. Case report The purpose of this paper is to report a case of 10-year-old male patient with loss of space in maxillary molar teeth treated by intra-arch appliance-pendulum appliance by distalization of maxillary first permanent molar teeth. Distaliza-tion of the permanent molar teeth helped in proper eruption of second premolar teeth without any extensive treatment procedures. Conclusion In the present case report, the treatment of developing malocclusion was corrected by utilizing the concept of interceptive orthodontics. Hence, correction of space loss in mixed dentition period using pendulum appliance can eliminate the fixed orthodontic therapy. How to cite this article Paranna S, Shetty P, Anandakrishna L, Rawat A. Distalization of Maxillary First Permanent Molar by Pendulum Appliance in Mixed Dentition Period. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):299-301. PMID:29104393

  11. Hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clericetti, Caterina M; Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Giannini, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017. Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels (P < 0.05). In 31 patients (19 children, 12 adults), an acute urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting. Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases. The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults.

  12. RSV-encoded NS2 promotes epithelial cell shedding and distal airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liesman, Rachael M.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Luongo, Cindy L.; Yang, Lijuan; Proia, Alan D.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Collins, Peter L.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. Together, these data indicate that RSV infection of the airway epithelium, via the action of NS2, promotes epithelial cell shedding, which not only accelerates viral clearance but also contributes to acute obstruction of the distal airways. Our results identify RSV NS2 as a contributing factor for the enhanced propensity of RSV to cause severe airway disease in young children and suggest NS2 as a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of distal airway disease. PMID:24713657

  13. Engineering proximal vs. distal heme-NO coordination via dinitrosyl dynamics: implications for NO sensor design.

    PubMed

    Kekilli, Demet; Petersen, Christine A; Pixton, David A; Ghafoor, Dlzar D; Abdullah, Gaylany H; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Wilson, Michael T; Heyes, Derren J; Hardman, Samantha J O; Murphy, Loretta M; Strange, Richard W; Scrutton, Nigel S; Andrew, Colin R; Hough, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Proximal vs. distal heme-NO coordination is a novel strategy for selective gas response in heme-based NO-sensors. In the case of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cytochrome c' (AXCP), formation of a transient distal 6cNO complex is followed by scission of the trans Fe-His bond and conversion to a proximal 5cNO product via a putative dinitrosyl species. Here we show that replacement of the AXCP distal Leu16 residue with smaller or similar sized residues (Ala, Val or Ile) traps the distal 6cNO complex, whereas Leu or Phe residues lead to a proximal 5cNO product with a transient or non-detectable distal 6cNO precursor. Crystallographic, spectroscopic, and kinetic measurements of 6cNO AXCP complexes show that increased distal steric hindrance leads to distortion of the Fe-N-O angle and flipping of the heme 7-propionate. However, it is the kinetic parameters of the distal NO ligand that determine whether 6cNO or proximal 5cNO end products are formed. Our data support a 'balance of affinities' mechanism in which proximal 5cNO coordination depends on relatively rapid release of the distal NO from the dinitrosyl precursor. This mechanism, which is applicable to other proteins that form transient dinitrosyls, represents a novel strategy for 5cNO formation that does not rely on an inherently weak Fe-His bond. Our data suggest a general means of engineering selective gas response into biologically-derived gas sensors in synthetic biology.

  14. Usefulness of dual protection combined with blood aspiration for distal embolic protection during carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Shibukawa, Masaaki; Orita, Yoji; Shimonaga, Koji; Kajihara, Yosuke; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-03-01

    We describe dual protection (simultaneous flow reversal and distal filter) combined with blood aspiration as a novel technique to provide distal embolic protection during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Between July 2011 and August 2014, 190 patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis underwent 190 CAS procedures as follows. After post-dilation of the stent using dual protection, the aspiration catheter was placed between the distal filter and the proximal end of the stent, and the blood was aspirated several times from the ICA. We assessed hyper-intensity spots in diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and major adverse events (MAE) defined as major stroke, myocardial infarction and death after CAS. We then assessed visible debris captured in aspirated blood, the distal filter and a blood filter during flow reversal. The overall technical success rate was 100 %, and all stenoses were dilated. Hyper-intense spots were found in 33 (17.3 %) of 190 DWI. The rate of MAE within 30 days was 1.05 % (2/190). Visible debris in 175 of 190 CAS procedures was captured in 92 (52.5 %) of these 175. In 25 (27.2 %) of these 92, visible debris was captured in all of aspirated blood, the distal filter and the blood filter during flow reversal, only the blood filter during flow reversal (n = 19; 20.7 %), only the distal filter (n = 14; 15.2 %), only aspirated blood (n = 11; 12 %), aspirated blood and the blood filter during flow reversal (n = 10; 10.8 %), aspirated blood and the distal filter (n = 7; 7.6 %) and the distal filter and blood filter during flow reversal (n = 6; 6.5 %). Adding a distal filter and blood aspiration to flow reversal during CAS could provide effective distal embolic protection.

  15. Combined treatment with headgear and the Frog appliance for maxillary molar distalization: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficiency of the Frog appliance (FA) alone or in combination with headgear for distalizing the maxillary molars. Methods Fifty patients (25 males and 25 females) aged 12.6 - 16.7 years who received treatment for Class II malocclusion at the Orthodontic Clinic of Al-Baath University were selected for this study and randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Maxillary molar distalization was achieved using the FA alone (group 1) or a combination of the FA with high-pull headgear worn at night (group 2). Lateral cephalograms were obtained before and after treatment. Results The maxillary molars moved distally by 5.51 and 5.93 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Distal movements were associated with axial tipping by 4.96° and 1.25°, and with loss of anchorage by mesial movement of the second maxillary premolars by 2.70 and 0.90 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The combined use of the FA and nighttime high-pull headgear decreased the distalization time and improved the ratio of maxillary molar distalization movement relative to the overall opening space between the first maxillary molars and second premolars. Conclusions The FA can effectively distalize the maxillary molars, this distalization associates with some unfavorable changes. Nighttime use of high-pull headgear combined with the FA can reduce these unfavorable changes and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23671835

  16. Radiation-free distal locking of intramedullary nails: evaluation of a new electromagnetic computer-assisted guidance system.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Karampinas, Panagiotis; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios-Stergios; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Vlamis, John

    2013-06-01

    Distal locking of intramedullary nails (IMNs) is a difficult part of intramedullary nailing (IMN) that could be time-consuming and expose the surgeon, the surgery personnel and the patient to a considerable amount of radiation as fluoroscopy is usually guiding the procedure. Utilization of electromagnetic fields for that purpose offers an attractive alternative. The SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System (Smith & Nephew, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) is a novel commercially available radiation-free aiming system that utilizes computerized electromagnetic field tracking technology for the distal locking of IMNs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the system we conducted the present study. Nineteen patients (six females-thirteen males, mean age 39.5 years, range 17-85 years) with closed diaphyseal fracture of the femur (eight patients) or the tibia (eleven patients) were treated with IMN using the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System for the distal interlocking. All targeting attempts were successful at first try and followed by correct positioning of the screws. Mean time for distal locking of tibial IMNs (two screws) was 219sec (range 200-250sec). Mean time for distal locking of femoral IMNs (two screws) was 249 (range 220-330sec). In the current study the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System proved to be accurate, fast and easy to learn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Migrating gallstone: from Bouveret's syndrome to distal small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yau, Kwok-Kay; Siu, Wing-Tai; Tsui, Ka-Kin

    2006-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction. When the gallstone lodges inside the duodenum and causes gastric outlet obstruction, it is termed Bouveret's syndrome. However, it is rather unusual to seen the evolution of a migrating gallstone (from duodenum to distal small bowel) in a patient during the same hospital admission. We report a case of gallstone ileus from the initial presentation of gastric outlet obstruction to the development of distal small bowel obstruction within the same hospital admission, and its total laparoscopic treatment.

  18. Changes consequent to maxillary molar distalization with the bone-anchored pendulum appliance

    PubMed Central

    Cambiano, Aldo Otazú; Janson, Guilherme; Fuziy, Acácio; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Lorenzoni, Diego Coelho

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the dentoalveolar, skeletal, and soft tissue effects obtained with bone-anchored pendulum appliance in patients with Class II malocclusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients (4 male, 14 female) at a mean pretreatment age of 14.0 years (+1.08) were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with the bone-anchored pendulum appliance for an average duration of 4.8 months. Only the active distalization period was evaluated with predistalization and postdistalization lateral cephalograms. Skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue variables were obtained. Based on these variables, the treatment effects were evaluated with dependent t-test. RESULTS: Correction of Class II molar relationship resulted from distal movement of 3.45 mm and tipping of 11.24° of the first maxillary molars. The premolars were distalized accompanying the molars. CONCLUSIONS: The bone-anchored pendulum appliance proved to be an effective method for distalization of maxillary molars in cases that require maximum anchorage, avoiding reciprocal mesial movement of premolars and incisors. PMID:29119095

  19. Effect of Eruption Status of the Mandibular Third Molar on Distal Caries in the Adjacent Second Molar.

    PubMed

    Kang, Feiwu; Huang, Cheng; Sah, Manoj Kumar; Jiang, Beizhan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the effect of the eruption status of the mandibular third molar (MTM) on distal caries in the mandibular second molar (MSM) by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Five hundred CBCT images of MTMs from 469 patients were evaluated. Presence of distal caries in MSMs, impaction depths and angulations of MTMs, cementoenamel junction (CEJ) distances between distal MSMs and mesial MTMs, presence of pericoronitis in MTMs, and patient characteristics (age and gender) were assessed. Data were analyzed by χ(2) test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and Spearman correlation analysis. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed and the P value was set at .05. The overall prevalence of distal caries in the MSM was 52.0%. According to the classification of Pell and Gregory, position A was the impaction depth at which most distal caries in MSMs were present (P = .036). For angulation of the MTM, when mesial angulations were 43° to 73°, MSMs developed more distal caries (P < .0001). For the CEJ distance between the distal MSM and the mesial MTM, when distances ranged from 6 to 15 mm, distal caries in MSMs occurred more frequently (6 to 8 mm, P < .0001; 8 to 15 mm, P = .037). Furthermore, there was a linear correlation between angulation of the MTM and the CEJ distance between the distal MSM and the mesial MTM (P < .0001). Impaction depth and angulation of the MTM are associated with distal caries in the MSM. Angulation of the MTM is more stable and reliable than the CEJ distance between the distal MSM and the mesial MTM for the estimation of risk factors related to the MTM. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Renal denervation beyond the bifurcation: The effect of distal ablation placement on safety and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Beeftink, Martine M A; Spiering, Wilko; De Jong, Mark R; Doevendans, Pieter A; Blankestijn, Peter J; Elvan, Arif; Heeg, Jan-Evert; Bots, Michiel L; Voskuil, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Renal denervation may be more effective if performed distal in the renal artery because of smaller distances between the lumen and perivascular nerves. The authors reviewed the angiographic results of 97 patients and compared blood pressure reduction in relation to the location of the denervation. No significant differences in blood pressure reduction or complications were found between patient groups divided according to their spatial distribution of the ablations (proximal to the bifurcation in both arteries, distal to the bifurcation in one artery and distal in the other artery, or distal to the bifurcation in both arteries), but systolic ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly related to the number of distal ablations. No differences in adverse events were observed. In conclusion, we found no reason to believe that renal denervation distal to the bifurcation poses additional risks over the currently advised approach of proximal denervation, but improved efficacy remains to be conclusively established. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tool use and the distalization of the end-effector

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James B.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Frey, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    We review recent neurophysiological data from macaques and humans suggesting that the use of tools extends the internal representation of the actor’s hand, and relate it to our modeling of the visual control of grasping. We introduce the idea that, in addition to extending the body schema to incorporate the tool, tool use involves distalization of the end-effector from hand to tool. Different tools extend the body schema in different ways, with a displaced visual target and a novel, task-specific processing of haptic feedback to the hand. This distalization is critical in order to exploit the unique functional capacities engendered by complex tools. PMID:19347356

  2. Comparison of modern locked plating and antiglide plating for fixation of osteoporotic distal fibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Switaj, Paul J; Wetzel, Robert J; Jain, Neel P; Weatherford, Brian M; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun; Merk, Bradley R

    2016-09-01

    Fractures in osteoporotic patients can be difficult to treat because of poor bone quality and inability to gain screw purchase. The purpose of this study is to compare modern lateral periarticular distal fibula locked plating to antiglide plating in the setting of an osteoporotic, unstable distal fibula fracture. AO/OTA 44-B2 distal fibula fractures were created in sixteen paired fresh frozen cadaveric ankles and fixed with a lateral locking plate and an independent lag screw or an antiglide plate with a lag screw through the plate. The specimens underwent stiffness, cyclic loading, and load to failure testing. The energy absorbed until failure, torque to failure, construct stiffness, angle at failure, and energy at failure was recorded. The lateral locking construct had a higher torque to failure (p=0.02) and construct stiffness (p=0.04). The locking construct showed a trend toward increased angle at failure, but did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). Seven of the eight lateral locking plate specimens failed through the distal locking screws, while the antiglide plating construct failed with pullout of the distal screws and displacement of the fracture in six of the eight specimens. In our study, the newly designed distal fibula periarticular locking plate with increased distal fixation is biomechanically stronger than a non-locking one third tubular plate applied in antiglide fashion for the treatment of AO/OTA 44-B2 osteoporotic distal fibula fractures. V: This is an ex-vivo study performed on cadavers and is not a study performed on live patients. Therefore, this is considered Level V evidence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bilateral en-masse distalization of maxillary posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method for bilateral distal movement of the entire maxillary posterior segment. Case report: A 17-year-old girl with Class I skeletal malocclusion (end-to-end molar relationships, deviated midline and space deficiency for left maxillary canine) was referred for orthodontic treatment. She did not accept maxillary first premolars extraction. A modified Hyrax appliance (Dentaurum Ispringen, Germany) was used for bilateral distalization of maxillary posterior teeth simultaneously. Expansion vector was set anteroposteriorly. Posterior legs of Hyrax were welded to first maxillary molar bands. All posterior teeth on each side consolidated with a segment of 0.017 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire from the buccal side. Anterior legs of Hyrax were bent into eyelet form and attached to the anterior palate with two mini-screws (2 × 10 mm) (Jeil Medical Corporation Seoul, South Korea). Hyrax opening rate was 0.8 mm per month. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to evaluate the extent of distal movement. 3.5-mm distalization of posterior maxillary teeth was achieved in five months. Results: A nearly bodily distal movement without anchorage loss was obtained. Conclusion: The mini-screw-supported modified Hyrax appliance was found to be helpful for achieving en-masse distal movement of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:27409657

  4. Intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia

    PubMed Central

    Sitnik, Alexandre; Beletsky, Aleksander; Schelkun, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Results of the treatment of intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia have improved significantly during the last two decades. Recognition of the role of soft tissues has led to the development of a staged treatment strategy. At the first stage, joint-bridging external fixation and fibular fixation are performed. This leads to partial reduction of the distal tibial fracture and allows time for the healing of soft tissues and detailed surgical planning. Definitive open reduction and internal fixation of the tibial fracture is performed at a second stage, when the condition of the soft tissues is safe. The preferred surgical approach(es) is chosen based on the fracture morphology as determined from standard radiographic views and computed tomography. Meticulous atraumatic soft-tissue handling and the use of modern fixation techniques for the metaphyseal component such as minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis further facilitate healing. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:352-361. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.150047 PMID:28932487

  5. Distal femoral rotational axes in Indian knees.

    PubMed

    Mullaji, Arun B; Sharma, Amit K; Marawar, Satyajit V; Kohli, Anirudh F; Singh, Dharmendra P

    2009-08-01

    To measure the angular relationships of distal femoral rotational axes in 100 normal Indian knees. 42 men and 8 women aged 26 to 40 (mean, 31) years, with 100 normal non-arthritic knees were recruited. Anatomic landmarks were measured using computed tomography. They included the posterior condylar axis, the transepicondylar axis, the anteroposterior axis (Whiteside's line), the posterior condylar angle (PCA), the Whiteside-epicondylar angle (W-EP), and the Whiteside-posterior condylar angle (W-PC). The mean PCA, W-EP, and W-PC were 5, 90.8, and 95.8 degrees, respectively. The mean femorotibial alignment was 179.6 degrees. The differences between the left and right sides were significant only for the WEP and W-PC. Only the PCA and W-EP were weakly correlated (r=0.338, p=0.001). There are differences in distal femoral rotational axes among Indian, Caucasian, and Japanese knees. Our data can be used to evaluate changes in those axes in ageing or arthritic patients.

  6. [Distal osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus (Chevron osteotomy)].

    PubMed

    Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Claaßen, L; Ettinger, S; Yao, D; Lerch, M; Plaaß, C

    2017-05-01

    Distal osteotomies, like the Chevron osteotomy, is indicated for mild to moderate hallux valgus deformities. Splayfoot, painful pseudoexostosis, and transfer metatasalgia are observed in the clinical examination. Radiographic examination should be done with weight bearing in two planes. Preoperatively the intermetatarsal (IM), hallux valgus, and distal metatarsal articular (DMAA) angles should be measured. The operative technique is based on soft tissue and bony correction. Modifications of the osteotomy allow a shortening, lengthening, or neutral correction of the first metatarsal. With a modified Chevron osteotomy, an increased DMAA can be also corrected.

  7. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the quantitative effects of the pendulum appliance and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was 30 January 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 203 studies were identified for screening, and 25 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated four (16%) of the study as being of strong quality and 21 (84%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. The pendulum appliances showed mean molar distalization of 2-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 6.67° to 14.50° and anchorage loss with mean premolar and incisor mesial movement of 1.63-3.6 mm and 0.9-6.5 mm, respectively. The bone anchored pendulum appliances (BAPAs) showed mean molar distalization of 4.8-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 9° to 11.3° and mean premolar distalization of 2.7-5.4 mm. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances are effective in molar distalization. Pendulum appliance with K-loop modification, implant supported pendulum appliance and BAPA significantly reduced anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the molar teeth.

  8. A Comprehensive Reanalysis of the Distal Iliotibial Band: Quantitative Anatomy, Radiographic Markers, and Biomechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Godin, Jonathan A; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Muckenhirn, Kyle J; Vap, Alexander R; Geeslin, Andrew G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-09-01

    The qualitative anatomy of the distal iliotibial band (ITB) has previously been described. However, a comprehensive characterization of the quantitative anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical properties of the Kaplan fibers of the deep distal ITB has not yet been established. It is paramount to delineate these characteristics to fully understand the distal ITB's contribution to rotational knee stability. Purpose/Hypothesis: There were 2 distinct purposes for this study: (1) to perform a quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the distal ITB's attachment sites and their relationships to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks, and (2) to quantify the biomechanical properties of the deep (Kaplan) fibers of the distal ITB. It was hypothesized that the distal ITB has definable parameters concerning its anatomic attachments and consistent relationships to surgically pertinent landmarks with correlating plain radiographic findings. In addition, it was hypothesized that the biomechanical properties of the Kaplan fibers would support their role as important restraints against internal rotation. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten nonpaired, fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees (mean age, 61.1 years; range, 54-65 years) were dissected for anatomic and radiographic purposes. A coordinate measuring device quantified the attachment areas of the distal ITB to the distal femur, patella, and proximal tibia and their relationships to pertinent bony landmarks. A radiographic analysis was performed by inserting pins into the attachment sites of relevant anatomic structures to assess their location relative to pertinent bony landmarks with fluoroscopic guidance. A further biomechanical assessment of 10 cadaveric knees quantified the load to failure and stiffness of the Kaplan fibers' insertion on the distal femur after a preconditioning protocol. Two separate deep (Kaplan) fiber bundles were identified with attachments to 2 newly identified femoral bony prominences

  9. Agrin mutations lead to a congenital myasthenic syndrome with distal muscle weakness and atrophy.

    PubMed

    Nicole, Sophie; Chaouch, Amina; Torbergsen, Torberg; Bauché, Stéphanie; de Bruyckere, Elodie; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Horn, Morten A; van Ghelue, Marijke; Løseth, Sissel; Issop, Yasmin; Cox, Daniel; Müller, Juliane S; Evangelista, Teresinha; Stålberg, Erik; Ioos, Christine; Barois, Annie; Brochier, Guy; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Hantaï, Daniel; Abicht, Angela; Dusl, Marina; Laval, Steven H; Griffin, Helen; Eymard, Bruno; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2014-09-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare diseases resulting from impaired neuromuscular transmission. Their clinical hallmark is fatigable muscle weakness associated with a decremental muscle response to repetitive nerve stimulation and frequently related to postsynaptic defects. Distal myopathies form another clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of primary muscle disorders where weakness and atrophy are restricted to distal muscles, at least initially. In both congenital myasthenic syndromes and distal myopathies, a significant number of patients remain genetically undiagnosed. Here, we report five patients from three unrelated families with a strikingly homogenous clinical entity combining congenital myasthenia with distal muscle weakness and atrophy reminiscent of a distal myopathy. MRI and neurophysiological studies were compatible with mild myopathy restricted to distal limb muscles, but decrement (up to 72%) in response to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation pointed towards a neuromuscular transmission defect. Post-exercise increment (up to 285%) was observed in the distal limb muscles in all cases suggesting presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of muscle end-plate regions showed synaptic remodelling with denervation-reinnervation events. We performed whole-exome sequencing in two kinships and Sanger sequencing in one isolated case and identified five new recessive mutations in the gene encoding agrin. This synaptic proteoglycan with critical function at the neuromuscular junction was previously found mutated in more typical forms of congenital myasthenic syndrome. In our patients, we found two missense mutations residing in the N-terminal agrin domain, which reduced acetylcholine receptors clustering activity of agrin in vitro. Our findings expand the spectrum of congenital myasthenic syndromes due to agrin mutations and show an unexpected

  10. Factors associated with infection following open distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Dane A; Charoglu, Constantine P; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2009-09-01

    Open fractures are often classified according to a system described by Gustilo and Anderson. However, this system was applied to open long bone fractures, which may not predict the incidence of infection in open metaphyseal fractures of the upper extremity. Other studies have found that wound contamination and systemic illness were the best predictors of infections in open hand fractures. Our study assessed infection in open distal radius fractures and identifies factors that are associated with these infections. We hypothesize that contamination, rather than absolute wound size, is the best predictor of infection associated with open distal radius fractures. A review by CPT code yielded 42 patients with open distal radius fractures between 1997 and 2002 treated at a level one trauma center. Medical records and radiographic follow-up were reviewed to assess the time to irrigation and debridement, the number of debridements in initial treatment period, the method of operative stabilization, the Gustilo and Anderson type of fracture, the Swanson type of fracture, and description of wound contamination. Forty-two patients were followed up for an average of 15 months (range 4 to 68 months). Twenty-four fractures were classified as Gustilo and Anderson type I, ten were type II, and eight were type III, 30 were Swanson type I, and 12 were Swanson type II. Five of the 42 fractures were considered contaminated. Two were exposed to fecal contamination. The others were contaminated with tar, dirt/grass, and gravel, respectively. Three of 42 (7%) fractures developed infections. All three infected cases received a single irrigation and debridement. Two of five contaminated fractures (40%) developed a polymicrobial infection. Both were exposed to fecal contamination and, therefore, considered Swanson type II fractures. They were classified as Gustilo and Anderson type II and IIIB based solely upon the size of the wound. Both required multiple debridements and eventually wrist

  11. Restrictive bare stent prevents distal stent graft-induced new entry in endovascular repair of type B aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Yin, Henghui; Chen, Yitian; Wang, Mian; Zheng, Liang; Li, Zilun; Chang, Guangqi

    2018-01-01

    Distal stent graft-induced new entry (SINE) can occur after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of type B aortic dissection. This study investigated the mechanism of distal SINE and its prevention using a restrictive bare stent (RBS) technique. From January 2013 to December 2014, 68 consecutive type B aortic dissection patients received endovascular repair at our center. The RBS technique was used with distal oversizing (between the diameter of the thoracic stent graft and the descending aorta true lumen diameter at the level of the intended distal edge of the thoracic stent graft) >20%. Twenty-three patients received TEVAR with a single thoracic stent graft (TEVAR group, n = 23); the rest received TEVAR combined with the RBS technique (TEVAR + RBS group, n = 45). Four distal SINEs occurred in the TEVAR group. Distal oversizing (69.7% ± 35.5% vs 31.2% ± 24.5%; P = .005) and expansion mismatch ratio (132.2% ± 16.9% vs 106.5% ± 11.6%; P < .05) were significantly higher in the SINE patients. Compared with standard TEVAR, TEVAR + RBS was associated with significantly lower distal oversizing (TEVAR vs TEVAR + RBS group, 59.8% ± 24.7% vs 16.7% ± 7.6%; P < .05), lower expansion mismatch ratio (113.8% ± 14.6% vs 103.8% ± 11.7%; P = .012), and lower distal SINE rate (4/23 [17.4%] vs 0/45 [0%]; P = .011). Compared with the TEVAR group, the false lumen was reduced significantly at the level of the RBS distal edge (P = .029). Excessive distal oversizing and distal expansion mismatch ratio may contribute to the occurrence of distal SINE. The RBS technique reduced the incidence of distal SINE. Based on our midterm and long-term observations, implantation of an RBS may improve aortic remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress fracture as a complication of autogenous bone graft harvest from the distal tibia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Loretta B; Mann, Roger A; Coughlin, Michael J; McPeake, William T; Mizel, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    Autogenous bone graft from the distal tibia provides cancellous bone graft for foot and ankle operations, and it has osteogenic and osteoconductive properties. The site is in close proximity to the foot and ankle, and published retrospective studies show low morbidity from the procedure. One-hundred autografts were obtained from the distal tibia between 2000 and 2003. In four cases the distal tibial bone graft harvest resulted in a stress fracture. There were three women and one man. The average time of diagnosis of the stress fracture from the operation was 1.8 months. All stress fractures healed with a short course (average 2.4 months) of cast immobilization. This study demonstrated that a stress fracture from the donor site of autogenous bone graft of the distal tibia occurs and can be successfully treated nonoperatively.

  13. Reliability of the pronator quadratus fat pad sign to predict the severity of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Loesaus, Julia; Wobbe, Isabel; Stahlberg, Erik; Barkhausen, Joerg; Goltz, Jan Peter

    2017-09-28

    To evaluate the reliability of pronator quadratus fat pad sign to detect distal radius fracture and to predict its severity. Retrospectively we identified 89 consecutive patients (41 female, mean age 49 ± 18 years) who had X-ray (CR) and computed tomography (CT) within 24 h following distal forearm trauma. Thickness of pronator quadratus fat pad complex (PQC) was measured using lateral views (CR) and sagittal reconstructions (CT). Pearson's test was used to determine the correlation of the PQC thickness in CR and CT. A positive pronator quadratus sign (PQS) was defined as a PQC > 8.0 mm (female) or > 9.0 mm (male). Frykman classification was utilized to assess the severity of fractures. Forty-four/89 patients (49%) had a distal radius fracture (Frykman I n = 3, II n = 0, III n = 10, IV n = 5, V n = 2, VI n = 2, VII n = 9, VIII n = 13). Mean thickness of the PQC thickness can reliably be measured on X-ray views and was 7.5 ± 2.8 mm in lateral views (CR), respectively 9.4 ± 3.0 mm in sagittal reconstructions (CT), resulting in a significant correlation coefficient of 0.795. A positive PQS at CR was present in 21/44 patients (48%) with distal radius fracture and in 2/45 patients (4%) without distal radius fracture, resulting in a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 48% for the detection of distal radius fractures. There was no correlation between thickness of the PQC and severity of distal radius fractures. A positive PQS shows high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of distal radius fractures. The PQC thickness cannot predict the severity of distal radius fractures.

  14. Reliability of the pronator quadratus fat pad sign to predict the severity of distal radius fractures

    PubMed Central

    Loesaus, Julia; Wobbe, Isabel; Stahlberg, Erik; Barkhausen, Joerg; Goltz, Jan Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the reliability of pronator quadratus fat pad sign to detect distal radius fracture and to predict its severity. METHODS Retrospectively we identified 89 consecutive patients (41 female, mean age 49 ± 18 years) who had X-ray (CR) and computed tomography (CT) within 24 h following distal forearm trauma. Thickness of pronator quadratus fat pad complex (PQC) was measured using lateral views (CR) and sagittal reconstructions (CT). Pearson’s test was used to determine the correlation of the PQC thickness in CR and CT. A positive pronator quadratus sign (PQS) was defined as a PQC > 8.0 mm (female) or > 9.0 mm (male). Frykman classification was utilized to assess the severity of fractures. RESULTS Forty-four/89 patients (49%) had a distal radius fracture (Frykman I n = 3, II n = 0, III n = 10, IV n = 5, V n = 2, VI n = 2, VII n = 9, VIII n = 13). Mean thickness of the PQC thickness can reliably be measured on X-ray views and was 7.5 ± 2.8 mm in lateral views (CR), respectively 9.4 ± 3.0 mm in sagittal reconstructions (CT), resulting in a significant correlation coefficient of 0.795. A positive PQS at CR was present in 21/44 patients (48%) with distal radius fracture and in 2/45 patients (4%) without distal radius fracture, resulting in a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 48% for the detection of distal radius fractures. There was no correlation between thickness of the PQC and severity of distal radius fractures. CONCLUSION A positive PQS shows high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of distal radius fractures. The PQC thickness cannot predict the severity of distal radius fractures. PMID:29098069

  15. The influence of distal screw length on the primary stability of volar plate osteosynthesis--a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Sebastian F; Synek, Alexander; Traxler, Hannes; Mutschler, Wolf; Pahr, Dieter; Chevalier, Yan

    2015-09-08

    Extensor tendon irritation is one of the most common complications following volar locking plate osteosynthesis (VLPO) for distal radius fractures. It is most likely caused by distal screws protruding the dorsal cortex. Shorter distal screws could avoid this, yet the influence of distal screw length on the primary stability in VLPO is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare 75 to 100% distal screw lengths in VLPO. A biomechanical study was conducted on 11 paired fresh-frozen radii. HRpQCT scans were performed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). The specimens were randomized pair-wise into two groups: 100% (group A) and 75% (group B) unicortical distal screw lengths. A validated fracture model for extra-articular distal radius fractures (AO-23 A3) was used. Polyaxial volar locking plates were mounted, and distal screws was inserted using a drill guide block. For group A, the distal screw tips were intended to be flush or just short of the dorsal cortex. In group B, a target screw length of 75% was calculated. The specimens were tested to failure using a displacement-controlled axial compression test. Primary biomechanical stability was assessed by stiffness, elastic limit, and maximum force as well as with residual tilt, which quantified plastic deformation. Nine specimens were tested successfully. BMD and BMC did not differ between the two groups. The mean distal screw length of group A was 21.7 ± 2.6 mm (range: 16 to 26 mm), for group B 16.9 ± 1.9 mm (range: 12 to 20 mm). Distal screws in group B were on average 5.6 ± 0.9 mm (range: 3 to 7 mm) shorter than measured. No significant differences were found for stiffness (706 ± 103 N/mm vs. 660 ± 124 N/mm), elastic limit (177 ± 25 N vs. 167 ± 36 N), maximum force (493 ± 139 N vs. 471 ± 149 N), or residual tilt (7.3° ± 0.7° vs. 7.1° ± 1.3°). The 75% distal screw length in VLPO provides similar primary stability to 100

  16. Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection for distal biceps tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Barker, Scott L; Bell, Simon N; Connell, David; Coghlan, Jennifer A

    2015-04-01

    Distal biceps tendinopathy is an uncommon cause of elbow pain. The optimum treatment for cases refractory to conservative treatment is unclear. Platelet-rich plasma has been used successfully for other tendinopathies around the elbow. Six patients with clinical and radiological evidence of distal biceps tendinopathy underwent ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. Clinical examination findings, visual analogue score (VAS) for pain and Mayo Elbow Performance scores were recorded. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 68.3 (range 65 to 85) (fair function) to 95 (range 85 to 100) (excellent function). The VAS at rest improved from a mean of 2.25 (range 2 to 5) pre-injection to 0. The VAS with movement improved from a mean of 7.25 (range 5 to 8) pre-injection to 1.3 (range 0 to 2). No complications were noted. Ultrasound-guided PRP injection appears to be a safe and effective treatment for recalcitrant cases of distal biceps tendinopathy. Further investigation with a randomized controlled trial is needed to fully assess its efficacy.

  17. Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection for distal biceps tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Simon N; Connell, David; Coghlan, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Background Distal biceps tendinopathy is an uncommon cause of elbow pain. The optimum treatment for cases refractory to conservative treatment is unclear. Platelet-rich plasma has been used successfully for other tendinopathies around the elbow. Methods Six patients with clinical and radiological evidence of distal biceps tendinopathy underwent ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. Clinical examination findings, visual analogue score (VAS) for pain and Mayo Elbow Performance scores were recorded. Results The Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 68.3 (range 65 to 85) (fair function) to 95 (range 85 to 100) (excellent function). The VAS at rest improved from a mean of 2.25 (range 2 to 5) pre-injection to 0. The VAS with movement improved from a mean of 7.25 (range 5 to 8) pre-injection to 1.3 (range 0 to 2). No complications were noted. Discussion Ultrasound-guided PRP injection appears to be a safe and effective treatment for recalcitrant cases of distal biceps tendinopathy. Further investigation with a randomized controlled trial is needed to fully assess its efficacy. PMID:27582965

  18. Prevalence of Distal Caries in Mandibular Second Molar Due to Impacted Third Molar

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Fatima Saeed; Alabsi, Wejdan Saad; Alqahtani, Zainab Ali; Hameed, Mohammad Shahul; Mustafa, Abdel Bagi; Alam, Tanveer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A tooth is said to be impacted if it does not reach the occlusal plane even after two-thirds root formation. The aetiology of impacted teeth is varied and multi-factorial. Significant problems associated with impacted teeth include trismus, infection, cervical caries of second molars. Aim This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of distal caries in second molar teeth due to impacted third molars and to compare with similar studies conducted elsewhere. Materials and Methods Study included assessment of patients reporting between 2009 to 2014 for dental care at College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study which included a total of 6000 Orthopantomograms (OPGs). The data collected was decoded and entered into excel spread sheet. Descriptive analysis of the data was done and results were displayed as frequency table and graphs. Results A total of 979 patients had impacted third molars (16.31%). A total of 39% patient’s with impacted third molars had distal cervical caries in second molar. Mesioangular impaction was the most prominent type. This was closely followed by horizontal impaction causing distal caries in second molars. Age group between 21-28 years and male gender had the higher prevalence of distal caries in second molar teeth due to impacted third molars. Conclusion A total of 39% of the patients with impacted mandibular third molars had distal cervical caries in second molars. Mesioangular type, male gender, age group 21-28 years were the prominent factors associated with distal caries in second molar teeth due to impacted third molars. PMID:28511504

  19. Measurement of Malrotation on Direct Radiography in Pediatric Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Komur, Baran; Mutlu, Harun; Yucel, Bulent; Parmaksizoglu, Atilla Sancar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this prospective study was to test a mathematical method of measuring the malrotation of pediatric distal radius fractures (PDRFs) from direct radiographs. A total of 70 pediatric patients who presented at the Emergency Department with a distal radius fracture were evaluated. For 38 selected patients conservative treatment for PDRF was planned. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken of all of the patients for comparison before and after reduction. Radius bone diameters were measured in the coronal and sagittal planes on the healthy and fractured sides. Using the diameter values on the healthy side and the new diameter values on the fractured side in the rotation formula, the degree of malrotation between the fracture ends was calculated. The mean follow-up period was 13.5 months. Patients’ mean age was 10.00 ± 3.19 years (range, 4–12 years). The rotation degree in the sagittal plane significantly differed between the proximal (26.52°±2.84°) and distal fracture ends (20.96°±2.73°) (P = 0.001). The rotation degree in the coronal plane significantly differed between the proximal (26.70°±2.38°) and distal fracture ends (20.26°±2.86°) (P = 0.001). The net rotation deformity of the fracture line was determined to be 5.55°± 3.54° on lateral radiographs and 5.44°± 3.35° on anteroposterior radiographs, no significant difference was observed between measurements (P >0.05). The malrotation deformity in PDRF occurs with greater rotation in the proximal fragment than in the distal fragment. The net rotation deformity created between the fracture ends can be calculated on direct radiographs. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic, Level II PMID:27149480

  20. Hepatic radiation injury mimicking metastasis in distal esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Demey, Karel; Van Veer, Hans; Nafteux, Philippe; Deroose, Christophe M; Haustermans, Karin; Coolen, Johan; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Coosemans, Willy; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2017-08-01

    A new hypermetabolic lesion on 18 FDG-PET/CT after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal esophageal cancer can be a hepatic metastasis and should be examined carefully before esophagectomy. We present a case of acute and nodular radiation-induced injury of the left liver after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal esophageal cancer, which resembles a hepatic metastasis on 18 FDG-PET/CT. Acute and nodular radiation hepatitis (RH) can be a potential cause of false-positive findings of malignancy and therefore exclude patients who could benefit from esophagectomy. 18 FDG-PET/CT images should therefore carefully be interpreted and compared with the radiation beams, dose distribution and eventually clarified by DW-MR imaging.

  1. Effects of zygoma-gear appliance for unilateral maxillary molar distalization: A prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal effects of the zygoma-gear appliance used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization in patients with Class II subdivision malocclusion. This prospective clinical study consisted of 21 patients (9 boys, 12 girls; mean age, 15.68 ± 2.18 years) with unilateral Class II malocclusion treated using the unilateral zygoma-gear appliance supported by a zygomatic miniplate inserted on the Class II malocclusion side. The dentoskeletal effects of the system were evaluated using cephalometric lateral and panoramic films with a paired t test. The mean amount of distalization for the maxillary first molar was found to be 5.31 ± 2.46 mm (P <0.001) in 0.45 ± 0.12 years, showing an amount of 0.98 mm of distalization per month. It was also accompanied by a slight intrusion (0.76 ± 2.85 mm; P >0.05) and distal tipping (6.39° ± 5.39°; P <0.001) of the maxillary molars. The maxillary premolar also spontaneously moved distally 1.63 ± 1.90 mm (P <0.01) with distal tipping (4.05° ± 3.47°; P <0.001). Moreover, the inclination of the maxillary incisors and overjet were decreased (-1.59° ± 1.45°, P <0.001; and -0.29 ± 0.63 mm, P <0.05; respectively) showing no anchorage loss. No statistically significant changes were found for the skeletal and soft tissue measurements (P >0.05). The zygoma-gear appliance system is an effective method for unilateral maxillary molar distalization. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment efficiency of mini-implant-borne distalization depending on age and second-molar eruption.

    PubMed

    Nienkemper, M; Wilmes, B; Pauls, A; Yamaguchi, S; Ludwig, B; Drescher, D

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of molar distalization depending on age and second-molar eruption using the Beneslider. Treatment of 51 patients (mean age 17.8 ± 9.6 years) was investigated retrospectively by means of pre- and posttreatment cephalograms. Patients were divided into three groups: 14 children with unerupted upper second molars (group 1), 23 adolescents with second molar in place (group 2), and 14 adults (group 3). The distalization forces applied were 2.4 N in group 1 and 5.0 N in groups 2 and 3. Treatment changes were evaluated and examined statistically for significant differences. In all patients a Class I molar relationship was achieved. All mini-implants remained stable during treatment. Mean distalization distance as measured by the displacement of the center of resistance was 3.6 ± 1.9 mm (range 1.2-8.5 mm depending on treatment needs). Since no significant tipping was detected, the type of movement can be described as bodily movement. Mean overall distalization speed was 0.6 ± 0.4 mm per month. There were no statistical differences between the groups. We found the Beneslider to be an effective appliance that enables bodily distalization in adequate treatment time. The higher resistance due to erupted second molars can be compensated by the use of higher forces without significantly reducing distalization speed.

  3. DO PROXIMAL AND DISTAL GASTRIC TUMOURS BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY?

    PubMed Central

    da COSTA, Laurence Bedin; TONETO, Marcelo Garcia; MOREIRA, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although the incidence of gastric (adenocarcinoma) cancer has been decreasing over time, it is still one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and proximal tumours tend to have a worse prognosis. Aim: To compare surgical outcomes and prognosis between proximal - excluding tumours of the cardia - and distal gastric cancer. Methods: Out of 293 cases reviewed - 209 with distal and 69 with proximal gastric cancer - were compared for clinical and pathological features, stage, surgical outcome, mortality and survival. Results: Statistically, there was no significant difference between patients in both groups regarding mortality (p=0.661), adjuvant chemotherapy (p 0.661), and radiation (p=1.000). However, there was significant difference in the degree of lymph node dissection employed (p=0.002) and the number of positive lymph nodes resected (p=0.038) between the two groups. The odds of death at five years for patients who had a D0 dissection was three times greater (odds ratio 2.78; (95%CI 1.33-5.82) than that for patients who had a D2 dissection, while for patients who had a D1 dissection the odds ratio was only 1.41 (95%CI 0.71-2.83) compared to D2-dissected patients. Conclusion: Although no significant differences were found between proximal and distal gastric cancer, the increased risk of death in D0- and D1-dissected patients clearly suggests an important role of radical D2 lymph node dissection in survival. PMID:28076476

  4. Management of a Complex, Multioperated Intra-Articular Distal Radius Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Giwa, Lolade; Spacey, Kate; Packer, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Intra-articular distal radius fractures can have many complications, including radiocarpal osteoarthritis and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dysfunction leading to pain and restricted wrist function. Case Description We describe the case of a 38-year-old patient who sustained a left distal radius intra-articular fracture, which was treated with volar plating. She developed pain from the radiocarpal joint as a result of intra-articular malunion and was listed for total wrist fusion. On the day of surgery this was converted to a Darrach procedure for minor DRUJ symptoms. This resulted in pain from the DRUJ as a result of instability, in addition to persisting radiocarpal arthritis pain. Due to her subsequent poor wrist function, she presented to the authors and underwent DRUJ arthroplasty with a proximally placed Scheker prosthesis to deal with her DRUJ symptoms and, later, a KinematX radiocarpal hemiarthroplasty for her radiocarpal symptoms. She remains happy with her outcome at 36-month follow-up. Literature Review The complications of the Darrach procedure include painful radioulnar convergence and wrist instability. The Scheker prosthesis allows restoration of stability of the DRUJ with good outcomes and 100% 5-year survival in one series. Sparing the midcarpal joint, the KinematX hemiarthroplasty allows preservation of the dart thrower's motion arc, which is key in many complex wrist movements and functions. Clinical Relevance This case highlights the negative consequences of distal ulna resection and shows both the Scheker and KinematX prostheses as viable, effective means to restore function to young, active patients with posttraumatic radiocarpal arthritis and/or instability. PMID:26261743

  5. Distal 22q11.2 microduplication encompassing the BCR gene.

    PubMed

    Descartes, Maria; Franklin, Judy; Diaz de Ståhl, Teresita; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Bruder, Carl E G; Dumanski, Jan P; Carroll, Andrew J; Mikhail, Fady M

    2008-12-01

    Chromosome 22 band q11.2 has been recognized to be highly susceptible to subtle microdeletions and microduplications, which have been attributed to the presence of several large segmental duplications; also known as low copy repeats (LCRs). These LCRs function as mediators of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR), which results in these chromosomal rearrangements as a result of unequal crossover. The four centromeric LCRs at proximal 22q11.2 have been previously implicated in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements including the DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome (DG/VCFs) microdeletion and its reciprocal microduplication. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that the four telomeric LCRs at distal 22q11.2 are causally implicated in a newly recognized recurrent distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome in the region immediately telomeric to the DG/VCFs typically deleted region. Here we report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and array CGH studies of a 4.5-year-old girl with history of failure to thrive, developmental delay (DD), and relative macrocephaly. She carries a paternally inherited approximately 2.1 Mb microduplication at distal 22q11.2, which spans approximately 34 annotated genes, and is flanked by two of the four telomeric 22q11.2 LCRs. We conclude that the four telomeric LCRs at distal 22q11.2 can mediate both deletions and duplications in this genomic region. Both deletions and duplication of this region present with subtle clinical features including mild to moderate mental retardation, DD, and mild dysmorphic features. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Chiu, Yen-Chun; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion and aimed to analyze the clinical results. We retrospective reviewed 12 consecutive patients with recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion undergoing our three-stage treatment protocol from January 2010 to December 2014 in our institute. The three-stage treatment protocol comprised debridement of the nonunion site, lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy, deformity correction, stabilization with a locked plate, filling of the defect with cement spacer for inducing membrane formation, and bone reconstruction using a cancellous bone autograft (Masquelet technique) or free vascularized fibular bone graft. The bone union time, wound complication, lower limbs alignment, amount of lengthening, knee range of motion, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Osseous union with angular deformity <5° and leg length discrepancy <1 cm were achieved in all the patients. The average amount of lengthening was 5.88 cm (range 3.5-12 cm). Excellent or good outcomes were obtained in 9 patients. Although the current study involved only a small number of patients and the intervention comprised three stages, we believe that such a protocol may be a valuable alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

  7. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73.

  8. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient’s compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  9. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S Rama Koteswara; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation.

  10. Distal biceps reconstruction using an Achilles tendon allograft, transosseous EndoButton, and Pulvertaft weave with tendon wrap technique for retracted, irreparable distal biceps ruptures.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Flannery, Olivia; Watts, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    Distal biceps ruptures can result in ongoing pain and weakness when treated nonoperatively. If retraction of the tendon renders primary repair impossible, reconstruction using a graft is recommended. The current literature includes a variety of techniques with studies reporting small patient numbers. The aim of this study was to report the results of a larger cohort of patients using a technique modified from those previously described in the literature. Twenty-one consecutive male patients underwent distal biceps reconstruction through 2 small anterior incisions using an Achilles tendon allograft that was fixed distally using a transosseous EndoButton and secured proximally using a Pulvertaft weave and tendon wrap. The mean age was 44 years, and the mean time to surgery was 25 months (range, 2-96 months). Functional outcomes were collected prospectively. The mean preoperative Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score (11 patients) was 1.9 (range, 0-4.5). The mean postoperative Oxford Elbow Score, QuickDASH score, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score were 44.7 (range, 35-48), 4 (range, 0-20.5), and 92.9 (range, 70-100), respectively, at a mean follow up of 15 months (range, 6-35 months). The mean postoperative QuickDASH score was significantly improved compared with preoperatively (P < .001). All patients were satisfied and all returned to their previous level of activity. There were 2 transient lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve paresthesias, and 2 patients had a 5° extension lag. There were no other complications. Achilles allograft reconstruction of retracted irreparable distal biceps ruptures provides consistently good results with few complications using this technique. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distal Regeneration Involves the Age Dependent Activity of Branchial Sac Stem Cells in the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, William R

    2015-02-01

    Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis . Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal-distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age-related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration.

  12. Toward an integrated genetic model for vent-distal SEDEX deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, D. F.

    2018-04-01

    Although genetic models have been proposed for vent-proximal SEDEX deposits, an equivalent model for vent-distal deposits has not yet appeared. In view of this, it is the object of this paper to present a preliminary integrated vent-distal genetic model through exploration of four major components: (i) nature of the ore-forming fluid, (ii) role of density of the unconsolidated host sediments, (iii) dynamics of sulfate reduction and (iv) depositional environment. Two sub-groups of SEDEX Pb-Zn deposits, vent-proximal and vent-distal, are widely recognized today. Of the two, the latter is by far the largest in terms of metal content with each of the 13 largest containing in excess of 7.5 M (Zn+Pb) metal. In contrast, only one vent-proximal deposit (Sullivan) falls within this size range. Vent-proximal deposits are characteristically underlain by local networks of sulfide-filled veins (commonly regarded as feeder veins) surrounded by a discordant complex of host rock alteration. These attributes are missing in vent-distal deposits, which has led to the widespread view that vent-distal ore-forming fluids have migrated unknown distances away from their vent sites. Because of the characteristic fine grain size of ore minerals, critical fluid inclusion data are lacking for vent-distal ore-stage sulfides. Consequently, hypothetical fluids such as those which formed MVT deposits (120 °C, 20% NaCl equiv.) are considered to represent vent-distal fluids as well. Such high-salinity fluids are capable of carrying significant concentrations of Pb and Zn as chloride complexes while the relatively low temperatures preclude high Cu contents. Densities of such metalliferous brines result in bottom-hugging fluids that collect in shallow saucer-shaped depressions (collector basins). Lateral metal zoning in several deposits reveals the direction from which the brines came. Relative densities of the ore-forming fluid and sediment determine whether the ore-forming fluid stabilizes on top

  13. Distal Predominance of Electrodiagnostic Abnormalities in Early Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shayya, Luay; Babu, Suma; Pioro, Erik P; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yuebing

    2018-05-09

    We compare the electrodiagnostic (EDX) yield of limb muscles in revealing lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction by electromyography (EMG) in early stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Single-site retrospective review Results: This study includes 122 consecutive patients with possible ALS as defined by revised El Escorial Criteria. Distal limb muscles show more frequent EMG abnormalities than proximal muscles. EDX yield is higher in the limb where weakness begins and when clinical signs of LMN dysfunction are evident. Adoption of Awaji criteria increases the yield of EMG positive segments significantly in the cervical (p<0.0005) and lumbosacral regions (P<0.0001), and upgrades 19 patients into probable and 1 patient into definite categories. Electromyographic abnormalities are distal limb-predominant in early stage ALS. A redefinition of an EDX-positive cervical or lumbosacral segment, with an emphasis on distal limb muscles, may result in an earlier ALS diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The correlation of initial radiographic characteristics of distal radius fractures and injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    PubMed

    Kasapinova, K; Kamiloski, V

    2016-06-01

    Our purpose was to determine the correlation of initial radiographic parameters of a distal radius fracture with an injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. In a prospective study, 85 patients with surgically treated distal radius fractures were included. Wrist arthroscopy was used to identify and classify triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions. The initial radial length and angulation, dorsal angulation, ulnar variance and distal radioulnar distance were measured. Wrist arthroscopy identified a triangular fibrocartilage complex lesion in 45 patients. Statistical analysis did not identify a correlation with any single radiographic parameter of the distal radius fractures with the associated triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. The initial radiograph of a distal radius fracture does not predict a triangular fibrocartilage complex injury. III. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of distal radius strength in cadaver material.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Sukegawa, Koji; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Distal radius fracture, which often occurs in the setting of osteoporosis, can lead to permanent deformity and disability. Great effort has been directed toward developing noninvasive methods for evaluating the distal radius strength, with the goal of assessing fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate distal radius strength using a finite element model and to gauge the accuracy of finite element model measurement using cadaver material. Ten wrists were obtained from cadavers with a mean age of 89.5 years at death. CT images of each wrist in an extended position were obtained. CT-based finite element models were prepared with Mechanical Finder software. Fracture on the models was simulated by applying a mechanical load to the palm in a direction parallel to the forearm axis, after which the fracture load and the site at which the fracture began were identified. For comparison, the wrists were fractured using a universal testing machine and the fracture load and the site of fracture were identified. The fracture load was 970.9 N in the finite element model group and 990.0 N in the actual measurement group. The site of the initial fracture was extra-articular to the distal radius in both groups. The finite element model was predictive for distal radius fracture when compared to the actual measurement. In this study, a finite element model for evaluation of distal radius strength was validated and can be used to predict fracture risk. We conclude that a finite element model is useful for the evaluation of distal radius strength. Knowing distal radius strength might avoid distal radius fracture because appropriate antiosteoporotic treatment can be initiated.

  16. Impairment of the proximal to distal tonic gradient in the human diabetic stomach.

    PubMed

    Min, Y W; Hong, Y S; Ko, E-J; Lee, J Y; Min, B-H; Sohn, T S; Kim, J J; Rhee, P-L

    2014-02-01

    Little has been known about the contractile characteristics of diabetic stomach. We investigated spontaneous contractions and responses to acetylcholine in the gastric muscle in diabetic patients and non-diabetic control subjects according to the region of stomach. Gastric specimens were obtained from 26 diabetics and 55 controls who underwent gastrectomy at Samsung Medical Center between February 2008 and November 2011. Isometric force measurements were performed using circular muscle strips from the different regions of stomach under basal condition and in response to acetylcholine. Basal tone of control was higher in the proximal stomach than in the distal (0.63 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.027). However, in diabetics, basal tone was not significantly different between the proximal and distal stomach (0.75 g vs 0.62 g, p = 0.32). The distal stomach of diabetics had higher basal tone and lower frequency than that of control (0.62 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.049 and 4.0/min vs 4.9/min, p = 0.049, respectively). After exposure to acetylcholine, dose-dependent increases of basal tone, peak, and area under the curve (AUC) were noticed in both proximal and distal stomach of the two groups. In the proximal stomach, however, the dose-dependent increase of basal tone and AUC was less prominent in diabetics than in control. On the contrary to control, the proximal to distal tonic gradient was not observed in diabetic stomach. Diabetic stomach also had lower frequency of spontaneous contraction in the distal stomach and less acetylcholine-induced positive inotropic effect in the proximal stomach than control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist: traumatic versus cumulative stress cases.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Anthony; Chadd, Edmund

    2007-04-01

    To identify clinical and electromyographic characteristics of ulnar neuropathy at or below the wrist, comparing those caused by unitary trauma with those caused by suspected cumulative stress. Retrospective case series. University hospital electromyography laboratory. Patients with electrodiagnostic evidence of an ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist over a 3-year period. Forty-seven hands from 42 patients (age range, 20-80y; mean, 52y) were identified and evaluated in this study. Record review of clinical history, physical examination, electromyography, and treatment. Etiology of injury, physical signs and symptoms, and electromyographic testing results. Ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist is commonly mischaracterized because of other mononeuropathies in the upper extremity and because of peripheral polyneuropathy. Ulnar neuropathy because of cumulative stress presents typically with sensory symptoms (63%) and a normal examination (71%), whereas trauma cases present with motor with or without sensory symptoms (92%) with motor abnormalities (92%) confirmed on examination. Traumatic cases are characterized by electromyography by decreased sensory and motor-evoked amplitudes, prolonged motor distal latencies, and abnormal needle examination. The amplitude changes are noted comparing with laboratory norms and comparing side to side. No characteristic pattern of abnormalities on electromyography is noted in the cumulative stress cases. Patients with no motor symptoms, regardless of etiology, are more apt to have sensory distal latency prolongation, whereas those with motor symptoms have motor amplitude and needle examination abnormalities. Traumatic ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist is characterized by motor symptoms and sensory and motor axonal loss by electromyography, whereas cumulative stress cases have sensory symptoms and electromyographic findings that are highly variable and noncharacteristic. Patients with no motor symptoms are more apt

  18. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis with locking compression plate for distal diametaphyseal tibia fracture.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; Acharya, B M; Shrestha, P M

    2011-01-01

    Distal diametaphyseal tibia fracture though requires operative treatment is difficult to manage. Conventional osteosynthesis is not suitable because distal tibia is subcutaneous bone with poor vascularity. Closed reduction and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with locking compression plate (LCP) has emerged as an alternative treatment option because it respects biology of distal tibia and fracture hematoma and also provides biomechanicaly stable construct. To find out suitability of MIPO with LCP for distal diametaphyseal tibia fracture including union time and complicatios and compare wih other available management options in literature. Twenty patients with closed distal diametaphyseal tibia fracture with or without intra articular extension (AO classification: 12 type 43A1, 4 type 43A2, 2 type 43A3 and 2 type 43B1) treated with MIPO with LCP were prospectively followed for average duration of 18.45 months (range 5-30 months). Average duration of injury-hospital and injury-surgery interval was 12.8 hrs (range 2-44 hrs) and 4.45 days (range 1-10 days) respectively. All fractures got united with an average duration of 18.5 weeks (range14-28weeks) except one case of delayed union which was managed with percutaneous bone marrow injection. Two patients had union with valgus angulation less than 5 degees but no nonunion was found. There were two superficial and one deep post operative wound infection. All infections healed with extended period of intravenous antibiotics besides repeated debridemet for deep infection. Implants were removed in eight patients among whom six (30%) had malleolar skin irritation and pain due to prominent hardware. The present case series shows that MIPO with LCP is an effective treatment method in terms of union time and complications rate for distal diametaphyseal tibia fracture. Malleolar skin irritation is common problem because of prominent hardware.

  19. Acute distal biceps tendon rupture--a new surgical technique using a de-tensioning suture to brachialis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C J; Bansal, R; Pimpalnerkar, A

    2006-09-01

    Acute distal biceps rupture is a devastating injury in the young athlete and surgical repair offers the only chance of a full recovery. We report a new surgical technique used in 14 cases of acute distal tendon rupture in which the 'suture anchor technique' and a de-tensioning suture was employed. In this procedure the distal end of the biceps is re-attached to the radial tuberosity using a sliding whip stitch suture and the proximal part of the distal tendon repair attached to the underlying brachialis muscle with absorbable sutures. This restores correct anatomical alignment and isometric pull on the distal tendon and de-tensions the repair in the early post-operative period, allowing early rehabilitation and an early return to activity. In all cases patients regained a full pre-injury level of sporting activity at a mean period of 6.2 months (2-9 months).

  20. Foreskin reconstruction vs circumcision in distal hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Rampersad, Rajay; Nyo, Yoke Lin; Hutson, John; O'Brien, Mike; Heloury, Yves

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if there were differences in the complication rates between foreskin reconstruction (FR) and circumcision (CIRC) in distal hypospadias repairs. The primary outcomes were urethrocutaneous fistula (UF) and dehiscence. The data of distal hypospadias operated between 2005 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were any distal hypospadias repair that required an urethroplasty. The exclusion criteria were follow-up <1 year, redo procedures, chordee greater than 20°, and incomplete data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed on the results. 213 patients were included (95 FR and 118 CIRC). The 2 groups were comparable for age at surgery 19.32 months in FR and 14.25 months in CIRC. Mathieu repair was more common in FR (47/95-49.47%) than in CIRC (45/118-38.14%). The total subsequent procedures required were 23 in FR and 57 in CIRC. The incidence of UF was 6.3% (6/95) in FR and 27.1% (32/118) in CIRC (p < 0.001, OR 5.52, 95% CI 2.2-13.9). Complete dehiscence rates were 3.16% (3/95) FR vs 11.02% (13/118) for CIRC (p = 0.037, OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.05-13.74). The incidence of patients requiring reoperation was 18.9% (18/95) in FR versus 45.8% (54/118) in CIRC (p < 0.001, OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.93-6.76). Foreskin Reconstruction conferred a significantly lower rate of complications, particularly the UF rate, dehiscence rate, and number of patients that required reoperation. Our rate of complications in the CIRC group is much higher than other published data.

  1. A simplified technique for a totally diverting transverse loop colostomy and distal irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rose, D; Koniges, F; Frazier, T G

    1985-12-01

    This technique of totally diverting loop colostomy may be performed as an independent procedure or with exploratory laparotomy and surgical treatment on the distal part of the colon. Either a transverse or sigmoid loop colostomy can be used for diversion without the risk of fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity, particularly when working with unprepared intestine. When distal irrigation is desired to purge the intestine of fecal material, either intraoperatively or as part of a subsequent intestinal preparation, it can easily be accomplished by placing an irrigating catheter distal to the staple line. In addition, the use of a small rubber suspension bar facilitates application of standard colostomy appliances for the stoma.

  2. Construal level and free will beliefs shape perceptions of actors' proximal and distal intent

    PubMed Central

    Plaks, Jason E.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Two components of lay observers' calculus of moral judgment are proximal intent (the actor's mind is focused on performing the action) and distal intent (the actor's mind is focused on the broader goal). What causes observers to prioritize one form of intent over the other? The authors observed whether construal level (Studies 1–2) and beliefs about free will (Studies 3–4) would influence participants' sensitivity to the actor's proximal vs. distal intent. In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's proximal and distal intent were independently manipulated. In Study 1, when only distal intent was present in the actor's mind, participants rated the psychologically distant actor more responsible than the psychologically near actor. In Study 2, when only distal intent was in the actor's mind, participants with a chronic high level of action identification rated the actor more responsible than did those with a low level of action identification. In both studies, when only proximal intent was in the actor's mind, construal level did not predict judgments of responsibility. In Study 3, when only proximal intent was present in the actor's mind, the more participants believed in free will, the more they rated the actor responsible. When only distal intent was in the actor's mind, free will belief did not influence ratings of responsibility. In Study 4, the same pattern emerged when free will/determinism beliefs were manipulated and the actor performed a positive (life-saving) act. The authors discuss how these results shed new light on the literatures on moral reasoning and psycho-legal theory. PMID:26106352

  3. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  4. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S.Rama Koteswara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Materials and Methods Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. Results The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. Conclusion K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation. PMID:27504403

  5. Effects of butyrate on active sodium and chloride transport in rat and rabbit distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, S; Ramakrishna, B S

    2002-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, stimulate electroneutral NaCl absorption from the colon. Their effect in colonic epithelia lacking basal electroneutral NaCl absorption is unknown. Butyrate is also reported to inhibit active Cl− secretion in the colon. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the inter-relationships between the effects of butyrate on active Na+ and Cl− transport in the colon. Studies were carried out in rabbit distal colon (known to have predominant electrogenic Na+ absorption), rat distal colon (characterised by electroneutral Na+ absorption), and hyperaldosteronaemic rat distal colon (characterised by electrogenic Na+ absorption). The effect of cholera toxin (CT) was also noted. Potential difference, short-circuit current (ISC) and fluxes of Na+ and Cl− were measured in stripped mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Butyrate stimulated electroneutral Na+ and Cl− absorption in distal colon of normal and salt-depleted rats, and stimulated Na+ absorption in rabbit distal colon. Amiloride (10−4m) or CT did not inhibit this process. In rabbit distal colon, stimulation of Na+ absorption by butyrate was not dependent on the presence of Cl− in the medium. Butyrate significantly decreased conductance, decreased flux of sodium from serosa to mucosa (particularly in rabbit distal colon), and decreased ISC. Net Cl− secretion, induced by CT, was completely inhibited by butyrate. Stimulation of Na+ absorption was independent of exposure to CT. Bumetanide reversed net Cl− secretion to net absorption, but did not alter Na+ or Cl− fluxes in tissues exposed to butyrate. Thus butyrate stimulates active Na+ absorption in colonic epithelia, with or without expression of basal Na+-H+ exchange. Independently, butyrate inhibits active Cl− secretion induced by cAMP in these epithelia. PMID:11850510

  6. [Fractures of the distal forearm. Which therapy is indicated when?].

    PubMed

    Brug, E; Joosten, U; Püllen, M

    2000-04-01

    Every 15th case of a bone fracture in patients aged more than 65 years concerns the distal radius in Germany. This means the second rank of all geriatric fractures following fractures of the hip. According to the approved and increased apply of operative stabilisation there are arising more and more reports upon poor results of nonsurgical treatment. Especially in older patients the main reason for the discontented outcome of conservative management is osteoporosis, which is an affirmative circumstance for the genesis of fracture but also for secondary mal-aligment of comminuted thin cortical walls and crushed porotic cancellous bone. The rational of this perception is either filling artificial bonelike tissue--avoiding the need of harvest cancellous bone graft from a second surgical site--into the resultant cavity following reduction, or supplementary trans-styloidal or intrafocal K-wiring until remodeling is obtained within an average of 10 weeks. Both arrangements should be secured in addition with a trans-articular external fixation. According to a literature review and our own experiences of 92 follow up cases of distal radius fractures in patients who were older than 65 years this procedure seems to be superior at present for A-2, A-3 and most cases of type-C fractures of the distal radius, despite the disadvantage of joint immobilisation for about 5 weeks. Type B-fractures, however, should be provided better with an internal fixation. Sudeck's algodystrophia is the mostly serious complication of the distal radius fracture and its treatment in older patients. Recognising punctually neurovegetative stimulated patients, treat them cautiously and coming in on their special situation is usually the best way to reduce this risk. To pay attention to the topography of the nerves during the application of the pins and to act at the first signs of complications immediately is also very important. We examined 92 patients who were older than 65 years with a fracture of

  7. Comparative evaluation of molar distalization therapy with erupted second molar: Segmented versus Quad Pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    There are controversial opinions about the effect of erupted second molars on distalization of the first molars. Most of the distalizing devices are anchored on the first molars, without including second molars; so, differences between sequentially distalize maxillary molars (second molar followed by the first molar) or distalize second and first molars together are not clear. The aim of the study was to compare sequential versus simultaneous molar distalization therapy with erupted second molar using two different modified Pendulum appliances followed by fixed appliances. The treatment sample consisted of 35 class II malocclusion subjects, divided in two groups: group 1 consisted of 24 patients (13 males and 11 females) with a mean pre-treatment age of 12.9 years, treated with the Segmented Pendulum (SP) and fixed appliances; group 2 consisted of 11 patients (6 males and 5 females) with a mean pre-treatment age of 13.2 years, treated with the Quad Pendulum (QP) and fixed appliances. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T1), at the end of distalization (T2), and at the end of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy (T3). A Student t test was used to identify significant between-group differences between T1 to T2, T2 to T3, and T1 to T3. QP and SP were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (3.5 and 4 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molar showed less distal tipping (4.6° vs. 9.6°) and more extrusion (1.1 vs. 0.2 mm) in the QP group than in the SP group, as well as the vertical facial dimension, which increased more in the QP group (1.2°) than in the SP group (0.7°). At T3, the QP group maintained greater increase in lower anterior facial height and molar extrusion and decrease in overbite than the SP group. Quad Pendulum seems to have greater increase in vertical dimension and molar extrusion than the Segmented Pendulum.

  8. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: results of a prospective non-randomized study from a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Palanivelu, C; Shetty, R; Jani, K; Sendhilkumar, K; Rajan, P S; Maheshkumar, G S

    2007-03-01

    Though laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for benign conditions was first described in the early 1990s, it has not become as popular as other laparoscopic surgeries. Published literature on this topic consists of several case reports and a handful of small series. We present our experience, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the largest series reported to date. Since 1998, 22 patients have undergone distal pancreatectomy at our institute. The technique of distal pancreatosplenectomy, as well as spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, is described. Four males and 18 females in the age range of 12-69 years underwent operation. Splenic preservation was possible in 7 patients. The tumor diameter ranged from 2.1 cm to 7.4 cm. The mean operating time was 215 min. The mean length of incision required for specimen retrieval was 3.4 cm. All patients were started on a liquid diet on the first postoperative day. The median hospital stay was 4 days. One patient developed a pancreatic fistula that was managed conservatively. At the end of an average follow-up of 4.6 years, no recurrence has been reported. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is a safe procedure, with minimal morbidity, rapid recovery, and short hospital stay. In appropriate cases, splenic preservation is feasible.

  9. Meat consumption and the risk of incident distal colon and rectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, L M; Sinha, R; Huang, W-Y; Berndt, S I; Katki, H A; Schoen, R E; Hayes, R B; Cross, A J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most studies of meat and colorectal adenoma have investigated prevalent events from a single screening, thus limiting our understanding of the role of meat and meat-related exposures in early colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Among participants in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial who underwent baseline and follow-up sigmoidoscopy (n=17 072), we identified 1008 individuals with incident distal colorectal adenoma. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations between meat and meat-related components and incident distal colorectal adenoma using multivariate logistic regression. Results: We observed suggestive positive associations for red meat, processed meat, haeme iron, and nitrate/nitrite with distal colorectal adenoma. Grilled meat (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.04–2.36), well or very well-done meat (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.05–2.43), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.17–2.64), benzo[a]pyrene (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.06–2.20), and total mutagenic activity (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03–2.40) were positively associated with rectal adenoma. Total iron (diet and supplements) (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.56–0.86) and iron from supplements (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.44–0.97) were inversely associated with any distal colorectal adenoma. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that several meat-related components may be most relevant to early neoplasia in the rectum. In contrast, total iron and iron from supplements were inversely associated with any distal colorectal adenoma. PMID:22166801

  10. Locking plate fixation in distal metaphyseal tibial fractures: series of 79 patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Sangwan, Kapil; Singh, Vijendra; Walia, Saurav

    2010-12-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation in distal tibial fractures jeopardises fracture fragment vascularity and often results in soft tissue complications. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis, if possible, offers the best possible option as it permits adequate fixation in a biological manner. Seventy-nine consecutive adult patients with distal tibial fractures, including one patient with a bilateral fracture of the distal tibia, treated with locking plates, were retrospectively reviewed. The 4.5-mm limited-contact locking compression plate (LC-LCP) was used in 33 fractures, the metaphyseal LCP in 27 fractures and the distal medial tibial LCP in the remaining 20 fractures. Fibula fixation was performed in the majority of comminuted fractures (n = 41) to maintain the second column of the ankle so as to achieve indirect reduction and to prevent collapse of the fracture. There were two cases of delayed wound breakdown in fractures fixed with the 4.5-mm LC-LCP. Five patients required primary bone grafting and three patients required secondary bone grafting. All cases of delayed union (n = 7) and nonunion (n = 3) were observed in cases where plates were used in bridge mode. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with LCP was observed to be a reliable method of stabilisation for these fractures. Peri-operative docking of fracture ends may be a good option in severely impacted fractures with gap. The precontoured distal medial tibial LCP was observed to be a better tolerated implant in comparison to the 4.5-mm LC-LCP or metaphyseal LCP with respect to complications of soft tissues, bone healing and functional outcome, though its contour needs to be modified.

  11. Ontogenetic anatomy of the distal vagina: relevance for local tumor spread and implications for cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Höckel, Michael; Horn, Lars-Christian; Illig, Romana; Dornhöfer, Nadja; Fritsch, Helga

    2011-08-01

    We have suggested to base cancer surgery on ontogenetic anatomy and the compartment theory of tumor permeation in order to improve local tumor control and to lower treatment-related morbidity. Following the validation of this concept for the uterine cervix, proximal vagina and vulva, this study explores its applicability for the distal vagina. Serial transverse sections of female embryos and fetuses aged 8-17 weeks were assessed for the morphological changes in the region defined by the deep urogenital sinus-vaginal plate complex. Histopathological pattern analysis of local tumor spread was performed with carcinomas of the lower genital tract involving the distal vagina to test the compartment theory. Ontogenetically, the female urethra, urethrovaginal septum, distal vagina and rectovaginal septum represent a morphogenetic unit derived from the deep urogenital sinus-vaginal plate complex. Herein, the posterior urethra, the urethrovaginal septum and the distal vagina form a distinct subcompartment differentiated from the dorsal wall of the urogenital sinus. From 150 consecutive patients with distal vaginectomy as part of their surgical treatment 26 carcinomas of the lower genital tract had infiltrated the distal vagina. All 22 tumors involving the ventral wall invaded the urethra/periurethral tissue. Of the five carcinomas involving the dorsal wall none invaded the rectum/mesorectum. The pattern of local tumor permeation of lower genital tract cancer in the distal vagina can be consistently explained with ontogenetic anatomy and the compartment theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER DISTAL BICEPS BRACHII REPAIR: A CASE SERIES.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Christine L; Morris, Tim; Otto, Charissa; Zerella, Tanisha; Semmler, John G; Human, Taaibos; Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-12-01

    To investigate outcomes after surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture and the influence of arm dominance on isokinetic flexion and supination results. While relatively uncommon, rupture of the distal biceps tendon can result in significant strength deficits, for which surgical repair is recommended. The purpose of this study was to assess patient reported functional outcomes and muscle performance following surgery. A sample of 23 participants (22 males, 1 female), who had previously undergone surgical repair of the distal biceps tendon, were re-examined at a minimum of one year after surgery. Biodex isokinetic elbow flexion and supination testing was performed to assess strength (as measured by peak torque) and endurance (as measured by total work and work fatigue). The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and Mayo Elbow Performance Scale (MEPS) were used to assess participants' subjectively reported functional recovery. At a mean of 7.6 years after surgical repair, there were no differences between the repaired and uninvolved elbows in peak torque ( p  = 0.47) or total work ( p  = 0.60) for flexion or supination. There was also no difference in elbow flexion work fatigue ( p  = 0.22). However, there was significantly less work fatigue in supination, which was likely influenced by arm dominance, as most repairs were to the dominant arm, F (1,22)=5.67, p  = 0.03. The long-term strength of the repaired elbow was similar to the uninvolved elbow after surgery to the distal biceps tendon. Endurance of the repaired elbow was similar in flexion but greater in supination, probably influenced by arm dominance. Retrospective case series. Level 4.

  13. Functional Consequence of Distal Brachioradialis Tendon Release: A Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tirrell, Timothy F.; Franko, Orrin I.; Bhola, Siddharth; Hentzen, Eric R.; Abrams, Reid A.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures often necessitates release of the brachioradialis from the radial styloid. However, this common procedure has the potential to decrease elbow flexion strength. To determine the potential morbidity associated with brachioradialis release, we measured the change in elbow torque as a function of incremental release of the brachioradialis insertion footprint. Methods In 5 upper extremity cadaveric specimens, the brachioradialis tendon was systematically released from the radius, and the resultant effect on brachioradialis elbow flexion torque was measured. Release distance was defined as the distance between the release point and the tip of the radial styloid. Results Brachioradialis elbow flexion torque dropped to 95%, 90% and 86% of its original value at release distances of 27mm, 46mm, and 52mm, respectively. Importantly, brachioradialis torque remained above 80% of its original value at release distances up to 7 centimeters. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that release of the brachioradialis tendon from its insertion has minor effects on its ability to transmit force to the distal radius. Clinical Relevance These data may imply that release of the distal brachioradialis tendon during distal radius open reduction internal fixation can be performed without meaningful functional consequences to elbow flexion torque. Even at large release distances, overall elbow flexion torque loss after brachioradialis release would be expected to be less than 5% due to the much larger contributions of the biceps and brachialis. Use of the brachioradialis as a tendon transfer donor should not be limited by concerns of elbow flexion loss, and the tendon could be considered as an autograft donor. PMID:23528425

  14. The anatomy and physiology of the suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Christopher C

    2010-04-01

    The equine hoof capsule protects the softer, more sensitive, structures within. Failure of the connection between hoof and bone (suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx or SADP) results in the crippling lameness of laminitis. Active basal cell proliferation occurs principally in tubular hoof and proximal and distal lamellae. The remaining lamellae are virtually non-proliferative and the hoof wall moves past the stationary distal phalanx, by controlled activation and inhibition of constituent proteases. The lamellar corium derives most of its blood supply from the branches of the terminal arch which perforate the distal phalanx. Valveless veins within the foot can be exploited clinically for retrograde venous therapy or contrast radiography (venography). The basement membrane (BM) forms the interface between the lamellar epidermis and the adjacent dermis and the plasma membrane of each lamellar basal cell is attached to the BM by numerous electron dense adhesion plaques or hemidesmosomes the ultimate attachment unit of the SADP. Laminitis destroys and dislocates the BM and its components and without an intact, functional BM, the structure and function of the lamellar epidermis is pathologically compromised. Transcription and activation of constituent proteases occurs in normal hoof lamellae but in increased amounts during laminitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes of nutritional status after distal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsube, Takao; Konnno, Soichi; Murayama, Minoru; Kuhara, Kotaro; Sagawa, Masano; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shunnichi; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Naritaka, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, distal gastrectomy is the most common operation performed to treat gastric cancer. However, this procedure often leads to postoperative problems such as weight loss. We assessed the changes of nutritional status early after operation and the associations of the postoperative body weight (as a percentage of the preoperative weight) and background factors in patients who underwent distal gastrectomy. We measured the changes of nutritional indices (mean body weight, TSF, AMC and Alb) and nutrition intake on the day before operation (before operation), before postoperative resumption of oral intake (before oral intake), and on the fifth day of a soft rice porridge diet (after soft rice). Background factors included gender, age, preoperative BMI and preoperative exercise. Mean body weight, TSF, and AMC significantly decreased from before operation, to the day before oral intake and to the day after soft rice. The postoperative body weight was not associated with the gender, age, or preoperative BMI. The frequency of regular preoperative exercise was associated with the postoperative body weight. The total daily calorie intake was 1,664 kcal (before operation), 398 kcal (before oral intake), and 949 kcal (after soft rice). To conclude, nutritional status changes significantly after distal gastrectomy. Early nutrition intervention may be needed in patients who undergo distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  16. High-definition endoscopy with digital chromoendoscopy for histologic prediction of distal colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Rath, Timo; Tontini, Gian E; Nägel, Andreas; Vieth, Michael; Zopf, Steffen; Günther, Claudia; Hoffman, Arthur; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-10-22

    Distal diminutive colorectal polyps are common and accurate endoscopic prediction of hyperplastic or adenomatous polyp histology could reduce procedural time, costs and potential risks associated with the resection. Within this study we assessed whether digital chromoendoscopy can accurately predict the histology of distal diminutive colorectal polyps according to the ASGE PIVI statement. In this prospective cohort study, 224 consecutive patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy were included. Real time histology of 121 diminutive distal colorectal polyps was evaluated using high-definition endoscopy with digital chromoendoscopy and the accuracy of predicting histology with digital chromoendoscopy was assessed. The overall accuracy of digital chromoendoscopy for prediction of adenomatous polyp histology was 90.1 %. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 93.3, 88.7, 88.7, and 93.2 %, respectively. In high-confidence predictions, the accuracy increased to 96.3 % while sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated as 98.1, 94.4, 94.5, and 98.1 %, respectively. Surveillance intervals with digital chromoendoscopy were correctly predicted with >90 % accuracy. High-definition endoscopy in combination with digital chromoendoscopy allowed real-time in vivo prediction of distal colorectal polyp histology and is accurate enough to leave distal colorectal polyps in place without resection or to resect and discard them without pathologic assessment. This approach has the potential to reduce costs and risks associated with the redundant removal of diminutive colorectal polyps. ClinicalTrials NCT02217449.

  17. Plate fixation and bone grafting of distal clavicle nonunions: radiologic and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Villa, Jordan C; van der List, Jelle P; Gausden, Elizabeth B; Lorich, Dean G; Helfet, David L; Kloen, Peter; Wellman, David S

    2016-11-01

    The optimal treatment for distal clavicle nonunions remains unknown. Small series have reported outcomes following distal fragment excision and various fixation techniques. We present the clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes after superior plating or double (superior and anteroinferior) plating in combination with bone grafting as treatment for distal clavicle nonunions. We collected demographic and radiographic data from a consecutive series of ten patients with symptomatic nonunion of the distal clavicle treated since 1998. Functional outcomes were assessed, as well as the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. The mean clinical follow-up was 41.4 months (range of 12-158 months). The mean radiological follow-up was 30.6 months (range of 3-158 months). All nonunions healed as demonstrated by subsidence of clinical symptoms and radiographic criteria. The average time to union was 3.7 months (range of 2-8 months). The mean The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was 11.9 (range of 0-62.5) and mean VAS score was 0.9 at follow-up. This study illustrates good clinical, radiologic and functional outcomes in ten patients with distal clavicle nonunion treated with superior or double (superior and anteroinferior) plating in combination with bone grafting. Double-plating can be considered an alternative to superior plating offering better resistance against the pulling effect of the arm with the use of smaller fixation plates.

  18. Limb saving surgery for Ewing's sarcoma of the distal tibia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mizoshiri, Naoki; Shirai, Toshiharu; Terauchi, Ryu; Tsuchida, Shinji; Mori, Yuki; Katsuyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Daichi; Oka, Yoshinobu; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-05-02

    Ewing's sarcoma is a primary malignant tumor of bone occurring mostly in childhood. Few effective reconstruction techniques are available after wide resection of Ewing's sarcoma at the distal end of the tibia. Reconstruction after wide resection is especially difficult in children, as it is necessary to consider the growth and activity of the lower limbs. A 12-year-old Japanese boy had presented with right lower leg pain at age 8 years. Imaging examination showed a bone tumor accompanied by a large extra-skeletal mass in the distal part of his tibia. The tumor was histologically diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. The patient received chemotherapy, followed by wide resection. Reconstruction consisted of a bone transport method involving external fixation of Taylor Spatial Frame. To prevent infection after surgery, the external fixation pin was coated with iodine. One year after surgery, the patient showed poor consolidation of bone, so iliac bone transplantation was performed on the extended bones and docking site of the distal tibia. After 20 months, tibia formation was good. Three years after surgery, there was no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastases; bone fusion was good, and he was able to run. The bone transport method is an effective surgical method of reconstruction after wide resection of a bone tumor at the distal end of the tibia, if a pin can be inserted into the distal bone fragment. Coating external fixation pins with iodine may prevent postoperative infection.

  19. Minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal tibial fractures: Results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dinko; Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Elabjer, Esmat; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    Distal tibial or pilon fractures are usually the result of combined compressive and shear forces, and may result in instability of the metaphysis, with or without articular depression, and injury to the soft tissue. The complexity of injury, lack of muscle cover and poor vascularity make these fractures difficult to treat. Surgical treatment of distal tibial fractures includes several options: external fixation, IM nailing, ORIF and minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). Management of distal tibial fractures with MIPO enables preservation of soft tissue and remaining blood supply. This is a report of a series of prospectively studied closed distal tibial and pilon fractures treated with MIPO. A total of 21 patients with closed distal tibial or pilon fractures were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and November 2013 and completed follow-up. Demographic characteristics, mechanism of injury, time required for union, ankle range of motion and complications were recorded. Fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA classification. Nineteen patients were initially managed with an ankle-spanning external fixator. When the status of the soft tissue had improved and swelling had subsided enough, a definitive internal fixation with MIPO was performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months. Mean age of the patients was 40.1 years (range 19-67 years). Eighteen cases were the result of high-energy trauma and three were the result of low-energy trauma. According to the AO/OTA classification there were extraarticular and intraarticular fractures, but only simple articular patterns without depression or comminution. The average time for fracture union was 19.7 weeks (range 12-38 weeks). Mean range of motion was 10° of dorsiflexion (range 5-15°) and 28.3° of plantar flexion (range 20-35°). Three cases were metalwork-related complications. Two patients underwent plate removal

  20. What counts: outcome assessment after distal radius fractures in aged patients.

    PubMed

    Goldhahn, Jörg; Angst, Felix; Simmen, Beat R

    2008-09-01

    Outcome of surgical interventions at the distal radius does not only depend on the type of intervention used, it also depends on the way the outcome is measured. Substantial differences in outcome assessment between different measurement tools and poor correlation among them result in the question about the best instrument for the evaluation of treatment after distal radius fractures. The aim of the review is to discuss pros and cons of the parameters that are available to assess the outcome after distal radius fractures. The review should help to choose the appropriate instruments for a given research question in aged patients with distal radius fractures. Objective and subjective measures were reviewed with respect to their suitability in outcome assessment. Radiological parameters like inclination, palmar slope, and length of the radius are most common and used to determine especially surgical success. Grip strength and range of motion are considered objective and used as study endpoints in many studies. Functional tests like the Jebsen test provide a realistic feedback about disability but require special skills and resources of the testing personnel. Patient self-assessment adds perceived patient benefit. The patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) provides a reliable and valid instrument for subjective outcome assessment. A combination of objective and subjective parameters should be used to assess the outcome of different treatment strategies due to the known discrepancies. Objective parameters like shortening, radial shift, or others should be clearly defined in the study methodology.

  1. Distal radius osteotomy with volar locking plates based on computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Junichi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Moritomo, Hisao; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2011-06-01

    Corrective osteotomy using dorsal plates and structural bone graft usually has been used for treating symptomatic distal radius malunions. However, the procedure is technically demanding and requires an extensive dorsal approach. Residual deformity is a relatively frequent complication of this technique. We evaluated the clinical applicability of a three-dimensional osteotomy using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques with volar locking plates for distal radius malunions. Ten patients with metaphyseal radius malunions were treated. Corrective osteotomy was simulated with the help of three-dimensional bone surface models created using CT data. We simulated the most appropriate screw holes in the deformed radius using computer-aided design data of a locking plate. During surgery, using a custom-made surgical template, we predrilled the screw holes as simulated. After osteotomy, plate fixation using predrilled screw holes enabled automatic reduction of the distal radial fragment. Autogenous iliac cancellous bone was grafted after plate fixation. The median volar tilt, radial inclination, and ulnar variance improved from -20°, 13°, and 6 mm, respectively, before surgery to 12°, 24°, and 1 mm, respectively, after surgery. The median wrist flexion improved from 33° before surgery to 60° after surgery. The median wrist extension was 70° before surgery and 65° after surgery. All patients experienced wrist pain before surgery, which disappeared or decreased after surgery. Surgeons can operate precisely and easily using this advanced technique. It is a new treatment option for malunion of distal radius fractures.

  2. Evolving concepts on regulation and function of renin in distal nephron

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Minolfa C.; Gonzalez, Alexis A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained stimulation of the intrarenal/intratubular renin–angiotensin system in a setting of elevated arterial pressure elicits renal vasoconstriction, increased sodium reabsorption, proliferation, fibrosis, and eventual renal injury. Activation of luminal AT1 receptors in proximal and distal nephron segments by local Ang II formation stimulates various transport systems. Augmented angiotensinogen (AGT) production by proximal tubule cells increases AGT secretion contributing to increased proximal Ang II levels and leading to spillover of AGT into the distal nephron segments, as reflected by increased urinary AGT excretion. The increased distal delivery of AGT provides substrate for renin, which is expressed in principal cells of the collecting tubule and collecting ducts, and is also stimulated by AT1 receptor activation. Renin and prorenin are secreted into the tubular lumen and act on the AGT delivered from the proximal tubule to form more Ang I. The catalytic actions of renin and or prorenin may be enhanced by binding to prorenin receptors on the intercalated cells or soluble prorenin receptor secreted into the tubular fluid. There is also increased luminal angiotensin converting enzyme in collecting ducts facilitating Ang II formation leading to stimulation of sodium reabsorption via sodium channel and sodium/chloride co-transporter. Thus, increased collecting duct renin contributes to Ang II-dependent hypertension by augmenting distal nephron intra-tubular Ang II formation leading to sustained stimulation of sodium reabsorption and progression of hypertension. PMID:22990760

  3. Distal regeneration involves the age dependent activity of branchial sac stem cells in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal−distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age‐related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration. PMID:25893097

  4. Relationship Between Third Mandibular Molar Angulation and Distal Cervical Caries in the Second Molar.

    PubMed

    Claudia, Andreescu; Barbu, Horia Mihail; Adi, Lorean; Gultekin, Alper; Reiser, Vadim; Gultekin, Pinar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2018-03-16

    Third lower molar partially erupted is commonly encountered in dental practice. This situation challenges clinicians with the dilemma whether to remove or to monitor it, because this molar can cause pathology of the adjacent second molar. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the relationship between third mandibular molar and distal cervical caries in second molar. This retrospective study analyzed 55 digital orthopantograms of adult patients and a total number of 95 mandibular third molars were assessed for eruption status, angulation, radiographic evidence of caries or restoration in the mandibular third molar, and radiographic evidence of caries or restoration in the distal surface of the mandibular second molar. The distal cervical caries in second molar is associated with fully erupted and partially erupted wisdom molar in horizontal, mesioangular and vertical position and less with presence of caries in third molar. There are caries lesions in distal second molars in mesioangular position when adjacent third molar is caries free.

  5. Slipped Distal Femoral Epiphysis in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M Javed; Rex, C; Vignesh, R; Chavan, Madhav

    2016-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare disorder, and often presents to an orthopaedic surgeon as recurrent fractures, dislocations, pseudoarthrosis, osteomyelitis etc. Here, we report a case of congenital insensitivity to pain presenting with distal femoral physeal separation in a child. A 12-year-old girl child came with complaints of limp while walking and swelling in the left knee for past 5 weeks. Mother gave a history that the girl is a known case of congenital insensitivity to pain with clear history of no pain on intramuscular injection since birth. She was born of consanguineous marriage and had no significant trauma, fever, other joint involvement or any features of rheumatism. On local examination, she had no bony tenderness, mild warmth, and moderate knee effusion with restricted range of movement. Plain radiograph showed epiphysiolysis of distal femur with widening of physis. Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated gross movement indicating lower femoral physeal separation. This unstable distal femoral epiphysis was treated under general anaesthesia with closed reduction, percutaneous cross pinning and above knee plaster cast. Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare disorder to diagnose. Emphasis is given on early diagnosis of orthopaedic problems and prompt treatment, educating parents and prevention of accidents. Physeal separation without significant trauma must prompt an orthopaedic surgeon to think about congenital insensitivity to pain as a differential diagnosis.

  6. Distal histidine conformational flexibility in dehaloperoxidase from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuxu; de Serrano, Vesna; Betts, Laurie

    2009-01-28

    The enzyme dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is a heme protein which has a globin fold but can function as both a hemoglobin and a peroxidase. As a peroxidase, DHP is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. As a hemoglobin, DHP cycles between the oxy and deoxy states as it reversibly binds oxygen for storage. Here, it is reported that the distal histidine, His55, exhibits conformational flexibility in the deoxy form and is consequently observed in two solvent-exposed conformations more than 9.5 {angstrom} away from the heme. These conformationsmore » are analogous to the open conformation of sperm whale myoglobin. The heme iron in deoxy ferrous DHP is five-coordinate and has an out-of-plane displacement of 0.25 {angstrom} from the heme plane. The observation of five-coordinate heme iron with His55 in a remote solvent-exposed conformation is consistent with the hypothesis that His55 interacts with heme iron ligands through hydrogen bonding in the closed conformation. Since His55 is also displaced by the binding of 4-iodophenol in an internal pocket, these results provide new insight into the correlation between heme iron ligation, molecular binding in the distal pocket and the conformation of the distal histidine in DHP.« less

  7. Biomechanical comparison of orthogonal versus parallel double plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Atalar, Ata C; Tunalı, Onur; Erşen, Ali; Kapıcıoğlu, Mehmet; Sağlam, Yavuz; Demirhan, Mehmet S

    2017-01-01

    In intraarticular distal humerus fractures, internal fixation with double plates is the gold standard treatment. However the optimal plate configuration is not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of the parallel and the orthogonal anatomical locking plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models. Intraarticular distal humerus fracture (AO13-C2) with 5 mm metaphyseal defect was created in sixteen artificial humeral models. Models were fixed with either orthogonal or parallel plating systems with locking screws (Acumed elbow plating systems). Both systems were tested for their stiffness with loads in axial compression, varus, valgus, anterior and posterior bending. Then plastic deformation after cyclic loading in posterior bending and load to failure in posterior bending were tested. The failure mechanisms of all the samples were observed. Stiffness values in every direction were not significantly different among the orthogonal and the parallel plating groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in plastic deformation values (0.31 mm-0.29 mm) and load to failure tests in posterior bending (372.4 N-379.7 N). In the orthogonal plating system most of the failures occurred due to the proximal shaft fracture, whereas in the parallel plating system failure occurred due to the shift of the most distal screw in proximal fragment. Our study showed that both plating systems had similar biomechanical stabilities when anatomic plates with distal locking screws were used in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rotation of intramedullary alignment rods affects distal femoral cutting plane in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Maderbacher, Günther; Matussek, Jan; Keshmiri, Armin; Greimel, Felix; Baier, Clemens; Grifka, Joachim; Maderbacher, Hermann

    2018-02-17

    Intramedullary rods are widely used to align the distal femoral cut in total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesised that both coronal (varus/valgus) and sagittal (extension/flexion) cutting plane are affected by rotational changes of intramedullary femoral alignment guides. Distal femoral cuts using intramedullary alignment rods were simulated by means of a computer-aided engineering software in 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12° of valgus in relation to the femoral anatomical axis and 4° extension, neutral, as well as 4°, 8°, and 12° of flexion in relation to the femoral mechanical axis. This reflects the different angles between anatomical and mechanical axis in coronal and sagittal planes. To assess the influence of rotation of the alignment guide on the effective distal femoral cutting plane, all combinations were simulated with the rod gradually aligned from 40° of external to 40° of internal rotation. Rotational changes of the distal femoral alignment guides affect both the coronal and sagittal cutting planes. When alignment rods are intruded neutrally with regards to sagittal alignment, external rotation causes flexion, while internal rotation causes extension of the sagittal cutting plane. Simultaneously the coronal effect (valgus) decreases resulting in an increased varus of the cutting plane. However, when alignment rods are intruded in extension or flexion partly contradictory effects are observed. Generally the effect increases with the degree of valgus preset, rotation and flexion. As incorrect rotation of intramedullary alignment guides for distal femoral cuts causes significant cutting errors, exact rotational alignment is crucial. Coronal cutting errors in the distal femoral plane might result in overall leg malalignment, asymmetric extension gaps and subsequent sagittal cutting errors.

  9. Proconsul heseloni distal radial and ulnar epiphyses from the Kaswanga Primate Site, Rusinga Island, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Daver, Guillaume; Nakatsukasa, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Only two distal epiphyses of a radius and ulna are consensually attributed to the holotype skeleton of Proconsul heseloni, KNM-RU 2036. Here, we describe seven adult and immature distal antebrachial (radial and ulnar) epiphyses from two other individuals of P. heseloni from the Lower Miocene deposits of the Kaswanga Primate Site (KPS), Rusinga Island, Kenya. Because KNM-RU 2036 and KNM-KPS individuals III and VIII are conspecific and penecontemporaneous, their comparison provides the opportunity i) to characterize, for the first time, the morphological variation of the distal radioulnar joint in a Miocene ape, P. heseloni, and ii) to investigate the functional and evolutionary implications. Our results show that the distal antebrachial epiphyses of KNM-KPS III and VIII correspond to stages of bone maturation that are more advanced than those of KNM-RU 2036 (larger articulations and sharper articular borders and ligament attachments that are more developed). Accordingly, functional interpretations based solely on the skeleton of KNM-RU 2036 have involved an underestimation of the forearm rotation abilities of P. heseloni. In particular, the KPS fossils do not exhibit the primitive morphology of distal radioulnar syndesmosis, as those of KNM-RU 2036 and most nonhominoid primates, but rather the morphology of an incipient diarthrosis (as in extant lorisines and hominoids). The distal radioulnar diarthrosis permits more mobility and maintenance of the wrist during repeated and slow rotation of the forearms, which facilitates any form of quadrupedal locomotion on discontinuous and variably oriented supports. By providing the oldest evidence of a distal radioulnar joint in an early Miocene hominoid, the main conclusions of this study are consistent with the role of cautious climbing as a prerequisite step for the emergence of positional adaptations in apes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of distal soft-tissue procedures combined with a distal chevron osteotomy for moderate to severe hallux valgus: first web-space versus transarticular approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu-Bok; Lee, Keun-Bae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-11-06

    There are two surgical approaches for distal soft-tissue procedures for the correction of hallux valgus-the dorsal first web-space approach, and the medial transarticular approach. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes achieved after use of either of these approaches combined with a distal chevron osteotomy in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus. One hundred and twenty-two female patients (122 feet) who underwent a distal chevron osteotomy as part of a distal soft-tissue procedure for the treatment of symptomatic unilateral moderate to severe hallux valgus constituted the study cohort. The 122 feet were randomly divided into two groups: namely, a dorsal first web-space approach (group D; sixty feet) and a medial transarticular approach (group M; sixty-two feet). The clinical and radiographic results of the two groups were compared at a mean follow-up time of thirty-eight months. The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores improved from a mean and standard deviation of 55.5 ± 12.8 points preoperatively to 93.5 ± 6.3 points at the final follow-up in group D and from 54.9 ± 12.6 points preoperatively to 93.6 ± 6.2 points at the final follow-up in group M. The mean hallux valgus angle in groups D and M was reduced from 32.2° ± 6.3° and 33.1° ± 8.4° preoperatively to 10.5° ± 5.5° and 9.9° ± 5.5°, respectively, at the time of final follow-up. The mean first intermetatarsal angle in groups D and M was reduced from 15.0° ± 2.8° and 15.3° ± 2.7° preoperatively to 6.5° ± 2.2° and 6.3° ± 2.4°, respectively, at the final follow-up. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. The final clinical and radiographic outcomes between the two approaches for distal soft-tissue procedures were comparable and equally successful. Accordingly, the results of this study suggest that the medial transarticular

  11. Acute distal biceps rupture in an adolescent weightlifter on chronic steroid suppression: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ding, David Y; LaMartina, Joey A; Zhang, Alan L; Pandya, Nirav K

    2016-09-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon events in the adult population and exceedingly rare in the adolescent population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and only report of a distal biceps tendon rupture in an adolescent with a history of chronic corticosteroid suppression. We present a case of a 17-year-old male on chronic corticosteroid suppression who underwent a successful distal biceps tendon repair after an acute rupture following weightlifting. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient reports full range of motion and strength, and is able to return to his preinjury activity level with sports and weightlifting. Acute distal biceps ruptures are uncommon injuries in the pediatric population, but may occur in conjunction with chronic corticosteroid use. Anatomic repair, when possible, can restore function and strength. level IV, case report.

  12. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  13. Familial distal trisomy 8(q24.13----qter).

    PubMed Central

    Romain, D R; Bloxham, R A; Columbano-Green, L M; Chapman, C J; Parfitt, R G; Smythe, R H; Cairney, H

    1989-01-01

    Trisomy for the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 8(q24.13----qter) is described in three sibs. The anomaly arose as an adjacent 1 meiotic segregation from a balanced reciprocal translocation t(1;8)(q44; q24.13)mat. Images PMID:2918543

  14. Functional and mechanistic diversity of distal transcription enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Bulger, Michael; Groudine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Biological differences among metazoans, and between cell types in a given organism, arise in large part due to differences in gene expression patterns. The sequencing of multiple metazoan genomes, coupled with recent advances in genome-wide analysis of histone modifications and transcription factor binding, has revealed that among regulatory DNA sequences, gene-distal enhancers appear to exhibit the greatest diversity and cell-type specificity. Moreover, such elements are emerging as important targets for mutations that can give rise to disease and to genetic variability that underlies evolutionary change. Studies of long-range interactions between distal genomic sequences in the nucleus indicate that enhancers are often important determinants of nuclear organization, contributing to a general model for enhancer function that involves direct enhancer-promoter contact. In a number of systems, however, mechanisms for enhancer function are emerging that do not fit solely within such a model, suggesting that enhancers as a class of DNA regulatory element may be functionally and mechanistically diverse. PMID:21295696

  15. Local shock-wave lithotripsy of distal ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Voges, G E; Wilbert, D M; Stöckle, M; Hohenfellner, R

    1988-01-01

    Since the initiation of the clinical trial utilizing a second-generation lithotripor (Lithostar, Siemens, Erlangen, FRG), 96 patients with distal ureteral calculi (i.e. calculi below the pelvic brim) underwent local shock-wave lithotripsy. Routine treatment was conducted under intravenous sedation and light analgesia only. Complete stone disintegration was achieved in 84 patients (87.5%), 11 requiring two sessions and 1 patient, three. In 7 patients ureteroscopy became necessary after unsuccessful local shock-wave treatment. In 2 of these patients a 9-french flexible ureteroscope and the Storz Q-switched neodymium-YAG laser was used for stone disintegration. In 3 cases loop extraction and in 2 cases open surgery had to be performed for definitive stone removal. All pre- and postoperative manipulations (except open surgery) were done on the Lithostar. Local shock-wave lithotripsy is a highly successful, noninvasive, time-saving and easily applicable technique. It has become our primary approach in the treatment of distal ureteral calculi.

  16. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy due to a novel ACTA1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Liewluck, Teerin; Sorenson, Eric J; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Milone, Margherita

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in skeletal muscle α-actin 1-encoding gene (ACTA1) cause autosomal dominant or recessive myopathies with marked clinical and pathological heterogeneity. Patients typically develop generalized or limb-girdle pattern of weakness, but recently a family with scapuloperoneal myopathy was reported. We describe a father and 2 children with childhood-to-juvenile onset distal myopathy, carrying a novel dominant ACTA1 variant, c.757G>C (p.Gly253Arg). Father had delayed motor development and developed significant proximal weakness later in life; he was initially misdiagnosed as having spinal muscular atrophy based on electromyographic findings. His children had predominant anterior distal leg and finger extensor involvement. Nemaline rods were abundant on the daughter's biopsy, absent on the father's initial biopsy, and extremely rare on the father's subsequent biopsy a decade later. The father's second biopsy also showed myofibrillar pathology and rare fibers with actin filament aggregates. The present family expands the spectrum of actinopathy to include a distal myopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in NH4Cl acidotic rats.

    PubMed

    Vandorpe, D H; Levine, D Z

    1989-08-01

    NH4Cl acidosis--a common experimental model of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis--elicits complex intrarenal responses whereby the fall in plasma bicarbonate concentration can be restored to normal after the initial acid load. Using the technique of in vivo micropuncture of surface distal tubules of the rat kidney, we attempted to further define controlling mechanisms underlying the enhanced bicarbonate reabsorption in this setting. Specifically, we wished to determine the dependence of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCO2) on sodium transport, water reabsorption, and carbonic anhydrase activity. Surface distal tubules of Sprague-Dawley rats made acidotic by ammonium chloride gavage (arterial blood pH: 7.15 +/- 0.01, [HCO3]: 14.8 +/- 0.5 mM) were perfused in vivo at 8 and 24 nL/min with 4 different isoosmotic, 25 mM bicarbonate solutions: Group 1 was perfused with 60 mM Na, Group 2 with 60 mM choline, Group 3 with 60 mM choline + 3 x 10(-4) M amiloride, and Group 4 with 60 mM Na + 10(-3) M acetazolamide. At 8 nL/min, significant bicarbonate reabsorption occurred with all perfusates. JtCO2 was 65 +/- 4, 59 +/- 5, 58 +/- 6, and 40 +/- 4 pmol.min-1.mm-1, in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. However, JtCO2 in Group 4 was significantly less than that in Groups 1 and 2 (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Amiloride added to the low sodium perfusate did not reduce bicarbonate reabsorption. We conclude that bicarbonate reabsorption in distal tubules of acidotic rats is acetazolamide-sensitive and is not significantly sustained by sodium or water movements.

  18. Is nonoperative management of partial distal biceps tears really successful?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Tyler M; Wong, Justin C; Lazarus, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    The current treatment of partial distal biceps tears is a period of nonoperative management, followed by surgery, if symptoms persist. Little is known about the success rate and outcomes of nonoperative management of this illness. We identified 132 patients with partial distal biceps tears through an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code query of our institution's database. Patient records were reviewed to abstract demographic information and confirm partial tears of the distal biceps tendon based on clinical examination findings and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-four patients completed an outcome survey. In our study, 55.7% of the contacted patients who tried a nonoperative course (34 of 61 patients) ultimately underwent surgery, and 13 patients underwent immediate surgery. High-need patients, as defined by occupation, were more likely to report that they recovered ideally if they underwent surgery, as compared with those who did not undergo surgery (odds ratio, 11.58; P = .0138). For low-need patients, the same analysis was not statistically significant (P = .139). There was no difference in satisfaction scores between patients who tried a nonoperative course before surgery and those who underwent immediate surgery (P = .854). An MRI-diagnosed tear of greater than 50% was a predictor of needing surgery (odds ratio, 3.0; P = .006). This study has identified clinically relevant information for the treatment of partial distal biceps tears, including the following: the failure rate of nonoperative treatment, the establishment of MRI percent tear as a predictor of failing nonoperative management, the benefit of surgery for the high-need occupational group, and the finding that nonoperative management does not negatively affect outcome if subsequent surgery is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER DISTAL BICEPS BRACHII REPAIR: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Tim; Otto, Charissa; Zerella, Tanisha; Semmler, John G; Human, Taaibos; Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate outcomes after surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture and the influence of arm dominance on isokinetic flexion and supination results. Background/Purpose While relatively uncommon, rupture of the distal biceps tendon can result in significant strength deficits, for which surgical repair is recommended. The purpose of this study was to assess patient reported functional outcomes and muscle performance following surgery. Methods A sample of 23 participants (22 males, 1 female), who had previously undergone surgical repair of the distal biceps tendon, were re-examined at a minimum of one year after surgery. Biodex isokinetic elbow flexion and supination testing was performed to assess strength (as measured by peak torque) and endurance (as measured by total work and work fatigue). The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and Mayo Elbow Performance Scale (MEPS) were used to assess participants' subjectively reported functional recovery. Results At a mean of 7.6 years after surgical repair, there were no differences between the repaired and uninvolved elbows in peak torque (p = 0.47) or total work (p = 0.60) for flexion or supination. There was also no difference in elbow flexion work fatigue (p = 0.22). However, there was significantly less work fatigue in supination, which was likely influenced by arm dominance, as most repairs were to the dominant arm, F(1,22)=5.67, p = 0.03. Conclusion The long-term strength of the repaired elbow was similar to the uninvolved elbow after surgery to the distal biceps tendon. Endurance of the repaired elbow was similar in flexion but greater in supination, probably influenced by arm dominance. Study design Retrospective case series Level of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27904798

  20. Good isometric and isokinetic power restoration after distal biceps tendon repair with anchors.

    PubMed

    Suda, Arnold J; Prajitno, Julia; Grützner, Paul A; Tinelli, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture can lead to 30-40% power loss of elbow flexion and up to 50% of forearm supination. Re-fixation of the distal biceps brachii tendon is recommended to warrant an adequate quality of the patient's life. This study reports the isometric and isokinetic results after anchor re-fixation 2.5 years after surgery. Between 2007 and 2010, 69 patients with distal biceps brachii tendon tear underwent a suture anchor reattachment. During the follow-up examination, a questionnaire and DASH score were filled in, the circumferences of the arm were measured, range of motion was collected, and different trials were conducted at the BTE Primus RS™ (Baltimore Therapeutic Equipment) on both arms. 49 patients (71%) were reinvestigated with a follow-up of 32 months (11-58 months). A significant difference was found in the ability of elbow flexion between the affected arm and the opposite side as well as in pronation and supination. In elbow flexion and extension as well as in pronation and supination of the forearm, the strength was significantly diminished. 32 months after surgical re-fixation of the distal biceps brachii tendon rupture, strength in all exercises is marginally reduced in comparison to the opposite arm. Re-fixation of the distal biceps brachii tendon is an adequate method to return the range of motion and the strength in the elbow joint to an almost normal level and that gives rise to a high level of patient satisfaction. Level III, case-control study.

  1. Eruption Forecasting in Alaska: A Retrospective and Test of the Distal VT Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean, S. G.; Pesicek, J. D.; Wellik, J.; Cameron, C.; White, R. A.; McCausland, W. A.; Buurman, H.

    2015-12-01

    United States volcano observatories have successfully forecast most significant US eruptions in the past decade. However, eruptions of some volcanoes remain stubbornly difficult to forecast effectively using seismic data alone. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has responded to 28 eruptions from 10 volcanoes since 2005. Eruptions that were not forecast include those of frequently active volcanoes with basaltic-andesite magmas, like Pavlof, Veniaminof, and Okmok volcanoes. In this study we quantify the success rate of eruption forecasting in Alaska and explore common characteristics of eruptions not forecast. In an effort to improve future forecasts, we re-examine seismic data from eruptions and known intrusive episodes in Alaska to test the effectiveness of the distal VT model commonly employed by the USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP). In the distal VT model, anomalous brittle failure or volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquake swarms in the shallow crust surrounding the volcano occur as a secondary response to crustal strain induced by magma intrusion. Because the Aleutian volcanic arc is among the most seismically active regions on Earth, distinguishing distal VT earthquake swarms for eruption forecasting purposes from tectonic seismicity unrelated to volcanic processes poses a distinct challenge. In this study, we use a modified beta-statistic to identify pre-eruptive distal VT swarms and establish their statistical significance with respect to long-term background seismicity. This analysis allows us to explore the general applicability of the distal VT model and quantify the likelihood of encountering false positives in eruption forecasting using this model alone.

  2. Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures with Ilizarov circular, nonbridging external fixator.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, Minos; Mylonas, Spyros; Saridis, Alkis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2010-03-01

    Unstable distal radius fractures remain a challenge for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We present a retrospective follow-up study (mean follow-up 12.5 months) of 20 patients with 21 unstable distal radius fractures that were reduced in a closed manner and stabilized with a nonbridging Ilizarov external fixator. Subsequent insertion of olive wires for interfragmentary compression was performed in cases with intra-articular fractures. According to the overall evaluation proposed by Gartland and Werley scoring system 12 wrists were classified as excellent, 6 as good, 2 as fair and 1 as poor. Grade II pin-tract infection in distal fracture fragment was detected in 3 wires from a total of 78 (3.8%) and in 4 half pins out of a total of 9 (44.4%). Pronation was the most frequently impaired movement. This was restricted in 4 patients (19%) in whom a radioulnar transfixing wire was applied. Symptoms of irritation of superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve occurred in 3 patients with an olive wire applied in a closed manner in the distal fragment. Ilizarov method yields functional results comparable to that of other methods whilst it avoids wrist immobilization, open reduction and reoperation for implant removal. The method is associated with a low rate of major complication and satisfactory functional outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  4. Endoscopic sensing of pH in the distal lung (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Debaditya; Tanner, Michael G.; McAughtrie, Sarah; Yu, Fei; Mills, Bethany; Choudhary, Tushar R.; Seth, Sohan; Craven, Thomas; Stone, James M.; Mati, Ioulia K.; Campbell, Colin J.; Bradley, Mark; Williams, Christopher K.; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Birks, Timothy A.; Thomson, Robert R.

    2017-04-01

    In healthy humans, the physiological state in the distal lung alveolar acinar units is tightly regulated by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Pulmonary abnormalities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, that are characterized by recurrent cycles of inflammation and infection involving dense infiltration by myeloid derived peripheral blood cells, may result in significant perturbation of the homeostatic baselines of physiology in addition to host tissue damage. Therefore, the ability to quantify and monitor physiology (e.g. pH, glucose level, oxygen tension) within the alveolar acinar units would provide a key biomarker of distal lung innate defence. Although in vitro modeling of fundamental biological processes show remarkable sensitivity to physiological aberrations, little is known about the physiological state of the distal lung due to the inability to concurrently access the alveolar sacs and perform real-time sensing. Here we report on previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH using a fiber-optic optrode and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and show that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation. The endoscope-deployable optrode consisted of para-mercaptobenzoic acid functionalized 150 nm gold nanoshells located at the distal end, and an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separated optical pump delivery and SERS signal collection in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal originating from the fiber itself. We demonstrate a 100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio and pH sensing at multiple sites in the respiratory acinar units of a whole ex vivo ovine lung model with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units.

  5. Next generation distal locking for intramedullary nails using an electromagnetic X-ray-radiation-free real-time navigation system.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Schröder, Malte; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Kammal, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Herrman Ruecker, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Distal locking marks one challenging step during intramedullary nailing that can lead to an increased irradiation and prolonged operation times. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of an X-ray-radiation-free real-time navigation system for distal locking procedures. A prospective randomized cadaver study with 50 standard free-hand fluoroscopic-guided and 50 electromagnetic-guided distal locking procedures was performed. All procedures were timed using a stopwatch. Intraoperative fluoroscopy exposure time and absorbed radiation dose (mGy) readings were documented. All tibial nails were locked with two mediolateral and one anteroposterior screw. Successful distal locking was accomplished once correct placement of all three screws was confirmed. Successful distal locking was achieved in 98 cases. No complications were encountered using the electromagnetic navigation system. Eight complications arose during free-hand fluoroscopic distal locking. Undetected secondary drill slippage on the ipsilateral cortex accounted for most problems followed by undetected intradrilling misdirection causing a fissural fracture of the contralateral cortex while screw insertion in one case. Compared with the free-hand fluoroscopic technique, electromagnetically navigated distal locking provides a median time benefit of 244 seconds without using ionizing radiation. Compared with the standard free-hand fluoroscopic technique, the electromagnetic guidance system used in this study showed high reliability and was associated with less complications, took significantly less time, and used no radiation exposure for distal locking procedures. Therapeutic study, level II.

  6. Computer tomographic assessment of postoperative peripancreatic collections after distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Sato, Asahi; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Anazawa, Takayuki; Takaori, Kyoichi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-03-27

    Peripancreatic collections occur frequently after distal pancreatectomy. However, the sequelae of peripancreatic collections vary from case to case, and their clinical impact is uncertain. In this study, the correlations between CT findings of peripancreatic collections and complications after distal pancreatectomy were investigated. Ninety-six consecutive patients who had undergone distal pancreatectomy between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively investigated. The extent and heterogeneity of peripancreatic collections and background clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. The extent of peripancreatic collections was calculated based on three-dimensional computed tomography images, and the degree of heterogeneity of peripancreatic collections was assessed based on the standard deviation of their density on computed tomography. Of 85 patients who underwent postoperative computed tomography imaging, a peripancreatic collection was detected in 77 (91%). Patients with either a large extent or a high degree of heterogeneity of peripancreatic collection had a significantly higher rate of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula than those without (odds ratio 5.95, 95% confidence interval 2.12-19.72, p = 0.001; odds ratio 8.0, 95% confidence interval 2.87-24.19, p = 0.0001, respectively). A large and heterogeneous peripancreatic collection was significantly associated with postoperative complications, especially clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula. A small and homogenous peripancreatic collection could be safely observed.

  7. Suture anchor tenodesis in repair of distal Achilles tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Kiliçoğlu, Onder; Türker, Mehmet; Yildız, Fatih; Akalan, Ekin; Temelli, Yener

    2014-01-01

    Distal Achilles tendon avulsions are in the form of either bony and nonbony avulsion of Achilles tendon from its calcaneal insertion. Four patients with distal Achilles tendon avulsions or ruptures which were treated with tendon to bone repair using suture anchors are presented here. Operated leg was immobilized in above-knee cast for 4 weeks while the patient walked non-weight-bearing. Then, cast was changed to below knee, and full weight-bearing was allowed. Patients underwent gait analysis minimum at first postoperative year. Mean American Orthopedics Foot Ankle Society ankle/hindfoot score of patients at last visit was 88.75 (range 85-100), and Achilles tendon total rupture score was 77.75 (range 58-87). Mean passive dorsiflexion of injured ankles (14° ± 5°) was lower than uninjured ankles (23° ± 9°). All the kinematic parameters of gait analysis were comparable to the uninjured side. Maximum plantar flexion power of injured ankle was 1.40 W/kg, and this was significantly lower than the contralateral side value 2.38 W/kg; (P = 0.0143). There were no visually altered gait or problems in daily life. Suture anchor tenodesis technique of distal Achilles tendon avulsions was successful in achieving durable osteotendinous repairs.

  8. Ionotropic GABA Receptors and Distal Retinal ON and OFF Responses

    PubMed Central

    Popova, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, visual signals are segregated into parallel ON and OFF pathways, which provide information for light increments and decrements. The segregation is first evident at the level of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in distal retina. The activity of large populations of ON and OFF bipolar cells is reflected in the b- and d-waves of the diffuse electroretinogram (ERG). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through ionotropic GABA receptors in shaping the ON and OFF responses in distal retina, is a matter of debate. This review summarized current knowledge about the types of the GABAergic neurons and ionotropic GABA receptors in the retina as well as the effects of GABA and specific GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonists on the activity of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in both nonmammalian and mammalian retina. Special emphasis is put on the effects on b- and d-waves of the ERG as a useful tool for assessment of the overall function of distal retinal ON and OFF channels. The role of GABAergic system in establishing the ON-OFF asymmetry concerning the time course and absolute and relative sensitivity of the ERG responses under different conditions of light adaptation in amphibian retina is also discussed. PMID:25143858

  9. Distal radius fractures result in alterations in scapular kinematics: a three-dimensional motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Cigdem; Turgut, Elif; Baltaci, Gul

    2015-03-01

    Scapular motion is closely integrated with arm motion. Injury to a distal segment requires compensatory changes in the proximal segments leading to alterations in scapular motion. Since the effects of distal injuries on scapular kinematics remain unknown, in the present study we investigated the influences on scapular motion in patients with distal injuries. Sixteen subjects with a history of distal radius fracture and 20 asymptomatic healthy subjects (controls) participated in the study. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematic data were collected on all 3 planes of shoulder elevation: frontal, sagittal, and scapular. All testing was performed in a single session; therefore, the sensors remained attached to the participants for all testing. The position and orientation data of the scapula at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation and 120°, 90°, 60°, and 30° lowering were used for statistical comparisons. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, and anterior/posterior tilt between the affected side of subjects with a distal radius fracture and the dominant side of asymptomatic subjects at the same stage of humerothoracic elevation. Scapular internal rotation was significantly increased at 30° elevation (P=0.01), 90° elevation (P=0.03), and 30° lowering (P=0.03), and upward rotation was increased at 30° and 60° elevation (P<0.001) on the affected side during frontal plane elevation. Scapular upward rotation and anterior tilt were significantly increased during 30° lowering on both the scapular (P=0.002 and 0.02, respectively) and sagittal planes (P=0.01 and 0.02. respectively). Patients with distal radius fractures exhibit altered scapular kinematics, which may further contribute to the development of secondary musculoskeletal pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distal tibial fractures and non-unions treated with shortened intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Zouboulis, P; Papadopoulos, A X; Karageorgos, A; Lambiris, E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed 18 patients, 14 with acute fractures and four with non-union of the distal tibia, treated between 1990 and 2001 with a shortened, reamed intramedullary nail. The mean follow-up was 38 (8-144) months. The fractures united at an average of 16 (12-18) weeks and the non-unions at 20 (12-30) weeks. Two patients required nail dynamization. No limb shortening nor material failures were seen. All patients returned to normal daily activities. Although technically demanding, intramedullary nailing for distal tibial fractures and non-unions with a shortened nail represents a safe and reliable method.

  11. Increased Variability and Asymmetric Expansion of the Hippocampal Spatial Representation in a Distal Cue-Dependent Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Beom; Lee, Inah

    2016-08-01

    Place cells in the hippocampus fire at specific positions in space, and distal cues in the environment play critical roles in determining the spatial firing patterns of place cells. Many studies have shown that place fields are influenced by distal cues in foraging animals. However, it is largely unknown whether distal-cue-dependent changes in place fields appear in different ways in a memory task if distal cues bear direct significance to achieving goals. We investigated this possibility in this study. Rats were trained to choose different spatial positions in a radial arm in association with distal cue configurations formed by visual cue sets attached to movable curtains around the apparatus. The animals were initially trained to associate readily discernible distal cue configurations (0° vs. 80° angular separation between distal cue sets) with different food-well positions and then later experienced ambiguous cue configurations (14° and 66°) intermixed with the original cue configurations. Rats showed no difficulty in transferring the associated memory formed for the original cue configurations when similar cue configurations were presented. Place field positions remained at the same locations across different cue configurations, whereas stability and coherence of spatial firing patterns were significantly disrupted when ambiguous cue configurations were introduced. Furthermore, the spatial representation was extended backward and skewed more negatively at the population level when processing ambiguous cue configurations, compared with when processing the original cue configurations only. This effect was more salient for large cue-separation conditions than for small cue-separation conditions. No significant rate remapping was observed across distal cue configurations. These findings suggest that place cells in the hippocampus dynamically change their detailed firing characteristics in response to a modified cue environment and that some of the firing

  12. Distal regulatory regions restrict the expression of cis-linked genes to the tapetal cells.

    PubMed

    Franco, Luciana O; de O Manes, Carmem Lara; Hamdi, Said; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; de Oliveira, Dulce E

    2002-04-24

    The oleosin glycine-rich protein genes Atgrp-6, Atgrp-7, and Atgrp-8 occur in clusters in the Arabidopsis genome and are expressed specifically in the tapetum cells. The cis-regulatory regions involved in the tissue-specific gene expression were investigated by fusing different segments of the gene cluster to the uidA reporter gene. Common distal regulatory regions were identified that coordinate expression of the sequential genes. At least two of these genes were regulated spatially by proximal and distal sequences. The cis-acting elements (122 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point) drive the uidA expression to floral tissues, whereas distal 5' upstream regions restrict the gene activity to tapetal cells.

  13. Proximal, distal, and the politics of causation: what's level got to do with it?

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2008-02-01

    Causal thinking in public health, and especially in the growing literature on social determinants of health, routinely employs the terminology of proximal (or downstream) and distal (or upstream). I argue that the use of these terms is problematic and adversely affects public health research, practice, and causal accountability. At issue are distortions created by conflating measures of space, time, level, and causal strength. To make this case, I draw on an ecosocial perspective to show how public health got caught in the middle of the problematic proximal-distal divide--surprisingly embraced by both biomedical and social determinist frameworks--and propose replacing the terms proximal and distal with explicit language about levels, pathways, and power.

  14. Normal 24-hour ambulatory proximal and distal gastroesophageal reflux parameters in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hu, W H C; Wong, N Y H; Lai, K C; Hui, W M; Lam, K F; Wong, B C Y; Xia, H H X; Chan, C K; Chan, A O O; Wong, W M; Tsang, K W T; Lam, S K

    2002-06-01

    To quantify normal proximal and distal oesophageal acid parameters in healthy Chinese. Observational study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. Twenty healthy adults who were not on medication and were free from gastrointestinal symptoms were recruited by advertisement. Ambulatory oesophageal acid (pH<4) exposure parameters were recorded at distal and proximal sites, 5 and 20 cm, respectively above the lower oesophageal sphincter. The 95th percentile for reflux parameters assessed in the distal/proximal oesophagus were: percent total time pH<4, 4.6/0.7%; percent upright time pH<4, 7.0/1.1%; percent supine time pH<4, 4.5/0.5%; number of reflux episodes, 73/12; number of reflux episodes with pH<4 for >5 minutes, 4/0; and the longest single acid exposure episode, 11.2/3.0 minutes. Physiological gastroesophageal reflux occurs in healthy Chinese. These initial data provide a preliminary reference range that could be utilised by laboratories studying Chinese subjects.

  15. Distal Limb Patterning Requires Modulation of cis-Regulatory Activities by HOX13

    DOE PAGES

    Sheth, Rushikesh; Barozzi, Iros; Langlais, David; ...

    2016-12-13

    The combinatorial expression of Hox genes along the body axes is a major determinant of cell fate and plays a pivotal role in generating the animal body plan. Loss of HOXA13 and HOXD13 transcription factors (HOX13) leads to digit agenesis in mice, but how HOX13 proteins regulate transcriptional outcomes and confer identity to the distal-most limb cells has remained elusive. Here, we report on the genome-wide profiling of HOXA13 and HOXD13 in vivo binding and changes of the transcriptome and chromatin state in the transition from the early to the late-distal limb developmental program, as well as in Hoxa13–/–; Hoxd13–/– limbs. Ourmore » results show that proper termination of the early limb transcriptional program and activation of the late-distal limb program are coordinated by the dual action of HOX13 on cis-regulatory modules.« less

  16. A unique physeal injury of the distal phalanx.

    PubMed

    Berber, Onur; Singh, Bijayendra

    2015-01-01

    An unusual Salter-Harris Type 1 fracture variant of the distal phalanx of the index finger is described. The epiphysis was dislocated, sitting dorsally over the middle phalanx head with the articular surface facing dorsal. Reduction could only be achieved through an open procedure. The reduction was stable without supplemental fixation.

  17. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  18. Comparison of blood loss between using non central part cutting knee prosthesis and distal central part cutting.

    PubMed

    Malairungsakul, Anan

    2014-12-01

    Patients who undergo knee replacement surgery may need to receive a blood transfusion due to blood loss during the operation. Therefore it was important to improve the design of knee implant operative procedures in an attempt to reduce the rate of blood loss. The present study aimed to compare the blood loss between two types of knee replacement surgery. This is a retrospective study in which 78 patients received cemented knee replacements in Phayao Hospital between October 2010 and March 2012. There were two types of surgical procedure: 1) using an implant position covering the end of the femoral bone without cutting into the central part of the distal femoral, 2) using an implant position covering the end of the femoral bone cutting the central part of the distal femoral. Blood loss, blood transfusion, hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded preoperatively, immediately postsurgery and 48 hours after surgery. Findings revealed that the knee replacement surgery using the implant position covering the end of the femoral bone without cutting the central part of the distal femoral significantly lowered the rate of blood loss when compared to using the implant position covering the end of the femoral bone with central cutting of the distal femor. The average blood loss during the operation without cutting at the central part of distal femoral was 49.50 ± 11.11 mL; whereas the operation cutting the central part of the distal femoral was 58.50 ± 11.69 mL. As regards blood loss, the knee replacement surgery using the implant position covering the end ofthefemoral bone without cutting the central part of distal femor was better than using the implant position covering the end of the femoral bone cutting at the central part of the distal femor.

  19. Furosemide/Fludrocortisone Test and Clinical Parameters to Diagnose Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Kidney Stone Formers.

    PubMed

    Dhayat, Nasser A; Gradwell, Michael W; Pathare, Ganesh; Anderegg, Manuel; Schneider, Lisa; Luethi, David; Mattmann, Cedric; Moe, Orson W; Vogt, Bruno; Fuster, Daniel G

    2017-09-07

    Incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis is a well known cause of calcareous nephrolithiasis but the prevalence is unknown, mostly due to lack of accepted diagnostic tests and criteria. The ammonium chloride test is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, but the furosemide/fludrocortisone test was recently proposed as an alternative. Because of the lack of rigorous comparative studies, the validity of the furosemide/fludrocortisone test in stone formers remains unknown. In addition, the performance of conventional, nonprovocative parameters in predicting incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis has not been studied. We conducted a prospective study in an unselected cohort of 170 stone formers that underwent sequential ammonium chloride and furosemide/fludrocortisone testing. Using the ammonium chloride test as gold standard, the prevalence of incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis was 8%. Sensitivity and specificity of the furosemide/fludrocortisone test were 77% and 85%, respectively, yielding a positive predictive value of 30% and a negative predictive value of 98%. Testing of several nonprovocative clinical parameters in the prediction of incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis revealed fasting morning urinary pH and plasma potassium as the most discriminative parameters. The combination of a fasting morning urinary threshold pH <5.3 with a plasma potassium threshold >3.8 mEq/L yielded a negative predictive value of 98% with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 77% for the diagnosis of incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. The furosemide/fludrocortisone test can be used for incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis screening in stone formers, but an abnormal furosemide/fludrocortisone test result needs confirmation by ammonium chloride testing. Our data furthermore indicate that incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis can reliably be excluded in stone formers by use of nonprovocative clinical

  20. Application of MPVR and TL-VR with 64-row MDCT in neonates with congenital EA and distal TEF.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yang; Peng, Yun; Zhai, Ren-You; Li, Ying-Zi

    2011-03-28

    To assess the application of multiple planar volume reconstruction (MPVR) and three-dimensional (3D) transparency lung volume rendering (TL-VR) with 64-row multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in neonates with congenital esophageal atresia (EA) and distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Twenty neonates (17 boys, 3 girls) with EA and distal TEF at a mean age of 4.6 d (range 1-16 d) were enrolled in this study. A helical scan of 64-row MDCT was performed at the 64 mm × 0.625 mm collimation. EA and TEF were reconstructed with MPVR and TL-VR, respectively. Initial diagnosis of EA was made by chest radiography showing the inserted catheter in the proximal blind-ended esophageal pouch. Manifestations of MDCT images were compared with the findings at surgery. MDCT showed the proximal and distal esophageal pouches in 20 cases. No significant difference was observed in gaps between the proximal and distal esophageal pouches detected by MPVR and TL-VR. The lengths of gaps between the proximal and distal esophageal pouches detected by MPVR and TL-VR correlated well with the findings at surgery (R = 0.87, P < 0.001). The images of MPVR revealed the orifice of TEF in 13 cases, while TL-VR images showed the orifice of TEF in 4 cases. EA and distal TEF can be reconstructed using MPVR and TL-VR of 64-row MDCT, which is a noninvasive technique to demonstrate the distal esophageal pouches and inter-pouch distance in neonates with EA and distal TEF.

  1. [Closure of pancreas stump after distal and segmental resection : Suture, stapler, coverage or anastomosis?

    PubMed

    Michalski, C W; Tramelli, P; Büchler, M W; Hackert, T

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistulas represent the most frequent complication after distal and segmental pancreatectomy and occur with a frequency of up to 50 %. There are many technical variations of pancreatic stump treatment for reduction of fistula rates after distal resection. Most of these techniques have only been analyzed in retrospective studies and the evidence for or against a specific technique is low. Several retrospective trials have been conducted with good results to compare suturing with stapled closure of the remnant and to assess the effect of a vascularized falciform ligament patch in reducing postoperative pancreatic fistula; however, in a recently published randomized trial, which analyzed closure of the remnant with a pancreaticojejunostomy compared to standard closure, these results could not be confirmed. Because stapler resection and closure is the most commonly used technique in laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy, there are a large number of studies which assessed various novel methods of improving stapling. Extended stapler compression time and mesh augmentation of the stapler line can be valid methods to reduce fistula rates. Central pancreatectomy is a relatively rarely used procedure where the right-sided pancreatic remnant is closed in the same fashion as during distal pancreatectomy and the left-sided remnant is connected to the intestines with a pancreaticojejunostomy or pancreaticogastrostomy. In conclusion, postoperative pancreatic fistula rates are still a relevant clinical problem after distal pancreatectomy and further studies on potentially improved novel techniques are required.

  2. Functional significance of muscarinic receptor expression within the proximal and distal rat vagina.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maureen; Labelle, Edward F; Northington, Gina M; Wang, Tanchun; Wein, Alan J; Chacko, Samuel

    2009-11-01

    Information regarding the role of cholinergic nerves in mediating vaginal smooth muscle contraction is sparse, and in vitro studies of the effects of muscarinic agonists on vaginal smooth muscle are discrepant. The goal of this study was to determine the expression of muscarinic receptors in the vaginal wall of the rat. In addition, we sought to determine the effect of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol on contractility and inositol phosphate production of the proximal and distal rat vaginal muscularis. RT-PCR analysis indicated that both M(2) and M(3) receptor transcripts were expressed within the proximal and distal rat vagina. Carbachol dose-dependently (10(-7)-10(-4) M) contracted the rat vaginal muscularis with a greater maximal contractile response in the proximal vagina (P < 0.01) compared with the distal vagina. The contractile responses of the rat vaginal muscularis to carbachol were dose dependently inhibited by the M(3) antagonist para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladefenidol, and a pK(B) of 7.78 and 7.95 was calculated for the proximal and distal vagina, respectively. Inositol phosphate production was significantly increased in both regions of the vagina following 20-min exposure to 50 muM carbachol with higher levels detected in the proximal vagina compared with the distal (P < 0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated the presence of M(2) and M(3) receptors in the human vaginal muscularis as well as contraction of human vaginal muscularis to carbachol, indicating that our animal studies are relevant to human tissue. Our results provide strong evidence for the functional significance of M(3) receptor expression in the vaginal muscularis.

  3. Functional significance of muscarinic receptor expression within the proximal and distal rat vagina

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Maureen; LaBelle, Edward F.; Northington, Gina M.; Wang, Tanchun; Wein, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Information regarding the role of cholinergic nerves in mediating vaginal smooth muscle contraction is sparse, and in vitro studies of the effects of muscarinic agonists on vaginal smooth muscle are discrepant. The goal of this study was to determine the expression of muscarinic receptors in the vaginal wall of the rat. In addition, we sought to determine the effect of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol on contractility and inositol phosphate production of the proximal and distal rat vaginal muscularis. RT-PCR analysis indicated that both M2 and M3 receptor transcripts were expressed within the proximal and distal rat vagina. Carbachol dose-dependently (10−7–10−4 M) contracted the rat vaginal muscularis with a greater maximal contractile response in the proximal vagina (P < 0.01) compared with the distal vagina. The contractile responses of the rat vaginal muscularis to carbachol were dose dependently inhibited by the M3 antagonist para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladefenidol, and a pKB of 7.78 and 7.95 was calculated for the proximal and distal vagina, respectively. Inositol phosphate production was significantly increased in both regions of the vagina following 20-min exposure to 50 μM carbachol with higher levels detected in the proximal vagina compared with the distal (P < 0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated the presence of M2 and M3 receptors in the human vaginal muscularis as well as contraction of human vaginal muscularis to carbachol, indicating that our animal studies are relevant to human tissue. Our results provide strong evidence for the functional significance of M3 receptor expression in the vaginal muscularis. PMID:19741053

  4. Homeobox gene distal-less is required for neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the Drosophila olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Plavicki, Jessica; Mader, Sara; Pueschel, Eric; Peebles, Patrick; Boekhoff-Falk, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate Dlx genes have been implicated in the differentiation of multiple neuronal subtypes, including cortical GABAergic interneurons, and mutations in Dlx genes have been linked to clinical conditions such as epilepsy and autism. Here we show that the single Drosophila Dlx homolog, distal-less, is required both to specify chemosensory neurons and to regulate the morphologies of their axons and dendrites. We establish that distal-less is necessary for development of the mushroom body, a brain region that processes olfactory information. These are important examples of distal-less function in an invertebrate nervous system and demonstrate that the Drosophila larval olfactory system is a powerful model in which to understand distal-less functions during neurogenesis. PMID:22307614

  5. Distal Renal Tubules Are Deficient in Aggresome Formation and Autophagy upon Aldosterone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Nielsen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Enghild, Jan J.; Fenton, Robert A.; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged elevations of plasma aldosterone levels are associated with renal pathogenesis. We hypothesized that renal distress could be imposed by an augmented aldosterone-induced protein turnover challenging cellular protein degradation systems of the renal tubular cells. Cellular accumulation of specific protein aggregates in rat kidneys was assessed after 7 days of aldosterone administration. Aldosterone induced intracellular accumulation of 60 s ribosomal protein L22 in protein aggregates, specifically in the distal convoluted tubules. The mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor spironolactone abolished aldosterone-induced accumulation of these aggregates. The aldosterone-induced protein aggregates also contained proteasome 20 s subunits. The partial de-ubiquitinase ataxin-3 was not localized to the distal renal tubule protein aggregates, and the aggregates only modestly colocalized with aggresome transfer proteins dynactin p62 and histone deacetylase 6. Intracellular protein aggregation in distal renal tubules did not lead to development of classical juxta-nuclear aggresomes or to autophagosome formation. Finally, aldosterone treatment induced foci in renal cortex of epithelial vimentin expression and a loss of E-cadherin expression, as signs of cellular stress. The cellular changes occurred within high, but physiological aldosterone concentrations. We conclude that aldosterone induces protein accumulation in distal renal tubules; these aggregates are not cleared by autophagy that may lead to early renal tubular damage. PMID:25000288

  6. The boomerang flap in managing injuries of the dorsum of the distal phalanx.

    PubMed

    Chen, S L; Chou, T D; Chen, S G; Cheng, T Y; Chen, T M; Wang, H J

    2000-09-01

    Finding an appropriate soft-tissue grafting material to close a wound located over the dorsum of a finger, especially the distal phalanx, can be a difficult task. The boomerang flap mobilized from the dorsum of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit can be useful when applied as an island pedicle skin flap. The vascular supply to the skin flap is derived from the retrograde perfusion of the dorsal digital artery. Mobilization and lengthening of the vascular pedicle are achieved by dividing the distal end of the dorsal metacarpal artery at the bifurcation and incorporating two adjacent dorsal digital arteries into one. The boomerang flap was used in seven individuals with injuries involving the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx over the past year. Skin defects in all patients were combined with bone,joint, or tendon exposure. The authors found that the flap was reliable and technically simple to design and execute. This one-step procedure preserves the proper palmar digital artery to the fingertip and has proven valuable for the coverage of wide and distal defects because it has the advantages of an extended skin paddle and a lengthened vascular pedicle. When conventional local flaps are inadequate, the boomerang flap should be considered for its reliability and low associated morbidity.

  7. Role of distal reabsorption and peritubular environment in glomerulotubular balance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Total kidney glomerulotubular balance was examined during aortic constriction and release in saline-loaded dogs and in dogs undergoing water diuresis. Aortic constriction lowered the glomerular filtration rate by 45% in both groups, and glomerulotubular balance, as judged by changes in absolute sodium reabsorption, was also comparable. During water diuresis, a linear relationship was observed between free water clearance and urine flow during all maneuvers, suggesting that distal sodium reabsorption is related primarily to distal delivery. The results suggest that if alterations in the peritubular environment are responsible for the changes in tubular sodium reabsorption during aortic constriction in the saline- or water-loaded dog, then a change in renal plasma flow, and presumably delivery rate of oncotic force, may be the most likely mediator.

  8. Modified tension band fixation and coracoclavicular stabilisation for unstable distal clavicle fracture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungwook; Kim, Sang-Rim; Kang, Hyunseong; Kim, Donghee; Park, Yong-Geun

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a new surgical technique for the treatment of unstable distal clavicle fracture with modified tension band fixation (MTBF) and coracoclavicular (CC) stabilisation, and evaluate the radiologic and clinical outcome of these patients. Thirteen patients who had a fracture of the distal clavicle (Neer classification type IIb) were treated with MTBF and CC stabilisation. After the CC stabilisation was performed with a suture anchor or flip button, internal fixation using MTBF was carried out. Each patient was followed up for a minimum of 12 months and their clinical and radiological results were analysed. The mean period required for fracture union was 12.6 (range, 8-24) weeks and union was successfully completed in all cases. The mean Constant score at the final follow-up was 94.7 (88-100); the modified University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale was 31.3 points (range, 22-35). All patients returned to normal daily activities at an average of 3.7 months postoperatively (range, 3-5 months). One patient had a new fracture around drilled holes for CC stabilisation by inappropriate tunnelling. MTBF and CC stabilisation is a useful technique for treating an unstable distal clavicle fracture. This procedure provides minimal incision and stable fixation without causing any further acromioclavicular joint injury to those with distal clavicle fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postoperative Course and Complications after Pull-through Vaginoplasty for Distal Vaginal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Roshanak; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2015-12-01

    To report the usual postoperative course and complications after pull-through vaginoplasty for isolated distal vaginal atresia. Retrospective chart review at Texas Children's Hospital of all patients who were diagnosed with isolated distal vaginal atresia and underwent pull-through vaginoplasty during the study time frame. None. Postoperative complications such as vaginal stenosis or infection and postoperative vaginal diameter. Sixteen patients were identified and charts were reviewed. Patients were initially evaluated by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging and found to have distended hematometrocolpos with distal vaginal atresia. All patients underwent pull-through vaginoplasty with similar operative techniques. The average distance from the perineum to the level of the obstruction was 1.84 ± 1.2 cm. Two patients, both with obstructions at greater than 3 cm, experienced stricture formation postoperatively. Four patients (25%) experienced postoperative vaginitis. One patient (6.25%) experienced a postoperative urinary tract infection. Two groups (3 cm or less versus greater than 3 cm) were compared, and the presence of stricture was statistically different based on mean centimeters from perineum prior to pull-through vaginoplasty (P = .038). Distal vaginal atresia is managed with pull-through vaginoplasty. Atresias that extend greater than 3 cm from the perineum are at increased risk for vaginal stricture formation and should be followed to monitor for their formation. Other complications are infrequent and minor. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is Bone Grafting Necessary in the Treatment of Malunited Distal Radius Fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Disseldorp, Dominique J. G.; Poeze, Martijn; Hannemann, Pascal F. W.; Brink, Peter R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Open wedge osteotomy with bone grafting and plate fixation is the standard procedure for the correction of malunited distal radius fractures. Bone grafts are used to increase structural stability and to enhance new bone formation. However, bone grafts are also associated with donor site morbidity, delayed union at bone–graft interfaces, size mismatch between graft and osteotomy defect, and additional operation time. Purpose The goal of this study was to assess bone healing and secondary fracture displacement in the treatment of malunited distal radius fractures without the use of bone grafting. Methods Between January 1993 and December 2013, 132 corrective osteotomies and plate fixations without bone grafting were performed for malunited distal radius fractures. The minimum follow-up time was 12 months. Primary study outcomes were time to complete bone healing and secondary fracture displacement. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs during follow-up were compared with each other, as well as with radiographs of the uninjured side. Results All 132 osteotomies healed. In two cases (1.5%), healing took more than 4 months, but reinterventions were not necessary. No cases of secondary fracture displacement or hardware failure were observed. Significant improvements in all radiographic parameters were shown after corrective osteotomy and plate fixation. Conclusion This study shows that bone grafts are not required for bone healing and prevention of secondary fracture displacement after corrective osteotomy and plate fixation of malunited distal radius fractures. Level of evidence Therapeutic, level IV, case series with no comparison group PMID:26261748

  11. Propeller Perforator Flaps in Distal Lower Leg: Evolution and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Simple or complex defects in the lower leg, and especially in its distal third, continue to be a challenging task for reconstructive surgeons. A variety of flaps were used in the attempt to achieve excellence in form and function. After a long evolution of the reconstructive methods, including random pattern flaps, axial pattern flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps, the reappraisal of the works of Manchot and Salmon by Taylor and Palmer opened the era of perforator flaps. This era began in 1989, when Koshima and Soeda, and separately Kroll and Rosenfield described the first applications of such flaps. Perforator flaps, whether free or pedicled, gained a high popularity due to their main advantages: decreasing donor-site morbidity and improving aesthetic outcome. The use as local perforator flaps in lower leg was possible due to a better understanding of the cutaneous circulation, leg vascular anatomy, angiosome and perforasome concepts, as well as innovations in flaps design. This review will describe the evolution, anatomy, flap design, and technique of the main distally pedicled propeller perforator flaps used in the reconstruction of defects in the distal third of the lower leg and foot. PMID:22783507

  12. Shape Ontogeny of the Distal Femur in the Hominidae with Implications for the Evolution of Bipedality

    PubMed Central

    Tallman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Heterochrony has been invoked to explain differences in the morphology of modern humans as compared to other great apes. The distal femur is one area where heterochrony has been hypothesized to explain morphological differentiation among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. This hypothesis is evaluated here using geometric morphometric data to describe the ontogenetic shape trajectories of extant hominine distal femora and place Plio-Pleistocene hominins within that context. Results of multivariate statistical analyses showed that in both Homo and Gorilla, the shape of the distal femur changes significantly over the course of development, whereas that of Pan changes very little. Development of the distal femur of Homo is characterized by an elongation of the condyles, and a greater degree of enlargement of the medial condyle relative to the lateral condyle, whereas Gorilla are characterized by a greater degree of enlargement of the lateral condyle, relative to the medial. Early Homo and Australopithecus africanus fossils fell on the modern human ontogenetic shape trajectory and were most similar to either adult or adolescent modern humans while specimens of Australopithecus afarensis were more similar to Gorilla/Pan. These results indicate that shape differences among the distal femora of Plio-Pleistocene hominins and humans cannot be accounted for by heterochrony alone; heterochrony could explain a transition from the distal femoral shape of early Homo/A. africanus to modern Homo, but not a transition from A. afarensis to Homo. That change could be the result of genetic or epigenetic factors. PMID:26886416

  13. Interpretation of Post-operative Distal Humerus Radiographs After Internal Fixation: Prediction of Later Loss of Fixation.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Stoop, Nicky; Doornberg, Job N; Guitton, Thierry G; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Ring, David

    2016-10-01

    Stable fixation of distal humerus fracture fragments is necessary for adequate healing and maintenance of reduction. The purpose of this study was to measure the reliability and accuracy of interpretation of postoperative radiographs to predict which implants will loosen or break after operative treatment of bicolumnar distal humerus fractures. We also addressed agreement among surgeons regarding which fracture fixation will loosen or break and the influence of years in independent practice, location of practice, and so forth. A total of 232 orthopedic residents and surgeons from around the world evaluated 24 anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of distal humerus fractures on a Web-based platform to predict which implants would loosen or break. Agreement among observers was measured using the multi-rater kappa measure. The sensitivity of prediction of failure of fixation of distal humerus fracture on radiographs was 63%, specificity was 53%, positive predictive value was 36%, the negative predictive value was 78%, and accuracy was 56%. There was fair interobserver agreement (κ = 0.27) regarding predictions of failure of fixation of distal humerus fracture on radiographs. Interobserver variability did not change when assessed for the various subgroups. When experienced and skilled surgeons perform fixation of type C distal humerus fracture, the immediate postoperative radiograph is not predictive of fixation failure. Reoperation based on the probability of failure might not be advisable. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DO PROXIMAL AND DISTAL GASTRIC TUMOURS BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY?

    PubMed

    Costa, Laurence Bedin da; Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the incidence of gastric (adenocarcinoma) cancer has been decreasing over time, it is still one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and proximal tumours tend to have a worse prognosis. To compare surgical outcomes and prognosis between proximal - excluding tumours of the cardia - and distal gastric cancer. Out of 293 cases reviewed - 209 with distal and 69 with proximal gastric cancer - were compared for clinical and pathological features, stage, surgical outcome, mortality and survival. Statistically, there was no significant difference between patients in both groups regarding mortality (p=0.661), adjuvant chemotherapy (p 0.661), and radiation (p=1.000). However, there was significant difference in the degree of lymph node dissection employed (p=0.002) and the number of positive lymph nodes resected (p=0.038) between the two groups. The odds of death at five years for patients who had a D0 dissection was three times greater (odds ratio 2.78; (95%CI 1.33-5.82) than that for patients who had a D2 dissection, while for patients who had a D1 dissection the odds ratio was only 1.41 (95%CI 0.71-2.83) compared to D2-dissected patients. Although no significant differences were found between proximal and distal gastric cancer, the increased risk of death in D0- and D1-dissected patients clearly suggests an important role of radical D2 lymph node dissection in survival. Embora a incidência do câncer gástrico esteja diminuindo nas últimas décadas, ele ainda aparece como uma das neoplasias malignas mais comuns, e tumores proximais tendem a ter pior prognóstico. Comparar os resultados cirúrgicos e o prognóstico entre o câncer gástrico proximal, excluindo os tumores da cárdia e junção esofagogástrica, e o distal. De 293 casos revistos - 209 distais e 69 proximais - foram comparados quanto aos achados clínicos e patológicos, estágio, resultados cirúrgicos, mortalidade e sobrevida. Estatisticamente não houve diferença entre pacientes em ambos

  15. Technical tip: tightrope fixation of neer type II distal clavicle fracture supported by a case series.

    PubMed

    Haque, Syed; Khan, Anwar; Sharma, A; Sundararajan, Sabapathy

    2014-03-27

    We present a case series of 3 patients who underwent a novel technique of tight rope fixation for Neer type II distal clavicle fracture. 2-3 cm incision was made lateral to the fracture site moving inferomedially. Part of the distal end of clavicle was exposed close to fracture site and further dissection was carried out to reveal the coracoid process. Tight rope fixation of the distal ends of clavicle and coracoid was performed to achieve satisfactory fracture reduction on x-ray. 4 weeks of sling with gentle pendulum movement were followed by active shoulder movement exercises. Radiographic union was reached at 6 weeks' time, while the patients achieved proper shoulder functionality 3 months following the operation. Neer type II distal clavicle fractures are characterized by disruption of the coracoclavicular ligament with wide proximal fragment displacement. Overall, type II distal clavicle fractures have a 20-30% nonunion rate if treated non-surgically. Various techniques have been described for the treatment of these fractures, including hook plate and nailing. Tight rope fixation provides proper apposition of the fracture fragments for union by maintaining a reduced coracoclavicular interval.

  16. Nonoperative treatment of distal biceps brachii musculotendinous partial rupture: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    López-Zabala, I; Fernández-Valencia, J A

    2013-01-01

    Musculotendinous ruptures of the distal biceps brachii are extremely rare injuries whose clinical presentation is similar to distal biceps avulsion. We describe two cases of patients who suffered a distal biceps brachii musculotendinous partial rupture. The first patient was playing soccer as goalkeeper and experienced sudden pain while throwing the ball overhead with his left arm. The second patient experienced sudden pain while weightlifting with his right arm. The mechanism of injury was the same in the two cases, as both involved glenohumeral elevation with elbow extension and forearm supination. Neither of these two patients underwent surgical repair or rehabilitation, and both had perfect scores of 100 on the Mayo Clinic Performance Index for the Elbow at one-year followup.

  17. Fixation of unstable type II clavicle fractures with distal clavicle plate and suture button.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter S; Sears, Benjamin W; Lazarus, Mark R; Frieman, Barbara G

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on a technique to treat unstable type II distal clavicle fractures using fracture-specific plates and coracoclavicular augmentation with a suture button. Six patients with clinically unstable type II distal clavicle fractures underwent treatment using the above technique. All fractures demonstrated radiographic union at 9.6 (8.4-11.6) weeks with a mean follow-up of 15.6 (12.4-22.3) months. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Penn Shoulder Score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were 97.97 (98.33-100), 96.4 (91-99), and 95 (90-100), respectively. One patient required implant removal. Fracture-specific plating with suture-button augmentation for type II distal clavicle fractures provides reliable rates of union without absolute requirement for implant removal.

  18. A unique physeal injury of the distal phalanx

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Onur; Singh, Bijayendra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An unusual Salter–Harris Type 1 fracture variant of the distal phalanx of the index finger is described. The epiphysis was dislocated, sitting dorsally over the middle phalanx head with the articular surface facing dorsal. Reduction could only be achieved through an open procedure. The reduction was stable without supplemental fixation. PMID:27252957

  19. Functional anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, V C

    2013-04-01

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is critical to the function of the forearm as a mechanical unit. This paper is concerned with the concepts and observations that have changed understanding of the function of the DRUJ, notably with respect to the biomechanics of this joint. The DRUJ has been shown to be important in acting to distribute load and removal of the ulna head leads to the biomechanical equivalent of a one-bone forearm. The soft tissues with topographical relations to the distal forearm and DRUJ have also been investigated in our experimental series with findings including the description of a clinical disorder termed subluxation-related ulna neuropathy syndrome.

  20. [Intramedullary nailing of the distal tibia illustrated with the Expert(TM) tibia nail].

    PubMed

    El Attal, R; Hansen, M; Rosenberger, R; Smekal, V; Rommens, P M; Blauth, M

    2011-12-01

    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare and to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. Closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures distal to the isthmus (AO 42), extraarticular fractures of the distal tibia (AO 43 A1/A2/A3), segmental fractures of the tibia with a fracture in the distal tibia, and certain intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia without impression of the joint line with the use of additional implants (AO 43 C1) Patient in reduced general condition (e.g., bed ridden), flexion of the knee of less than 90°, patients with knee arthroplasty of the affected leg, infection in the area of the nail's insertion, infection of the tibial cavity, complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture preferably on a fracture table or using a distractor or an external fixation frame. If necessary, use pointed reduction clamps or sterile drapery. In some cases, additional implants like percutaneous small fragment screws, poller screws or k-wires are helpful. Open reduction is rarely necessary and must be avoided. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Canulated insertion of the Expert(TM) tibia nail (ETN; Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) with reaming of the medullary canal. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle and knee joint. Mobilization with 20 kg weight-bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight-bearing depending on the fracture status. In cases with simple fractures, good bony contact, or transverse fracture pattern, full weight-bearing at the end of week 6 is targeted. Between July 2004 and May 2005, 180 patients were included in a

  1. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  2. An In Vitro Study of the Number of Distal Roots and Canals in mandibular First Molars in Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Razmi, Hasan; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Hooshyar, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the number of distal roots and canals in mandibular first molars and their internal anatomy radiographically within Iranian population. A total of 310 distal roots of mandibular first molars were incorporated in this study and evaluated in terms of number of roots and number and types of canals. Root canal systems were studied in vitro by means of radiography and based on Vertucci's classifications. It was shown that 4.5% of the teeth in this study had two distal roots, of which, 100% indicated type I for both distobuccal and distolingual roots. Among all the teeth, 43.2% had two canals, 24.2% two apical foramina, and 38.7% two orifices in their distal roots. According to Vertucci's classification 54.9% of the teeth were type I, 19% type II, 1.9% type III, 14.2% type IV, 4.2% type V, 1% type VI, 0.3% type VII and 0% type VIII. In as many as 43.2% of all teeth assessed in this study, bicanaled distal roots were observed, dentists are always recommended to search for the second canal in distal roots of mandibular first molars. In case the second canal in the distal root is missed, failure of endodontic treatment will be anticipated. A rectangular type access cavity design allows better visualization and negotiation of the probable second canals within the distal roots of mandibular first molars.

  3. Clinical and biochemical findings in Mexican patients with distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Hernández, Norma; Matos-Martínez, Mario; Ordaz-López, Karen Verónica; Camargo-Muñiz, María Dolores; Medeiros, Mara; Escobar-Pérez, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a rare disease characterized by a normal serum anion gap, sustained metabolic acidosis, low concentration of plasma bicarbonate, variable hyperchloremia and hypokalemia and conserved glomerular filtration rate. RTA is developed during the first year of life and produces failure to thrive and anorexia. Primary distal RTA (type 1) is a renal syndrome with a reduced ability to excrete the acid load through the collecting ducts and impairment to concentrate the urine causing polyuria and dehydration. Evaluate the current health status and describe the clinical findings and progress of Mexican patients with distal RTA. Demonstrate the distal urinary acidification defect by measuring the urinary pCO2 tension in alkaline urines. We looked for infants in tertiary care hospitals with a clinical history of normal serum anion gap, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, nephrocalcinosis, sensorineural hearing loss and inability for urine acidification under systemic metabolic acidosis. Biochemical analysis were performed periodically. Alkali medication was not suspended in one patient to assess urinary acidification with oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (2 mEq/Kg) and acetazolamide (500 mg/1.73 m2 body surface). Urinary pCO2 levels were determined at 60 and 90 min. Three children, one adolescent and one adult with distal RTA were found. They had an infant history of dehydration, failure to thrive, anorexia, vomiting, muscle paralysis, hypercalciuria, urinary infections, polyuria, polydipsia and polyhidramnios during pregnancy. Severe nephrocalcinosis was detected in all patients whereas sensorineural hearing loss was developed in four cases. Under the alkali medication all cases but one were normocalciuric. A patient developed kidney failure. The urinary acidification test confirmed the innability to eliminate the acid load. Early diagnosis in infancy and continuos alkali medication were of great benefit for most of the

  4. Pulmonary Vascular Congestion: A Mechanism for Distal Lung Unit Dysfunction in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Beno W; Berger, Kenneth I; Ali, Saleem; Segal, Leopoldo N; Donnino, Robert; Katz, Stuart; Parikh, Manish; Goldring, Roberta M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased systemic and pulmonary blood volumes (pulmonary vascular congestion). Concomitant abnormal alveolar membrane diffusion suggests subclinical interstitial edema. In this setting, functional abnormalities should encompass the entire distal lung including the airways. We hypothesize that in obesity: 1) pulmonary vascular congestion will affect the distal lung unit with concordant alveolar membrane and distal airway abnormalities; and 2) the degree of pulmonary congestion and membrane dysfunction will relate to the cardiac response. 54 non-smoking obese subjects underwent spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), diffusion capacity (DLCO) with partition into membrane diffusion (DM) and capillary blood volume (VC), and cardiac MRI (n = 24). Alveolar-capillary membrane efficiency was assessed by calculation of DM/VC. Mean age was 45±12 years; mean BMI was 44.8±7 kg/m2. Vital capacity was 88±13% predicted with reduction in functional residual capacity (58±12% predicted). Despite normal DLCO (98±18% predicted), VC was elevated (135±31% predicted) while DM averaged 94±22% predicted. DM/VC varied from 0.4 to 1.4 with high values reflecting recruitment of alveolar membrane and low values indicating alveolar membrane dysfunction. The most abnormal IOS (R5 and X5) occurred in subjects with lowest DM/VC (r2 = 0.31, p<0.001; r2 = 0.34, p<0.001). Cardiac output and index (cardiac output / body surface area) were directly related to DM/VC (r2 = 0.41, p<0.001; r2 = 0.19, p = 0.03). Subjects with lower DM/VC demonstrated a cardiac output that remained in the normal range despite presence of obesity. Global dysfunction of the distal lung (alveolar membrane and distal airway) is associated with pulmonary vascular congestion and failure to achieve the high output state of obesity. Pulmonary vascular congestion and consequent fluid transudation and/or alterations in the structure of the alveolar capillary membrane may be considered often

  5. Subclinical ischemic events in patients undergoing carotid artery stent placement: comparison of proximal and distal protection techniques.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Emrah; Gürkaş, Erdem; Akpinar, Cetin Kursad; Saleem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relative effectiveness of proximal and distal protection in prevention of cerebral ischemic events during carotid artery stent (CAS) placement using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). We analyzed data from patients who had undergone DW-MRI before and within 24 hours of CAS for symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (with last ischemic events within 3 months). The study was performed prospectively; patients were not randomized, and were treated either with a proximal balloon occlusion system (Mo.Ma; Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) or filter-type distal protection device (Spider device; ev3, Plymouth, Minnesota, USA). Of the 45 patients (mean age±SD: 66.9±9.8 years; 73.3% were men) who underwent CAS, 19 had proximal protection and 26 distal protection. New ischemic lesions were detected in 26/45 patients on DW-MRI scans obtained within 24 hours after CAS. The proportion of patients with new lesions on DW-MRI at 24 hours was not different between the two groups (47.4% vs 65.4% for proximal and distal protection, respectively). The mean number of new ischemic lesions on post-CAS DW-MRI was non-significantly higher in patients who underwent CAS with distal protection (2.80±3.54 for proximal protection vs 4.96±5.11 for distal protection; p=0.12). The proportion of patients with new lesions >1 cm did not differ between the two groups (5.3% for proximal protection vs 11.5% for distal protection; p=0.62). There was no difference in the rates of ischemic stroke between patients who underwent CAS treatment using proximal and distal protection (5.3% vs 7.7%; p=1.000). We found a relatively high rate of new ischemic lesions in patients undergoing CAS with cerebral protection. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with new lesions between patients treated using distal protection and those treated using proximal protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  6. The feasibility and advantages of billroth-I reconstruction in distal gastric cancers following resection.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, M S; Reddy, K G; Venkata Subbareddy, D S

    2012-01-01

    Gastric carcinomas are common malignancies in southern India and distal stomach remains the commonest site in low socio economic groups. Surgery still remains an important modality of treatment to achieve local control and also relieve obstructive symptoms. In this study we investigated the feasibility of performing a gastrectomy and billroth-1 type of anastomosis in a rural cancer center setting, with parameters like adequacy of margins, ease of anastomosis and its functional results were analysed. Eight patients presenting to a rurally based cancer center underwent a distal gastrectomy and billroth-1 type of anastomosis for continuity restoration. All the patients had adequate proximal and distal marg. The surgical time varied between-hrs. The anastomosis was constructed without any tension on bowel ends in all patients. The average time to start oral feeds varied between- None of the patients showed symptoms of bile reflux nor dumping. The average hospital stay varied between. Billroth-1 anastomosis is a physiologically more natural way of restoring continuity following a gastrectomy and it is a procedure which would be technically more simpler and decrease per and post operative complications and allow speedier post operative recovery following surgery on distal gastric cancers.

  7.  Intrahepatic, perihilar and distal cholangiocarcinoma: Management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Waseem, David; Tushar, Patel

     Introduction and aims. Cholangiocarcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors that can be classified into three clinically distinct types of cancers, intrahepatic, perihilar and distal cholangiocarcinoma. The inconsistent use of nomenclature for these cancers has obscured a true knowledge of the epidemiology, natural history and response to therapy of these cancers. Our aims were to define demographic characteristics, management and outcomes of these three distinct cancer types. A retrospective study of patients enrolled in an institutional cancer registry from 1992 to 2010. Median survival was compared between different treatment modalities over three time periods for the three types of cholangiocarcinoma at different stages of the disease using Kaplan Meyer analysis. 242 patients were identified. All cases were reviewed and classified into intrahepatic (90 patients), distal (48 patients) or perihilar (104 patients) cholangiocarcinomas. These cancers differed in median age of onset, gender distribution, median survival and stage. 13.8% of patients presented with stage I, 5.8% with stage II, 9.6% with stage III, 28% with stage IV, with 41.8% having unknown stage. The overall median survival was 15.8 months, and was 23, 25, 14, and 4.5 months for stages I, II, III, and IV respectively. Surgery improved survival in both early and advanced stages. Multimodality therapies further improved outcomes, particularly for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Perihilar, distal and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma vary in their presentation, natural history and therapeutic approach to management. A consistently applied classification is essential for meaningful interpretation of studies of these cancers.

  8. Distal acquired demyelinating symmetric polyneuropathy progressing to classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and response to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Megan M; Sherman, William H; Brannagan, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    Distal acquired demyelinating symmetric polyneuropathy (DADS) is proposed as a distinct entity from classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We report a 58-year-old woman with DADS that progressed to a severe case of classic CIDP. She had distal numbness and paresthesias, minimal distal weakness and impaired vibratory sensation. She had anti-MAG antibodies, negative Western blot, and lacked a monoclonal gammopathy. There were prolonged distal motor latencies. She remained stable for 6 years until developing proximal and distal weakness. Nerve conduction studies showed multiple conduction blocks. She developed quadriparesis despite first-line treatment for CIDP. She was started on cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. Twenty-five months after receiving chemotherapy, she had only mild signs of neuropathy off all immunotherapy. DADS may progress to classic CIDP and is unlikely to be a separate disorder. Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide may be effective for refractory CIDP. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Esophagojejunal Anastomosis Fistula, Distal Esophageal Stenosis, and Metalic Stent Migration after Total Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al Hajjar, Nadim; Popa, Calin; Al-Momani, Tareg; Margarit, Simona; Graur, Florin; Tantau, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Esophagojejunal anastomosis fistula is the main complication after a total gastrectomy. To avoid a complex procedure on friable inflamed perianastomotic tissues, a coated self-expandable stent is mounted at the site of the anastomotic leak. A complication of stenting procedure is that it might lead to distal esophageal stenosis. However, another frequently encountered complication of stenting is stent migration, which is treated nonsurgically. When the migrated stent creates life threatening complications, surgical removal is indicated. We present a case of a 67-year-old male patient who was treated at our facility for a gastric adenocarcinoma which developed, postoperatively, an esophagojejunostomy fistula, a distal esophageal stenosis, and a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an esophagojejunostomy fistula combined with a distal esophageal stenosis as well as with a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. PMID:25945277

  10. Fracture heuristics: surgical decision for approaches to distal radius fractures. A surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wichlas, Florian; Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Kopf, Sebastian; Krapohl, Björn Dirk; Manegold, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study is to develop a heuristic that could replace the surgeon's analysis for the decision on the operative approach of distal radius fractures based on simple fracture characteristics. Patients and methods: Five hundred distal radius fractures operated between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed for the surgeon's decision on the approach used. The 500 distal radius fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation through palmar, dorsal, and dorsopalmar approaches with 2.4 mm locking plates or underwent percutaneous fixation. The parameters that should replace the surgeon's analysis were the fractured palmar cortex, and the frontal and the sagittal split of the articular surface of the distal radius. Results: The palmar approach was used for 422 (84.4%) fractures, the dorsal approach for 39 (7.8%), and the combined dorsopalmar approach for 30 (6.0%). Nine (1.8%) fractures were treated percutaneously. The correlation between the fractured palmar cortex and the used palmar approach was moderate (r=0.464; p<0.0001). The correlation between the frontal split and the dorsal approach, including the dorsopalmar approach, was strong (r=0.715; p<0.0001). The sagittal split had only a weak correlation for the dorsal and dorsopalmar approach (r=0.300; p<0.0001). Discussion: The study shows that the surgical decision on the preferred approach is dictated through two simple factors, even in the case of complex fractures. Conclusion: When the palmar cortex is displaced in distal radius fractures, a palmar approach should be used. When there is a displaced frontal split of the articular surface, a dorsal approach should be used. When both are present, a dorsopalmar approach should be used. These two simple parameters could replace the surgeon's analysis for the surgical approach.

  11. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mohit J; Mavani, Kinjal J

    2016-12-01

    The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves "bridging" the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of complications associated with them. The current technique represents an

  12. Patient-accident-fracture (PAF) classification of acute distal radius fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, G; Galissard, T; Burnier, M

    2018-05-19

    There is not enough evidence in the literature to support the use of any classification system for distal radius fractures (DRF) in adults. However, there is a need for identification of more homogeneous groups of patients with DRF so that the extent of preoperative workup and sophistication of treatment would best match the needs of the patient. The authors propose an innovative method to analyse and stratify acute DRF in adults. A one-page chart includes criteria related to the patient (P), the energy of the accident (A) and the pathology of the fracture (F). Analysis of the pathology includes not only the distal radius itself but also the associated ulnar and carpal lesions. Radiological suspicion of associated carpal of distal radio-ulnar joint ligamentous injuries is included in the analysis. The preliminary results of the use of this chart in 1610 consecutive adult patients (16-102 years) with unilateral acute DRF are presented. A total of six homogeneous groups of patients are described, and the relevance of this classification regarding the therapeutic options is discussed.

  13. Differences in stone size and ureteral dilation between obstructing proximal and distal ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Brian H; Pedro, Renato; Namasivayam, Saravanan; Kambadakone, Avinash; Sahani, Dushyant V; Dretler, Stephen P; Monga, Manoj

    2008-09-01

    To examine the differences in ureteral dilation and calculus size between obstructing proximal and distal ureteral stones. A retrospective review of computed tomography (CT) scans from 176 consecutive patients with obstructing ureteral calculi was performed. For the calculi, the axial diameter was defined as the largest stone diameter on the axial CT images, and the coronal length was defined as the cephalocaudal length of the stone measured on the coronal CT images. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. A total of 65 proximal and 111 distal ureteral calculi were analyzed. On univariate analysis, the proximal calculi were associated with a greater degree of ureteral dilation (mean 6.1 mm vs 5.3 mm, P = .01) and had a greater coronal length (mean 9.9 mm vs 8.3 mm, P = .005) than distal calculi. This association was also true on the multivariate analysis, which controlled for age and sex (P = .0004). No statistically significant difference was found in the axial calculus diameter for the proximal and distal stones (mean 5.3 mm vs 5.0 mm, P = .29). In a subset of 50 patients whose contralateral ureters (without stones) were measured for control comparison, the ureteral dilation in the ureters with stones was significantly greater than in the control ureters (proximal ureter 6.2 mm vs 4.3 mm, P = .001; distal ureter 4.7 mm vs 3.8 mm, P = .004). For proximal calculi, 72.3% were associated with ureteral dilation of less than 7 mm, 23.1% with 7-10 mm, and 4.6% with greater than 10 mm. For the distal calculi, 90.1% were associated with ureteral dilation of less than 7 mm, 6.3% with 7-10 mm, and 3.6% with greater than 10 mm. The coronal length was the largest measured diameter in 94% of the calculi, and the mean calculus coronal length was significantly greater than the mean axial diameter (8.9 mm vs 5.1 mm, respectively, P < .001). The results of our study have shown that proximal ureteral calculi are associated with a significantly greater

  14. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Because of Distal Superior Cerebellar Artery Dissection in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Yuki; Ohmori, Yuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kaku, Yasuyuki; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi; Yano, Shigetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a rare disease with an incidence of 1 in every 3000 births. Numerous studies have focused on the main function of NF1 as a tumor suppressor, whereas few have examined the cerebrovascular abnormalities observed in patients with NF1. It is worth noting that intracranial aneurysms are uncommon in this condition. We report a case of NF1 with a dissection of the distal segment of the superior cerebellar artery. A 36-year-old woman presented with a distal superior cerebellar artery (SCA) dissection causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subsequently, because of the rich collateral blood flow distal to the dissection, N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue embolization was unsuccessful. Therefore, direct trapping of the artery was necessary. The patient was discharged after an uneventful postoperative period, and has remained without complications. In the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage because of a distal SCA dissection in patients with NF1, NBCA glue embolization may be a safer option than microsurgery or coil embolization, in the acute phase, considering the possible vulnerability of the vessel wall, accessibility, morphology of the lesions, and the risk of developing unpredictable infarcts in the case of parent artery occlusion. However, regular reevaluation of the blood flow is necessary to monitor recurrence, given the rich collateral circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The first experience of robot assisted spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung; Chi, Hoon Sang

    2011-05-01

    Spleen-preservation has recently been emphasized in benign and borderline malignant pancreatic diseases requiring distal pancreatectomy. Reports to suggest that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is feasible and safe have been increasingly published. Robotic surgical system has been introduced and is expected to provide unique advantages in laparoscopic surgery. However, robot-assisted pancreatic surgery has not yet been performed by many surgeons. A 45-year-old female patient with abdominal discomfort was found to have pancreatic cyst in the body of the pancreas. Mucinous cystic tumor of the pancreas was the most favourable preoperative diagnosis. She underwent spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy by using da Vinci surgical robot system. Splenic artery and vein were so tightly adherent to the pancreatic cyst that segmental resection of splenic vessels was required. Postoperative course was uneventful. She was able to come home in 5 days after surgery. Postoperative follow up color doppler ultrasound scan, taken on 2 weeks after surgery, showed minimal fluid collection around surgical field and no evidence of splenic infarction with good preservation of splenic perfusion. Robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy is thought to be feasible and safe. Several unique advantages of robotic system are expected to enhance safer and more precise surgical performance in near future. More experiences are mandatory to confirm real benefit of robot surgery in pancreatic disease.

  16. Jejunogastric intussusception after distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Fumiaki; Tashiro, Kousei; Nakao, Hironobu; Fujii, Yoshirou; Ikeda, Takuto; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kunihide; Nanashima, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Jejunogastric intussusception is a rare complication after gastric operation. Intussusception after gastric operation occurs mostly at the gastrojejunal anastomosis site and Braun anastomosis site of Billroth II reconstruction, and at the Y anastomosis site of Roux-en-Y reconstruction. However, jejunogastric intussusception after distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction is very rare. We report a surgical case of jejunogastric intussusception after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer treatment. An 82-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer treatment. Reconstruction was performed using Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Oral intake was started on postoperative day 4, however vomiting and high-grade fever occurred on postoperative day 12, after which oral intake became difficult. Anastomotic stenosis of the gastrojejunostomy was suspected, and various examinations were performed. Gastroendoscopy and computed tomography revealed an elevated lesion with ring-like folds protruding through the anastomosis site into the remnant stomach. Reoperation was performed on postoperative day 28 after a diagnosis of jejunogastric intussusception was made. It failed to reduce the intussusception, so partial resection of the gastrojejunal anastomosis was performed and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was repeated. Reconstruction was conducted after taking into consideration the recurrence of intussusception. Jejunogastric intussusceptions after distal gastrectomy is a rare complication; however, when it occurs, early diagnosis and appropriate management are necessary. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Total knee arthroplasty following prior distal femoral fracture.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Elias C; Parvizi, Javad; Lai, Choon H; Lewallen, David G

    2002-12-01

    Femoral fracture may predispose the knee to the development of post-traumatic arthritis by either a direct intra-articular injury or residual limb malalignment. Malunion, intra-articular osseous defects, limb malalignment, retained internal fixation devices, and compromised surrounding soft tissues may in turn affect the outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in these patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the result of TKA in patients with previous distal femoral fracture. The results of 48 cemented condylar total knee arthroplasties, performed between 1980 to 1998, in 47 patients with a previous distal femoral fracture were reviewed. There were 37 females and 10 males with an average age of 65 years (range, 19-84 years). Follow-up averaged 6.2 years (range, 2-16 years). No patients were lost to follow-up. At the time of arthroplasty a femoral fracture non-union was present in three knees, all of which were treated with a long stem cemented femoral component and bone grafting. Malunion, defined as angulation greater than 10 degrees in the coronal plain or greater than 15 degrees in the sagittal plain, was present in 21 knees. Of these, six underwent distal femoral osteotomy during TKA. In the remaining 15 patients, with a malunion, the deformity was addressed by alterations in the orientation and location of bone resection. Other procedures were commonly needed at the time of arthroplasty and included: lateral retinacular release (22 knees), extensor mechanism realignment (eight knees), and collateral ligament reconstruction (two knees). The mean pre-operative Knee Society Scores were 40 (range, 0-80) for pain and 48 (range, 0-100) for function and improved significantly to a mean of 84 (range, 37-99) and 66 (range, 0-100) points, respectively, at the latest follow-up (P<0.001). The knee arc of motion improved from a pre-operative mean of 83-99 degrees at the latest follow-up (P<0.004). Post-operative manipulation under anesthesia for poor motion was

  18. A fibrin adhesive sealing method for the prevention of pancreatic fistula following distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Mita, Kazuhito; Ito, Hideto; Fukumoto, Masato; Murabayashi, Ryo; Koizumi, Kazuya; Hayashi, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kagaya, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic fistula is the most common complication following distal pancreatectomy. We have developed a fibrin adhesive sealing method which covers the cut surface and parenchyma of the pancreas, to prevent pancreatic fistula. We performed 25 distal pancreatectomies. Fibrin adhesive (TachoComb) was applied to the staple line of the pancreas before stapling. Pancreatic fistula was defined and graded according to the International Study Group of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) definition. The overall incidence of pancreatic fistula was five cases (20%). Four cases (16%) were classified as Grade A. Only one case (4%) was classified as Grade B. In patients with or without pancreatic fistula, the mean length of postoperative hospital stay was not significant. The fibrin adhesive sealing method is a simple and effective method of preventing postoperative pancreatic fistula formation after distal pancreatectomy.

  19. Differences of immunophenotypic markers and signaling molecules between adenocarcinomas of gastric cardia and distal stomach.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liying; Zhang, Xianghong; Li, Yuehong; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Xuemin; Mi, Jianmin; Wang, Hengshu; Wang, Junling; Yan, Xia

    2011-04-01

    During the past decades, the subsites of gastric carcinoma underwent significant changes. The incidence of the adenocarcinoma at distal stomach has been decreased, whereas cardiac adenocarcinoma remained increasing in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between gastric cardiac and distal adenocarcinomas. We detected expressions of cytokeratins (cytokeratins 7, 14, 19, and 20) and mucins (mucins 1, 2, and 5AC) by immunohistochemistry and signaling molecules (p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 1 (MNK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in both groups. The incidence of mucin 2 expression was lower in total (50.0%) and advanced-stage cases (52.0%) with cardiac adenocarcinomas than those in distal cases with total (70.2%) and advanced stage (71.4%), respectively. However, the staining for cytokeratin 14 was also significantly higher in total or advanced-stage tumors from the cardia. Our data showed no significant difference of cytokeratin 7/cytokeratin 20 pattern between 2 groups, but cytokeratin 20 expression was significantly higher in advanced-stage carcinomas of the cardia (58.7%) than in distal ones with advanced stage (38.3%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated different relationships between immunophenotypic markers and pathologic parameters in adenocarcinomas of the cardia and distal stomach. Moreover, significantly lower expressions of MNK1 and p38 in cardiac tumors were also detected. In summary, we found significant differences in patterns of immunophenotypic markers and expressions of signaling molecules between the 2 groups. It is indicated that adenocarcinoma of the cardia was different in histotype and histologic origin from distal adenocarcinoma. The cardiac adenocarcinoma might be a special subtype or an independent entity of gastric carcinoma in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  20. [Aneurysm of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery combined with kinking of its distal segment].

    PubMed

    Zotov, S P; Shcherbakov, A V; Ufimtsev, M S; Kostromitin, N E; Semashko, T V; Korzina, E N; Tsar'kova, T A; Zharov, K A

    Presented herein is a clinical case report regarding successful operation for an aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (measuring 4.5*8.3 cm) combined with pathological tortuosity in its distal portion. The patient was subjected to aneurysmectomy of the left internal carotid artery with prosthetic repair. Kinking in the distal portion of the aneurysm made it possible with minimal technical difficulties to establish a distal anastomosis during prosthetic repair. The diagnosis of an atherosclerotic-aetiology aneurysm was morphologically confirmed.

  1. Primary repair of retracted distal biceps tendon ruptures in extreme flexion.

    PubMed

    Morrey, Mark E; Abdel, Matthew P; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F

    2014-05-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures may have tendinous retraction, making primary repair difficult and calling into question the need for graft reconstruction. The decision for when to primarily fix or augment high-flexion repairs has not been addressed. We hypothesized high-flexion repairs would have good outcomes without graft augmentation. The purpose of this study was to examine allograft use and outcomes of distal biceps tendon ruptures requiring repair in greater than 60° of flexion. This was a retrospective case-control study 188 distal biceps tendon repairs; of these, 19 chronic and 4 acute cases were identified with repairs of >60° of flexion using a 2-incision technique. Graft need, complications, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score to assess function, were examined with a record review. Patients were surveyed regarding return to work and subjective satisfaction. A control group matched for surgeon, chronicity, and age, but without a high-flexion repair, was compared with cases by using the Student paired t test. Graft augmentation was used in 1 patient with poor tendon quality. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 100 for all 23 patients, with extension/flexion range of motion from 3° to 138°. All were subjectively "very satisfied/satisfied," with full work return, yet 3 reported mild fatigability. There were 4 complications: 3 transient lateral antebrachial cutaneous neurapraxias and 1 rerupture at the myotendinous junction after retrauma. Differences between cases and controls were not statistically significant. Contracted distal biceps tendons may be reliably reattached to their anatomic insertion with up to 90° of elbow flexion. This lessens the need for reconstruction in such circumstances. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing butyrate concentration in the distal colon by accelerating intestinal transit

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S; Heaton, K

    1997-01-01

    Background—Populations at low risk of colonic cancer consume large amounts of fibre and starch and pass acid, bulky stools. One short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate, is the colon's main energy source and inhibits malignant transformation in vitro. 
Aim—To test the hypothesis that altering colonic transit rate alters colonic pH and the SCFA content of the stools. 
Patients—Thirteen healthy adults recruited by advertisement. 
Methods—Volunteers consumed, in turn, wheat bran, senna and loperamide, each for nine days with a two week washout period between study periods, dietary intake being unchanged. Before, and in the last four days of each intervention, whole gut transit time (WGTT), defaecation frequency, stool form, stool β-glucuronidase activity, stool pH, stool SCFA concentrations and intracolonic pH (using a radiotelemetry capsule for continuous monitoring) were assessed. 
Results—WGTT decreased, stool output and frequency increased with wheat bran and senna, vice versa with loperamide. The pH was similar in the distal colon and stool. Distal colonic pH fell with wheat bran and senna and tended to increase with loperamide. Faecal SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, increased with senna and fell with loperamide. With wheat bran the changes were non-significant, possibly because of the short duration of the study. Baseline WGTT correlated with faecal SCFA concentration (r=−0.511, p=0.001), with faecal butyrate (r=−0.577, p<0.001) and with distal colonic pH (r=0.359, p=0.029). 
Conclusion—Bowel transit rate is a determinant of stool SCFA concentration including butyrate and distal colonic pH. This may explain the inter-relations between colonic cancer, dietary fibre intake, stool output, and stool pH. 

 Keywords: bowel cancer; colonic pH; fibre; intestinal transit; pH; short chain fatty acids PMID:9301506

  3. Analysis of midpalatal miniscrew-assisted maxillary molar distalization patterns with simultaneous use of fixed appliances: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Eun Jin; Nam, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal anchorage-assisted upper molar distalization has become one of the standard treatment modalities for the correction of Class II malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to analyze maxillary molar movement patterns according to appliance design, with the simultaneous use of buccal fixed orthodontic appliances. The authors devised two distinct types of midpalatal miniscrew-assisted maxillary molar distalizers, a lingual arch type and a pendulum type. Fourteen patients treated with one of the two types of distalizers were enrolled in the study, and the patterns of tooth movement associated with each type were compared. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed. The lingual arch type was associated with relatively bodily upper molar distalization, while the pendulum type was associated with distal tipping with intrusion of the upper molar. Clinicians should be aware of the expected tooth movement associated with each appliance design. Further well designed studies with larger sample sizes are required. PMID:26877983

  4. Radial nerve palsy in mid/distal humeral fractures: is early exploration effective?

    PubMed

    Keighley, Geffrey; Hermans, Deborah; Lawton, Vidya; Duckworth, David

    2018-03-01

    Radial nerve palsies are a common complication with displaced distal humeral fractures. This case series examines the outcomes of early operative exploration and decompression of the nerve with fracture fixation with the view that this provides a solid construct for optimisation of nerve recovery. A total of 10 consecutive patients with a displaced distal humeral fracture and an acute radial nerve palsy were treated by the senior author by open reduction and internal fixation of the distal humerus and exploration and decompression of the radial nerve. Motor function and sensation of the radial nerve was assessed in the post-operative period every 2 months or until full recovery of the radial nerve function had occurred. All patients (100%) had recovery of motor and sensation function of their upper limb in the radial nerve distribution over a 12-month period. Recovery times ranged between 4 and 32 weeks, with the median time to recovery occurring at 26 weeks and the average time to full recovery being 22.9 weeks. Wrist extension recovered by an average of 3 months (range 2-26 weeks) and then finger extension started to recover 2-6 weeks after this. Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores ranged from 0 to 11.8 at greater than 1 year post-operatively. Our study demonstrated that early operative exploration of the radial nerve when performing an open stabilization of displaced distal humeral fractures resulted in a 100% recovery of the radial nerve. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. A distal ligand mutes the interaction of hydrogen sulfide with human neuroglobin

    PubMed Central

    Ruetz, Markus; Kumutima, Jacques; Lewis, Brianne E.; Filipovic, Milos R.; Lehnert, Nicolai; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a critical signaling molecule, but high concentrations cause cellular toxicity. A four-enzyme pathway in the mitochondrion detoxifies H2S by converting it to thiosulfate and sulfate. Recent studies have shown that globins like hemoglobin and myoglobin can also oxidize H2S to thiosulfate and hydropolysulfides. Neuroglobin, a globin enriched in the brain, was reported to bind H2S tightly and was postulated to play a role in modulating neuronal sensitivity to H2S in conditions such as stroke. However, the H2S reactivity of the coordinately saturated heme in neuroglobin is expected a priori to be substantially lower than that of the 5-coordinate hemes present in myoglobin and hemoglobin. To resolve this discrepancy, we explored the role of the distal histidine residue in muting the reactivity of human neuroglobin toward H2S. Ferric neuroglobin is slowly reduced by H2S and catalyzes its inefficient oxidative conversion to thiosulfate. Mutation of the distal His64 residue to alanine promotes rapid binding of H2S and its efficient conversion to oxidized products. X-ray absorption, EPR, and resonance Raman spectroscopy highlight the chemically different reaction options influenced by the distal histidine ligand. This study provides mechanistic insights into how the distal heme ligand in neuroglobin caps its reactivity toward H2S and identifies by cryo-mass spectrometry a range of sulfide oxidation products with 2–6 catenated sulfur atoms with or without oxygen insertion, which accumulate in the absence of the His64 ligand. PMID:28246171

  6. Minimally invasive locked plating of distal tibia fractures is safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Ronga, Mario; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-04-01

    Distal tibial fractures are difficult to manage. Limited soft tissue and poor vascularity impose limitations for traditional plating techniques that require large exposures. The nature of the limitations for traditional plating techniques is intrinsic to the large exposure required to approach distal tibia, a bone characterized by limited soft tissue coverage and poor vascularity. The locking plate (LP) is a new device for treatment of fractures. We assessed the bone union rate, deformity, leg-length discrepancy, ankle range of motion, return to preinjury activities, infection, and complication rate in 21 selected patients who underwent minimally invasive osteosynthesis of closed distal tibia fractures with an LP. According to the AO classification, there were 12 Type A, 5 Type B, and 4 Type C fractures. The minimum followup was 2 years (average, 2.8 years; range, 2-4 years). Two patients were lost to followup. Union was achieved in all but one patient by the 24th postoperative week. Four patients had angular deformity less than 7 degrees . No patient had a leg-length discrepancy more than 1.1 cm. Five patients had ankle range of motion less than 20 degrees compared with the contralateral side. Sixteen patients had not returned to their preinjury sporting or leisure activities. Three patients developed a delayed infection. We judge the LP a reasonable device for treating distal tibia fractures. The level of physical activities appears permanently reduced in most patients. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Youngswick-Austin versus distal oblique osteotomy for the treatment of Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Viladot, Antonio; Sodano, Luca; Marcellini, Lorenzo; Zamperetti, Marco; Hernandez, Elsa Sanchez; Perice, Ramon Viladot

    2017-08-01

    Hallux Rigidus is the most common degenerative joint pathology of the foot. Several procedures are described for the management of this deformity. In this prospective study we compared Youngswick-Austin and distal oblique osteotomy in the treatment of grade II Hallux Rigidus, in terms of clinical outcomes, efficacy and complications. Forty-six patients (50 feet) with moderate Hallux Rigidus (Regnauld grade II) were recruited and operated between March 2009 and December 2012. Surgical technique was Youngswick-Austin osteotomy (Group A) or distal oblique osteotomy (Group B). Mean follow-up was 42.7 ±12.2 (range, 24-70) months. Both groups achieved significant improvement of AOFAS score and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion (p value <.05). The mean AOFAS score improved from a preoperative score of 44.1 ±11.8 to 89.2 ± 9.4 (24 months) in Group A and from 40.9 ±11.3 to 89.5 ±7.2 (24 months) in Group B. At 24 months, the average improvement of first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion was 20.9° in Group A and 22.4° in Group B. The postoperative AOFAS score and joint range of motion were comparable in both groups. For this specific patient population Youngswick-Austin and distal oblique osteotomies provides subjective patient improvement and increases the first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. The results of grade II Hallux Rigidus treatment were comparable when using a Youngswick-Austin or distal oblique osteotomy. Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

  9. Proximal, Distal, and the Politics of Causation: What’s Level Got to Do With It?

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Causal thinking in public health, and especially in the growing literature on social determinants of health, routinely employs the terminology of proximal (or downstream) and distal (or upstream). I argue that the use of these terms is problematic and adversely affects public health research, practice, and causal accountability. At issue are distortions created by conflating measures of space, time, level, and causal strength. To make this case, I draw on an ecosocial perspective to show how public health got caught in the middle of the problematic proximal–distal divide—surprisingly embraced by both biomedical and social determinist frameworks—and propose replacing the terms proximal and distal with explicit language about levels, pathways, and power. PMID:18172144

  10. Anatomy, pathology, and physiology of the tracheobronchial tree: emphasis on the distal airways.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Dallas M; Hamid, Qutayba; Irvin, Charles G

    2009-12-01

    This article covers the airway tree with respect to anatomy, pathology, and physiology. The anatomic portion discusses various primate groups so as to help investigators understand similarities and differences between animal models. An emphasis is on distal airway findings. The pathology section focuses on the inflammatory responses that occur in proximal and distal airways. The physiologic review brings together the anatomic and pathologic components to the functional state and proposes ways to evaluate the small airways in patients with asthma.

  11. A case of distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with two positive resection margins.

    PubMed

    Warner, Wayne A; Ramcharan, Wesley; Harnanan, Dave; Umakanthan, Srikanth; Maharaj, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is an uncommon primary malignancy of the biliary tract that is challenging to diagnose and treat effectively due to its relatively silent and late clinical presentation. The present study reports a case of a 60-year-old male with distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a 3-week history of painless obstructive jaundice symptoms and subjective weight loss. Imaging revealed an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct, just distal to the entrance of the cystic duct. Pathology revealed moderately differentiated cholangiocarcinoma with two positive proximal resection margins. The two positive resection margins presented a challenge during surgery and points to an urgent need for further studies to better illuminate diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with similar clinicopathological presentation.

  12. [Osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures by doral plate: advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Obert, L; Vichard, P; Garbuio, P; Tropet, Y

    2001-12-01

    Distal radius fractures remain a challenge. No one osteosynthesis procedure can solve all the problems. A method of analysis is necessary in order to choose the best tools. Open treatment of the fracture is logical but rarely performed. A review of the literature and the experience of the authors are reported in order to analyse the correct place of dorsal plating in distal radius fracture with dorsal displacement. The learning curve of the operative procedure and the design of the implants can explain the occurrence of several complications. The dorsal plate is effective against secondary dorsal displacement. This demanding procedure must be compared with other reported procedures (pining and external fixator) to define the advantages and disadvantages.

  13. The effect of distal clavicle excision on in situ graft forces in coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kowalsky, Marc S; Kremenic, Ian J; Orishimo, Karl F; McHugh, Malachy P; Nicholas, Stephen J; Lee, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Recently, some have suggested that the acromioclavicular articulation confers stability to the construct after coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for acromioclavicular joint separation. Therefore, it has been suggested that distal clavicle excision should not be performed in this context to protect the graft during healing. Sectioning the acromioclavicular ligaments would significantly increase in situ forces of a coracoclavicular ligament graft, whereas performing a distal clavicle resection would not further increase in situ graft forces. Controlled laboratory study. A simulated coracoclavicular reconstruction was performed on 5 cadaveric shoulders. Static loads of 80 N and 210 N were applied directly to the clavicle in 5 directions: anterior, anterosuperior, superior, posterosuperior, and posterior. The in situ graft force was measured using a force transducer under 3 testing conditions: (1) intact acromioclavicular ligaments, (2) sectioned acromioclavicular ligaments, and (3) distal clavicle excision. For both magnitudes of load, in all directions, in situ graft force with intact acromioclavicular ligaments was significantly less than that with sectioned acromioclavicular ligaments (P < .001). Distal clavicle excision did not further increase the in situ graft forces with load applied to the clavicle in an anterior, anterosuperior, or superior direction. However, in situ graft forces were increased with distal clavicle excision when the clavicle was loaded with 210 N in the posterosuperior direction (60.4 ± 6.3 N vs 52.5 ± 7.1 N; P = .048) and tended to be increased with posterior loading of the clavicle (71.8 ± 6.2 N vs 53.1 ± 8.8 N; P = .125). Intact acromioclavicular ligaments protect the coracoclavicular reconstruction by decreasing the in situ graft force. The slight increase in the in situ graft force only in the posterosuperior and posterior direction after distal clavicle excision suggests only a marginal protective role of the

  14. Scoping the proximal and distal dimensions of climate change on health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Morris, George Paterson; Reis, Stefan; Beck, Sheila Anne; Fleming, Lora Elderkin; Adger, William Neil; Benton, Timothy Guy; Depledge, Michael Harold

    2017-12-05

    The impacts of climate on health and wellbeing occur in time and space and through a range of indirect, complicated mechanisms. This diversity of pathways has major implications for national public health planning and influence on interventions that might help to mitigate and adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions, nationally and internationally. This paper draws upon evidence from public health and adverse impact studies across climate science, hydrology, agriculture, public health, and the social sciences. It presents a conceptual model to support decision-making by recognizing both the proximal and distal pathways from climate-induced environmental change to national health and wellbeing. The proximal and distal pathways associated with food security, migration and mobility illustrate the diverse climate change influences in different geographic locations over different timescales. We argue that greater realization and articulation of proximal and distal pathways should radically alter how climate change is addressed as a national and international public health challenge.

  15. Proximal Versus Distal Splenic Artery Embolisation for Blunt Splenic Trauma: What is the Impact on Splenic Immune Function?

    PubMed

    Foley, P T; Kavnoudias, H; Cameron, P U; Czarnecki, C; Paul, E; Lyon, S M

    2015-10-01

    To compare the impact of proximal or distal splenic artery embolisation versus that of splenectomy on splenic immune function as measured by IgM memory B cell levels. Patients with splenic trauma who were treated by splenic artery embolisation (SAE) were enrolled. After 6 months splenic volume was assessed by CT, and IgM memory B cells in peripheral blood were measured and compared to a local normal reference population and to a post-splenectomy population. Of the 71 patients who underwent embolisation, 38 underwent proximal embolisation, 11 underwent distal embolisation, 22 patients were excluded, 1 had both proximal and distal embolisation, 5 did not survive and 16 did not return for evaluation. There was a significant difference between splenectomy and proximal or distal embolisation and a trend towards greater preservation of IgM memory B cell number in those with distal embolisation-a difference that could not be attributed to differences in age, grade of injury or residual splenic volume. IgM memory B cell levels are significantly higher in those treated with SAE compared to splenectomy. Our data provide evidence that splenic embolisation should reduce immunological complications of spleen trauma and suggest that distal embolisation may maintain better function.

  16. Proximal Versus Distal Splenic Artery Embolisation for Blunt Splenic Trauma: What is the Impact on Splenic Immune Function?

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, P. T., E-mail: pfoley@doctors.org.uk; Kavnoudias, H., E-mail: h.kavnoudias@alfred.org.au; Cameron, P. U., E-mail: paul.cameron@unimelb.edu.au

    PurposeTo compare the impact of proximal or distal splenic artery embolisation versus that of splenectomy on splenic immune function as measured by IgM memory B cell levels.Materials and MethodsPatients with splenic trauma who were treated by splenic artery embolisation (SAE) were enrolled. After 6 months splenic volume was assessed by CT, and IgM memory B cells in peripheral blood were measured and compared to a local normal reference population and to a post-splenectomy population.ResultsOf the 71 patients who underwent embolisation, 38 underwent proximal embolisation, 11 underwent distal embolisation, 22 patients were excluded, 1 had both proximal and distal embolisation, 5 didmore » not survive and 16 did not return for evaluation. There was a significant difference between splenectomy and proximal or distal embolisation and a trend towards greater preservation of IgM memory B cell number in those with distal embolisation—a difference that could not be attributed to differences in age, grade of injury or residual splenic volume.ConclusionIgM memory B cell levels are significantly higher in those treated with SAE compared to splenectomy. Our data provide evidence that splenic embolisation should reduce immunological complications of spleen trauma and suggest that distal embolisation may maintain better function.« less

  17. Host-microbe interactions in distal airways: relevance to chronic airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clémence; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Lepage, Patricia; Andréjak, Claire; de Blic, Jacques; Bourdin, Arnaud; Brouard, Jacques; Chanez, Pascal; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Deslée, Gaetan; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; Touqui, Lhousseine; Dusser, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This article is the summary of a workshop, which took place in November 2013, on the roles of microorganisms in chronic respiratory diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that lower airways were sterile in healthy individuals. However, it has long been acknowledged that microorganisms could be identified in distal airway secretions from patients with various respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other chronic airway diseases (e.g. post-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans). These microorganisms were sometimes considered as infectious agents that triggered host immune responses and contributed to disease onset and/or progression; alternatively, microorganisms were often considered as colonisers, which were considered unlikely to play roles in disease pathophysiology. These concepts were developed at a time when the identification of microorganisms relied on culture-based methods. Importantly, the majority of microorganisms cannot be cultured using conventional methods, and the use of novel culture-independent methods that rely on the identification of microorganism genomes has revealed that healthy distal airways display a complex flora called the airway microbiota. The present article reviews some aspects of current literature on host-microbe (mostly bacteria and viruses) interactions in healthy and diseased airways, with a special focus on distal airways. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  18. Tumoral Venous Invasion after Distal Pancreatectomy: A Risk Factor for Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Petermann, David; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Schäfer, Markus

    2018-05-31

    Few data exist on postoperative outcomes of patients with pancreatic body-tail malignancies and tumoral venous invasion (VI). This study aimed at comparing survival and recurrence rate (RR) after distal pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma in patients with and without tumoral VI. All consecutive distal pancreatectomies (2000-2015) were collected. Demographics and peri- and postoperative data were recorded. Survivals were calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 45 patients underwent distal pancreatectomies for malignancies, of which 33 patients had ductal adenocarcinomas and 2 had cystadenocarcinomas. Among these 35 adenocarcinomas, histological VI was found in 28 patients (80%). Characteristics and intraoperative data of patients with and without VI were similar. Complication rates were 15 of 28 (54%) in the VI group and 3 of 7 (43%) in the group without VI (p = 0.612). Five-year survival for the group with and without VI were 19 and 39% (p = 0.232), respectively. RR was 16 of 28 (57%) for the VI group and 1 of 7 (14%) for the group without VI (p = 0.042). VI did not have an effect on postoperative -complications. Survivals were similar in case of VI or not. On the contrary, RR was higher in the VI group. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Osteoconductive behaviour of beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics in osteoporotic, metaphyseal bone defects of the distal radius].

    PubMed

    Hainich, J; von Rechenberg, B; Jakubietz, R G; Jakubietz, M G; Giovanoli, P; Grünert, J G

    2014-02-01

    Surgical treatment of osteoporotic distal radius fractures with locking plates does not completely prevent loss of reduction. Additional bone deficit stabilisation with the use of bone substitute materials is receiving increased attention. Most knowledge on the in vivo behavior of bone substitutes originates from a small number of animal models after its implantation in young, good vascularized bone. This paper investigates the osteoconductivity, resorption and biocompatibility of beta-tricalcium phosphate as a temporary bone replacement in osteoporotic type distal radius fractures. 15 bone samples taken from the augmented area of the distal radius of elderly people during metal removal were examined. The material was found to be osteoconductive, good degradable, and biocompatible. Degrading process and remodelling to woven bone seem to require more time than in available comparative bioassays. The material is suitable for temporary replacement of lost, distal radius bone from the histological point of view. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Evaluation of Ignition and Burn Risk Associated with Contemporary Fiberoptic and Distal Sensor Endoscopic Technology.

    PubMed

    Spradling, Kyle; Uribe, Brittany; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Hofmann, Martin; Del Junco, Michael; Hwang, Christina; Gruber, Caden; Youssef, Ramy F; Landman, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the ignition and burn risk associated with contemporary fiberoptic and distal sensor endoscopic technologies. We used new and used SCB Xenon 300 light sources to illuminate a 4.8 mm fiberoptic cable, 10 mm laparoscope, 5 mm laparoscope, rigid cystoscope, semirigid ureteroscope, flexible cystoscope, flexible fiberoptic ureteroscope, distal sensor cystoscope, and a distal sensor ureteroscope (Karl Storz, Inc., Tuttlingen, Germany). We measured peak temperatures at the distal end of each device. We then evaluated each device on a flat and folded surgical drape to establish ignition risk. Finally, we evaluated the effects of all devices on human cadaver skin covered by surgical drape. Peak temperatures recorded for each device ranged from 26.9°C (flexible fiberoptic ureteroscope) to 194.5°C (fiberoptic cable). Drape ignition was noted when the fiberoptic cable was placed against a fold of drape. Contact with the fiberoptic cable, 10 mm laparoscope, 5 mm laparoscope, and distal sensor cystoscope resulted in cadaver skin damage. Cadaver skin damage occurred despite little or no visible change to the surgical drape. Rigid and flexible fiberoptic cystoscopes and flexible fiberoptic ureteroscopes had no effect on surgical drapes or cadaver skin. Fiberoptic light cables and some endoscopic devices have the potential to cause thermal injury and drape ignition. Thermal injury may occur without visible damage to drapes. Surgeons should remain vigilant regarding the risks associated with these devices and take necessary safety precautions to prevent patient injury.

  1. Effects of the location of distal histidine in the reaction of myoglobin with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Ozaki, S i; Liong, E; Phillips, G N; Watanabe, Y

    1999-01-29

    To clarify how the location of distal histidine affects the activation process of H2O2 by heme proteins, we have characterized reactions with H2O2 for the L29H/H64L and F43H/H64L mutants of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb), designed to locate the histidine farther from the heme iron. Whereas the L29H/H64L double substitution retarded the reaction with H2O2, an 11-fold rate increase versus wild-type Mb was observed for the F43H/H64L mutant. The Vmax values for 1-electron oxidations by the myoglobins correlate well with the varied reactivities with H2O2. The functions of the distal histidine as a general acid-base catalyst were examined based on the reactions with cumene hydroperoxide and cyanide, and only the histidine in F43H/H64L Mb was suggested to facilitate heterolysis of the peroxide bond. The x-ray crystal structures of the mutants confirmed that the distal histidines in F43H/H64L Mb and peroxidase are similar in distance from the heme iron, whereas the distal histidine in L29H/H64L Mb is located too far to enhance heterolysis. Our results indicate that the proper positioning of the distal histidine is essential for the activation of H2O2 by heme enzymes.

  2. Anatomy of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis in adults: a pictorial essay with a multimodality approach

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, John J; Beumer, Annechien; de Jong, Ton A W; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    A syndesmosis is defined as a fibrous joint in which two adjacent bones are linked by a strong membrane or ligaments. This definition also applies for the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, which is a syndesmotic joint formed by two bones and four ligaments. The distal tibia and fibula form the osseous part of the syndesmosis and are linked by the distal anterior tibiofibular ligament, the distal posterior tibiofibular ligament, the transverse ligament and the interosseous ligament. Although the syndesmosis is a joint, in the literature the term syndesmotic injury is used to describe injury of the syndesmotic ligaments. In an estimated 1–11% of all ankle sprains, injury of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis occurs. Forty percent of patients still have complaints of ankle instability 6 months after an ankle sprain. This could be due to widening of the ankle mortise as a result of increased length of the syndesmotic ligaments after acute ankle sprain. As widening of the ankle mortise by 1 mm decreases the contact area of the tibiotalar joint by 42%, this could lead to instability and hence early osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint. In fractures of the ankle, syndesmotic injury occurs in about 50% of type Weber B and in all of type Weber C fractures. However, in discussing syndesmotic injury, it seems the exact proximal and distal boundaries of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis are not well defined. There is no clear statement in the Ashhurst and Bromer etiological, the Lauge-Hansen genetic or the Danis-Weber topographical fracture classification about the exact extent of the syndesmosis. This joint is also not clearly defined in anatomical textbooks, such as Lanz and Wachsmuth. Kelikian and Kelikian postulate that the distal tibiofibular joint begins at the level of origin of the tibiofibular ligaments from the tibia and ends where these ligaments insert into the fibular malleolus. As the syndesmosis of the ankle plays an important role in the stability of the

  3. Anatomy of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis in adults: a pictorial essay with a multimodality approach.

    PubMed

    Hermans, John J; Beumer, Annechien; de Jong, Ton A W; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan

    2010-12-01

    A syndesmosis is defined as a fibrous joint in which two adjacent bones are linked by a strong membrane or ligaments.This definition also applies for the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, which is a syndesmotic joint formed by two bones and four ligaments. The distal tibia and fibula form the osseous part of the syndesmosis and are linked by the distal anterior tibiofibular ligament, the distal posterior tibiofibular ligament, the transverse ligament and the interosseous ligament. Although the syndesmosis is a joint, in the literature the term syndesmotic injury is used to describe injury of the syndesmotic ligaments. In an estimated 1–11% of all ankle sprains, injury of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis occurs. Forty percent of patients still have complaints of ankle instability 6 months after an ankle sprain. This could be due to widening of the ankle mortise as a result of increased length of the syndesmotic ligaments after acute ankle sprain. As widening of the ankle mortise by 1 mm decreases the contact area of the tibiotalar joint by 42%, this could lead to instability and hence early osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint. In fractures of the ankle, syndesmotic injury occurs in about 50% of type Weber B and in all of type Weber C fractures. However,in discussing syndesmotic injury, it seems the exact proximal and distal boundaries of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis are not well defined. There is no clear statement in the Ashhurst and Bromer etiological, the Lauge-Hansen genetic or the Danis-Weber topographical fracture classification about the exact extent of the syndesmosis. This joint is also not clearly defined in anatomical textbooks, such as Lanz and Wachsmuth. Kelikian and Kelikian postulate that the distal tibiofibular joint begins at the level of origin of the tibiofibular ligaments from the tibia and ends where these ligaments insert into the fibular malleolus. As the syndesmosis of the ankle plays an important role in the stability of the

  4. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V

    MedlinePlus

    ... PubMed Irobi J, De Jonghe P, Timmerman V. Molecular genetics of distal hereditary motor neuropathies. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Oct 1;13 Spec No 2:R195-202. Review. Citation on PubMed Ito D, Suzuki N. Molecular pathogenesis of seipin/BSCL2-related motor neuron diseases. ...

  5. The Effect of Distal Location of the Volar Short Arm Splint on the Metacarpophalangeal Joint Motion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Yub; Sohn, Dong Wook; Park, Ho Youn; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Joo Hak; Jung, Myung Gon; Cho, Jae Ho

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this study were to compare maximal metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) flexion angles after application of a volar short arm splint at 3 different locations and verify the relations between the three different physical and radiological locations. Forty dominant hands of healthy subjects were analyzed in the study. We defined a transverse skin folding line as a line drawn from the radial aspect of the thenar crease to the ulnar aspect of the distal transverse palmar crease. The distal end of the volar short arm splint was applied on 3 parallel locations to this line. Location A was on this transverse skin folding line; location B was 1 cm proximal to location A; and location C was 1 cm distal to location A. Two orthopedic surgeons measured the maximal MCPJ flexion angles of each finger except the thumb with the application of a volar short arm splint at 3 different locations as well as without a splint as a control. Radiological locations of the 3 different distal ends of the volar short arm splint were also assessed by anteroposterior radiographs of the wrist. When the splint was applied at location A and C, the maximal MCPJ flexion angle decreased to a mean of 83° (91% of control value) and 56° (62% of control value), respectively (compared to the control, p < 0.001). At location B, the maximal MCPJ flexion angle was a mean of 90° (99% of control value); no significant difference was observed compared to the control or without the splint (p = 0.103). On radiography, the average length from the metacarpal head to the distal end of the splint at all fingers decreased in the order of location B, A, and C (29 mm, 19 mm, and 10 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). We recommend applying the distal end of a volar short arm splint at proximal 1 cm to the transverse skin folding line to preserve MCPJ motion perfectly, which is located at distal 44% of the whole metacarpal bone length radiologically.

  6. Implementation of enhanced recovery programme for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: feasibility, safety and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, John; Di Fabio, Francesco; Clarke, Hannah; Bajalan, Mohammed; Davids, Joe; Abu Hilal, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of laparoscopy for distal pancreatectomy has proven to substantially improve short-term outcomes. Stress response after major surgery can be further minimized within an enhanced recovery programme (ERP). However, data on the potential benefit of an ERP for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy are still lacking. The aim was to assess the feasibility, safety and cost of ERP for patients undergoing laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. This is a case-control study from a Tertiary University Hospital. Sixty-six consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy were analyzed. Twenty-two patients were enrolled for the ERP and compared with previous consecutive 44 patients managed traditionally (1:2 ratio). Operative details, post-operative outcome and cost analysis were compared in the two groups. Patients enrolled in the ERP had similar intraoperative blood loss (median 165 ml vs. 200 ml; p = 0.176), operation time (225 min vs. 210 min; p = 0.633), time to remove naso-gastric tube (1 vs. 1 day; p = 0.081) but significantly shorter time to mobilization (median 1 vs. 2 days; p = 0.0001), start solid diet (2 vs. 3 days; p = 0004), and pass stools (3 vs. 5 days; p = 0.002) compared to the control group. Median length of stay was significantly shorter in the ERP group (3 vs. 6 days; p < 0.0001). No significant difference in readmission or complication rate was observed. Cost analysis was significantly in favor of the ERP group (p = 0.0004). Implementation of ERP optimizes outcomes for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with significant earlier return to normal gut function, reduced length of stay and cost saving. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A morphological and morphometric study of proximal and distal ends of dry radii with its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chandni; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; Malsawmzuali, J C; D'souza, Antony Sylvan

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the size and shape of radial head is essential for construction of radial head prosthesis. Further, the measurements of bicipital tuberosity and its angular relationship to radial head are significant in surgical techniques, like in the reconstruction of biceps tendon. Even the morphometry of the distal radius is significant in numerous clinical orthopedic situations such as reduction of distal radius fractures and in the design of distal radius prosthesis. So, the aim of the study was to determine the morphometric parameters of proximal and distal radius in dry adult Indian radius. Fifty intact adult Indian radius (right = 23, left = 27) were chosen, and the various parameters of proximal and distal ends of radius were studied. Student's t-test was done to correlate all these parameters on the right and left sides. The mean length of radius, height of head at medial and lateral ends, head anteroposterior and transverse diameter, head thickness at ventral, dorsal, and lateral ends were 23.5, 0.90, 0.75, 1.91, 1.85, 0.42, 0.32, and 0.30 cm, respectively. The mean depth of articular facet, length of neck, proximal and distal neck diameter, width and length of bicipital tuberosity, and radial circumference at bicipital tuberosity were 0.19, 1.19, 1.36, 1.31, 1.23, 1.97, and 4.54 cm, respectively. The mean length of styloid process, oblique and transverse width of lower end, anteroposterior diameter of lower end, and angle of radial inclination were 0.98cm, 2. 81cm, 2.59cm, 1.86cm, and 25.05°, respectively. This study will be useful for orthopedic surgeons in making prosthesis for the proximal and distal ends of radius.

  8. Prevention of distal extension cantilever fracture in mandibular overdentures.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, Thomas; Quirynen, Marc; Duyck, Joke

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of distal bar extensions, supporting a mandibular overdenture, do occur with significant functional and economic consequences for the patient. This study therefore aims to evaluate the effect of different bar cross-sectional shapes and surfaces, bar extension lengths and the placement of a support rib under the distal bar extension on fracture resistance. The 2nd moment area and static strength were calculated for 11 frequently used bar designs using finite element analysis (FEA). For two specific designs (Ackermann round Ø 1.8mm and Dolder-Y macro, the former with and without a support rib) additional physical static and fatigue strength tests were included. The FEA static strength data corresponded well to the 2nd moment area (a similar ranking when maximum allowed force was considered). The application of a rib support (Ackermann Ø 1.8mm) and limitations of the bar extension length (6mm for the Ackermann Ø 1.8mm, 8mm for the Dolder-Y macro) allowed the bars to exceed 5 × 10(6) cycles of 120 and 250N, respectively, before fracture. The region of highest stresses in FEA corresponded well with the locations of the fractures observed in static- and fatigue-testing. With some simple guidelines/modifications, the number of bar extension fractures can be reduced significantly. This study focusses on distal bar extensions which improve the positioning of an implant supported overdenture. By combining laboratory testing and finite element simulations we aim to: (1) explain why fractures occur (dependent on physical characteristics of the bar), and (2) give clinical guidelines on how to prevent such fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implant Augmentation: Adding Bone Cement to Improve the Treatment of Osteoporotic Distal Femur Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R. Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate. In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  10. Utility of drain fluid amylase measurement on the first postoperative day after distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Vass, David G; Hodson, James; Isaac, John; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Mirza, Darius F; Muiesan, Paolo; Roberts, Keith; Sutcliffe, Robert P

    2018-05-22

    Early exclusion of a postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) may facilitate earlier drain removal in selected patients after distal pancreatectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of first postoperative day drain fluid amylase (DFA1) measurement to predict POPF. Patients in whom DFA1 was measured after distal pancreatectomy were identified from a prospectively maintained database over a five-year period. A cut-off value of DFA1 was derived using ROC analysis, which yielded sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% for excluding POPF. DFA1 was available in 53 of 138 (38%) patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy. 19 of 53 patients (36%) developed a pancreatic fistula (Grade A - 15, Grade B - 3, Grade C - 1). Median DFA1 was significantly higher in those who developed a pancreatic fistula (5473; range 613-28,450) compared those without (802; range 57-2350). p < 0.0001. Using ROC analysis, a DFA1 less than 600 excluded pancreatic fistula with a sensitivity of 100% (AUROC of 0.91; SE = 0.04, p < 0.001). First postoperative day drain fluid amylase measurement may have a role in excluding pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy. Such patients may be suitable for earlier drain removal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Analysis of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in stented, distal hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacob; Patel, Ashay; Zamilpa, Ismael; Bai, Shasha; Alliston, Jeffrey; Canon, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Surgical site infection [SSI] is a risk for any surgical procedure, including hypospadias repair. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for patients having surgery is often effective in preventing SSIs, but with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, this practice has been questioned. The objectives of this study are 1) to assess the incidence of SSIs in patients following stented, distal hypospadias repair and 2) to observe for any potential difference in the incidence of SSIs for patients with and without preoperative antibiotic utilization in this setting. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients treated with stented, distal hypospadias repair from 2011 to 2014 by three surgeons and compared two groups: patients who received preoperative antibiotics and patients who did not. Patients with a history of previous hypospadias repair were excluded from the study. Two hundred twenty-four subjects were identified. Group 1 (135) received preoperative antibiotic and Group 2 (89) did not receive preoperative antibiotics. There was no statistically significant difference in SSI prevalence with 0 patients in Group 1 and 1 patient in Group 2 having a SSI. Although prophylactic antibiotics prior to hypospadias repair are most often used by pediatric urologists, this study demonstrates further evidence that antibiotics prior to this procedure do not appear to lower the rate of SSI. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and disparate mean follow up in the two cohorts. Surgical site infection does not appear to be decreased by prophylactic antibiotic therapy before distal hypospadias repair.

  12. Total elbow arthroplasty for the treatment of distal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, G L; Larrondo Calderón, W; Boretto, J G; Castellaro Lantermo, J A; Terán, J; de Carli, P

    2016-01-01

    To report the clinical-functional outcomes of the treatment of humeral distal fractures with a total elbow prosthesis. This retrospective study was performed in two surgical centres. A total of 23patients were included, with a mean age of 79years, and of which 21 were women. The inclusion criteria were: patients with humeral distal fractures, operated on using a Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis, and with a follow-up of more than one year. According to AO classification, 15fractures were type C3, 7 C2 and 1 A2. All patients were operated on without de-insertion of the extensor mechanism. The mean follow-up was 40 months. Flexor-extension was 123-17°, with a total mobility arc of 106° (80% of the contralateral side). Pain, according to a visual analogue scale was 1. The Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) was 83 points. Excellent results were obtained in 8 patients, good in 13, medium in 1, and poor in 1. The mean DASH (disability) score was 24 points. Treatment of humeral distal fractures with total elbow arthroplasty could be a good treatment option, but indications must be limited to patients with complex fractures, poor bone quality, with osteoporosis and low functional demands. In younger patients, the use is limited to serious cases where there is no other treatment option. Level of Evidence IV. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Subcaptial oblique fifth metatarsal osteotomy versus distal chevron osteotomy for correction of bunionette deformity: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Minton Truitt; Coughlin, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a distal subcapital oblique fifth metatarsal with a distal chevron osteotomy for correction of bunionette deformity. Twenty cadaveric feet were randomly assigned to undergo either a subcapital oblique or chevron osteotomy of the distal fifth metatarsal. Radiographic measurements, including 4-5 intermetatarsal angle (IMA), fifth metatarsophalangeal angle (5-MPA) and foot width, were compared between the 2 groups. Foot width and 5-MPA was significantly decreased in both groups with no difference between the groups. The 4-5 IMA was not significantly altered in either group. Decrease in foot width and 5-MPA was similarly achieved with either distal chevron or subcapital oblique osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal in normal cadaveric specimens. No significant difference was found between the 2 techniques in any of the radiographic parameters measured.

  14. Spatial information is preferentially processed by the distal part of CA3: implication for memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Flasbeck, Vera; Atucha, Erika; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2018-07-16

    For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas. Here, we tested if distal CA3 preferentially processes spatial information, which would suggest a segregation of the spatial information along the proximodistal axis of CA3. We used a high-resolution imaging technique based on the detection of the expression of the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We showed that distal CA3 is strongly recruited in a newly designed delayed nonmatching-to-location task with high memory demands in rats, while proximal CA3 is not. These results indicate a functional segregation of CA3 that mirrors the one reported in CA1, and suggest the existence of a distal CA3- proximal CA1 spatial subnetwork. These findings bring further evidence for the existence of 'specialized' spatial and non-spatial subnetworks segregated along the proximodistal axis of the hippocampus and put forward the 'segregated' view of information processing in the hippocampus as a reasonable alternative to the well-accepted 'integrated' view, according to which spatial and non-spatial information are systematically integrated in the hippocampus to form episodic memory. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Impact of transient or persistent slow flow and adjunctive distal protection on mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiharu; Masuda, Naoki; Nakano, Masataka; Nakazawa, Gaku; Shinozaki, Norihiko; Matsukage, Takashi; Ogata, Nobuhiko; Yoshimachi, Fuminobu; Ikari, Yuji

    2015-04-01

    Routine use of distal protection for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of slow flow on mortality after STEMI, and the efficacy of adjunctive distal protection following primary thrombus aspiration. We retrospectively analyzed 414 STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI. Distal protection was used following primary thrombus aspiration only when the operator judged the patient to be at high risk of slow flow. Patients were divided into 3 groups: those receiving no thrombus aspiration (A- Group), thrombus aspiration without distal protection (A+/D- Group) or a combination of aspiration with distal protection (A+/D+ Group). Slow flow/no reflow was characterized as transient or persistent. The A-, A+/D-, and A+/D+ Groups consisted of 28.5 % (n = 118), 44.4 % (n = 184), and 27.1 % (n = 112) of patients, respectively. All-cause mortality at 180 days was 6.8 % without slow flow, 14.1 % with transient and 44.4 % with persistent slow flow (P < 0.0001), but was similar whether or not distal protection was used among these groups complicated without slow flow (A-, 8.7 %; A+/D-, 6.3 %; A+/D+, 4.3 %; P = 0.5854). However, in cases complicated with transient or persistent slow flow, distal protection reduced all-cause mortality to 38.5 % (A-), 23.3 % (A+/D-), and 10.8 % (A+/D+) at 180 days (P = 0.0114). Our data confirm that routine distal protection is not to be recommended. However, it is suggested that it could reduce mortality of patients with slow flow. Predicting slow flow accurately before PCI, however, remains a challenge.

  16. Distal biceps tendon history, updates, and controversies: from the closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons meeting-2015.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Savoie, Felix H; Steinmann, Scott P; Hausman, Michael; Voloshin, Ilya; Morrey, Bernard F; Sotereanos, Dean G; Bero, Emily H; Brown, Brandon T

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the distal biceps anatomy, mechanics, and biology during the last 75 years has greatly improved the physician's ability to advise and to treat patients with ruptured distal tendons. The goal of this paper is to review the past and current advances on complete distal biceps ruptures as well as controversies and future directions that were discussed and debated during the closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons meeting in 2015. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward endoscopes with no distal optics: video-rate scanning microscopy through a fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Bouwmans, Géraud; Monneret, Serge; Rigneault, Hervé

    2013-03-01

    We report a step toward scanning endomicroscopy without distal optics. The focusing of the beam at the distal end of a fiber bundle is achieved by imposing a parabolic phase profile across the exit face with the aid of a spatial light modulator. We achieve video-rate images by galvanometric scanning of the phase tilt at the proximal end. The approach is made possible by the bundle, designed to have very low coupling between cores.

  18. Proximal Versus Distal Control of Two-Joint Planar Reaching Movements in the Presence of Neuromuscular Noise

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hung P.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how the human nervous system contends with neuro-motor noise is vital to understanding how humans achieve accurate goal-directed movements. Experimentally, people learning skilled tasks tend to reduce variability in distal joint movements more than in proximal joint movements. This suggests that they might be imposing greater control over distal joints than proximal joints. However, the reasons for this remain unclear, largely because it is not experimentally possible to directly manipulate either the noise or the control at each joint independently. Therefore, this study used a 2 degree-of-freedom torque driven arm model to determine how different combinations of noise and/or control independently applied at each joint affected the reaching accuracy and the total work required to make the movement. Signal-dependent noise was simultaneously and independently added to the shoulder and elbow torques to induce endpoint errors during planar reaching. Feedback control was then applied, independently and jointly, at each joint to reduce endpoint error due to the added neuromuscular noise. Movement direction and the inertia distribution along the arm were varied to quantify how these biomechanical variations affected the system performance. Endpoint error and total net work were computed as dependent measures. When each joint was independently subjected to noise in the absence of control, endpoint errors were more sensitive to distal (elbow) noise than to proximal (shoulder) noise for nearly all combinations of reaching direction and inertia ratio. The effects of distal noise on endpoint errors were more pronounced when inertia was distributed more toward the forearm. In contrast, the total net work decreased as mass was shifted to the upper arm for reaching movements in all directions. When noise was present at both joints and joint control was implemented, controlling the distal joint alone reduced endpoint errors more than controlling the proximal joint

  19. Proximal versus distal control of two-joint planar reaching movements in the presence of neuromuscular noise.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung P; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2012-06-01

    Determining how the human nervous system contends with neuro-motor noise is vital to understanding how humans achieve accurate goal-directed movements. Experimentally, people learning skilled tasks tend to reduce variability in distal joint movements more than in proximal joint movements. This suggests that they might be imposing greater control over distal joints than proximal joints. However, the reasons for this remain unclear, largely because it is not experimentally possible to directly manipulate either the noise or the control at each joint independently. Therefore, this study used a 2 degree-of-freedom torque driven arm model to determine how different combinations of noise and/or control independently applied at each joint affected the reaching accuracy and the total work required to make the movement. Signal-dependent noise was simultaneously and independently added to the shoulder and elbow torques to induce endpoint errors during planar reaching. Feedback control was then applied, independently and jointly, at each joint to reduce endpoint error due to the added neuromuscular noise. Movement direction and the inertia distribution along the arm were varied to quantify how these biomechanical variations affected the system performance. Endpoint error and total net work were computed as dependent measures. When each joint was independently subjected to noise in the absence of control, endpoint errors were more sensitive to distal (elbow) noise than to proximal (shoulder) noise for nearly all combinations of reaching direction and inertia ratio. The effects of distal noise on endpoint errors were more pronounced when inertia was distributed more toward the forearm. In contrast, the total net work decreased as mass was shifted to the upper arm for reaching movements in all directions. When noise was present at both joints and joint control was implemented, controlling the distal joint alone reduced endpoint errors more than controlling the proximal joint

  20. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals age-related differences in the distal femur of Europeans.

    PubMed

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Savall, Frederic; Chantalat, Elodie; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Telmon, Norbert

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have looked into age-related variations in femur shape. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur would reveal age-related differences. The purpose of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to age could be identified, visualized, and quantified using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France. Ten landmarks were defined on 3D reconstructions of the distal femur. Both traditional metric and geometric morphometric analyses were carried out on these bone reconstructions. These analyses were used to identify trends in bone shape in various age-based subgroups (<40, 40-60, >60). Only the average bone shape of the < 40-year subgroup was statistically different from that of the other two groups. When the population was divided into two subgroups using 40 years of age as a threshold, the subject's age was correctly assigned 80% of the time. Age-related differences are present in this bone segment. This reliable, accurate method could be used for virtual autopsy and to perform diachronic and interethnic comparisons. Moreover, this study provides updated morphometric data for a modern population in the south of France. Manufacturers of knee replacement implants will have to adapt their prosthesis models as the population evolves over time.

  1. Tumor response and negative distal resection margins of rectal cancer after hyperthermochemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Soichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Fujii, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Suto, Toshinaga; Yajima, Reina; Morita, Hiroki; Kato, Toshihide; Shioya, Mariko; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Asao, Takayuki; Nakano, Takashi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    The safety of regional hyperthermia has been tested in locally advanced rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of shorter distal margins on local control and survival in rectal cancer patients who were treated with preoperative hyperthermochemoradiation therapy (HCRT) and underwent rectal resection by using the total mesorectal excision (TME) method. Ninety-three patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who received neoadjuvant HCRT (total radiation: 50 Gy) were included in this study. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after HCRT, and each resected specimen was evaluated histologically. Length of distal surgical margins, status of circumferential margins, pathological response, and tumor node metastasis stage were examined for their effects on recurrence and survival. Fifty-eight (62.4%) patients had tumor regression, and 20 (21.5%) had a pathological complete response. Distal margin length ranged from 1 to 55 mm (median, 21 mm) and did not correlate with local recurrence (p=0.57) or survival (p=0.75) by univariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimates of recurrence-free survival and local recurrence for the <10 mm versus ≥10 mm groups were not significantly different. Positive circumferential margins and failure of tumors to respond were unfavorable factors in survival. Distal resection margins that are shorter than 10 mm but are not positive appear to be equivalent to longer margins in patients who undergo HCRT followed by rectal resection with TME. To improve the down-staging rate, additional studies are needed.

  2. Juvenile-onset distal myopathy in Rottweiler dogs.

    PubMed

    Hanson, S M; Smith, M O; Walker, T L; Shelton, G D

    1998-01-01

    Two juvenile Rottweiler siblings were presented with the complaint of decreased activity and various postural abnormalities, including plantigrade and palmigrade stance and splayed forepaw digits. The neurologic examinations were otherwise normal. Electromyography revealed rare fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves. Motor nerve conduction velocities were normal, whereas compound muscle action potentials from the interosseous muscles were decreased. These findings were consistent with a primary myopathy. A 3rd pup from a different litter and a 4th pup from a litter with 3 of 8 affected dogs had similar clinical presentations. Histopathologic changes in fresh-frozen muscle biopsy samples were similar in all pups and consisted of myofiber atrophy with mild myonecrosis, endomysial fibrosis and replacement of muscle with fatty tissue. These changes were more severe in distal muscles than in proximal muscles. Plasma carnitine concentrations (total and free) were decreased in all pups. Muscle carnitine concentrations (total and free) were decreased in 3 of 4 pups and the least affected pup had a borderline low free muscle carnitine concentration. Abnormalities involving major metabolic pathways were not found on quantification of organic and amino acids. Dystrophin immunocytochemistry was normal in 2 dogs tested. Distal myopathies in humans are classified under the dystrophic group of muscle disorders. These 4 cases represent a form of muscular dystrophy apparently not previously reported in dogs.

  3. Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate. Methods 180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union. Results The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74%) had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15%) and in 11 patients were major (6%). Conclusion This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention. PMID:22280557

  4. Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Trompeter, Alex; Gallagher, Kieran; Bradshaw, Lucy; Elliott, David S; Newman, Kevin J

    2012-01-26

    Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate. 180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation=10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union. The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74%) had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15%) and in 11 patients were major (6%). This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention.

  5. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  6. A case of distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with two positive resection margins

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Wayne A.; Ramcharan, Wesley; Harnanan, Dave; Umakanthan, Srikanth; Maharaj, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is an uncommon primary malignancy of the biliary tract that is challenging to diagnose and treat effectively due to its relatively silent and late clinical presentation. The present study reports a case of a 60-year-old male with distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a 3-week history of painless obstructive jaundice symptoms and subjective weight loss. Imaging revealed an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct, just distal to the entrance of the cystic duct. Pathology revealed moderately differentiated cholangiocarcinoma with two positive proximal resection margins. The two positive resection margins presented a challenge during surgery and points to an urgent need for further studies to better illuminate diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with similar clinicopathological presentation. PMID:27895774

  7. Radiographic diagnosis of occult distal fibular avulsion fracture in children with acute lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yoon-Hae; Lim, Jae-Young; Oh, Min-Kyung; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Kun-Bo

    2015-06-01

    Skeletally immature children with ankle sprain are presumed to have distal fibula fracture than ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of associated occult avulsion fracture in children with lateral ankle sprain and the efficacy of identifying fractures using anterior talofibular ligament view. Patients who were diagnosed with distal fibular fracture in the initial ankle anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise were excluded and 78 patients (below 16 y of age) who had been initially diagnosed as ankle sprain were included. The initial and 4 weeks' follow-up ankle series and additional anterior talofibular ligament view suggested by Haraguchi were evaluated. Twenty patients were diagnosed with occult distal fibular avulsion fracture. Ten patients were diagnosed in anterior talofibular ligament view and others were diagnosed in the follow-up radiography. Displacement was highest on the anterior talofibular ligament view. This study found 20 (26%) of 78 ankle sprain show occult avulsion fracture in the anterior talofibular ligament view or follow-up radiography. The anterior talofibular ligament view is an appropriate radiologic view for the diagnosis of distal fibular avulsion fracture. Level IV--diagnostic study.

  8. Post-extraction mesio-distal gap reduction assessment by confocal laser scanning microscopy - a clinical 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    García-Herraiz, Ariadna; Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Leiva-García, Rafael; Crespo-Abril, Fortunato; García-Antón, José

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this 3-month follow-up study is to quantify the reduction in the mesio-distal gap dimension (MDGD) that occurs after tooth extraction through image analysis of three-dimensional images obtained with the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) technique. Following tooth extraction, impressions of 79 patients 1 month and 72 patients 3 months after tooth extraction were obtained. Cast models were processed by CLSM, and MDGD changes between time points were measured. The mean mesio-distal gap reduction 1 month after tooth extraction was 343.4 μm and 3 months after tooth extraction was 672.3 μm. The daily mean gap reduction rate during the first term (between baseline and 1 month post-extraction measurements) was 10.3 μm/day and during the second term (between 1 and 3 months) was 5.4 μm/day. The mesio-distal gap reduction is higher during the first month following the extraction and continues in time, but to a lesser extent. When the inter-dental contacts were absent, the mesio-distal gap reduction is lower. When a molar tooth is extracted or the distal tooth to the edentulous space does not occlude with an antagonist, the mesio-distal gap reduction is larger. The consideration of mesio-distal gap dimension changes can help improve dental treatment planning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A transport and retention mechanism for the sustained distal localization of Spn-F-IKKε during Drosophila bristle elongation.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tetsuhisa; Oshima, Kenzi; Kimpara, Akiyo; Takeda, Michiko; Abdu, Uri; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Stable localization of the signaling complex is essential for the robust morphogenesis of polarized cells. Cell elongation involves molecular signaling centers that coordinately regulate intracellular transport and cytoskeletal structures. In Drosophila bristle elongation, the protein kinase IKKε is activated at the distal tip of the growing bristle and regulates the shuttling movement of recycling endosomes and cytoskeletal organization. However, how the distal tip localization of IKKε is established and maintained during bristle elongation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that IKKε distal tip localization is regulated by Spindle-F (Spn-F), which is stably retained at the distal tip and functions as an adaptor linking IKKε to cytoplasmic dynein. We found that Javelin-like (Jvl) is a key regulator of Spn-F retention. In jvl mutant bristles, IKKε and Spn-F initially localize to the distal tip but fail to be retained there. In S2 cells, particles that stain positively for Jvl or Spn-F move in a microtubule-dependent manner, whereas Jvl and Spn-F double-positive particles are immobile, indicating that Jvl and Spn-F are transported separately and, upon forming a complex, immobilize each other. These results suggest that polarized transport and selective retention regulate the distal tip localization of the Spn-F-IKKε complex during bristle cell elongation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Primary carcinoma of the distal male urethra: a case treated with lymphadenectomy and interstitial radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ticho, B.H.; Perez-Tamayo, C.; Konnak, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the distal male urethra with a single inguinal node metastasis. Treatment consisted of unilateral pelvic and inguinal lymphadenectomy, and a combined course of external beam and interstitial radiation therapy to the distal urethra and penis by the Henschke modification of the Paris technique.

  11. Prognostic value of lymph nodes count on survival of patients with distal cholangiocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hua-Peng; Li, Sheng-Wei; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Shi-Ji

    2018-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prognostic value of the number of retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) and other prognostic factors for patients with distal cholangiocarcinomas, and to determine the optimal retrieved LNs cut-off number. METHODS The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to screen for patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma. Patients with different numbers of retrieved LNs were divided into three groups by the X-tile program. X-tile from Yale University is a useful tool for outcome-based cut-point optimization. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were utilized for survival analysis. RESULTS A total of 449 patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma met the inclusion criteria. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for all patients and for N1 patients revealed no significant differences among patients with different retrieved LN counts in terms of overall and cancer-specific survival. In patients with node-negative distal cholangiocarcinoma, patients with four to nine retrieved LNs had a significantly better overall (P = 0.026) and cancer-specific survival (P = 0.039) than others. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, the number of retrieved LNs was evaluated to be independently associated with survival. Additionally, patients with four to nine retrieved LNs had a significantly lower overall mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20-0.74] and cancer cause-specific mortality risk (HR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15-0.66) than other patients. Additionally, stratified survival analyses showed persistently better overall and cancer-specific survival when retrieving four to nine LNs in patients with any T stage of tumor, a tumor between 20 and 50 mm in diameter, or a poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumor, and in patients who were ≤ 70-years-old. CONCLUSION The number of retrieved LNs was an important independent prognostic factor for patients with node-negative distal cholangiocarcinoma. Additionally

  12. Sphincter of Oddi botulinum toxin injection to prevent pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hackert, Thilo; Klaiber, Ulla; Hinz, Ulf; Kehayova, Tzveta; Probst, Pascal; Knebel, Phillip; Diener, Markus K; Schneider, Lutz; Strobel, Oliver; Michalski, Christoph W; Ulrich, Alexis; Sauer, Peter; Büchler, Markus W

    2017-05-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula represents the most important complication after distal pancreatectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a preoperative endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin into the sphincter of Oddi to prevent postoperative pancreatic fistula (German Clinical Trials Register number: DRKS00007885). This was an investigator-initiated, prospective clinical phase I/II trial with an exploratory study design. We included patients who underwent preoperative endoscopic sphincter botulinum toxin injection (100 units of Botox). End points were the feasibility, safety, and postoperative outcomes, including postoperative pancreatic fistula within 30 days after distal pancreatectomy. Botulinum toxin patients were compared with a control collective of patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy without botulinum toxin injection by case-control matching in a 1:1 ratio. Between February 2015 and February 2016, 29 patients were included. All patients underwent successful sphincter of Oddi botulinum toxin injection within a median of 6 (range 0-10) days before operation. One patient had an asymptomatic, self-limiting (48 hours) increase in serum amylase and lipase after injection. Distal pancreatectomy was performed in 24/29 patients; 5 patients were not resectable. Of the patients receiving botulinum toxin, 7 (29%) had increased amylase levels in drainage fluid on postoperative day 3 (the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula grade A) without symptoms or need for reintervention. Importantly, no clinically relevant fistulas (International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery grades B/C) were observed in botulinum toxin patients compared to 33% postoperative pancreatic fistula grade B/C in case-control patients (P < .004). Preoperative sphincter of Oddi botulinum toxin injection is a novel and safe approach to decrease the incidence of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula

  13. Sprouty / FGF signaling regulates the proximal-distal feather morphology and the size of dermal papillae

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhicao; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    In a feather, there are distinct morphologies along the proximal-distal axis. The proximal part is a cylindrical stalk (calamus), whereas the distal part has barb and barbule branches. Here we focus on what molecular signaling activity can modulate feather stem cells to generate these distinct morphologies. We demonstrate the drastic tissue remodeling during feather cycling which includes initiation, growth and resting phases. In the growth phase, epithelial components undergo progressive changes from the collar growth zone to the ramogenic zone, to maturing barb branches along the proximal- distal axis. Mesenchymal components also undergo progressive changes from the dermal papilla, to the collar mesenchyme, to the pulp along the proximal- distal axis. Over-expression of Spry4, a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases, promotes barb branch formation at the expense of the epidermal collar. It even induces barb branches from the follicle sheath (equivalent to the outer root sheath in hair follicles). The results are feathers with expanded feather vane regions and small or missing proximal feather shafts (the calamus). Spry4 also expands the pulp region while reducing the size of dermal papillae, leading to a failure to regenerate. In contrast, over-expressing Fgf10 increases the size of the dermal papillae, expands collar epithelia and mesenchyme, but also prevents feather branch formation and feather keratin differentiation. These results suggest that coordinated Sprouty/FGF pathway activity at different stages is important to modulate feather epidermal stem cells to form distinct feather morphologies along the proximal-distal feather axis. PMID:23000358

  14. Insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia misdiagnosed as cellulitis in three patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Straaton, K.V.; Lopez-Mendez, A.; Alarcon, G.S.

    We describe 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with diffuse pain, swelling, and erythema of the distal aspect of the lower extremity, suggestive of either cellulitis or thrombophlebitis, but were found to have insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia. The value of technetium-99m diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in the early recognition of these fractures and a possible explanation for the associated inflammatory symptoms are discussed.

  15. Distally based posterior interosseous flap: primary role in soft-tissue reconstruction of the hand.

    PubMed

    Agir, Hakan; Sen, Cenk; Alagöz, Sahin; Onyedi, Murat; Isil, Eda

    2007-09-01

    A series of 15 consecutive patients with various hand defects requiring flap coverage was reviewed in this study. The defects were all covered with the distally based posterior interosseous flap. Its main indications were in complex hand trauma, severe burn injury, or skin cancer ablation, either acute or postprimary. In 12 of the patients, flaps survived completely. In 3 patients, there was partial necrosis of the distal part of the flap, which did not require additional surgical procedure. Radial nerve palsy was noted in one of the cases, with a complete recovery after 3 months. Donor site was closed directly in up to 4-cm-wide flaps, while larger flaps required skin grafting. No major anatomic variation was observed. Distally based posterior interosseous flap is a reliable choice for various types and areas of hand defects, with very low donor-site morbidity, and should be more commonly considered in clinical practice.

  16. The biomechanical analysis of three-dimensional distal radius fracture model with different fixed splints.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhen; Wang, Jian-Wei; Lu, Zhen-Fei; Ma, Jian-Wei; Yin, Heng

    2018-01-01

    The distal radius fracture is one of the common clinical fractures. At present, there are no reports regarding application of the finite element method in studying the mechanism of Colles fracture and the biomechanical behavior when using splint fixation. To explore the mechanism of Colles fracture and the biomechanical behavior when using different fixed splints. Based on the CT scanning images of forearm for a young female volunteer, by using model construction technology combined with RPOE and ANSYS software, a 3-D distal radius fracture forearm finite element model with a real shape and bioactive materials is built. The material tests are performed to obtain the mechanical properties of the paper-based splint, the willow splint and the anatomical splint. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results to verify the correctness of the presented model. Based on the verified model, the stress distribution of different tissues are analyzed. Finally, the clinical tests are performed to observe and verify that the anatomical splint is the best fit for human body. Using the three kinds of splints, the transferred bone stress focus on the distal radius and ulna, which is helpful to maintain the stability of fracture. Also the stress is accumulated in the distal radius which may be attributed to flexion position. Such stress distribution may be helpful to maintain the ulnar declination. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental observations, the anatomical splint has the best fitting to the limb, which can effectively avoid the local compression. The anatomical splint is the most effective for fixing and curing the fracture. The presented model can provide theoretical basis and technical guide for further investigating mechanism of distal radius fracture and clinical application of anatomical splint.

  17. Reproducibility of three dimensional digital preoperative planning for the osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Kusakabe, Takuya; Akita, Kenichi; Tung, Wen Lin; Ishii, Tomoo

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) digital preoperative planning system for the osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures was developed for clinical practice. To assess the usefulness of the 3D planning for osteosynthesis, we evaluated the reproducibility of the reduction shapes and selected implants in the patients with distal radius fractures. Twenty wrists of 20 distal radius fracture patients who underwent osteosynthesis using volar locking plates were evaluated. The 3D preoperative planning was performed prior to each surgery. Four surgeons conducted the surgeries. The surgeons performed the reduction and the placement of the plate while comparing images between the preoperative plan and fluoroscopy. Preoperative planning and postoperative reductions were compared by measuring volar tilt and radial inclination of the 3D images. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the volar tilt and radial inclination were evaluated. For the implant choices, the ICCs for the screw lengths between the preoperative plan and the actual choices were evaluated. The ICCs were 0.644 (p < 0.01) and 0.625 (p < 0.01) for the volar tilt and radial inclination in the 3D measurements, respectively. The planned size of plate was used in all of the patients. The ICC for the screw length between preoperative planning and actual choice was 0.860 (p < 0.01). Good reproducibility for the reduction shape and excellent reproducibility for the implant choices were achieved using 3D preoperative planning for distal radius fracture. Three-dimensional digital planning was useful to visualize the reduction process and choose a proper implant for distal radius fractures. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2646-2651, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acupuncture at local and distal points for chronic shoulder pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing-Nan; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; He, Tian; Liu, Bao-Zhen; Sun, San-Feng; Wang, Jun; Tan, Cheng; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2014-04-17

    Chronic shoulder pain (CSP) is the third most common type of musculoskeletal pain. It has a major impact on health-related quality of life. In Chinese medicine, CSP is considered one of the conditions most amenable to treatment with acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of local acupoints in combination with distal acupoints in pain relief and shoulder function improvement in CSP patients. This is a multicenter, single blind, factorial randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 164 participants will be randomly allocated to four different groups: Group A will receive acupuncture at local acupoints in combination with distal acupoint. Group B will receive acupuncture at local acupoints in combination with distal non-acupoint. Group C will receive acupuncture at local non-acupoints in combination with distal acupoint. Group D will receive acupuncture at local non-acupoints in combination with distal non-acupoint. Each group will receive 12 treatments of acupuncture one to three times per week for six weeks in total. The primary outcome is shoulder pain intensity, which is graded using a 100 -mm Visual Analogue Scale. The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 6 weeks after the first acupuncture, 10 weeks after the first acupuncture and 18 weeks after the first acupuncture. This trial will be helpful in identifying whether acupuncture at local acupoints in combination with distal acupoints may be more effective than needling points separately. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN61861069 (http://www.controlled-trials.com).

  19. Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (PREMIAR).

    PubMed

    Cura, Fernando A; Escudero, Alejandro Garcia; Berrocal, Daniel; Mendiz, Oscar; Trivi, Marcelo S; Fernandez, Juan; Palacios, Alejandro; Albertal, Mariano; Piraino, Ruben; Riccitelli, Miguel Angel; Gruberg, Luis; Ballarino, Miguel; Milei, Jose; Baeza, Ricardo; Thierer, Jorge; Grinfeld, Liliana; Krucoff, Mitchell; O'Neill, William; Belardi, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Distal embolization may decrease myocardial reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Nonetheless, results of previous trials assessing the role of distal protection during primary PCI have been controversial. The Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Trial (PREMIAR) was a prospective, randomized, controlled study designed to evaluate the role of filter-based distal protection during PCI in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at high risk of embolic events (including only baseline Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 0 to 2 flow). The primary end point was continuous monitoring of ST-segment resolution. Secondary end points included core laboratory analysis of angiographic myocardial blush, ejection fraction measured by cardiac ultrasound, and adverse cardiac events at 6 months. From a total of 194 enrolled patients, 140 subjects were randomized to PCI with or without embolic protection, and 54 were included in a registry arm due to the presence of angiographic exclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics were comparable between arms. The rate of complete ST-segment resolution (>or=70%) at 60 minutes was similar in patients treated with or without distal protection (61.2% vs 60.3%, respectively, p = 0.85). Angiographic myocardial blush (67% vs 70.7%, p = 0.73), in-hospital ejection fraction (47.4 +/- 9.9% vs 45.3 +/- 7.3%, p = 0.29), and combined end point of death, heart failure, or reinfarction at 6 months (14.3% vs 15.7%, p = 0.81) were consistently achieved in a similar proportion in the 2 groups. In conclusion, the use of filter-based distal protection is safe and effectively retrieves debris; however, such use does not translate into an improvement of myocardial reperfusion, left ventricular performance, or clinical outcomes.

  20. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome and colonic pathologies in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Canny, J D; Brookes, A; Bowley, D B

    2017-01-02

    The management of abdominal pain in cystic fibrosis can be complicated. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome is a common cause of pain and obstruction in these patients. Knowledge of the diagnosis and management and of similar presenting symptoms is essential for the hospital doctor.

  1. Hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release with distal chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Rak; Lee, Ho Seong; Jeong, Jae Jung; Kim, Sang Woo; Jeon, In-Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Woo Chun

    2012-10-01

    Transarticular lateral release through a medial incision can avoid a dorsal incision. This study investigated outcomes following hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision. Between June 2004 and May 2009, a single surgeon performed a transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision for hallux valgus on a total of 103 feet of 68 patients. The average patient age at the time of surgery was 51 years, and the average followup was 27 months. The average preoperative and final followup results were: 1) hallux valgus angle improvement from 29 degrees to 5 degrees, 2) intermetatarsal angle from 13 degrees to 5 degrees and 3) medial sesamoid bone position from 3 to 1 (p < 0.05 for each variable). The average AOFAS scores were improved from 49 to 92, and the VAS pain scores were improved from 7 to 1 (p < 0.05 for both variables). No patient had a serious complication such as infection, avascular necrosis, nonunion, transfer-metatarsalgia, or first metatarsophalangeal joint arthritis. Hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision was found to be effective and safe. The advantages include that the procedure is simple, early ambulation is possible, and there is no dorsal scarring.

  2. Interventional MRI: tapering improves the distal sensitivity of the loopless antenna.

    PubMed

    Qian, Di; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M; Atalar, Ergin; Bottomley, Paul A

    2010-03-01

    The "loopless antenna" is an interventional MRI detector consisting of a tuned coaxial cable and an extended inner conductor or "whip". A limitation is the poor sensitivity afforded at, and immediately proximal to, its distal end, which is exacerbated by the extended whip length when the whip is uniformly insulated. It is shown here that tapered insulation dramatically improves the distal sensitivity of the loopless antenna by pushing the current sensitivity toward the tip. The absolute signal-to-noise ratio is numerically computed by the electromagnetic method-of-moments for three resonant 3-T antennae with no insulation, uniform insulation, and with linearly tapered insulation. The analysis shows that tapered insulation provides an approximately 400% increase in signal-to-noise ratio in trans-axial planes 1 cm from the tip and a 16-fold increase in the sensitive area as compared to an equivalent, uniformly insulated antenna. These findings are directly confirmed by phantom experiments and by MRI of an aorta specimen. The results demonstrate that numerical electromagnetic signal-to-noise ratio analysis can accurately predict the loopless detector's signal-to-noise ratio and play a central role in optimizing its design. The manifold improvement in distal signal-to-noise ratio afforded by redistributing the insulation should improve the loopless antenna's utility for interventional MRI. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Distal biceps tendon rupture reconstruction using muscle-splitting double-incision approach

    PubMed Central

    Tarallo, Luigi; Mugnai, Raffaele; Zambianchi, Francesco; Adani, Roberto; Catani, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical and functional results after repair of distal biceps tendon tears, following the Morrey’s modified double-incision approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with distal rupture of biceps brachii treated between 2003 and 2012 in our Orthopedic Department with muscle-splitting double-incision technique. Outcome measures included the Mayo elbow performance, the DASH questionnaire, patient’s satisfaction, elbow and forearm motion, grip strength and complications occurrence. RESULTS: At an average 18 mo follow-up (range, 7 mo-10 years) the average Mayo elbow performance and DASH score were respectively 97.2 and 4.8. The elbow flexion range was 94%, extension was -2°, supination was 93% and pronation 96% compared with the uninjured limb. The mean grip strength, expressed as percentage of respective contralateral limb, was 83%. The average patient satisfaction rating on a Likert scale (from 0 to 10) was 9.4. The following complications were observed: 3 cases of heterotopic ossification (6.4%), one (2.1%) re-rupture of the tendon at the site of reattachment and 2 cases (4.3%) of posterior interosseous nerve palsy. No complication required further surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: This technique allows an anatomic reattachment of distal biceps tendon at the radial tuberosity providing full functional recovery with low complication rate. PMID:25133147

  4. [The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].

    PubMed

    Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  5. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy of Lateral and Lateral and Medial Double-plating Fixation of Distal Femoral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhibiao; Gao, Shichang; Hu, Zhenming; Liang, Anlin

    2018-03-20

    The present study was performed to compare the clinical efficacy of lateral plate and lateral and medial double-plating fixation of distal femoral fractures and explore the indication of lateral and medial double-plating fixation of the distal femoral fractures. From March 2006 to April 2014, 48 and 12 cases of distal femoral fractures were treated with lateral plate (single plate) and lateral and medial plates (double plates), respectively. During the surgery, after setting the lateral plate for the distal femoral fractures, if the varus stress test of the knee was positive and the lateral collateral ligament rupture was excluded, lateral and medial double-plating fixation was used for the stability of the fragments. All the patients were followed up at an average period of 15.9 months. The average operation time, the intraoperative hemorrhage and the fracture union time of the two groups were compared. One year after operation, knee function was evaluated by the Kolmert's standard. There was no significant difference in the average operation time, intraoperative hemorrhage, fracture healing time and excellent and good rates of postoperative knee function between two groups. Positive Varus stress test during operation can be an indication for lateral and medial double-plating fixation of distal femoral fractures.

  6. [Distal Pancreatectomy with Autologous Fibrin Sealant - Implementation of an Established Concept of Tissue Sealing in Pancreatic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Luu, A M; Braumann, C; Belyaev, O; Janot, M; Uhl, W; Herzog, T

    2016-12-01

    Background: Postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) remain a major concern after distal pancreatectomy. Irrespective of the technique to close the pancreatic remnant, pancreatic fistulas will occur in approximately 30 % of patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy. For the first time ever, autologous fibrin sealant (Vivostat®) was used to additionally seal the pancreatic remnant after a distal pancreatectomy. The aim was to analyse whether this changes the postoperative outcome. Patients/Material and Methods: In 2015, a technical case series was performed in 15 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy. The pancreatic remnant was additionally sealed with autologous fibrin sealant (Vivostat®). Results: A postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) occurred in 5/15 patients (33 %). One patient had a POPF grade A (1/15, 6.7 %), whereas a POPF grade B occurred in 4/15 patients (26.7 %). 75 % (3/4) of the patients with a POPF grade B were sufficiently treated with antibiotics, whereas a CT-guided percutaneous drainage had to be placed only in one case. Conclusion: Autologous fibrin sealant is simple to apply and seems to be well tolerated. However, it does not seem to avoid the development of postoperative pancreatic fistulas after distal pancreatectomy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The distal tibia of Hispanopithecus laietanus: more evidence for mosaic evolution in Miocene apes.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Melissa; Almécija, Sergio; Reber, Samantha L; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2013-05-01

    IPS18800 is a partial skeleton attributed to the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus, and dated to 9.6 Ma (millions of years ago). Previous studies on the postcranial anatomy of this taxon have shown that it displayed a derived, extant great ape-like orthograde body plan with suspensory adaptations, uniquely coupled with adaptations for above-branch pronograde locomotion. Here, for the first time, we describe and analyze in detail the distal tibia of the IPS18800 skeleton of Hispanopithecus with the aid of three-dimensional geometric morphometrics based on 53 landmarks and semilandmarks collected on a broad sample of extant catarrhines and fossil hominoids. Results of principal components and canonical variate analyses reveal that the distal tibia of Hispanopithecus occupies a unique position in the morphospace, similar in some respects to pronograde monkeys, and in other respects to extant apes. The IPS18800 distal tibia combines adaptations for above branch quadrupedalism, such as a keeled trochlear surface and strong intercollicular groove, with adaptations for vertical climbing, such as an anteroposteriorly flattened shaft, enlarged fibular facet and a tibial stop. These results on the distal tibia agree with those from other anatomical regions, indicating that this taxon displayed a locomotor repertoire unlike any extant ape, combining vertical climbing and clambering with above-branch quadrupedalism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure of the kidney of Bufo arenarum: intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule.

    PubMed

    Farías, Alejandro; Hermida, Gladys Noemí; Fiorito, Luisa Eleonora

    2003-04-01

    The ultrastructure of the intermediate segment (IS), distal tubule and collecting tubule (CT) of the south american toad Bufo arenarum, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IS is composed of cubical ciliated cells which propel the urine along the renal tubule. The distal tubule is divided into two portions: the early distal tubule (EDT) and the late distal tubule (LDT). The EDT is characterized by only one type of cells with well developed basolateral interdigitations and numerous elongated mitochondria, which are oriented normal to the basal surface. The "macula densa--like" is a specialized zone of the EDT in contact with the vascular pole, where cells are more tightly packed than in the rest of the tubule. The LDT shows two types of cells called dark and light cells according to the appearance of their cytoplasm. Dark cells have microplicae and few but long microvilli at their luminal surface, and abundant mitochondria in their cytoplasm. Light cells show basal and lateral infoldings and few mitochondria. The CT, which is composed of dark and light cells, exhibits an enlarged lumen with an undulated surface and dilated spaces between neighbouring cells. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the kidney of B. arenarum; frequently used as an experimental model for physiological and biochemical studies.

  9. Are distal radius fracture classifications reproducible? Intra and interobserver agreement.

    PubMed

    Belloti, João Carlos; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Santos, João Baptista Gomes dos; Balbachevsky, Daniel; Chap Chap, Eduardo; Albertoni, Walter Manna; Faloppa, Flávio

    2008-05-01

    Various classification systems have been proposed for fractures of the distal radius, but the reliability of these classifications is seldom addressed. For a fracture classification to be useful, it must provide prognostic significance, interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. The aim here was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreement of distal radius fracture classifications. This was a validation study on interobserver and intraobserver reliability. It was developed in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina. X-rays from 98 cases of displaced distal radius fracture were evaluated by five observers: one third-year orthopedic resident (R3), one sixth-year undergraduate medical student (UG6), one radiologist physician (XRP), one orthopedic trauma specialist (OT) and one orthopedic hand surgery specialist (OHS). The radiographs were classified on three different occasions (times T1, T2 and T3) using the Universal (Cooney), Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF), Frykman and Fernández classifications. The kappa coefficient (kappa) was applied to assess the degree of agreement. Among the three occasions, the highest mean intraobserver k was observed in the Universal classification (0.61), followed by Fernández (0.59), Frykman (0.55) and AO/ASIF (0.49). The interobserver agreement was unsatisfactory in all classifications. The Fernández classification showed the best agreement (0.44) and the worst was the Frykman classification (0.26). The low agreement levels observed in this study suggest that there is still no classification method with high reproducibility.

  10. [Locked volar plating for complex distal radius fractures: maintaining radial length].

    PubMed

    Jeudy, J; Pernin, J; Cronier, P; Talha, A; Massin, P

    2007-09-01

    Maintaining radial length, likely to be the main challenge in the treatment of complex distal radius fractures, is necessary for complete grip-strength and pro-supination range recovery. In spite of frequent secondary displacements, bridging external-fixation has remained the reference method, either isolated or in association with additional percutaneous pins or volar plating. Also, there seems to be a relation between algodystrophy and the duration of traction applied on the radio-carpal joint. Fixed-angle volar plating offers the advantage of maintaining the reduction until fracture healing, without bridging the joint. In a prospective study, forty-three consecutive fractures of the distal radius with a positivated ulnar variance were treated with open reduction and fixed-angle volar plating. Results were assessed with special attention to the radial length and angulation obtained and maintained throughout treatment, based on repeated measurements of the ulnar variance and radial angulation in the first six months postoperatively. The correction of the ulnar variance was maintained until complete recovery, independently of initial metaphyseal comminution, and of the amount of radial length gained at reduction. Only 3 patients lost more than 1 mm of radial length after reduction. The posterior tilt of the distal radial epiphysis was incompletely reduced in 13 cases, whereas reduction was partially lost in 6 elderly osteoporotic female patients. There was 8 articular malunions, all of them less than 2 mm. Secondary displacements were found to be related to a deficient locking technique. Eight patients developed an algodystropy. The risk factors for algodystrophy were articular malunion, associated posterior pining, and associated lesions of the ipsilateral upper limb. Provided that the locking technique was correct, this type of fixation appeared efficient in maintaining the radial length in complex fractures of the distal radius. The main challenge remains the

  11. [Distal radius fractures--retrospective quality control after conservative and operative therapy].

    PubMed

    Sommer, C; Brendebach, L; Meier, R; Leutenegger, A

    2001-01-01

    The distal radius fracture is the most frequent fracture in the adult patient. The wide spectrum of different types of fracture and the coexisting factors make the choice for the optimal treatment difficult. As an interne quality control we retrospectively evaluated all patients with distal radius fractures treated in 1995 at our institution. The study included 69 adult patients with 71 distal radius fractures. After on average 26 months 58 patients with 59 fractures were clinically and radiologically evaluated. The patients were asked to give supplementary information about their follow-up treatment as well as any remaining physical difficulties and limitations in the daily life. All x-rays of the broken radius were carefully analysed and compared with the opposite side. The final results were evaluated according to the "Demerit Point System". Patients were treated with five different therapeutical methods. 76.3% of the patients showed a very good/good final result. In 56.7% of the cases secondary fracture dislocation occurred; the dislocation-rate of fractures treated with percutaneous k-wires was 93.3%! A clear correlation between secondary displacement and final results was found. A main factor for an optimal outcome is the anatomic restoration of length and axis of the distal radius as well as of joint congruency, also moderate angular deformities are well tolerated. Our collective showed an unexpected high rate of secondary displacement, especially in the k-wire group. The reasons for this unsatisfactory event are manifold: too optimistic indication, insufficient follow-up examination in the first four to six weeks, inconsequent change to a more stable fixation method in case of a secondary dislocation. The results of this retrospective evaluation had a major impact on our concept of treatment. The dorso-radial double-plate technique combined with bone graft will be more used in the future especially in younger patients. The new standardised concept is the

  12. Effect of Cortical Screw Diameter on Reduction and Stabilization of Type III Distal Phalanx Fractures: An Equine Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Kay, Alastair T; Durgam, Sushmitha; Stewart, Matthew; Joslyn, Stephen; Schaeffer, David J; Horn, Gavin; Kesler, Richard; Chew, Peter

    2016-11-01

    To compare reduction of type III distal phalangeal fractures using 4.5 and 5.5 mm cortical screws placed in lag fashion and an intact hoof capsule model. Cadaveric experimental study. Hooves from 12 adult horses (n=24). Sagittal fractures were created in pairs of distal phalanges after distal interphalangeal joint disarticulation and were reduced with either 4.5 or 5.5 mm cortical screws placed in lag fashion. Contralateral phalanges served as non-reduced controls. Fracture reduction following screw placement was assessed by comparing pre-reduction and post-reduction fracture gap measurements from radiographs using paired t-tests. Effects of incremental loading (0, 135, 270, 540, 800, 1070, and 1335 kg) on fracture gaps in 6 phalanges reduced with 4.5 mm screws and 5 phalanges reduced with 5.5 mm screws were measured from fluoroscopic images and assessed by 2-way ANOVA. Significance was set at P<.05. Type III distal phalanx fractures were reliably created. Only 5.5 mm cortical screws, not 4.5 mm screws, significantly reduced fracture gaps and constrained fracture gap expansion 3 cm distal to the articular surface. Compressive loading closed the fracture gaps at the articular surface in both non-reduced control groups and those reduced with either 5.5 or 4.5 mm screws. The 5.5 mm cortical screws were more effective than 4.5 mm screws in reducing type III distal phalanx fractures and restricting distal fracture gap expansion under load. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Palmar reconstruction of the triangular fibrocartilage complex for instability of the distal radioulnar joint: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, T; Moritomo, H; Omokawa, S; Iida, A; Wada, T; Aoki, M

    2013-06-01

    We developed a new triangular fibrocartilage complex reconstruction technique for distal radioulnar joint instability in which the palmar portion of the triangular fibrocartilage complex was predominantly reconstructed, and evaluated whether such reconstruction can restore stability of the distal radioulnar joint in seven fresh cadaver upper extremities. Distal radioulnar joint instability was induced by cutting all soft-tissue stabilizers around the distal ulna. Using a palmar approach, a palmaris longus tendon graft was sutured to the remnant of the palmar radioulnar and ulnocarpal ligaments. The graft was then passed through a bone tunnel created at the fovea and was sutured. Loads were applied to the radius, and dorsopalmar displacements of the radius relative to the ulna were measured using an electromagnetic tracking device in neutral rotation, 60° supination and 60° pronation. We compared the dorsopalmar displacements before sectioning, before reconstruction and after reconstruction. Dorsopalmar instability produced by sectioning significantly improved in all forearm positions after reconstruction.

  14. A minimally sufficient model for rib proximal-distal patterning based on genetic analysis and agent-based simulations

    PubMed Central

    Mah, In Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    For decades, the mechanism of skeletal patterning along a proximal-distal axis has been an area of intense inquiry. Here, we examine the development of the ribs, simple structures that in most terrestrial vertebrates consist of two skeletal elements—a proximal bone and a distal cartilage portion. While the ribs have been shown to arise from the somites, little is known about how the two segments are specified. During our examination of genetically modified mice, we discovered a series of progressively worsening phenotypes that could not be easily explained. Here, we combine genetic analysis of rib development with agent-based simulations to conclude that proximal-distal patterning and outgrowth could occur based on simple rules. In our model, specification occurs during somite stages due to varying Hedgehog protein levels, while later expansion refines the pattern. This framework is broadly applicable for understanding the mechanisms of skeletal patterning along a proximal-distal axis. PMID:29068314

  15. Simultaneous acute rotator cuff tear and distal biceps rupture in a strongman competitor.

    PubMed

    George, Michael S

    2010-04-01

    Acute rotator cuff tear is commonly associated with tearing of the proximal biceps tendon, but has never been reported to occur simultaneously with a distal biceps tendon rupture. A 38-year-old right-hand-dominant strongman competitor attempted a 300-pound overhead axle press and experienced immediate pain in the right shoulder and elbow. He had no known systemic risk factors for tendon ruptures including hyperparathyroidism, hemodialysis, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis, statin medications, fluoroquinolones, and steroid use.Right shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a full-thickness supraspinatus tear with 3 cm of retraction. There was minimal fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus on the sagittal cuts consistent with acute rupture. The subscapularis was intact. The long head of the biceps tendon had mild medial subluxation but was completely within the bicipital groove. Right elbow MRI showed a complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Thirteen days after his injury, the patient underwent arthroscopic supraspinatus repair and proximal biceps tenodesis. Distal biceps tendon repair was performed using the modified 2-incision muscle-splitting technique. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was pain free and had returned to full activity including weightlifting but had not returned to strongman competition.This is the first report of simultaneous acute full thickness ruptures of the rotator cuff and distal biceps tendon. This case report underscores the importance of a complete physical examination and a high index of suspicion for additional concomitant injuries, particularly in athletes with unusually high stresses to the body. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Proximal versus distal cue utilization in spatial navigation: the role of visual acuity?

    PubMed

    Carman, Heidi M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2002-09-01

    Proximal versus distal cue use in the Morris water maze is a widely accepted strategy for the dissociation of various problems affecting spatial navigation in rats such as aging, head trauma, lesions, and pharmacological or hormonal agents. Of the limited number of ontogenetic rat studies conducted, the majority have approached the problem of preweanling spatial navigation through a similar proximal-distal dissociation. An implicit assumption among all of these studies has been that the animal's visual system is sufficient to permit robust spatial navigation. We challenged this assumption and have addressed the role of visual acuity in spatial navigation in the preweanling Fischer 344-N rat by training animals to locate a visible (proximal) or hidden (distal) platform using double or null extramaze cues within the testing environment. All pups demonstrated improved performance across training, but animals presented with a visible platform, regardless of extramaze cues, simultaneously reached asymptotic performance levels; animals presented with a hidden platform, dependent upon location of extramaze cues, differentially reached asymptotic performance levels. Probe trial performance, defined by quadrant time and platform crossings, revealed that distal-double-cue pups demonstrated spatial navigational ability superior to that of the remaining groups. These results suggest that a pup's ability to spatially navigate a hidden platform is dependent on not only its response repertoire and task parameters, but also its visual acuity, as determined by the extramaze cue location within the testing environment. The standard hidden versus visible platform dissociation may not be a satisfactory strategy for the control of potential sensory deficits.

  17. Acute inhibition of NCC does not activate distal electrogenic Na+ reabsorption or kaliuresis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert W; Craigie, Eilidh; Homer, Natalie Z M; Mullins, John J; Bailey, Matthew A

    2014-02-15

    Na(+) reabsorption from the distal renal tubule involves electroneutral and electrogenic pathways, with the latter promoting K(+) excretion. The relative activities of these two pathways are tightly controlled, participating in the minute-to-minute regulation of systemic K(+) balance. The pathways are interdependent: the activity of the NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule influences the activity of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) downstream. This effect might be mediated by changes in distal Na(+) delivery per se or by molecular and structural adaptations in the connecting tubule and collecting ducts. We hypothesized that acute inhibition of NCC activity would cause an immediate increase in Na(+) flux through ENaC, with a concomitant increase in renal K(+) excretion. We tested this using renal clearance methodology in anesthetized mice, by the administration of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and/or benzamil (BZM) to exert specific blockade of NCC and ENaC, respectively. Bolus HCTZ elicited a natriuresis that was sustained for up to 110 min; urinary K(+) excretion was not affected. Furthermore, the magnitude of the natriuresis was no greater during concomitant BZM administration. This suggests that ENaC-mediated Na(+) reabsorption was not normally limited by Na(+) delivery, accounting for the absence of thiazide-induced kaliuresis. After dietary Na(+) restriction, HCTZ elicited a kaliuresis, but the natiuretic effect of HCTZ was not enhanced by BZM. Our findings support a model in which inhibition of NCC activity does not increase Na(+) reabsorption through ENaC solely by increasing distal Na(+) delivery but rather by inducing a molecular and structural adaptation in downstream nephron segments.

  18. Surgery or EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy for malignant distal biliary obstruction after ERCP failure

    PubMed Central

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Loureiro, Jarbas F.; Baron, Todd H.; Fernandes, Kaie; Kahaleh, Michel; Marson, Fernando P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the method of choice for drainage in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction, but it fails in up to 10% of cases. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and surgical bypass are the traditional drainage alternatives. This study aimed to compare technical and clinical success, quality of life, and survival of surgical biliary bypass or hepaticojejunostomy (HJT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided choledochoduodenostomy (CDT) in patients with distal malignant bile duct obstruction and failed ERCP. Patients and Methods: A prospective, randomized trial was conducted. From March 2011 to September 2013, 32 patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction and failed ERCP were studied. The HJT group consisted of 15 patients and the CDT group consisted of 14 patients. Technical and clinical success, quality of life, and survival were assessed prospectively. Results: Technical success was 94% (15/16) in the HJT group and 88% (14/16) in the CDT group (P = 0.598). Clinical success occurred in 14 (93%) patients in the HJT group and in 10 (71%) patients in the CDT group (P = 0.169). During follow-up, a statistically significant difference was seen in mean functional capacity scores, physical health, pain, social functioning, and emotional and mental health aspects in both techniques (P < 0.05). The median survival time in both groups was the same (82 days). Conclusion: Data relating to technical and clinical success, quality of life, and survival were similar in patients who underwent HJT and CDT drainage after failed ERCP for malignant distal biliary obstruction. PMID:26374583

  19. Molar distalization with pendulum appliances in the mixed dentition: effects on the position of unerupted canines and premolars.

    PubMed

    Kinzinger, Gero S M; Wehrbein, Heinrich; Gross, Ulrich; Diedrich, Peter R

    2006-03-01

    The pendulum appliance allows for rapid molar distalization without the need for patient compliance. Its efficiency has been confirmed in a number of clinical studies. However, the potential interactions and positional changes between the deciduous molars used for dental anchorage and the erupted and unerupted permanent teeth have yet to be clarified when this appliance is used for molar distalization in the mixed dentition. Twenty-nine patients in the mixed dentition each received a modified pendulum appliance with a distal screw and a preactivated pendulum spring for bilateral distalization of the maxillary molars. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on dentition stages: patient group 1 (PG 1, n = 10) was in the early mixed dentition; patients had resorption of the distal root areas of the deciduous molars being used for dental anchorage, and the unerupted premolars were located at the distal margin of the deciduous molar root region. Based on radiographs taken before placement of the pendulum appliance, patient group 2 (PG 2, n = 10) was diagnosed as having a central location of the unerupted premolars. In the third group (PG 3, n = 4), the first premolars were already erupted and could be integrated into the dental anchorage, but the canines were not yet erupted. In the fourth group (PG 4, n = 5), the first premolars and both canines were fully erupted. Statistical analysis of the measured results showed significant differences in the side effects between PG 1 and PG 2. In patients being treated with pendulum appliances, the anchorage quality of the deciduous molars that were already partially resorbed in the distal root area was comparatively reduced. Consequently, the mesial drift of the deciduous molars and incisors was increased, without impairing the extent and quality of the molar distalization. Anchorage loss in the supporting area had no direct impact on the sagittal position of the unerupted premolars in the early mixed dentition. If

  20. Importance of Adjunct Delivery Techniques to Optimize Deployment Success of Distal Protection Filters During Vein Graft Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kaliyadan, Antony G; Chawla, Harnish; Fischman, David L; Ruggiero, Nicholas; Gannon, Michael; Walinsky, Paul; Savage, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the impact of adjunct delivery techniques on the deployment success of distal protection filters in saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). Despite their proven clinical benefit, distal protection devices are underutilized in SVG interventions. Deployment of distal protection filters can be technically challenging in the presence of complex anatomy. Techniques that facilitate the delivery success of these devices could potentially improve clinical outcomes and promote greater use of distal protection. Outcomes of 105 consecutive SVG interventions with attempted use of a FilterWire distal protection device (Boston Scientific) were reviewed. In patients in whom filter delivery initially failed, the success of attempted redeployment using adjunct delivery techniques was assessed. Two strategies were utilized sequentially: (1) a 0.014" moderate-stiffness hydrophilic guidewire was placed first to function as a parallel buddy wire to support subsequent FilterWire crossing; and (2) if the buddy-wire approach failed, predilation with a 2.0 mm balloon at low pressure was performed followed by reattempted filter delivery. The study population consisted of 80 men and 25 women aged 73 ± 10 years. Mean SVG age was 14 ± 6 years. Complex disease (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association class B2 or C) was present in 92%. Initial delivery of the FilterWire was successful in 82/105 patients (78.1%). Of the 23 patients with initial failed delivery, 8 (35%) had successful deployment with a buddy wire alone, 7 (30%) had successful deployment with balloon predilation plus buddy wire, 4 (17%) had failed reattempt at deployment despite adjunct maneuvers, and in 4 (17%) no additional attempts at deployment were made at the operator's discretion. Deployment failure was reduced from 21.9% initially to 7.6% after use of adjunct delivery techniques (P<.01). No adverse events were observed with these measures. Deployment of distal protection devices can be

  1. Citation analysis of the 100 most common articles regarding distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard; Hughes, Travis; Lawson, Kevin; DeSilva, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Bibliometric studies are increasingly being utilized as a tool for gauging the impact of different literature within a given field. The purpose of this study was to identify the most cited articles related to the management of distal radius fractures to better understand how the evidence of this topic has been shaped and changed over time. We utilized the ISI web of science database to conduct a search for the term "distal radius fracture" under the "orthopaedics" research area heading, and sorted the results by number of times cited. The 100 most cited articles published in orthopedic journals were then analyzed for number of citations, source journal, year of publication, number of authors, study type, level of evidence, and clinical outcomes utilized. The 100 most cited articles identified were published between 1951 and 2009. Total number of citations ranged between 525 and 67, and came from ten different orthopedic journals. The largest number of articles came from J Hand Surg Am and J Bone Joint Surg Am, each with 32. Consistent with previous analyses of orthopedic literature, the articles were primarily clinical, and of these, 53/76 were case series. The vast majority were evidence level IV. Only a small percentage of articles utilized patient reported outcome measures. These data show that despite distal radius fractures being a common fracture encountered by physicians, very few of the articles were high quality studies, and only a low proportion of the studies include patient reported outcome measures. Surgeons should take this lack of high-level evidence into consideration when referencing classic papers in this field. Analysis of the 100 most cited distal radius fracture articles allows for delineation of which articles are most common in the field and if a higher level of evidence correlates positively with citation quantity.

  2. Inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate for displaced medial clavicle fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Jiang, Jiannong; Dou, Bin; Zhang, Panjun

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of the medial clavicle are rare injuries. Recently, open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended for displaced medial clavicle fractures in order to prevent non-union and dysfunction. Because of the rarity of this injury, the optimal fixation device has not yet been established. In this report, we describe a case of a 40-year-old male patient who sustained a significantly displaced medial clavicle fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation using an inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate. At the 12 months follow-up, the patient recovered well, had returned to pre-injury job, and was quite satisfied with the outcome. Internal fixation of medial clavicle fracture using an inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate of the ipsilateral side appears to be a good treatment option.

  3. Force and displacement measurements of the distal fibula during simulated ankle loading tests for high ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Jackson, Steven; McAllister, David R

    2012-09-01

    Syndesmosis (high ankle) sprains produce disruption of the distal tibiofibular ligaments. Forces on the distal fibula that produce these injuries are unknown. Twenty-seven fresh-frozen lower extremities were used for this study. A load cell recorded forces acting on the distal fibula from forced ankle dorsiflexion and applied external foot torque; medial-lateral and anterior-posterior displacements of the distal fibula were recorded. Fibular forces and axial displacements were also recorded with applied axial force. During forced ankle dorsiflexion and external foot torque tests, the distal fibula always displaced posteriorly with respect to the tibia with no measurable medial-lateral displacement. With 10 Nm dorsiflexion moment, cutting the tibiofibular ligaments approximately doubled fibular force and displacement values. Cutting the tibiofibular ligaments significantly increased fibular displacement from applied external foot torque. Fibular forces and axial displacements from applied axial weight-bearing force were highest with the foot dorsiflexed. The highest mean fibular force in the study (271.9 N) occurred with 10 Nm external foot torque applied to a dorsiflexed foot under 1000 N axial force. Two important modes of loading that could produce high ankle sprains were identified: forced ankle dorsiflexion and external foot torque applied to a dorsiflexed ankle loaded with axial force. The distal tibiofibular ligaments restrained fibular displacement during these tests. Residual mortise widening observed at surgery may be the result of tibiofibular ligament injuries caused by posterior displacement of the fibula. Therefore, a syndesmosis screw used to fix the fibula would be subjected to posterior bending forces from these loading modes. Ankle bracing to prevent extreme ankle dorsiflexion during rehabilitation may be advisable to prevent excessive fibular motions that could affect syndesmosis healing.

  4. Long-term outcome of patients with distal ulcerative colitis and inflammation of the appendiceal orifice.

    PubMed

    Naves, Juan E; Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Marín, Laura; Mañosa, Míriam; Oller, Blanca; Moreno, Vicente; Zabana, Yamile; Boix, Jaume; Cabré, Eduard; Domènech, Eugeni

    2011-12-01

    Skip inflammation of the appendiceal orifice has been described in distal UC (UC-IAO) but long-term clinical outcomes are poorly established. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of UC-IAO as compared to classic distal UC. Patients with UC-IAO were identified from the local IBD database. Disease outcome and therapeutic requirements during follow-up were accurately collected, and compared with a control group of patients with distal UC without peri-appendiceal involvement matched by disease extent (proctitis/distal), smoking habit, and date and age at diagnosis. Fourteen UC patients were found to have UC-IAO, most of them with initial extent of UC limited to the rectum. All patients were initially managed with mesalazine administered orally (28.5%), topically (28.5%), or in combination (43%). After a median follow-up of 78 months (interquartile range--IQR 45-123) most UC-IAO patients were successfully managed with oral and/or topical aminosalicylates. Only one of them developed proximal disease progression. As compared to controls, no differences in clinical outcomes or therapeutic requirements were found. Patients with UC-IAO tend to present a mild course, with a low probability to develop proximal progression of disease extent or to require immunosuppressive therapy or colectomy.

  5. Retinal artery occlusion during carotid artery stenting with distal embolic protection device.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Kotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2018-01-01

    Retinal artery occlusion associated with carotid artery stenosis is well known. Although it can also occur at the time of carotid artery stenting, retinal artery occlusion via the collateral circulation of the external carotid artery is rare. We encountered two cases of retinal artery occlusion that were thought to be caused by an embolus from the external carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with a distal embolic protection device for the internal carotid artery. A 71-year-old man presented with central retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the Carotid Guardwire PS and a 77-year-old man presented with branch retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the FilterWire EZ. Because additional new cerebral ischaemic lesions were not detected in either case by postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, it was highly likely that the debris that caused retinal artery occlusion passed through not the internal carotid artery but collaterals to retinal arteries from the external carotid artery, which was not protected by a distal embolic protection device. It is suggested that a distal protection device for the internal carotid artery alone cannot prevent retinal artery embolisation during carotid artery stenting and protection of the external carotid artery is important to avoid retinal artery occlusion.

  6. Evaluation of the Stryker S2 IM Nail Distal Targeting Device for reduction of radiation exposure: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Anastopoulos, George; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Chissas, Dionisios; Loupasis, George; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Athanaselis, Eustratios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-10-01

    Distal locking is one challenging step during intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures that can lead to an increase of radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors describe a technique for the distal locking of femoral nails, implementing a new targeting device in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure and operational time. Over a 2-year period, 127 consecutive cases of femoral shaft fractures were included in the study. All cases were treated with nailing of femoral shaft fractures with an unslotted reamed antegrade femoral nail and distal locking was performed with the use of a proximally mounted aiming device. Mean duration of the procedure was 63.5 18.1 min while the duration for distal locking was 6.6 +/- 2.6 min. In all successful cases, exposure from intraoperative fluoroscopy was 17.2 +/- 7.4 s for the whole operative procedure, and for distal locking was 2 shots, 1.35 s (range, 0.9-2.2 s) and 1.9 mGy (range, 1.1-2.9 mGy). Five cases (3.9%) were unsuccessful, but overall no intraoperative complications were encountered from the application of this technique. The ability of the device to correspond to the level of nail deformation and to properly identify the distal holes, reduced exposure to radiation compared to other published reports, and should be considered as a valuable tool for distal locking of femoral fractures.

  7. The Size of the Radial Tuberosity is Not Related to the Occurrence of Distal Biceps Tendon Ruptures: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kodde, Izaäk F; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Mulder, Paul G H; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic changes at the radial tuberosity have traditionally been related to distal biceps tendon degeneration and rupture. From supination to pronation of the forearm, the space available for the distal biceps tendon between de lateral ulna and radial bicipital tuberosity (RBT) decreases by almost 50%. A hypertrophic change at the radial tuberosity further reduces this space with impingement of the distal biceps tendon as a result. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the size of the RBT plays a role in the pathophysiology of distal biceps tendon ruptures. Twenty-two consecutive patients with a surgically proven distal biceps tendon rupture were matched to controls, in a 1:1 ratio. The size of the RBT was expressed as a ratio of the maximum diameter of the radius at the RBT to the diameter of the diaphysis just distal to the RBT (RD ratio), measured on standard radiographs of the elbow. The RD ratio of patients and matched controls were compared. The mean RD ratio in control group was 1.25 and not significantly different from the mean 1.30 in the group of patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture. Each 0.1 point increase in RD ratio results in an estimated 60% increase of the rupture odds, which was not significant either. Based on the RD ratio on conventional radiographs of the elbow, there was no significant difference in RBT size between patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture and matched controls without biceps tendon pathology.

  8. Distal end side-to-side anastomoses of sequential vein graft to small target coronary arteries improve intraoperative graft flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background End-to-side anastomoses to connect the distal end of the great saphenous vein (GSV) to small target coronary arteries are commonly performed in sequential coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the oversize diameter ratio between the GSV and small target vessels at end-to-side anastomoses might induce adverse hemodynamic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe a distal end side-to-side anastomosis technique and retrospectively compare the effect of distal end side-to-side versus end-to-side anastomosis on graft flow characteristics. Methods We performed side-to-side anastomoses to connect the distal end of the GSV to small target vessels on 30 patients undergoing off-pump sequential CABG in our hospital between October 2012 and July 2013. Among the 30 patients, end-to-side anastomoses at the distal end of the GSV were initially performed on 14 patients; however, due to poor graft flow, those anastomoses were revised into side-to-side anastomoses. We retrospectively compared the intraoperative graft flow characteristics of the end-to-side versus side-to-side anastomoses in the 14 patients. The patient outcomes were also evaluated. Results We found that the side-to-side anastomosis reconstruction improved intraoperative flow and reduced pulsatility index in all the 14 patients significantly. The 16 patients who had the distal end side-to-side anastomoses performed directly also exhibited satisfactory intraoperative graft flow. Three-month postoperative outcomes for all the patients were satisfactory. Conclusions Side-to-side anastomosis at the distal end of sequential vein grafts might be a promising strategy to connect small target coronary arteries to the GSV. PMID:24884776

  9. Differential regulation of ROMK (Kir1.1) in distal nephron segments by dietary potassium.

    PubMed

    Wade, James B; Fang, Liang; Coleman, Richard A; Liu, Jie; Grimm, P Richard; Wang, Tong; Welling, Paul A

    2011-06-01

    ROMK channels are well-known to play a central role in renal K secretion, but the absence of highly specific and avid-ROMK antibodies has presented significant roadblocks toward mapping the extent of expression along the entire distal nephron and determining whether surface density of these channels is regulated in response to physiological stimuli. Here, we prepared new ROMK antibodies verified to be highly specific, using ROMK knockout mice as a control. Characterization with segmental markers revealed a more extensive pattern of ROMK expression along the entire distal nephron than previously thought, localizing to distal convoluted tubule regions, DCT1 and DCT2; the connecting tubule (CNT); and cortical collecting duct (CD). ROMK was diffusely distributed in intracellular compartments and at the apical membrane of each tubular region. Apical labeling was significantly increased by high-K diet in DCT2, CNT1, CNT2, and CD (P < 0.05) but not in DCT1. Consistent with the large increase in apical ROMK, dramatically increased mature glycosylation was observed following dietary potassium augmentation. We conclude 1) our new antibody provides a unique tool to characterize ROMK channel localization and expression and 2) high-K diet causes a large increase in apical expression of ROMK in DCT2, CNT, and CD but not in DCT1, indicating that different regulatory mechanisms are involved in K diet-regulated ROMK channel functions in the distal nephron.

  10. Incidence and clinical outcomes of tendon rupture following distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    White, Brian D; Nydick, Jason A; Karsky, Dawnne; Williams, Bailee D; Hess, Alfred V; Stone, Jeffrey D

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the incidence of tendon rupture after nonoperative and operative management of distal radius fractures, report clinical outcomes after tendon repair or transfer, and examine volar plate and dorsal screw prominence as a predictor of tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective chart review on patients treated for tendon rupture after distal radius fracture. We evaluated active range of motion, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, grip strength, and pain score, and performed radiographic evaluation of volar plate and dorsal screw prominence in both the study group and a matched control group. There were 6 tendon ruptures in 1,359 patients (0.4%) treated nonoperatively and 8 tendon ruptures in 999 patients (0.8%) treated with volar plate fixation. At the time of final follow-up, regardless of treatment, we noted that patients had minimal pain and excellent motion and grip strength. Mean Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand scores were 6 for patients treated nonoperatively and 4 for those treated with volar plating. We were unable to verify volar plate or dorsal screw prominence as independent risk factors for tendon rupture after distal radius fractures. However, we recommend continued follow-up and plate removal for symptomatic patients who have volar plate prominence or dorsal screw prominence. In the event of tendon rupture, we report excellent clinical outcomes after tendon repair or tendon transfer. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arthroscopic knotless anchor repair of triangular fibrocartilage in distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    García-Ruano, Á A; Najarro-Cid, F; Jiménez-Martín, A; Gómez de los Infantes-Troncoso, J G; Sicre-González, M

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) are associated with distal radioulnar joint instability. Arthroscopic treatment of these lesions improves functional outcome of affected patients. The aim of the present work is to evaluate functional and occupational outcome of TCF repair using an arthroscopic knotless anchor device in patients with associated distal radius fracture. An observational, descriptive study was carried out between November 2011 and January 2014 including 21 patients with distal radius fracture and Palmer 1B lesions of TCF (Atzei class 2 and 3) that were treated by arthroscopic knotless anchor (PopLok® 2,8mm, ConMed, USA). Mean follow-up was 18 months. Functional (Mayo Wrist Score) and occupational outcome results were analyzed. Mean age of the group was 43.0±8.8 years, with 19% of the patients being female. There was an associated scapholunate lesion in 5 cases. Functional results reached a mean of 83.4±16.1 points onMayo Wrist Score. Mean sick-leave time was 153.16±48.5 days. Complete occupational reintegration was reached in 89.5% of cases. There were no postoperative complications. Arthroscopic knotless anchor repair of 1B TFC tears is a minimally invasive method of treatment that improves tension of fixation, avoiding subsequent loosen, in our experience, with few complications and good functional and occupational results. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroregulation of a chemosensitive afferent system in the canine distal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sandler, A D; Schlegel, J F; DeSautel, M G; Maher, J W

    1993-10-01

    Systemic and local responses mediated by chemonociceptive receptors located in the mucosa of the canine distal esophagus were examined following stimulation with capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide). The neural pathways and neurotransmitters mediating these sensory responses were also investigated. Topical application of capsaicin solution to the distal esophageal mucosa produced significant increases in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR) (P < 0.01). Pretreatment with tetrodotoxin completely abolished this reflex activity. Following truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty, topical capsaicin application produced an increase in LESP, but the increases in MAP, PR, and RR were blocked. The initial increase in LESP was blocked by hexamethonium, atropine, and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine, but was not inhibited by phentolamine. Excitatory cardiovascular responses were inhibited by hexamethonium. Administration of a Substance P antagonist attenuated both local and systemic responses. These studies suggest that the vagus nerves serve as the primary afferent pathways through which chemonociceptive esophageal stimuli can induce cardiovascular and respiratory reflex excitation. The increase in lower esophageal sphincter pressure in response to mucosal capsaicin stimulation is mediated via an intrinsic neural pathway that functions independently of vagal innervation, but is dependent on both cholinergic ganglionic neurotransmission and muscarinic type 2 smooth muscle receptor excitation. Substance P appears to play a role in primary sensory afferents as a chemonociceptive neurotransmitter in the canine distal esophagus.

  13. Preventing Fusion Mass Shift Avoids Postoperative Distal Curve Adding-on in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Bruzzone, Mauro; Matsumori, Hiroaki; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Samartzis, Dino; Luk, Keith Dip Kei

    2017-05-01

    Surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is only complete after achieving fusion to maintain the correction obtained intraoperatively. The instrumented or fused segments can be referred to as the "fusion mass". In patients with AIS, the ideal fusion mass strategy has been established based on fulcrum-bending radiographs for main thoracic curves. Ideally, the fusion mass should achieve parallel endplates of the upper and lower instrumented vertebra and correct any "shift" for truncal balance. Distal adding-on is an important element to consider in AIS surgery. This phenomenon represents a progressive increase in the number of vertebrae included distally in the primary curvature and it should be avoided as it is associated with unsatisfactory cosmesis and an increased risk of revision surgery. However, it remains unknown whether any fusion mass shift, or shift in the fusion mass or instrumented segments, affects global spinal balance and distal adding-on after curve correction surgery in patients with AIS. (1) To investigate the relationship among postoperative fusion mass shift, global balance, and distal adding-on phenomenon in patients with AIS; and (2) to identify a cutoff value of fusion mass shift that will lead to distal adding-on. This was a retrospective study of patients with AIS from a single institution. Between 2006 and 2011 we performed 69 selective thoracic fusions for patients with main thoracic AIS. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. The Cobb angle between the cranial and caudal endplates of the fusion mass and the coronal shift between them, which was defined as "fusion mass shift", were measured. Patients with a fusion mass Cobb angle greater than 20° were excluded to specifically determine the effect of fusion mass shift on distal adding-on phenomenon. Fusion mass shift was empirically set as 20 mm for analysis. Therefore, of the 69 patients who underwent selective thoracic fusion, only 52 with a

  14. Clinical and functional outcome of open primary repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears associated with distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Johandi, Faisal; Sechachalam, Sreedharan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the clinical and functional outcome of open primary repair of acute TFCC tears in distal radius fracture, when there is gross intraoperative distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability after fixation of the distal radius, in the absence of an ulnar styloid fracture or when the ulnar fracture fragment is too small to be fixed. A retrospective review of our institution's distal radius fracture database over a 4-year period (January 2010 to December 2013). A total of 12 (1.38%) out of 3379 patients had an open TFCC repair in the same setting as fixation of distal radius. Assessment of outcome involved the analysis of objective and subjective clinical and functional outcomes. All patient regained Activities of Daily Living (ADL) independence; eleven out of 12 patients (91.7%) returned to pre-injury function and 8 out of 11 patients (72.7%) returned to their jobs. DRUJ stability was preserved in 10 patients (83.3%) with 10 patients (83.3%) having grip strength of at least 50%, compared to the uninjured hand, and 7 (58.3%) with grip strength of more than or equal to 75%. Complications of surgery identified can be classified into 4 broad categories: infection, neurological complications, persistent DRUJ instability and prolonged pain. The authors believe a primary open repair of the TFCC should be considered when patients present with instability during intra-operative DRUJ ballottement test after distal radius fixation, in the absence of an ulnar styloid fracture or when the ulnar fracture fragment is too small to be fixed.

  15. Distal radius fractures and the volar lunate facet fragment: Kirschner wire fixation in addition to volar-locked plating.

    PubMed

    Moore, Amy M; Dennison, David G

    2014-06-01

    The volar lunate facet fragment of a distal radius fracture may not be stabilized with volar-locked plating alone due to the small size and distal location of the fragment. Identification and stabilization of this small fragment is critical as unstable fixation may result in radiocarpal and radioulnar joint subluxation. The addition of spring wire fixation with volar plating can provide stable internal fixation of this critical fracture fragment. A retrospective review (2006-2011) identified nine patients with distal radius fractures with an associated volar lunate facet fragment that were treated with volar-locked plating and spring wire fixation of the volar lunate facet fragment. Radiographic indices, range of motion, grip strength, and postoperative Patient-related wrist evaluation (PRWE) scores were obtained to assess pain and function. All distal radius fractures healed, and the volar lunate facet fragment reduction was maintained. The mean follow-up was 54 weeks. Mean active range of motion was 46° wrist flexion, 51° wrist extension, 80° pronation, and 68° supination. The mean grip strength was 21 Kg, achieving 66 % of the uninjured limb. The average PRWE score was 17. No patient required removal of hardware or had evidence of tendon irritation. The addition of spring wire fixation to volar-locked plating provided stable fixation of the volar lunate facet fragment of distal radius fractures without complication. This technique addresses a limitation of volar-locked plating to control the small volar lunate facet fragment in distal radius fractures otherwise amenable to volar plating. A retrospective case series, Level IV.

  16. Pathologic fracture of the distal radius in a 25-year-old patient with a large unicameral bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Massen, Felix; Baumbach, Sebastian; Volkmer, Elias; Mutschler, Wolf; Grote, Stefan

    2014-06-13

    Distal radius fractures (DRF) are often referred to as osteoporosis indicator fractures as their incidence increases from age 45. In the group of young adults, distal radius fractures normally result from high-energy trauma. Wrist fractures in young patients without adequate trauma thus raise suspicion of a pathologic fracture. In this report we present the case of a fractured unicameral bone cyst (UBC) at the distal radius in a young adult.To the author's best knowledge, this is the first detailed report in an UBC at the distal radius causing a pathologic DRF in an adult patient. A 25-year-old otherwise healthy male presented to our Emergency Department after a simple fall on his right outstretched hand. Extended diagnostics revealed a pathologic, dorsally displaced, intra-articular distal radius fracture secondary to a unicameral bone cyst occupying almost the whole metaphysis of the distal radius. To stabilize the fracture, a combined dorsal and volar approach was used for open reduction and internal fixation. A tissue specimen for histopathological examination was gathered and the lesion was filled with an autologous bone graft harvested from the ipsilateral femur using a reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) system. Following one revision surgery due to an intra-articular step-off, the patient recovered without further complications. Pathologic fractures in young patients caused by unicameral bone cysts require extended diagnostics and adequate treatment. A single step surgical treatment is reasonable if fracture and bone cyst are treated appropriately. Arthroscopically assisted fracture repair may be considered in intra-articular fractures or whenever co-pathologies of the carpus are suspected.

  17. Multiplexed fibre optic sensing in the distal lung (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Tushar R.; Tanner, Michael G.; Megia-Fernandez, Alicia; Harrington, Kerrianne; Wood, Harry A.; Chankeshwara, Sunay; Zhu, Patricia; Choudhury, Debaditya; Yu, Fei; Thomson, Robert R.; Duncan, Rory R.; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Bradley, Mark

    2017-02-01

    We present a toolkit for a multiplexed pH and oxygen sensing probe in the distal lung using multicore fibres. Measuring physiological relevant parameters like pH and oxygen is of significant importance in understanding changes associated with disease pathology. We present here, a single multicore fibre based pH and oxygen sensing probe which can be used with a standard bronchoscope to perform in vivo measurements in the distal lung. The multiplexed probe consists of fluorescent pH sensors (fluorescein based) and oxygen sensors (Palladium porphyrin complex based) covalently bonded to silica microspheres (10 µm) loaded on the distal facet of a 19 core (10 µm core diameter) multicore fibre (total diameter of 150 µm excluding coating). Pits are formed by selectively etching the cores using hydrofluoric acid, multiplexing is achieved through the self-location of individual probes on differing cores. This architecture can be expanded to include probes for further parameters. Robust measurements are demonstrated of self-referencing fluorophores, not limited by photobleaching, with short (100ms) measurement times at low ( 10µW) illumination powers. We have performed on bench calibration and tests of in vitro tissue models and in an ovine whole lung model to validate our sensors. The pH sensor is demonstrated in the physiologically relevant range of pH 5 to pH 8.5 and with an accuracy of ± 0.05 pH units. The oxygen sensor is demonstrated in gas mixtures downwards from 20% oxygen and in liquid saturated with 20% oxygen mixtures ( 8mg/L) down to full depletion (0mg/L) with 0.5mg/L accuracy.

  18. Outcome of Surgical Fixation of Lateral Column Distal Humerus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Von Keudell, Arvind; Kachooei, Amir R; Moradi, Ali; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the long-term outcome and complications of surgically fixated lateral unicondylar distal humerus fractures. Retrospective Review. Two level 1 Trauma Centers, Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Between 2002 and 2014, 24 patients treated with open reduction and internal fixation for lateral unicondylar distal humerus fractures (OTA/AO type B1 fractures) were retrospectively reviewed. Open reduction and internal fixation. Union rates, early complications, functional outcome, and the range of elbow motion were evaluated. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand, Mayo elbow Performance Index, satisfaction, pain scale, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. The mean age of patients was 46 ± 23 years at the time of surgery. The average final flexion/extension arc of motion was 108°. Reoperations were performed in 9 of 24 elbows after an average 21 ± 31 months. Twenty of the 24 patients were available for the clinical follow-up at an average of 70 months (range: 16-144 months). Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand averaged at 10.8 ± 11.7 points, satisfaction at 9.5 ± 1.2, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score at 88.5 ± 13.3 points at final follow-up. Based on the functional classification proposed by Jupiter, 16 demonstrated good to excellent results, 2 fair and 2 poor result. Outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of isolated lateral column distal humerus fractures can result in high union rates with acceptable outcome scores and high patient satisfaction despite a high reoperation rate. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Lacertus Fibrosus Versus Achilles Allograft Reconstruction for Distal Biceps Tears: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Murthi, Anand M; Ramirez, Miguel A; Parks, Brent G; Carpenter, Shannon R

    2017-12-01

    The bicipital aponeurosis, or lacertus fibrosus, can potentially be used as a reconstruction graft in chronic distal biceps tendon tears. To evaluate construct stiffness, load to failure, and failure mechanism with lacertus fibrosus versus Achilles allograft for distal biceps tendon reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen matched cadaveric pairs of elbows were used. Three centimeters of the distal biceps tendon was resected. Specimens were randomized to the lacertus fibrosus or Achilles tendon group. In one group, the lacertus fibrosus was released from its distal attachment and then tubularized and repaired intraosseously to the radius. In the other group, an Achilles tendon graft was sutured to the biceps muscle and repaired to the ulna. The prepared radii were rigidly mounted at a 45° angle on a load frame. The proximal biceps muscle was secured in a custom-fabricated cryogenic grip. Displacement was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer mounted at the radius-soft tissue junction and in the muscle- or muscle allograft-tissue junction proximal to the repair. Specimens were loaded at 20 mm/min until failure, defined as a 3-mm displacement at the radius-soft tissue junction. No significant difference was found in mean load to failure between the lacertus fibrosus and Achilles tendon group (mean ± SD, 20.2 ± 5.5 N vs 16.89 ± 4.54 N; P = .18). Stiffness also did not differ significantly between the lacertus fibrosus and Achilles tendon group (12.3 ± 7.1 kPa vs 10.5 ± 5.7 kPa; P = .34). The primary mode of failure in the lacertus fibrosus group was suture pullout from the tissue at the musculotendinous junction (7 of 10). In the Achilles group, failures were observed at the muscle-allograft interface (3) and the allograft-bone (radial tuberosity) interface (3), and 3 suture failures were observed. The button fixation did not fail in any specimens. The mean stiffness and load-to-failure values were not significantly

  20. Surface Electromyographic Examination of Poststroke Neuromuscular Changes in Proximal and Distal Muscles Using Clustering Index Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weidi; Zhang, Xu; Tang, Xiao; Cao, Shuai; Gao, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Whether stroke-induced paretic muscle changes vary across different distal and proximal muscles remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare paretic muscle changes between a relatively proximal muscle (the biceps brachii muscle) and two distal muscles (the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the abductor pollicis brevis muscle) following hemisphere stroke using clustering index (CI) analysis of surface electromyograms (EMGs). For each muscle, surface EMG signals were recorded from the paretic and contralateral sides of 12 stroke subjects versus the dominant side of eight control subjects during isometric muscle contractions to measure the consequence of graded levels of contraction (from a mild level to the maximal voluntary contraction). Across all examined muscles, it was found that partial paretic muscles had abnormally higher or lower CI values than those of the healthy control muscles, which exhibited a significantly larger variance in the CI via a series of homogeneity of variance tests (p < 0.05). This finding indicated that both neurogenic and myopathic changes were likely to take place in paretic muscles. When examining two distal muscles of individual stroke subjects, relatively consistent CI abnormalities (toward neuropathy or myopathy) were observed. By contrast, consistency in CI abnormalities were not found when comparing proximal and distal muscles, indicating differences in motor unit alternation between the proximal and distal muscles on the paretic sides of stroke survivors. Furthermore, CI abnormalities were also observed for all three muscles on the contralateral side. Our findings help elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying stroke sequels, which might prove useful in developing improved stroke rehabilitation protocols. PMID:29379465

  1. Convective Mixing in Distal Pipes Exacerbates Legionella pneumophila Growth in Hot Water Plumbing.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, William J; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-12

    Legionella pneumophila is known to proliferate in hot water plumbing systems, but little is known about the specific physicochemical factors that contribute to its regrowth. Here, L. pneumophila trends were examined in controlled, replicated pilot-scale hot water systems with continuous recirculation lines subject to two water heater settings (40 °C and 58 °C) and three distal tap water use frequencies (high, medium, and low) with two pipe configurations (oriented upward to promote convective mixing with the recirculating line and downward to prevent it). Water heater temperature setting determined where L. pneumophila regrowth occurred in each system, with an increase of up to 4.4 log gene copies/mL in the 40 °C system tank and recirculating line relative to influent water compared to only 2.5 log gene copies/mL regrowth in the 58 °C system. Distal pipes without convective mixing cooled to room temperature (23-24 °C) during periods of no water use, but pipes with convective mixing equilibrated to 30.5 °C in the 40 °C system and 38.8 °C in the 58 °C system. Corresponding with known temperature effects on L. pneumophila growth and enhanced delivery of nutrients, distal pipes with convective mixing had on average 0.2 log more gene copies/mL in the 40 °C system and 0.8 log more gene copies/mL in the 58 °C system. Importantly, this work demonstrated the potential for thermal control strategies to be undermined by distal taps in general, and convective mixing in particular.

  2. Distal tibia fractures: locked or non-locked plating? A systematic review of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Amrit S; Toossi, Nader; Tabb, Loni P; Amin, Nirav H; Donohue, Kenneth W; Cerynik, Douglas L

    2014-06-01

    Although plating is considered to be the treatment of choice in distal tibia fractures, controversies abound regarding the type of plating for optimal fixation. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate and compare the outcomes of locked plating and non-locked plating in treatment of distal tibia fractures. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed to identify articles on the outcomes of plating in distal tibia fractures that were published up to June 2012. We included English language articles involving a minimum of 10 adult cases with acute fractures treated using single-plate, minimally invasive techniques. Study-level binomial regression on the pooled data was conducted to determine the effect of locking status on different outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, and other independent variables. 27 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis of 764 cases (499 locking, 265 non-locking). Based on descriptive analysis only, delayed union was reported in 6% of cases with locked plating and in 4% of cases with non-locked plating. Non-union was reported in 2% of cases with locked plating and 3% of cases with non-locked plating. Comparing locked and non-locked plating, the odds ratio (OR) for reoperation was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03-0.57) and for malalignment it was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02-0.42). Both values were statistically significant. This study showed that locked plating reduces the odds of reoperation and malalignment after treatment for acute distal tibia fracture. Future studies should accurately assess causality and the clinical and economic impact of these findings.

  3. Convective Mixing in Distal Pipes Exacerbates Legionella pneumophila Growth in Hot Water Plumbing

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, William J.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is known to proliferate in hot water plumbing systems, but little is known about the specific physicochemical factors that contribute to its regrowth. Here, L. pneumophila trends were examined in controlled, replicated pilot-scale hot water systems with continuous recirculation lines subject to two water heater settings (40 °C and 58 °C) and three distal tap water use frequencies (high, medium, and low) with two pipe configurations (oriented upward to promote convective mixing with the recirculating line and downward to prevent it). Water heater temperature setting determined where L. pneumophila regrowth occurred in each system, with an increase of up to 4.4 log gene copies/mL in the 40 °C system tank and recirculating line relative to influent water compared to only 2.5 log gene copies/mL regrowth in the 58 °C system. Distal pipes without convective mixing cooled to room temperature (23–24 °C) during periods of no water use, but pipes with convective mixing equilibrated to 30.5 °C in the 40 °C system and 38.8 °C in the 58 °C system. Corresponding with known temperature effects on L. pneumophila growth and enhanced delivery of nutrients, distal pipes with convective mixing had on average 0.2 log more gene copies/mL in the 40 °C system and 0.8 log more gene copies/mL in the 58 °C system. Importantly, this work demonstrated the potential for thermal control strategies to be undermined by distal taps in general, and convective mixing in particular. PMID:26985908

  4. Unnecessary gastric decompression in distal elective bowel anastomoses in children: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Davila-Perez, Roberto; Bracho-Blanchet, Eduardo; Tovilla-Mercado, Jose Manuel; Hernandez-Plata, Jose Alejandro; Reyes-Lopez, Alfonso; Nieto-Zermeño, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the role of nasogastric drainage in preventing postoperative complications in children with distal elective bowel anastomosis. Nasogastric drainage has been used as a routine measure after gastrointestinal surgery in children and adults to hasten bowel function, prevent postoperative complications, and shorten hospital stay. However, there has been no study that shows in a scientific manner the benefit of nasogastric drainage in children. We performed a clinical, controlled, randomized trial comprising 60 children who underwent distal elective bowel anastomoses and compared postoperative complications between a group with nasogastric tube in place (n = 29) and one without it (n = 31). Demographic data and diagnoses were comparable in both groups (P = NS). No anastomotic leaks or enterocutaneous fistulae were found in any patient. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to abdominal distension, infection, or hospital stay. Only one patient in the experimental group required placement of the nasogastric tube due to persistent abdominal distension (3.2%). The routine use of nasogastric drainage after distal elective intestinal surgery in children can be eliminated. Its use should depend on the individual patient's situation.

  5. Distal [FeS]-Cluster Coordination in [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Facilitates Intermolecular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Biohydrogen is a versatile energy carrier for the generation of electric energy from renewable sources. Hydrogenases can be used in enzymatic fuel cells to oxidize dihydrogen. The rate of electron transfer (ET) at the anodic side between the [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme distal iron–sulfur cluster and the electrode surface can be described by the Marcus equation. All parameters for the Marcus equation are accessible from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The distal cubane FeS-cluster has a three-cysteine and one-histidine coordination [Fe4S4](His)(Cys)3 first ligation sphere. The reorganization energy (inner- and outer-sphere) is almost unchanged upon a histidine-to-cysteine substitution. Differences in rates of electron transfer between the wild-type enzyme and an all-cysteine mutant can be rationalized by a diminished electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor molecules in the [Fe4S4](Cys)4 case. The fast and efficient electron transfer from the distal iron–sulfur cluster is realized by a fine-tuned protein environment, which facilitates the flow of electrons. This study enables the design and control of electron transfer rates and pathways by protein engineering. PMID:28067774

  6. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Faria da; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  7. Unmasking local activity within local field potentials (LFPs) by removing distal electrical signals using independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Nathan W; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-05-15

    Local field potentials (LFPs) are commonly thought to reflect the aggregate dynamics in local neural circuits around recording electrodes. However, we show that when LFPs are recorded in awake behaving animals against a distal reference on the skull as commonly practiced, LFPs are significantly contaminated by non-local and non-neural sources arising from the reference electrode and from movement-related noise. In a data set with simultaneously recorded LFPs and electroencephalograms (EEGs) across multiple brain regions while rats perform an auditory oddball task, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify signals arising from electrical reference and from volume-conducted noise based on their distributed spatial pattern across multiple electrodes and distinct power spectral features. These sources of distal electrical signals collectively accounted for 23-77% of total variance in unprocessed LFPs, as well as most of the gamma oscillation responses to the target stimulus in EEGs. Gamma oscillation power was concentrated in volume-conducted noise and was tightly coupled with the onset of licking behavior, suggesting a likely origin of muscle activity associated with body movement or orofacial movement. The removal of distal signal contamination also selectively reduced correlations of LFP/EEG signals between distant brain regions but not within the same region. Finally, the removal of contamination from distal electrical signals preserved an event-related potential (ERP) response to auditory stimuli in the frontal cortex and also increased the coupling between the frontal ERP amplitude and neuronal activity in the basal forebrain, supporting the conclusion that removing distal electrical signals unmasked local activity within LFPs. Together, these results highlight the significant contamination of LFPs by distal electrical signals and caution against the straightforward interpretation of unprocessed LFPs. Our results provide a principled approach to

  8. Unmasking local activity within local field potentials (LFPs) by removing distal electrical signals using independent component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Nathan W.; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) are commonly thought to reflect the aggregate dynamics in local neural circuits around recording electrodes. However, we show that when LFPs are recorded in awake behaving animals against a distal reference on the skull as commonly practiced, LFPs are significantly contaminated by non-local and non-neural sources arising from the reference electrode and from movement-related noise. In a data set with simultaneously recorded LFPs and electroencephalograms (EEGs) across multiple brain regions while rats perform an auditory oddball task, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify signals arising from electrical reference and from volume-conducted noise based on their distributed spatial pattern across multiple electrodes and distinct power spectral features. These sources of distal electrical signals collectively accounted for 23–77% of total variance in unprocessed LFPs, as well as most of the gamma oscillation responses to the target stimulus in EEGs. Gamma oscillation power was concentrated in volume-conducted noise and was tightly coupled with the onset of licking behavior, suggesting a likely origin of muscle activity associated with body movement or orofacial movement. The removal of distal signal contamination also selectively reduced correlations of LFP/EEG signals between distant brain regions but not within the same region. Finally, the removal of contamination from distal electrical signals preserved an event-related potential (ERP) response to auditory stimuli in the frontal cortex and also increased the coupling between the frontal ERP amplitude and neuronal activity in the basal forebrain, supporting the conclusion that removing distal electrical signals unmasked local activity within LFPs. Together, these results highlight the significant contamination of LFPs by distal electrical signals and caution against the straightforward interpretation of unprocessed LFPs. Our results provide a principled approach to

  9. A patient specific finite element simulation of intramedullary nailing to predict the displacement of the distal locking hole.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Javad; Farahmand, Farzam; Behzadipour, Saeed; Yeganeh, Ali; Aghighi, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    Distal locking is a challenging subtask of intramedullary nailing fracture fixation due to the nail deformation that makes the proximally mounted targeting systems ineffective. A patient specific finite element model was developed, based on the QCT data of a cadaveric femur, to predict the position of the distal hole of the nail postoperatively. The mechanical interactions of femur and nail (of two sizes) during nail insertion was simulated using ABAQUS in two steps of dynamic pushing and static equilibrium, for the intact and distally fractured bone. Experiments were also performed on the same specimen to validate the simulation results. A good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental observations. There was a three-point contact pattern between the nail and medullary canal, only on the proximal fragment of the fractured bone. The nail deflection was much larger in the sagittal plane and increased for the larger diameter nail, as well as for more distally fractured or intact femur. The altered position of the distal hole was predicted by the model with an acceptable error (mean: 0.95; max: 1.5 mm, in different tests) to be used as the compensatory information for fine tuning of proximally mounted targeting systems. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Comparative study on the strength of different mechanisms of operation of multidirectionally angle-stable distal radius plates].

    PubMed

    Rausch, S; Hoffmeier, K; Gueorguiev, B G; Klos, K; Gras, F; Hofmann, G O; Mückley, T

    2011-12-01

    Polyaxial angle-stable plating is thought to be particularly beneficial in the management of complex intra-articular fractures of the distal radius. The present study was performed to investigate the strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates. We tested the polyaxial interfaces of 3 different distal radius plates (2.4 mm Variable Angle LCP Two-Column Volar Distal Radius Plate, Synthes, Palmar Classic, Königsee Implantate and VariAx Plate Stryker). The strength of 0° and 10° screw locking angle was obtained during static loading. The strength of Palmar Classic with a 0° locking angle is significantly the best of all tested systems. With a 10° locking angle there is no significant difference between Palmar Classic, Two column Plate and VariAx Plate. The strength of polyaxial interfaces differs between the tested systems. A reduction of ultimate strength is due to increases of screw locking angle. The design of polyaxial locking interfaces should be investigated in human bone models. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Stabilization of Volar Ulnar Rim Fractures of the Distal Radius: Current Techniques and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    O'Shaughnessy, Maureen A.; Shin, Alexander Y.; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Background Distal radius fractures involving the lunate facet can be challenging to manage. Reports have shown the volar carpal subluxation/dislocation that can occur if the facet is not appropriately stabilized. Literature Review Recent emphasis in the literature has underscored the difficulty in managing this fracture fragment, suggesting standard volar plates may not be able to adequately stabilize the fragment. This article reviews the current literature with a special emphasis on fixation with a specifically designed fragment-specific hook plate to secure the lunate facet. Case Description An extended flexor carpi radialis volar approach was made which allows access to the distal volar ulnar fracture fragment. Once provisionally stabilized with Kirschner wire fixation, a volar hook plate was applied to capture this fragment. Additional fracture stabilization was used as deemed necessary to stabilize the remaining distal radius fracture. Clinical Relevance The volar marginal rim fragment remains a challenge in distal radius fracture management. Use of a hook plate to address the volar ulnar corner allows for stable fixation without loss of reduction at intermediate-term follow-up. PMID:27104076

  12. [Distal femoral osteotomy using a lateral opening wedge technique].

    PubMed

    Feucht, M J; Mehl, J; Forkel, P; Imhoff, A B; Hinterwimmer, S

    2017-08-01

    To shift the weight-bearing axis of the lower limb medially by opening a lateral-based metaphyseal osteotomy at the distal femur. Femoral-based valgus malalignment and symptomatic lateral unicompartimental osteoarthritis, lateral hyperpression syndrome, cartilage therapy of the lateral compartment, lateral meniscal replacement/transplantation, medial instability with valgus thrust, reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament, patellar instability and/or maltracking. Advanced cartilage damage (>grade 2) or subtotal meniscal loss of the medial compartment, age >65 years (relative), nicotine abuse, body mass index >30, flexion contracture >25°, corrections with a wedge base >10 mm in case of congenital deformities, inflammatory or septic arthritis, severe osteoporosis. Lateral approach to the distal femur; biplanar osteotomy (frontal + axial osteotomy), gradual opening of the osteotomy, osteotomy fixation with a locking plate. Free range of motion. Partial weight bearing with 20 kg for 2 weeks, followed by progressive weight bearing thereafter. Mean improvement of knee scores from 20-30 points and mean 10-year survival rate of 80% in patients with lateral unicompartimental osteoarthritis. Mean complication rate of 9%.

  13. [Applied anatomy of the perforating branches artery and its distally-based flap of sural nerve nutrient vessels].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fahui; Xie, Qiyang; Zheng, Heping

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the distribution of the perforating branches artery of distally-based flap of sural nerve nutrient vessels and its clinical application. The origins and distribution of perforating branches artery of distally-based flap were observed on specimens of 30 adult cadaveric low limbs by perfusing red gelatin to dissect the artery. Among the 36 cases, there were 21 males, 15 females. Their ages ranged from 6 to 66, 35. 2 in average. The defect area was 3.5 cm x 2.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 11.0 cm. The flap taken ranged from 4 cm x 3 cm to 18 cm x 12 cm. The perforating branches artery of distally-based flap had 2 to 5 branches and originated from the heel lateral artery, the terminal perforating branches of peroneal artery (diameters were 0.6+/-0.2 mm and 0.8+/-0.2 mm, 1.0 +/- 1.3 cm and 2.8 +/- 1.0 cm to the level of cusp lateral malleolus cusp). The intermuscular septum perforating branches of peroneal artery had 0 to 3 branches. Their rate of presence was 96.7%, 66.7% and 20.0% respectively (the diameters were 0.9 +/- 0.3, 1.0 +/- 0.2 and 0.8 +/- 0.4 mm, and their distances to the level of cusp of lateral malleolus were 5.3 +/- 2.1, 6.8 +/- 2.8 and 7.0 +/- 4.0 cm). Those perforating branches included fascia branches, cutaneous branches, nerve and vein nutrient branches. Those nutrient vessels formed longitudinal vessel chain of sural nerve shaft, vessel chain of vein side and vessel network of deep superficial fascia. The distally-based superficial sural artery island flap was used in 18 cases, all flaps survived. Distally-based sural nerve, small saphenous vein, and nutrient vessels of fascia skin have the same origin. Rotation point of flap is 3.0 cm to the cusp of lateral malleolus, when the distally-based flap is pedicled with the terminal branch of peroneal artery. Rotation point of flap is close to the cusp of lateral malleolus, when the distally-based flap is pedicled with the heel lateral artery.

  14. The relationship between the carrying angle and the distal extent of the 2nd and 4th fingertips.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, M; Tattemur, Y; Karacan, K; Erdal, M

    2012-08-01

    The angle towards the lateral side between the arm and forearm when the forearm is in full extension and supination is defined as the carrying angle. It is well known that the 2nd finger is longer in women whereas the 4th finger is longer in men, due to in-utero hormonal effects. In the present study, the relationship between the carrying angle and the distal extent of the 2nd and 4th fingertips is studied. The findings reveal that the carrying angle was greater both in left and right sides in women than in men. In addition, while the distal extent of the 2nd fingertips was longer in women, the 4th fingertip was longer in men. There was a moderately positive correlation between the carrying angle and the distal fingertip lengths. Therefore, it could be suggested that the morphometric factors play role on the distal extent of the fingertips other than the hormonal effects.

  15. Asymmetrical distalization of maxillary molars with zygomatic anchorage, improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires, and open-coil springs.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Yoon, Hyung Sik; Ono, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Zygomatic anchorage enables distalization in uncooperative or noncompliant patients. We describe 1 such procedure in a 24-year-old woman. We used novel improved superelastic nickel-titanium archwires combined with nickel-titanium open-coil springs to provide a constant and continuous low force to the dentition. We were able to successfully eliminate the protrusive profile and correct the Class II molar relationship using this system of zygomatic anchorage. The posterior occlusal relationships were improved to achieve Class I canine and molar relationships on both sides, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were established. Facial esthetics was improved with decreased protrusion of the upper and lower lips. The method used here is a promising alternative to traditional distalization techniques and might offer an effective and simple means of distalizing maxillary molars in uncooperative patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing interlocking screw failure in unreamed small diameter nails--a biomechanical study using a distal tibia fracture model.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Patrick; Schueller, Michael; Jamek, Michael; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie; Redl, Heinz; Tschegg, Elmar K

    2009-05-01

    Unreamed tibia nails with small diameters are increasingly used for fracture fixation. However, little is known about the fatigue strength of proximal and distal interlocking screws in those nails. To date, no data are available reporting on mechanical differences of solid compared to cannulated tibial nails. The aim of this study was to assess the fatigue strength of proximal and distal interlocking screws of solid and cannulated small diameter tibia nails. We created a distal tibia fracture model (AO/OTA 43 A3) using 16 Sawbones. After fracture stabilization with one of four different nail types (Expert Tibial Nail, VersaNail, T2 Tibial Nailing System, Connex), mechanical testing was performed in three loading series (40,000 cycles each) with incremental loads. Timing and type of interlocking screw failure were assessed. Interlocking screw failure was observed significantly earlier (after a mean interval of 57,042 cycles) in cannulated tibial nails (VersaNail, T2) compared to solid nails (after a mean interval of 88,415 cycles; P < 0.001). Proximal interlocking screw failure was recorded if oblique screws were used proximally (VersaNail, T2, Connex). No distal interlocking screw failure was recorded in the Connex nail. Two- and three-part fractures of proximal or distal interlocking screws were observed in all specimen. Proximal and distal interlocking screw failure has to be considered in small diameter nails in case of delayed fracture healing. To support our results, further experimental studies and clinical series are necessary.

  17. Graft-supplemented, augmented external fixation in the treatment of intra-articular distal radial fractures.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, Minos E; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Giannikas, Dimitrios; Megas, Panagiotis; Lambiris, Elias

    2006-02-01

    This article compares the functional and radiographic outcomes of intraarticular distal radial fractures treated with augmented external fixation in which autologous cancellous bone grafting or Norian SRS (Norian Corp, Cupertino, Calif) was used for filling the metaphyseal void. Thirty non-randomized patients, 15 in each group, with AO type C distal radius fractures (20 men and 10 women; average age: 48 years) were operatively treated between 1998-2000 and retrospectively evaluated. Radial inclination, radial length, volar tilt, and Modified Mayo Wrist Score were assessed at the most recent follow-up evaluation (average: 33.3 months). Overall, 12 (80%) patients in the Norian group had an excellent or good result, 2 had fair, and 1 had poor. In the autologous iliac bone graft group, the results were excellent or good in 11 (73.3%) patients, fair in 1, and poor in 2. No statistical difference between the two types of grafting was noted. Norian SRS is equally effective to cancellous bone as supplementary graft in comminuted distal radial fractures treated by external and Kirschner-wire fixation.

  18. Tarsomere and distal tibial glands: structure and potential roles in termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Soares, Helena Xavier; Haifig, Ives; Laranjo, Lara Teixeira

    2015-09-01

    Social insects have numerous exocrine glands, but these organs are understudied in termites compared to hymenopterans. The tarsomere and distal tibial glands of the termites Heterotermes tenuis, Coptotermes gestroi and Silvestritermes euamignathus were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pore plates are visible in scanning micrographs on the distal tibial surfaces and on the ventral surface of the first and second tarsomeres of workers of H. tenuis and C. gestroi. In contrast, workers of S. euamignathus have isolated pores spread throughout the ventral surfaces of the first, second, and third tarsomeres and the distal tibia. In all three species each pore corresponds to the opening of a class-3 secretory unit, composed of one secretory and one canal cell. Clusters of class-3 glandular cells are arranged side by side underneath the cuticle. The main characteristics of these exocrine glands include their presence on all the legs and the electron-lucent secretion in the secretory cells. Possible functions of these glands are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are there any advantages in using a distal aiming device for tibial nailing? Comparing the Centro Nailing System with the Unreamed Tibia Nail.

    PubMed

    Veen, Egbert J D; Ettema, Harmen B; Zuurmond, Rutger G; Mostert, Adriaan K

    2011-10-01

    The distal locking of an intramedullary tibial nail can be challenging and time consuming when performed freehand. This study was conducted to evaluate if a distal aiming device would reduce surgical time. A case-controlled study was performed between 2007 and 2009 with 30 patients receiving a reamed tibial nail (Centronail) with the use of a distal aiming device and 30 patients who were treated with an Unreamed Tibia Nail (UTN), with freehand distal locking, in the same period. The primary outcome in this study was operative time. Secondary outcomes were the need for fluoroscopy, time to consolidation and complications. Operation time was longer in the Centronail group compared with the UTN group (126 min vs. 96 min, p=0.000). Use of fluoroscopy for distal locking was needed in half of the cases (n=16) using a distal aiming device. No differences were found regarding time to consolidation, time to removal of the nail and complications. The use of an aiming device for distal locking of a tibia nail lengthens operation time rather than reducing it. Fluoroscopy was still needed in about half of the cases. No difference was seen in clinical outcomes. The use of a distal aiming device to lock a tibial nail appears to have no benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Distal Abutment Stresses of Removable Partial Dentures with Different Retainer Designs.

    PubMed

    Zarrati, Simindokht; Bahrami, Mehran; Heidari, Fatemeh; Kashani, Jamal

    2015-06-01

    This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated). A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated); 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software. In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate. We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis.

  1. A retrospective analysis of mathieu and tip urethroplasty techniques for distal hypospadias repair; A 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Oztorun, Kenan; Bagbanci, Sahin; Dadali, Mumtaz; Emir, Levent; Karabulut, Ayhan

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to identify the changes in the application rate of two surgical techniques in distal hypospadias repair in years and compare the most popular two surgical repair techniques for distal hypospadias in terms of surgical outcomes, the factors that affect the outcomes, which were performed over a 20 year period. In this study, the records of 492 consecutive patients that had undergone an operation for distal hypospadias in the urology clinic of Ankara between May 1990 and December 2010 using either Mathieu or TIPU surgical techniques were reviewed retrospectively. The patients who had glanular, coronal, and subcoronal meatus, were accepted as distal hypospadias cases. Among the 492 examined medical records, it was revealed that 331 and 161 surgical interventions were performed by using the Mathieu urethroplasty technique (Group-1) and TIP urethroplasty technique (Group-2), respectively. Group-1 was divided into two subgroups; namely Group-1a (patients with primary hypospadias) and Group-1b (patients with previous hypospadias operation). Likewise, Group-2 was divided into two subgroups; namely group-2a and group-2b. The patients' ages, number of previously urethroplasty operations, localization of the external urethral meatus prior to the operation, chordee state, length of the newly formed urethra, whether urinary diversion was done or not, post-operative complications and data regarding the follow-up period were evaluated, and the effects of these variables on the surgical outcome were investigated via statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study is to identify the changes in the application rate of two surgical techniques in distal hypospadias repair over the a 20 year period, and the secondary objectives are to compare the most popular two surgical repair techniques for distal hypospadias in terms of surgical outcomes, and the factors affecting the outcomes. Independent samples t test and Pearson's Chisquare test was used for statistical

  2. Bone loss from the hand in women following distal forearm fracture.

    PubMed

    Ingle, B M; Eastell, R

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss occurs after distal forearm fracture, but it is unclear if this bone loss is fully recovered. We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the time course of the bone loss from the hand after distal forearm fracture. We identified 40 women who had a fracture of the distal forearm within the previous 4.5 years. Their ages ranged from 42 to 81 (mean 64 years) and time since fracture 6 to 54 (mean 28 months). These were compared with 95 women (mean age 67, range 57 to 80 years) from a population-based cohort. Lumbar spine (LS) and hand bone mineral density (BMD) were measured in all subjects using a Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer. Ultrasound of the fingers of both hands was measured in the forearm fracture group using a DBM Sonic 1200 R model. Compared to controls, LS BMD was decreased by 6.4% (p<0.001), non-fractured hand by 3.2% (p<0.001) and the fractured hand by 6.1% (p<0.001) in the forearm fracture group. The mean difference in bone density between the fractured and non-fractured hand was 0.0207 g/cm2, the average value for the non-fractured hand being 0.304 g/cm2. The decement in hand BMD was equivalent to 6.2% (p<0.0001). The difference in hand BMD between the fractured and non-fractured side was greatest when the time since fracture was short; there was no further difference in hand BMD after 2 years. Ultrasound showed a mean difference of 18.7 m/s in amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) with the average value being 1893 m/s. A 1.0% decrease was observed in the fractured hand AD-SoS (p<0.05). A strong relationship was observed between AD-SoS and BMD in both hands (r = 0.70, p<0.001). We conclude that distal forearm fracture results in a significant decrease in hand BMD that is partially reversible. The decrease in hand BMD is reflected in the ultrasound properties of the finger phalanx.

  3. Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa…

  4. Can Ureteral Jet Flow Measurement Predict Spontaneous Passage of Distal Ureteral Stones?

    PubMed

    Ongun, Sakir; Teken, Abdurrazak; Yılmaz, Orkun; Süleyman, Sakir

    2018-06-27

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the spontaneous passage of distal ureteral stones and ureteral jet flow measurement. The study included 74 patients with acute renal colic between June 2015 and June 2016, and distal ureteral stones of 10 mm or less in a non-contrast CT were comprised in a prospective study. The ureteral jet was measured by Doppler ultrasonography. At the fourth week follow-up, kidney-ureter-bladder radiography was taken and the patients who no longer had a stone were considered to have spontaneously passed it. The average stone size of the patients was 5.6 ± 2.0 mm. After 4 weeks of follow-up, 55 patients (74.3%) had passed the stone spontaneously whereas 19 (25.6%) had not. The patients in the former group were found to have a higher peak flow velocity of ureteral jet on the stone side than those in the latter group. In regression analysis ureteral jet on the stone side was independently associated with spontaneous passage (p = 0.027). For the spontaneous passage, a ureteral jet flow peak velocity above 15.25 cm/s had an 85.4% sensitivity and 63.1% specificity. Measurement of the ureteral jet flow peak velocity can be beneficial in predicting the potential spontaneous passage of distal ureteral stones. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Distal Potassium Handling Based On Flow Modulation of Maxi-K Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Aylin R.; Huang, Chou-Long

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Studies on the mechanisms of distal K+ secretion have highlighted the importance of the renal outer-medullary K+ (ROMK) and maxi-K channels. This review considers several human disorders characterized by hypo- and hyperkalemia, as well as mouse models of these disorders, and the mechanisms by which ROMK and maxi-K may be dysregulated. Recent findings Analysis of knockout mice lacking ROMK, a model for type II Bartter’s syndrome, has shown a role for maxi-K in distal K+ secretion. Knockout mice lacking either the α or β1 subunits of maxi-K also show deficits in flow-dependent K+ secretion. Analysis of transgenic and knock-in mouse models of pseudohypoaldsoteronism type II (PHA2), in which mutant forms of with-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) are expressed, suggests ways in which ROMK and maxi-K may be dysregulated to result in hyperkalemia. Modeling studies also provide insights into the role of Na+ delivery versus flow in K+ secretion. Summary The importance of both ROMK and maxi-K to distal K+ secretion is now well-established, but the relative role each of these two channels plays in normal and diseased states has not been definitively established. Analysis of human and animal model data can generate hypotheses for future experiments. PMID:19448535

  6. Distal femoral osteotomy in genovalgum: internal fixation with blade plate versus casting.

    PubMed

    Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Moradi, Ali; Ganji, Saeid

    2014-10-01

    To compare the results of two different ways of distal femoral osteotomy stabilization in patients suffering from genuvalgum: internal fixation with plate, and casting. In a non-randomized prospective study, after distal femoral osteotomy with the zigzag method, patients were divided into two groups: long leg casting, and internal fixation with blade plate. For all patients, questionnaires were filled to obtain data. Information such as range of motion, tibiofemoral anatomical angle and complications were recorded. 38 knees with valgus deformity underwent distal femoral supracondylar osteotomy. (8 with plaster cast and 30 with internal fixation using a blade plate). Preoperative range of motion was 129±6° and six months later it was 120±14°. The preoperative tibiofemoral angle was 32±6°; postoperative tibiofemoral angles were 3±3°, 6±2°, and 7±3° just after operation, six months, and two years later, respectively. Although this angle was greater among the group stabilized with a cast, this difference was not statistically significant. In postoperative complications, over-correction was found in five, recorvatom deformity in one, knee stiffness in three and superficial wound infection was recorded in three knees. There is no prominent difference in final range of motion and alignment whether fixation is done with casting or internal fixation. However, the complication rate seems higher in the casting method.

  7. Duhamel operation for children with distal colonic dysmotility.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yew-Wei; Borrelli, Osvaldo; Lindley, Keith; Thapar, Nikhil; Curry, Joe

    2017-08-01

    To report outcomes of children with constipation refractory to medical management and manometrically proven distal colonic dysmotility, managed with rectosigmoidectomy followed by Duhamel operation (Duhamel). Children who underwent a Duhamel from 2009 onwards for intractable constipation and left colonic dysmotility were retrospectively reviewed. The primary end point was resolution of constipation, and secondary end point was postoperative complications. Continuous data were median (range). 11 patients (4 males) had Duhamel at 11 years (5-16) with constipation started from 2 years (1-8). Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. All Duhamels were performed with a covering ileostomy: 9 following a Hartmann procedure, one following a previously failed reversal of Hartmann, and one Duhamel performed with a pre-existing ileostomy. All ileostomies were subsequently closed. Median resection length was 22 cm (11-31). Length of stay was 8 days (5-23). Follow-up was 5 years (0.5-7). Age at final review was 15 years (10-18). Resolution of constipation occurred in nine patients (4 required antegrade continence enemas (ACE), 5 with laxative); two had persistent constipation and faecal incontinence despite ACE, ultimately requiring an ileostomy. Two postoperative small bowel obstructions required laparotomy. Duhamel performed in children with manometrically proven distal colonic dysmotility yielded 82% resolution of refractory constipation; half of them subsequently needed ACE.

  8. Pathologic fracture of the distal radius in a 25-year-old patient with a large unicameral bone cyst

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distal radius fractures (DRF) are often referred to as osteoporosis indicator fractures as their incidence increases from age 45. In the group of young adults, distal radius fractures normally result from high-energy trauma. Wrist fractures in young patients without adequate trauma thus raise suspicion of a pathologic fracture. In this report we present the case of a fractured unicameral bone cyst (UBC) at the distal radius in a young adult. To the author’s best knowledge, this is the first detailed report in an UBC at the distal radius causing a pathologic DRF in an adult patient. Case presentation A 25-year-old otherwise healthy male presented to our Emergency Department after a simple fall on his right outstretched hand. Extended diagnostics revealed a pathologic, dorsally displaced, intra-articular distal radius fracture secondary to a unicameral bone cyst occupying almost the whole metaphysis of the distal radius. To stabilize the fracture, a combined dorsal and volar approach was used for open reduction and internal fixation. A tissue specimen for histopathological examination was gathered and the lesion was filled with an autologous bone graft harvested from the ipsilateral femur using a reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) system. Following one revision surgery due to an intra-articular step-off, the patient recovered without further complications. Conclusions Pathologic fractures in young patients caused by unicameral bone cysts require extended diagnostics and adequate treatment. A single step surgical treatment is reasonable if fracture and bone cyst are treated appropriately. Arthroscopically assisted fracture repair may be considered in intra-articular fractures or whenever co-pathologies of the carpus are suspected. PMID:24925068

  9. FEASIBILITY AND SAFETY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DISTAL LIMB OF SIX HORSES.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Campbell, Nigel; Nixon, Britton; Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Jennings, Samuel; Redding, W Rich; Lustgarten, Meghann

    2016-05-01

    Vascular alterations play important roles in many orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, and synovitis in both human and equine athletes. Understanding these alterations could enhance diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be a valuable method for evaluation of blood flow and perfusion of these processes in the equine distal limb, however no reports were found describing feasibility or safety of the technique. The goal of this prospective, experimental study was to describe the feasibility and safety of distal limb CEUS in a sample of six horses. For each horse, CEUS of the distal limb was performed after intravenous injections of 5 and 10 ml, as well as intra-arterial injections of 0.5 and 1 ml contrast medium. Vital parameters were monitored and CEUS images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for degree of contrast enhancement. None of the horses had clinically significant changes in their vital parameters after contrast medium injection. One horse had a transient increase in respiratory rate, and several horses had mild increases of systolic blood pressure of short duration after intravenous, but not after intra-arterial injections. Intra-arterial injection was possible in all horses and resulted in significantly improved contrast enhancement both quantitatively (P = 0.027) and qualitatively (P = 0.019). Findings from this study indicated that CEUS is a feasible and safe diagnostic test for evaluation of the equine distal limb. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical utility of this test for horses with musculoskeletal diseases. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Clinicopathologic study on metachronous double cholangiocarcinomas of perihilar and subsequent distal bile duct origin.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Kentaro; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Nakaguro, Masato; Nagino, Masato

    2017-07-01

    Despite an increasing number of long-term survivors after the resection of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, metachronous carcinoma in the remnant distal bile duct has not been well documented because of its rarity. The aim of this study was to clarify the feasibility of operative resection and the pathologic features for metachronous double cholangiocarcinomas. Between 2003 and 2013, 6 patients underwent resections for both a primary perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and a metachronous distal cholangiocarcinoma. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. At a median of 42 months (range, 19-138 months) after the hepatectomy, a metachronous distal cholangiocarcinoma was detected by follow-up computed tomography and, interestingly, no symptoms were observed. Despite severe adhesions, a pancreatoduodenectomy was undertaken in all patients; there were no serious complications, and the procedure resulted in an R0 resection. Although 2 patients died of the disease after the second operation, the remaining 4 patients are now alive with (n = 1) or without recurrence. A pathologic survey showed that 4 patients had changes of biliary intraepithelial neoplasia-2/3 around their primary and metachronous lesions. The primary and metachronous cholangiocarcinomas showed histologic similarity in 4 of the 6 patients and immunohistochemical concordance in 3 of the 6 patients. Pancreatoduodenectomy for metachronous distal cholangiocarcinoma can lead to a favorable prognosis. Careful observation after the resection of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is mandatory to detect this potentially curable disease. Pathologically, some of the multicentric cholangiocarcinomas present histologic and immunohistochemical similarities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro assessment of the contact mechanics of reverse-engineered distal humeral hemiarthroplasty prostheses.

    PubMed

    Willing, Ryan; Lapner, Michael; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2014-11-01

    Distal humeral hemiarthroplasty alters cartilage contact mechanics, which may predispose to osteoarthritis. Current prostheses do not replicate the native anatomy, and therefore contribute to these changes. We hypothesized that prostheses reverse-engineered from the native bone shape would provide similar contact patterns as the native articulation. Reverse-engineered hemiarthroplasty prostheses were manufactured for five cadaveric elbows based on CT images of the distal humerus. Passive flexion trials with constant muscle forces were performed with the native articulation intact while bone motions were recorded using a motion tracking system. Motion trials were then repeated after the distal humerus was replaced with a corresponding reverse-engineered prosthesis. Contact areas and patterns were reconstructed using computer models created from CT scan images combined with the motion tracker data. The total contact areas, as well as the contact area within smaller sub-regions of the ulna and radius, were analyzed for changes resulting from hemiarthroplasty using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Contact area at the ulna and radius decreased on average 42% (SD 19%, P=.008) and 41% (SD 42%, P=.096), respectively. Contact area decreases were not uniform throughout the different sub-regions, suggesting that contact patterns were also altered. Reverse-engineered prostheses did not reproduce the same contact pattern as the native joints, possibly because the thickness of the distal humerus cartilage layer was neglected when generating the prosthesis shapes or as a consequence of the increased stiffness of the metallic implants. Alternative design strategies and materials for hemiarthroplasty should be considered in future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Place of the reposition flap in the treatment of distal amputations of the fingers.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; M'chirgui, Mayssa El; Maalla, Riadh; Khorbi, Adel

    2017-08-01

    Distal finger amputations pose a therapeutic problem with the distal fragment quality. Reimplantation remains the reference treatment for functional and aesthetic recovery of the hand. The interest of this study is to propose the reposition flap as an alternative to different hedging techniques in the proximal stump, in many situations where revascularization is impossible. It consists in osteosynthesis of the bone fragment and its coverage by a pedicled local flap. The technique of reposition flap was evaluated retrospectively between 2003 and 2016 through a study of 13 patients compiled in Nabeul orthopedic department. For each patient, the sensitivity, the pulp trophicity, the interphalangeal mobility, the digital length, the appearance of the nail and radiological consolidation were evaluated. The reposition flap keeps more than 80% of the length of p3. This procedure improves nail aesthetics in comparison with the regularizations. There is no significant difference in sensitivity of the pulp or of the mobility of the distal inter-phalangeal (DIP) joint as a function of the technique studied. However there is a significant difference in average test of the Quick Dash (350 against 500 for regularizations). The reposition flap seems to be a good alternative to regularization in the context of trans-p3 fingers amputations, in which the distal fragment is not revascularizable. It allows better aesthetic and functional results. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    PubMed

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  14. Distal Hemorrhoidectomy With ALTA Injection: A New Method for Hemorrhoid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Hishiyama, Houhei; Kunimoto, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection (ALTA) is a useful and less-invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is not a treatment option for external hemorrhoidal diseases, including mixed hemorrhoids. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection involves surgical resection of external piles, followed by injection therapy on internal piles. We report technical details and the short-term results of this procedure in patients with mixed hemorrhoids. Seventy-two patients with mixed hemorrhoids treated between 2010 and 2011 were included. The main outcome measures were the short-term response and complication rates. At 28 days after surgery, the disappearance rate of prolapse was 100%. Three patients (4%) had postoperative complications, all minor in nature. No prolapse recurrence was observed within a median follow-up period of 6 months. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection appears to be a promising treatment option for patients with mixed hemorrhoids. PMID:24833156

  15. Radiographic signs of static carpal instability with distal end radius fractures: is current treatment adequate?

    PubMed

    Bunker, D L J; Pappas, G; Moradi, P; Dowd, M B

    2012-01-01

    Patients presenting with distal end radius fractures may have concomitant carpal instability due to disruption of the scapholunate ligament. This study examined the incidence of static radiographic signs of carpal instability in patients with distal radial fractures before and after fracture treatment. We performed a retrospective radiographic study of 141 patients presenting to Central Middlesex Hospital, London between January 2002-May 2004 with distal end radius fractures. We used abnormal scapholunate angle as the primary indicator of possible carpal dissociation. Abnormal scapholunate angles were noted in 39% of patients at presentation and 35% of patients after treatment with no statistically significant intra-patient variability. Persistent static radiographic signs of carpal instability are high in this subset of patients. The long-term morbidity of persistent wrist instability may be avoided by early radiological diagnosis with clinical correlation to identify carpal ligament injuries and initiate treatment that addresses both the bony and ligamentous components of the injury.

  16. One-stage lengthening using a locked nailing technique for distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan; Lee, Zhon-Liau

    2004-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a one-stage lengthening using a locked nail technique for the treatment of distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening. Retrospective. University hospital. During a 6-year period, 36 distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening (>1.5 cm) were treated by the one-stage lengthening technique. Indications for this technique were distal femoral shaft aseptic or quiescent infected nonunions, 1.5-5 cm shortening, and a fracture level suitable for the insertion of two distal locked screws. The surgical technique involved skeletal traction using the femoral condyle, local débridement, lengthening by distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening can achieve a high success rate and low complication rate. The key to successful treatment is the patient's complete cooperation with strictly protected weight bearing until the fracture has healed.

  17. Distal anastomotic vein adjunct usage in infrainguinal prosthetic bypasses.

    PubMed

    McPhee, James T; Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Shaykevich, Shimon; Belkin, Michael; Menard, Matthew T

    2013-04-01

    Single-segment saphenous vein remains the optimal conduit for infrainguinal revascularization. In its absence, prosthetic conduit may be used. Existing data regarding the significance of anastomotic distal vein adjunct (DVA) usage with prosthetic grafts are based on small series. This is a retrospective cohort analysis derived from the regional Vascular Study Group of New England as well as the Brigham and Women's hospital database. A total of 1018 infrainguinal prosthetic bypass grafts were captured in the dataset from 73 surgeons at 15 participating institutions. Propensity scoring and 3:1 matching was performed to create similar exposure groups for analysis. Outcome measures of interest included: primary patency, freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs), and amputation free survival at 1 year as a function of vein patch utilization. Time to event data were compared with the log-rank test; multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the adjusted association between vein cuff usage and the primary end points. DVA was defined as a vein patch, cuff, or boot in any configuration. Of the 1018 bypass operations, 94 (9.2%) had a DVA whereas 924 (90.8%) did not (no DVA). After propensity score matching, 88 DVAs (25%) and 264 no DVAs (75%) were analyzed. On univariate analysis of the matched cohort, the DVA and no DVA groups were similar in terms of mean age (70.0 vs 69.0; P = .55), male sex (58.0% vs 58.3%; P > .99), and preoperative characteristics such as living at home (93.2% vs 94.3%; P = .79) and independent ambulatory status (72.7% vs 75.7%; P = .64). The DVA and no DVA groups had similar rates of major comorbidities such as hypertension chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and dialysis dependence (P > .05 for all). Likewise, they had similar rates of distal origin grafts (13.6% vs 12.5%; P = .85), critical limb ischemia indications (P = .53), and prior arterial bypass (58% vs 47%; P = .08

  18. Minimally Invasive and Open Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Kit; Lindisfarne, Edward; Akehurst, Harold; Farook, Usama; Shrier, Will; Palmer, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques are increasingly being used in foot and ankle surgery but it is important that they are adopted only once they have been shown to be equivalent or superior to open techniques. We believe that the main advantages of MIS are found in the early postoperative period, but in order to adopt it as a technique longer-term studies are required. The aim of this study was to compare the 2-year outcomes of a third-generation MIS distal chevron osteotomy with a comparable traditional open distal chevron osteotomy for mild-moderate hallux valgus. Our null hypothesis was that the 2 techniques would yield equivalent clinical and radiographic results at 2 years. This was a retrospective cohort study. Eighty-one consecutive feet (49 MIS and 32 open distal chevron osteotomies) were followed up for a minimum 24 months (range 24-58). All patients were clinically assessed using the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire. Radiographic measures included hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, metatarsal phalangeal joint angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, tibial sesamoid position, shape of the first metatarsal head, and plantar offset. Statistical analysis was done using Student t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous data and Pearson chi-square test for categorical data. Clinical and radiologic postoperative scores in all domains were substantially improved in both groups (P < .001), but there was no statistically significant difference in improvement of any domain between open and MIS groups (P > .05). There were no significant differences in complications between the 2 groups ( > .5). The midterm results of this third-generation technique show that it was a safe procedure with good clinical outcomes and comparable to traditional open techniques for symptomatic mild-moderate hallux valgus. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Distal limb cast sores in horses: risk factors and early detection using thermography.

    PubMed

    Levet, T; Martens, A; Devisscher, L; Duchateau, L; Bogaert, L; Vlaminck, L

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based data on the prevalence, outcome and risk factors of distal limb cast sores, and no objective tool has been described for the early detection of cast sores. To investigate the prevalence, location, outcome and risk factors of cast sores after application of a distal limb cast and to determine whether static thermography of the cast is a valuable tool for the assessment of sores. A prospective study was conducted on horses treated with a distal limb cast. At each cast removal, cast sores were graded as superficial sores (SS), deep dermal sores (DS) or full thickness skin ulcerations (FS). In several cases, a thermographic evaluation of the cast was performed immediately prior to removal and differences in temperature (AT) between the coolest point of the cast and 2 cast regions predisposed for sore development (dorsoproximal mc/mtIII and palmar/plantar fetlock) were calculated. Mean +/- s.d. total casting time of 70 horses was 31 +/- 18 days. Overall, 57 legs (81%) developed at least SS. Twenty-four legs (34%) ultimately developed DS and one horse had an FS. Multivariable analysis showed that the severity of sores was positively associated with increasing age (OR: 1.111, P = 0.028), a normal (vs. swollen) limb (OR: 3387, P = 0.023) and an increase in total casting time (OR per week: 1.363, P = 0.002). The thermographic evaluation (35 casts) revealed that the severity of sores was positively associated with increasing deltaT (OR: 2.100, P = 0.0005). The optimal cut-off values for the presence of SS and DS were set at, respectively, deltaT = 23 and 43 degrees C. Distal limb cast is a safe coaptation technique with increasing risk of developing sores with time. Thermography is a valuable and rapid clinical tool to monitor the development of cast sores.

  20. Use of plate fixation without coracoclavicular ligament augmentation for unstable distal clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Ko, Young-Won; Lee, Juyeob; Park, Min-Gyue

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of unstable distal clavicle fractures treated with anatomic plate fixation without coracoclavicular ligament augmentation and to compare the outcome of Neer type IIA with that of type IIB. Twenty-five patients with unstable distal clavicle fractures who underwent anatomic plate fixation without coracoclavicular ligament augmentation were enrolled prospectively, including 9 patients of Neer type IIA and 16 patients of Neer type IIB. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using Constant and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) scores. Coracoclavicular distance was measured on plain radiographs. Bone union was achieved in all patients. Satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes were obtained regardless of fracture type. After operation, the mean coracoclavicular distance on the injured side was increased by 10% compared with the uninjured side. However, between the patients who showed an increased coracoclavicular distance >10% (Constant score, 89.4 ± 3.7; UCLA score, 32.6 ± 3) and the patients with increased coracoclavicular distance <10% of the uninjured side (Constant score, 88.7 ± 3.6; UCLA score, 31.9 ± 3), there was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes of Constant score (P = .934) and UCLA score (P = .598). In unstable distal clavicle fractures, precontoured anatomic plate fixation without coracoclavicular ligament augmentation showed satisfactory clinical outcomes and high union rates even with a small lateral fragment. Patients who had increased coracoclavicular distance also demonstrated satisfactory shoulder functional outcomes regardless of the fracture type. Therefore, anatomic plate fixation without additional coracoclavicular ligament augmentation can be considered one of the treatment options for unstable distal clavicle fracture. Level IV; Case Series; Treatment Study. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow

  1. Minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis for mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kejian; Wang, Lei; Lin, Dasheng; Chen, Zhiwen

    2013-08-01

    Mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures can be effectively treated with minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis and intramedullary nailing (IMN). However, these 2 treatments have not been adequately compared. Forty-seven patients (47 fractures) with mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures were randomly allocated to undergo either minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (n=24) or IMN (n=23). The 2 groups were similar in terms of fracture patterns, fracture location, age, and associated injuries. Intraoperative measurements included blood loss and operative time. Clinical outcome measurements included fracture healing, radial nerve recovery, and elbow and shoulder discomfort. Radiographic measurements included fracture alignment, time to healing, delayed union, and nonunion. Functional outcome was satisfactory in both groups. Mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and Mayo score were both better for the minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis group than for the IMN group (98.2 vs 97.6, respectively, and 93.5 vs 94.1, respectively; P<.001). Operative time was shorter and less intraoperative blood loss occurred in the minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis group than in the IMN group. Average time to union was similar in both groups. Primary union was achieved in 23 of 24 patients in the minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis group and in 22 of 23 in the IMN group. Minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis may have outcomes comparable with IMN for the management of mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures. Minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis is more suitable for complex fractures, especially for radial protection and motion recovery of adjacent joints, compared with IMN for simple fractures. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Analysis of emboli during carotid stenting with distal protection device.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-I; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Garami, Zsolt; Malkoff, Marc D; Smalling, Richard W; Campbell, Morgan S; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2006-01-01

    The newly developed multi-frequency transcranial Doppler (TCD) is able to differentiate gaseous from solid emboli. Our goal was to apply this technology to initially characterize emboli detected during carotid stenting with distal protection. Patients undergoing carotid angiography and stenting were monitored with 2-2.5 MHz TCD (Embo-Dop, DWL) over the middle cerebral artery unilateral to stent deployment. Sonographers insured optimal signal recordings during the procedures. Automated emboli detection and classification software (MultiXLab version 2.0) was applied for offline count and analysis. Monitoring using the Filter Wire EX (Boston Scientific) and ACCUNET system (Guidant Corporation) was performed. A total of 9,649 embolic signals were detected during 11 angiographic and 10 stenting procedures. An observer confirmed the signals using the International Consensus definition. Automated software classified these events into 5,900 gaseous and 3,749 solid emboli. During contrast injections without the protection device, 1,013 emboli were detected with 28% of these being solid. With deployment of the distal protection device, 8,636 emboli were found with 40% being solid (p < 0.001). During stenting and angioplasty with the protection device, 7,395 emboli with 42% solids were detected (p < 0.001). Finally injection of contrast after the procedure, with the protection device still deployed, yielded 1,241 emboli with 31% solids (NS). Only 1 patient developed transient hemiparesthesia during ballooning that reduced the flow velocity to zero for 14 s. Neither gaseous nor solid emboli resulted in a mean flow velocity decrease or clinical symptoms. Microembolization frequently occurs during stenting even with deployment of the distal protection device. More solid emboli are seen during manipulations associated with lesion crossing. Although novel TCD methods yield a high frequency of embolic signals, further validation of this technique to determine the true nature, size

  3. Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ) Implant Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Chase, Samantha M; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker) prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months). Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to administer the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH), patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), and visual analogue scale (VAS), and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median follow-up time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months). Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation. PMID:25386579

  4. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, cat eye, and distal 22q11 microdeletion syndromes: a unique double rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Torti, Erin E; Braddock, Stephen R; Bernreuter, Kristen; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2013-08-01

    An array-CGH on 19-year-old male showed a proximal 1.11 Mb duplication and a distal 1.7 Mb deletion of 22q11.2 regions flanking the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome region that remained intact. FISH analyses revealed both abnormalities to be on the same homolog 22. This double rearrangement lead to the co-existence of two syndromes: Cat eye and distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndromes with a rare associated phenotype of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS). A review of the literature indicates that this is the second report of a proximal duplication and the fifth report of a distal deletion and OAVS suggestive of a possible OAVS candidate gene in this region. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. IgA-kappa type multiple myeloma affecting proximal and distal renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Minemura, K; Ichikawa, K; Itoh, N; Suzuki, N; Hara, M; Shigematsu, S; Kobayashi, H; Hiramatsu, K; Hashizume, K

    2001-09-01

    A 45-year-old male was admitted because of chest pain, lumbago, and bilateral ankle pain. Examination disclosed hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, acquired Fanconi syndrome, and abnormalities in distal nephron such as distal renal tubular acidosis and renal diabetes insipidus. Further exploration revealed IgA kappa multiple myeloma excreting urinary Bence Jones protein (kappa-light chain). Renal biopsy revealed thick basement membranes and elec-tron-dense crystals in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent studies revealed deposition of kappa-light chain in renal tubular epithelial cells that caused the renal tubular damage. Although the osteomalacia was relieved by medical treatment, the urinary Bence Jones protein and the renal tubular defects were not improved by the chemotherapy for the myeloma. The patient died of exacerbation of multiple myeloma at 50 years of age.

  6. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-03-11

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2(G102E)) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development.

  7. Combined Ankle-Foot Energetics are Conserved When Distal Foot Energy Absorption is Minimized.

    PubMed

    Arch, Elisa S; Fylstra, Bretta L

    2016-12-01

    The large, late-stance energy generated by the ankle is believed to be critical during gait. However, the distal foot absorbs/dissipates a considerable amount of energy during the same phase. Thus, the energy generated by the combined ankle-foot system is more modest, which raises questions regarding the necessity of such a large ankle power and the interplay between foot and ankle energetics. This study aimed to evaluate our conservation of energy hypothesis, which predicted if distal foot energy absorption/dissipation was reduced, then less energy would be generated at the ankle and thus the same combined ankle-foot energetics would be achieved. Motion analysis data were collected as healthy subjects walked under 2 conditions (Shoes, Footplate). In the Footplate condition, the shoe was replaced with a customized, rigid footplate with a rocker profile. In support of the hypothesis, there was significantly less positive ankle and less negative distal foot work with footplate use, resulting in very similar combined ankle-foot work between conditions. These findings suggest that there is an interplay between the energy generated by the ankle and absorbed by the foot. This interplay should be considered when designing orthotic and prosthetic ankle-foot systems and rehabilitation programs for individuals with weakened ankle muscles.

  8. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcelo Faria; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Conclusions: Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions. PMID:27007766

  9. [Sciatic nerve block "out-of-plane" distal to the bifurcation: effective and safe].

    PubMed

    Geiser, T; Apel, J; Vicent, O; Büttner, J

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound guided distal sciatic nerve block (DSB) at bifurcation level shows fast onset and provides excellent success rates. However, its safe performance might be difficult for the unexperienced physician. Just slightly distal to the bifurcation, the tibial nerve (TN) and common fibular nerve (CFN) can be shown clearly separated from each other. Therefore, we investigated if a block done here would provide similar quality results compared to the DSB proximally to the division, with a potentially lower risk of nerve damage. In this randomized, prospective trial, 56 patients per group received either a DSB distal to the bifurcation "out-of-plane" (dist.) or proximally "in-plane" (prox.) with 30 ml of Mepivacaine 1% each. Success was tested by a blinded examiner after 15 and 30 min respectively (sensory and motor block of TN and CFN: 0 = none, 2 = complete, change of skin temperature). Videos of the blocks were inspected by an independent expert retrospectively with regard to the spread of the local anesthetic (LA) and accidental intraneural injection. Cumulative single nerve measurements and temperature changes revealed significant shorter onset and better efficacy (dist/prox: 15 min: 3.13 ± 1.86/1.82 ± 1.62; 30 min: 5.73 ± 1.92/3.21 ± 1.88; T 15 min : 30.3 ± 3.48/28.0 ± 3.67, T 30 min . 33.0 ± 2.46/30.6 ± 3.86; MV/SD; ANOVA; p < 0.01) combined with a higher rate of subparaneural spread in the dist. group (41/51 vs.12/53; χ2; p < 0,01). Procedure times were similar. There were no complications in either group. The subparaneural spread of the LA turned out to be crucial for better results in the distal group. The steep angle using the out-of-plane approach favors needle penetration through the paraneural sheath. The distance between the branches allows the safe application of the LA, so an effective block can be done with just one injection. DSB slightly distal to the bifurcation, in an out-of-plane technique between the TN and

  10. Sagittal distal limb kinematics inside the hoof capsule captured using high-speed fluoroscopy in walking and trotting horses.

    PubMed

    Roach, J M; Pfau, T; Bryars, J; Unt, V; Channon, S B; Weller, R

    2014-10-01

    Kinematic evaluation of the distal limb of the horse using standard methods is challenging, mainly due to the hoof capsule restricting visualisation, but the recent development of a high-speed fluoroscopy (HSF) system has allowed in vivo cineradiographic assessment of moving skeletal structures at high speeds. The application of this non-invasive method to the equine distal limb is used to describe 'internal' distal limb kinematics including intra-horse and inter-horse variability, and variability between walk and trot. Distal limb kinematic data were collected at walk and trot from six non-lame horses using HSF set over a force plate. The dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) angle and the dorsal distal interpha