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Sample records for abasic ap sites

  1. Shape-selective recognition of DNA abasic sites by metallohelices: inhibition of human AP endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Jaroslav; Scott, Peter; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Loss of a base in DNA leading to creation of an abasic (AP) site leaving a deoxyribose residue in the strand, is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously or under the action of various physical and chemical agents. Progress in the understanding of the chemistry and enzymology of abasic DNA largely relies upon the study of AP sites in synthetic duplexes. We report here on interactions of diastereomerically pure metallo–helical ‘flexicate’ complexes, bimetallic triple-stranded ferro-helicates [Fe2(NN-NN)3]4+ incorporating the common NN–NN bis(bidentate) helicand, with short DNA duplexes containing AP sites in different sequence contexts. The results show that the flexicates bind to AP sites in DNA duplexes in a shape-selective manner. They preferentially bind to AP sites flanked by purines on both sides and their binding is enhanced when a pyrimidine is placed in opposite orientation to the lesion. Notably, the Λ-enantiomer binds to all tested AP sites with higher affinity than the Δ-enantiomer. In addition, the binding of the flexicates to AP sites inhibits the activity of human AP endonuclease 1, which is as a valid anticancer drug target. Hence, this finding indicates the potential of utilizing well-defined metallo–helical complexes for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25940617

  2. Shape-selective recognition of DNA abasic sites by metallohelices: inhibition of human AP endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Scott, Peter; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-06-23

    Loss of a base in DNA leading to creation of an abasic (AP) site leaving a deoxyribose residue in the strand, is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously or under the action of various physical and chemical agents. Progress in the understanding of the chemistry and enzymology of abasic DNA largely relies upon the study of AP sites in synthetic duplexes. We report here on interactions of diastereomerically pure metallo-helical 'flexicate' complexes, bimetallic triple-stranded ferro-helicates [Fe2(NN-NN)3](4+) incorporating the common NN-NN bis(bidentate) helicand, with short DNA duplexes containing AP sites in different sequence contexts. The results show that the flexicates bind to AP sites in DNA duplexes in a shape-selective manner. They preferentially bind to AP sites flanked by purines on both sides and their binding is enhanced when a pyrimidine is placed in opposite orientation to the lesion. Notably, the Λ-enantiomer binds to all tested AP sites with higher affinity than the Δ-enantiomer. In addition, the binding of the flexicates to AP sites inhibits the activity of human AP endonuclease 1, which is as a valid anticancer drug target. Hence, this finding indicates the potential of utilizing well-defined metallo-helical complexes for cancer chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Conformational dynamics of abasic DNA upon interactions with AP endonuclease 1 revealed by stopped-flow fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kanazhevskaya, Lyubov Yu; Koval, Vladimir V; Vorobjev, Yury N; Fedorova, Olga S

    2012-02-14

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are abundant DNA lesions arising from exposure to UV light, ionizing radiation, alkylating agents, and oxygen radicals. In human cells, AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) recognizes this mutagenic lesion and initiates its repair via a specific incision of the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. We have investigated a detailed mechanism of APE1 functioning using fluorescently labeled DNA substrates. A fluorescent adenine analogue, 2-aminopurine, was introduced into DNA substrates adjacent to the abasic site to serve as an on-site reporter of conformational transitions in DNA during the catalytic cycle. Application of a pre-steady-state stopped-flow technique allows us to observe changes in the fluorescence intensity corresponding to different stages of the process in real time. We also detected an intrinsic Trp fluorescence of the enzyme during interactions with 2-aPu-containing substrates. Our data have revealed a conformational flexibility of the abasic DNA being processed by APE1. Quantitative analysis of fluorescent traces has yielded a minimal kinetic scheme and appropriate rate constants consisting of four steps. The results obtained from stopped-flow data have shown a substantial influence of the 2-aPu base location on completion of certain reaction steps. Using detailed molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA substrates, we have attributed structural distortions of AP-DNA to realization of specific binding, effective locking, and incision of the damaged DNA. The findings allowed us to accurately discern the step that corresponds to insertion of specific APE1 amino acid residues into the abasic DNA void in the course of stabilization of the precatalytic complex.

  4. Kinetic analysis of bypass of abasic site by the catalytic core of yeast DNA polymerase eta.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juntang; Wang, Rong; Liu, Binyan; Xue, Qizhen; Zhong, Mengyu; Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Huidong

    2015-09-01

    Abasic sites (Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites), produced ∼ 50,000 times/cell/day, are very blocking and miscoding. To better understand miscoding mechanisms of abasic site for yeast DNA polymerase η, pre-steady-state nucleotide incorporation and LC-MS/MS sequence analysis of extension product were studied using pol η(core) (catalytic core, residues 1-513), which can completely eliminate the potential effects of the C-terminal C2H2 motif of pol η on dNTP incorporation. The extension beyond the abasic site was very inefficient. Compared with incorporation of dCTP opposite G, the incorporation efficiencies opposite abasic site were greatly reduced according to the order of dGTP > dATP > dCTP and dTTP. Pol η(core) showed no fast burst phase for any incorporation opposite G or abasic site, suggesting that the catalytic step is not faster than the dissociation of polymerase from DNA. LC-MS/MS sequence analysis of extension products showed that 53% products were dGTP misincorporation, 33% were dATP and 14% were -1 frameshift, indicating that Pol η(core) bypasses abasic site by a combined G-rule, A-rule and -1 frameshift deletions. Compared with full-length pol η, pol η(core) relatively reduced the efficiency of incorporation of dCTP opposite G, increased the efficiencies of dNTP incorporation opposite abasic site and the exclusive incorporation of dGTP opposite abasic site, but inhibited the extension beyond abasic site, and increased the priority in extension of A: abasic site relative to G: abasic site. This study provides further understanding in the mutation mechanism of abasic sites for yeast DNA polymerase η. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermodynamic impact of abasic sites on simulated translesion DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-06-16

    Loss of a base in DNA and the creation of an abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) site is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously, or as a consequence of the action of DNA-damaging agents. The AP lesion is mutagenic or lethal if not repaired. We report a systematic thermodynamic investigation by differential scanning calorimetry on the evolution, during primer extension, of a model AP site in chemically simulated DNA translesion synthesis. Incorporation of dAMP (deoxyadenosine monophosphate), as well as dTMP (deoxythymidine monophosphate), opposite an AP site is enthalpically unfavorable, although incorporation of dTMP is more enthalpically unfavorable than that of dAMP. This finding is in a good agreement with experimental data showing that AP sites block various DNA polymerases of eukaryotic and prokaryotic origin and that, if bypassed, dAMP is preferentially inserted, whereas insertion of dTMP is less likely. The results emphasize the importance of thermodynamic contributions to the insertion of nucleotides opposite an AP site by DNA polymerases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. DNA Polymerase λ Inactivation by Oxidized Abasic Sites&

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Adam J.; Guan, Lirui; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair plays a vital role in maintaining genomic integrity in mammalian cells. DNA polymerase λ is believed to play a backup role to DNA polymerase β in base excision repair. Two oxidized abasic lesions that are produced by a variety of DNA damaging agents, including several antitumor antibiotics, the C4′-oxidized abasic site following Ape1 incision (pC4-AP) and 5′-(2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane) (DOB), irreversibly inactivate Pol β and Pol λ. The interactions of DOB and pC4-AP with Pol λ are examined in detail using DNA substrates containing these lesions at defined sites. Single turnover kinetic experiments show that Pol λ excises DOB almost 13-times more slowly than a 5′-phosphorylated 2-deoxyribose (dRP). pC4-AP is excised approximately twice as fast as DOB. The absolute rate constants are considerably slower than those reported for Pol β at the respective reactions, suggesting that Pol λ may be an inefficient backup in BER. DOB inactivates Pol λ approximately 3-fold less efficiently than it does Pol β and the difference is attributable to a higher KI (33 ± 7 nM). Inactivation of Pol λ’s lyase activity by DOB also prevents the enzyme from carrying out polymerization following preincubation of the protein and DNA. Mass spectral analysis of GluC digested Pol λ inactivated by DOB shows that Lys324 is modified. There is inferential support that Lys312 may also be modified. Both residues are within the Pol λ lyase active site. Protein modification involves reaction with released but-2-ene-1,4-dial. When acting on pC4-AP, Pol λ achieves approximately 4 turnovers on average before being inactivated. Lyase inactivation by pC4-AP is also accompanied by loss of polymerase activity and mass spectrometry indicates that Lys312 and Lys324 are modified by the lesion. The ability of DOB and pC4-AP to inactivate Pol λ provides additional evidence that these lesions are significant sources of the cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents that

  7. Structural basis for the recognition and cleavage of abasic DNA in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duo; Silhan, Jan; MacDonald, James T.; Carpenter, Elisabeth P.; Jensen, Kirsten; Tang, Christoph M.; Baldwin, Geoff S.; Freemont, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is a highly conserved DNA repair pathway throughout all kingdoms from bacteria to humans. Whereas several enzymes are required to complete the multistep repair process of damaged bases, apurinic-apyrimidic (AP) endonucleases play an essential role in enabling the repair process by recognizing intermediary abasic sites cleaving the phosphodiester backbone 5′ to the abasic site. Despite extensive study, there is no structure of a bacterial AP endonuclease bound to substrate DNA. Furthermore, the structural mechanism for AP-site cleavage is incomplete. Here we report a detailed structural and biochemical study of the AP endonuclease from Neisseria meningitidis that has allowed us to capture structural intermediates providing more complete snapshots of the catalytic mechanism. Our data reveal subtle differences in AP-site recognition and kinetics between the human and bacterial enzymes that may reflect different evolutionary pressures. PMID:23035246

  8. Mechanisms by which herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase limits translesion synthesis through abasic sites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yali; Song, Liping; Stroud, Jason; Parris, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Results suggest a high probability that abasic (AP) sites occur at least once per herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome. The parameters that control the ability of HSV-1 DNA polymerase (pol) to engage in AP translesion synthesis (TLS) were examined because AP lesions could influence the completion and fidelity of viral DNA synthesis. Pre-steady-state kinetic experiments demonstrated that wildtype (WT) and exonuclease-deficient (exo-) pol could incorporate opposite an AP lesion, but full TLS required absence of exo function. Virtually all of the WT pol was bound at the exo site to AP-containing primer-templates (P/Ts) at equilibrium, and the pre-steady-state rate of excision by WT pol was higher on AP-containing than on matched DNA. However, several factors influencing polymerization work synergistically with exo activity to prevent HSV-1 pol from engaging in TLS. Although the pre-steady-state catalytic rate constant for insertion of dATP opposite a T or AP site was similar, ground-state-binding affinity of dATP for insertion opposite an AP site was reduced 3-9-fold. Single-turnover running-start experiments demonstrated a reduced proportion of P/Ts extended to the AP site compared to the preceding site during processive synthesis by WT or exo- pol. Only the exo- pol engaged in TLS, though inefficiently and without burst kinetics, suggesting a much slower rate-limiting step for extension beyond the AP site.

  9. Preparation and Analysis of Oligonucleotides Containing the C4′-Oxidized Abasic Site and Related Mechanistic Probes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeseung; Kreller, Cortney R.; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2005-01-01

    The C4′-oxidized abasic site (C4-AP) is produced by a variety of DNA damaging agents. This alkali labile lesion can exist in up to four diastereomeric cyclic forms, in addition to the acyclic keto-aldehyde. Synthetic oligonucleotides containing the lesion were prepared from a stable photochemical precursor. Chemical integrity of the lesion containing oligonucleotides was probed using phosphodiesterase lability. Analysis of the 3′,5′-phosphate diester of the monomeric lesion released from single diastereomers of photolabile precursors by 1H NMR indicates that isomerization of the hemiacetal and/or hemiketal is rapid. The syntheses and characterization of oligonucleotides containing configurationally stable analogues of C4-AP, which serve as mechanistic probes for deciphering the structural basis of the biochemical and biological effects of the C4′-oxidized abasic lesion, are also described. PMID:16277338

  10. DNA abasic site-directed formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters for selective nucleobase recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Wu, Fei; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Yong

    2011-07-01

    DNA single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has attracted much attention due to mutation related diseases. Various methods for SNP detection have been proposed and many are already in use. Here, we find that the abasic site (AP site) in the DNA duplex can be developed as a capping scaffold for the generation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). As a proof of concept, the DNA sequences from fragments near codon 177 of cancer supression gene p53 were used as a model for SNP detection by in situ formed Ag NCs. The formation of fluorescent Ag NCs in the AP site-containing DNA duplex is highly selective for cytosine facing the AP site and guanines flanking the site and can be employed in situ as readout for SNP detection. The fluorescent signal-on sensing for SNP based on this inorganic fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously reported signal-off responses using low-molecular-weight organic ligands. The strong dependence of fluorescent Ag NC formation on the sequences surrounding the AP site was successfully used to identify mutations in codon 177 of cancer supression gene p53. We anticipate that this approach will be employed to develop a practical SNP detection method by locating an AP site toward the midway cytosine in a target strand containing more than three consecutive cytosines.

  11. Recognition of DNA abasic site nanocavity by fluorophore-switched probe: Suitable for all sequence environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Yuehua; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Xiaoshun; Shao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Removal of a damaged base in DNA produces an abasic site (AP site) nanocavity. If left un-repaired in vivo by the specific enzyme, this nanocavity will result in nucleotide mutation in the following DNA replication. Therefore, selective recognition of AP site nanocavity by small molecules is important for identification of such DNA damage and development of genetic drugs. In this work, we investigate the fluorescence behavior of isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine (PAL), berberine (BER), epiberberine (EPI), jatrorrhizine (JAT), coptisine (COP), coralyne (COR), worenine (WOR), berberrubine (BEU), sanguinarine (SAN), chelerythrine (CHE), and nitidine (NIT) upon binding with the AP nanocavity. PAL is screened out as the most efficient fluorophore-switched probe to recognize the AP nanocavity over the fully matched DNA. Its fluorescence enhancement occurs for all of the AP nanocavity sequence environments, which has not been achieved by the previously used probes. The bridged π conjugation effect should partially contribute to the AP nanocavity-specific fluorescence, as opposed to the solvent effect. Due to the strong binding with the AP nanocavity, PAL will find wide applications in the DNA damage recognition and sensor development.

  12. The role of His-83 of yeast apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Apn1 in catalytic incision of abasic sites in DNA.

    PubMed

    Dyakonova, Elena S; Koval, Vladimir V; Lomzov, Alexander A; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Fedorova, Olga S

    2015-06-01

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease Apn1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key enzyme involved in the base excision repair (BER) at the cleavage stage of abasic sites (AP sites) in DNA. The crystal structure of Apn1 from S. cerevisiae is unresolved. Based on its high amino acid homology to Escherichia coli Endo IV, His-83 is believed to coordinate one of three Zn2+ ions in Apn1's active site similar to His-69 in Endo IV. Substituting His-83 with Ala is proposed to decrease the AP endonuclease activity of Apn1 owing to weak coordination of Zn2+ ions involved in enzymatic catalysis. The kinetics of recognition, binding, and incision of DNA substrates with the H83A Apn1 mutant was investigated. The stopped-flow method detecting fluorescence intensity changes of 2-aminopurine (2-aPu) was used to monitor the conformational dynamics of DNA at pre-steady-state conditions. We found substituting His-83 with Ala influenced catalytic complex formation and further incision of the damaged DNA strand. The H83A Apn1 catalysis depends not only on the location of the mismatch relative to the abasic site in DNA, but also on the nature of damage. We consider His-83 properly coordinates the active site Zn2+ ion playing a crucial role in catalytic incision stage. Our data prove suppressed enzymatic activity of H83A Apn1 results from the reduced number of active site Zn2+ ions. Our study provides insights into mechanistic specialty of AP site repair by yeast AP endonuclease Apn1 of Endo IV family, which members are not found in mammals, but are present in many microorganisms. The results will provide useful guidelines for design of new anti-fungal and anti-malarial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The chemical stability of abasic RNA compared to abasic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Küpfer, Pascal A.; Leumann, Christian J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of an abasic RNA phosphoramidite carrying a photocleavable 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl (NPE) group at the anomeric center and a triisopropylsilyloxymethyl (TOM) group as 2′-O-protecting group together with the analogous DNA and the 2′-OMe RNA abasic building blocks. These units were incorporated into RNA-, 2′-OMe-RNA- and DNA for the purpose of studying their chemical stabilities towards backbone cleavage in a comparative way. Stability measurements were performed under basic conditions (0.1 M NaOH) and in the presence of aniline (pH 4.6) at 37°C. The kinetics and mechanisms of strand cleavage were followed by High pressure liquid chromotography and ESI-MS. Under basic conditions, strand cleavage at abasic RNA sites can occur via β,δ-elimination and 2′,3′-cyclophosphate formation. We found that β,δ-elimination was 154-fold slower compared to the same mechanism in abasic DNA. Overall strand cleavage of abasic RNA (including cyclophosphate formation) was still 16.8 times slower compared to abasic DNA. In the presence of aniline at pH 4.6, where only β,δ-elimination contributes to strand cleavage, a 15-fold reduced cleavage rate at the RNA abasic site was observed. Thus abasic RNA is significantly more stable than abasic DNA. The higher stability of abasic RNA is discussed in the context of its potential biological role. PMID:17151071

  14. Structural insights into abasic site for Fpg specific binding and catalysis: comparative high-resolution crystallographic studies of Fpg bound to various models of abasic site analogues-containing DNA

    PubMed Central

    de Jésus, Karine Pereira; Serre, Laurence; Zelwer, Charles; Castaing, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    Fpg is a DNA glycosylase that recognizes and excises the mutagenic 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and the potentially lethal formamidopyrimidic residues (Fapy). Fpg is also associated with an AP lyase activity which successively cleaves the abasic (AP) site at the 3′ and 5′ sides by βδ-elimination. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the wild-type and the P1G defective mutant of Fpg from Lactococcus lactis bound to 14mer DNA duplexes containing either a tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-propanediol (Pr) AP site analogues. Structures show that THF is less extrahelical than Pr and its backbone C5′–C4′–C3′ diverges significantly from those of Pr, rAP, 8-oxodG and FapydG. Clearly, the heterocyclic oxygen of THF is pushed back by the carboxylate of the strictly conserved E2 residue. We can propose that the ring-opened form of the damaged deoxyribose is the structure active form of the sugar for Fpg catalysis process. Both structural and functional data suggest that the first step of catalysis mediated by Fpg involves the expulsion of the O4′ leaving group facilitated by general acid catalysis (involving E2), rather than the immediate cleavage of the N-glycosic bond of the damaged nucleoside. PMID:16243784

  15. The Effects of Molecular Crowding on the Structure and Stability of G-Quadruplexes with an Abasic Site

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Takeshi; Nakano, Shu-ichi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Both cellular environmental factors and chemical modifications critically affect the properties of nucleic acids. However, the structure and stability of DNA containing abasic sites under cell-mimicking molecular crowding conditions remain unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular crowding effects on the structure and stability of the G-quadruplexes including a single abasic site. Structural analysis by circular dichroism showed that molecular crowding by PEG200 did not affect the topology of the G-quadruplex structure with or without an abasic site. Thermodynamic analysis further demonstrated that the degree of stabilization of the G-quadruplex by molecular crowding decreased with substitution of an abasic site for a single guanine. Notably, we found that the molecular crowding effects on the enthalpy change for G-quadruplex formation had a linear relationship with the abasic site effects depending on its position. These results are useful for predicting the structure and stability of G-quadruplexes with abasic sites in the cell-mimicking conditions. PMID:21949901

  16. Abasic and oxidized ribonucleotides embedded in DNA are processed by human APE1 and not by RNase H2

    PubMed Central

    Malfatti, Matilde Clarissa; Balachander, Sathya; Antoniali, Giulia; Koh, Kyung Duk; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier; Chon, Hyongi; Crouch, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ribonucleoside 5′-monophosphates (rNMPs) are the most common non-standard nucleotides found in DNA of eukaryotic cells, with over 100 million rNMPs transiently incorporated in the mammalian genome per cell cycle. Human ribonuclease (RNase) H2 is the principal enzyme able to cleave rNMPs in DNA. Whether RNase H2 may process abasic or oxidized rNMPs incorporated in DNA is unknown. The base excision repair (BER) pathway is mainly responsible for repairing oxidized and abasic sites into DNA. Here we show that human RNase H2 is unable to process an abasic rNMP (rAP site) or a ribose 8oxoG (r8oxoG) site embedded in DNA. On the contrary, we found that recombinant purified human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) and APE1 from human cell extracts efficiently process an rAP site in DNA and have weak endoribonuclease and 3′-exonuclease activities on r8oxoG substrate. Using biochemical assays, our results provide evidence of a human enzyme able to recognize and process abasic and oxidized ribonucleotides embedded in DNA. PMID:28977421

  17. Abasic and oxidized ribonucleotides embedded in DNA are processed by human APE1 and not by RNase H2.

    PubMed

    Malfatti, Matilde Clarissa; Balachander, Sathya; Antoniali, Giulia; Koh, Kyung Duk; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier; Chon, Hyongi; Crouch, Robert J; Storici, Francesca; Tell, Gianluca

    2017-11-02

    Ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates (rNMPs) are the most common non-standard nucleotides found in DNA of eukaryotic cells, with over 100 million rNMPs transiently incorporated in the mammalian genome per cell cycle. Human ribonuclease (RNase) H2 is the principal enzyme able to cleave rNMPs in DNA. Whether RNase H2 may process abasic or oxidized rNMPs incorporated in DNA is unknown. The base excision repair (BER) pathway is mainly responsible for repairing oxidized and abasic sites into DNA. Here we show that human RNase H2 is unable to process an abasic rNMP (rAP site) or a ribose 8oxoG (r8oxoG) site embedded in DNA. On the contrary, we found that recombinant purified human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) and APE1 from human cell extracts efficiently process an rAP site in DNA and have weak endoribonuclease and 3'-exonuclease activities on r8oxoG substrate. Using biochemical assays, our results provide evidence of a human enzyme able to recognize and process abasic and oxidized ribonucleotides embedded in DNA. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. APE1 incision activity at abasic sites in tandem repeat sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxia; Völker, Jens; Breslauer, Kenneth J; Wilson, David M

    2014-05-29

    Repetitive DNA sequences, such as those present in microsatellites and minisatellites, telomeres, and trinucleotide repeats (linked to fragile X syndrome, Huntington disease, etc.), account for nearly 30% of the human genome. These domains exhibit enhanced susceptibility to oxidative attack to yield base modifications, strand breaks, and abasic sites; have a propensity to adopt non-canonical DNA forms modulated by the positions of the lesions; and, when not properly processed, can contribute to genome instability that underlies aging and disease development. Knowledge on the repair efficiencies of DNA damage within such repetitive sequences is therefore crucial for understanding the impact of such domains on genomic integrity. In the present study, using strategically designed oligonucleotide substrates, we determined the ability of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) to cleave at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in a collection of tandem DNA repeat landscapes involving telomeric and CAG/CTG repeat sequences. Our studies reveal the differential influence of domain sequence, conformation, and AP site location/relative positioning on the efficiency of APE1 binding and strand incision. Intriguingly, our data demonstrate that APE1 endonuclease efficiency correlates with the thermodynamic stability of the DNA substrate. We discuss how these results have both predictive and mechanistic consequences for understanding the success and failure of repair protein activity associated with such oxidatively sensitive, conformationally plastic/dynamic repetitive DNA domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Correlation of bistranded clustered abasic DNA lesion processing with structural and dynamic DNA helix distortion

    PubMed Central

    Bignon, Emmanuelle; Gattuso, Hugo; Morell, Christophe; Dehez, François; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Monari, Antonio; Dumont, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Clustered apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP; abasic) DNA lesions produced by ionizing radiation are by far more cytotoxic than isolated AP lesion entities. The structure and dynamics of a series of seven 23-bp oligonucleotides featuring simple bistranded clustered damage sites, comprising of two AP sites, zero, one, three or five bases 3′ or 5′ apart from each other, were investigated through 400 ns explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. They provide representative structures of synthetically engineered multiply damage sites-containing oligonucleotides whose repair was investigated experimentally (Nucl. Acids Res. 2004, 32:5609-5620; Nucl. Acids Res. 2002, 30: 2800–2808). The inspection of extrahelical positioning of the AP sites, bulge and non Watson–Crick hydrogen bonding corroborates the experimental measurements of repair efficiencies by bacterial or human AP endonucleases Nfo and APE1, respectively. This study provides unprecedented knowledge into the structure and dynamics of clustered abasic DNA lesions, notably rationalizing the non-symmetry with respect to 3′ to 5′ position. In addition, it provides strong mechanistic insights and basis for future studies on the effects of clustered DNA damage on the recognition and processing of these lesions by bacterial or human DNA repair enzymes specialized in the processing of such lesions. PMID:27587587

  20. Structural and Kinetic Analysis of Nucleoside Triphosphate Incorporation Opposite an Abasic Site by Human Translesion DNA Polymerase η

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Amritaj; Zhang, Qianqian; Lei, Li

    2015-02-09

    The most prevalent lesion in DNA is an abasic site resulting from glycolytic cleavage of a base. In a number of cellular studies, abasic sites preferentially code for dATP insertion (the “A rule”). In some cases frameshifts are also common. X-ray structures with abasic sites in oligonucleotides have been reported for several microbial and human DNA polymerases (pols), e.g. Dpo4, RB69, KlenTaq, yeast pol ι, human (h) pol ι, and human pol β. We reported previously that hpol η is a major pol involved in abasic site bypass (Choi, J.-Y., Lim, S., Kim, E. J., Jo, A., and Guengerich, F.more » P. (2010 J. Mol. Biol. 404, 34–44). hpol η inserted all four dNTPs in steady-state and pre-steady-state assays, preferentially inserting A and G. In LC-MS analysis of primer-template pairs, A and G were inserted but little C or T was inserted. Frameshifts were observed when an appropriate pyrimidine was positioned 5' to the abasic site in the template. In x-ray structures of hpol η with a non-hydrolyzable analog of dATP or dGTP opposite an abasic site, H-bonding was observed between the phosphate 5' to the abasic site and water H-bonded to N1 and N6 of A and N1 and O6 of G nucleoside triphosphate analogs, offering an explanation for what appears to be a “purine rule.” A structure was also obtained for an A inserted and bonded in the primer opposite the abasic site, but it did not pair with a 5' T in the template. Finally, we conclude that hpol η, a major copying enzyme with abasic sites, follows a purine rule, which can also lead to frameshifts. The phenomenon can be explained with H-bonds.« less

  1. Correlation of Thermal Stability and Structural Distortion of DNA Interstrand Cross-Links Produced from Oxidized Abasic Sites with Their Selective Formation and Repair.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souradyuti; Greenberg, Marc M

    2015-10-13

    C4'-oxidized (C4-AP) and C5'-oxidized abasic sites (DOB) that are produced following abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the DNA backbone reversibly form cross-links selectively with dA opposite a 3'-adjacent nucleotide, despite the comparable proximity of an opposing dA. A previous report on UvrABC incision of DNA substrates containing stabilized analogues of the ICLs derived from C4-AP and DOB also indicated that the latter is repaired more readily by nucleotide excision repair [Ghosh, S., and Greenberg, M. M. (2014) Biochemistry 53, 5958-5965]. The source for selective cross-link formation was probed by comparing the reactivity of ICL analogues of C4-AP and DOB that mimic the preferred and disfavored cross-links with that of reagents that indirectly detect distortion by reacting with the nucleobases. The disfavored C4-AP and DOB analogues were each more reactive than the corresponding preferred cross-link substrates, suggesting that the latter are more stable, which is consistent with selective ICL formation. In addition, the preferred DOB analogue is more reactive than the respective C4-AP ICL, which is consistent with its more efficient incision by UvrABC. The conclusions drawn from the chemical probing experiments are corroborated by UV melting studies. The preferred ICLs exhibit melting temperatures higher than those of the corresponding disfavored isomers. These studies suggest that oxidized abasic sites form reversible interstrand cross-links with dA opposite the 3'-adjacent thymidine because these products are more stable and the thermodynamic preference is reflected in the transition states for their formation.

  2. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3’ddR5p) at the 3’-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3’ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3’ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. PMID:28531327

  3. Simultaneous fluorescence light-up and selective multicolor nucleobase recognition based on sequence-dependent strong binding of berberine to DNA abasic site.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Shao, Yong; Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Xu, Shujuan

    2012-04-28

    Label-free DNA nucleobase recognition by fluorescent small molecules has received much attention due to its simplicity in mutation identification and drug screening. However, sequence-dependent fluorescence light-up nucleobase recognition and multicolor emission with individual emission energy for individual nucleobases have been seldom realized. Herein, an abasic site (AP site) in a DNA duplex was employed as a binding field for berberine, one of isoquinoline alkaloids. Unlike weak binding of berberine to the fully matched DNAs without the AP site, strong binding of berberine to the AP site occurs and the berberine's fluorescence light-up behaviors are highly dependent on the target nucleobases opposite the AP site in which the targets thymine and cytosine produce dual emission bands, while the targets guanine and adenine only give a single emission band. Furthermore, more intense emissions are observed for the target pyrimidines than purines. The flanking bases of the AP site also produce some modifications of the berberine's emission behavior. The binding selectivity of berberine at the AP site is also confirmed by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, excited-state lifetime, DNA melting and fluorescence quenching by ferrocyanide and sodium chloride. It is expected that the target pyrimidines cause berberine to be stacked well within DNA base pairs near the AP site, which results in a strong resonance coupling of the electronic transitions to the particular vibration mode to produce the dual emissions. The fluorescent signal-on and emission energy-modulated sensing for nucleobases based on this fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously used fluorophores. We expect that this approach will be developed as a practical device for differentiating pyrimidines from purines by positioning an AP site toward a target that is available for readout by this alkaloid probe. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Selective amyloid β oligomer assay based on abasic site-containing molecular beacon and enzyme-free amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Ya; Lu, Linlin; Feng, Chongchong; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are highly toxic species in the process of Aβ aggregation and are regarded as potent therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, a label-free molecular beacon (MB) system integrated with enzyme-free amplification strategy was developed for simple and highly selective assay of Aβ oligomers. The MB system was constructed with abasic site (AP site)-containing stem-loop DNA and a fluorescent ligand 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphyridine (ATMND), of which the fluorescence was quenched upon binding to the AP site in DNA stem. Enzyme-free amplification was realized by target-triggered continuous opening of two delicately designed MBs (MB1 and MB2). Target DNA hybridization with MB1 and then MB2 resulted in the release of two ATMND molecules in one binding event. Subsequent target recycling could greatly amplify the detection sensitivity due to the greatly enhanced turn-on emission of ATMND fluorescence. Combining with Aβ oligomers aptamers, the strategy was applied to analyze Aβ oligomers and the results showed that it could quantify Aβ oligomers with high selectivity and monitor the Aβ aggregation process. This novel method may be conducive to improve the diagnosis and pathogenic study of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E; Johnson, Kevin M; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S

    2017-06-20

    Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3'ddR5p) at the 3'-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3'ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3'ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Quadruplexes of human telomere dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} sequences containing guanine abasic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Skolakova, Petra; Bednarova, Klara; Vorlickova, Michaela

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of a guanine base does not hinder the formation of G-quadruplex of human telomere sequence. {yields} Each depurination strongly destabilizes the quadruplex of dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} in NaCl and KCl. {yields} Conformational change of the abasic analogs of dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} is inhibited in KCl. {yields} The effects abasic sites may affect telomere-end structures in vivo. -- Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate how the loss of a guanine base affects the structure and stability of the three-tetrad G-quadruplex of 5'-dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3}, the basic quadruplex-forming unit of the human telomere DNA.more » None of the 12 possible abasic sites hindered the formation of quadruplexes, but all reduced the thermodynamic stability of the parent quadruplex in both NaCl and KCl. The base loss did not change the Na{sup +}-stabilized intramolecular antiparallel architecture, based on CD spectra, but held up the conformational change induced in dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} in physiological concentration of KCl. The reduced stability and the inhibited conformational transitions observed here in vitro for the first time may predict that unrepaired abasic sites in G-quadruplexes could lead to changes in the chromosome's terminal protection in vivo.« less

  7. Resistance to Nucleotide Excision Repair of Bulky Guanine Adducts Opposite Abasic Sites in DNA Duplexes and Relationships between Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Kropachev, Konstantin; Lei, Jia; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleotide excision repair of certain bulky DNA lesions is abrogated in some specific non-canonical DNA base sequence contexts, while the removal of the same lesions by the nucleotide excision repair mechanism is efficient in duplexes in which all base pairs are complementary. Here we show that the nucleotide excision repair activity in human cell extracts is moderate-to-high in the case of two stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from the pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (cis- and trans-B[a]P-N 2-dG adducts) in a normal DNA duplex. By contrast, the nucleotide excision repair activity is completely abrogated when the canonical cytosine base opposite the B[a]P-dG adducts is replaced by an abasic site in duplex DNA. However, base excision repair of the abasic site persists. In order to understand the structural origins of these striking phenomena, we used NMR and molecular spectroscopy techniques to evaluate the conformational features of 11mer DNA duplexes containing these B[a]P-dG lesions opposite abasic sites. Our results show that in these duplexes containing the clustered lesions, both B[a]P-dG adducts adopt base-displaced intercalated conformations, with the B[a]P aromatic rings intercalated into the DNA helix. To explain the persistence of base excision repair in the face of the opposed bulky B[a]P ring system, molecular modeling results suggest how the APE1 base excision repair endonuclease, that excises abasic lesions, can bind productively even with the trans-B[a]P-dG positioned opposite the abasic site. We hypothesize that the nucleotide excision repair resistance is fostered by local B[a]P residue—DNA base stacking interactions at the abasic sites, that are facilitated by the absence of the cytosine partner base in the complementary strand. More broadly, this study sets the stage for elucidating the interplay between base excision and nucleotide excision repair in processing different types of clustered DNA lesions that are substrates of nucleotide

  8. Repair Rate of Clustered Abasic DNA Lesions by Human Endonuclease: Molecular Bases of Sequence Specificity.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, Hugo; Durand, Elodie; Bignon, Emmanuelle; Morell, Christophe; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Dumont, Elise; Chipot, Christophe; Dehez, François; Monari, Antonio

    2016-10-06

    In the present contribution, the interaction between damaged DNA and repair enzymes is examined by means of molecular dynamics simulations. More specifically, we consider clustered abasic DNA lesions processed by the primary human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, APE1. Our results show that, in stark contrast with the corresponding bacterial endonucleases, human APE1 imposes strong geometrical constraints on the DNA duplex. As a consequence, the level of recognition and, hence, the repair rate is higher. Important features that guide the DNA/protein interactions are the presence of an extended positively charged region and of a molecular tweezers that strongly constrains DNA. Our results are on very good agreement with the experimentally determined repair rate of clustered abasic lesions. The lack of repair for one particular arrangement of the two abasic sites is also explained considering the peculiar destabilizing interaction between the recognition region and the second lesion, resulting in a partial opening of the molecular tweezers and, thus, a less stable complex. This contribution cogently establishes the molecular bases for the recognition and repair of clustered DNA lesions by means of human endonucleases.

  9. Accumulation of True Single Strand Breaks and AP sites in Base Excision Repair Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luke, April M.; Chastain, Paul D.; Pachkowski, Brian F.; Afonin, Valeriy; Takeda, Shunichi; Kaufman, David G.; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions caused by endogenous and exogenous agents. The most utilized alkaline-based assays for SSB detection frequently give false positive results due to the presence of alkali-labile sites that are converted to SSBs. Methoxyamine, an acidic O-hydroxylamine, has been utilized to measure DNA damage in cells. However, the neutralization of methoxyamine is required prior to usage. Here we developed a convenient, specific SSB assay using alkaline gel electrophoresis (AGE) coupled with a neutral O-hydroxylamine, O-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)hydroxylamine (OTX). OTX stabilizes abasic sites (AP sites) to prevent their alkaline incision while still allowing for strong alkaline DNA denaturation. DNA from DT40 and isogenic polymerase β null cells exposed to methyl methanesulfonate were applied to the OTX-coupled AGE (OTX-AGE) assay. Time-dependent increases in SSBs were detected in each cell line with more extensive SSB formation in the null cells. These findings were supported by an assay that indirectly detects SSBs through measuring NAD(P)H depletion. An ARP-slot blot assay demonstrated a significant time-dependent increase in AP sites in both cell lines by 1 mM MMS compared to control. Furthermore, the Pol β-null cells displayed greater AP site formation than the parental DT40 cells. OTX use represents a facile approach for assessing SSB formation, whose benefits can also be applied to other established SSB assays. PMID:20851134

  10. Chemical repair of base lesions, AP-sites, and strand breaks on plasmid DNA in dilute aqueous solution by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Kuniki; Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195; Urushibara, Ayumi

    Highlights: •We report a novel mechanism of radiation protection of DNA by chemical activity of ascorbic acid. •The “chemical repair” of DNA damage was revealed using biochemical assay and chemical kinetics analysis. •We found that ascorbic acid significantly repairs precursors of nucleobase lesions and abasic sites. •However, ascorbic acid seldom repairs precursors of DNA-strand breaks. -- Abstract: We quantified the damage yields produced in plasmid DNA by γ-irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10–100 μM) of ascorbic acid, which is a major antioxidant in living systems, to clarify whether it chemically repairs radiation damage in DNA. The yield ofmore » DNA single strand breaks induced by irradiation was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis as conformational changes in closed circular plasmids. Base lesions and abasic sites were also observed as additional conformational changes by treating irradiated samples with glycosylase proteins. By comparing the suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, in addition to scavenging of the OH radicals derived from water radiolysis, it was found that ascorbic acid promotes the chemical repair of precursors of AP-sites and base lesions more effectively than those of single strand breaks. We estimated the efficiency of the chemical repair of each lesion using a kinetic model. Approximately 50–60% of base lesions and AP-sites were repaired by 10 μM ascorbic acid, although strand breaks were largely unrepaired by ascorbic acid at low concentrations. The methods in this study will provide a route to understanding the mechanistic aspects of antioxidant activity in living systems.« less

  11. Miscoding and mutagenic properties of 8-oxoguanine and abasic sites: Ubiquitous lesions in damaged DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Grollman, A.P.; Takeshita, Masaru

    1995-12-31

    More than twenty oxidatively-damaged bases, including 8-oxoguanine, have been found to occur in genomic DNA. Some of these lesions block DNA replication and are potentially lethal; others generate mutations which can initiate carcinogenesis and promote cellular aging. In this report, the authors focus attention on the mutagenicity and repair of 8-oxoguanine. Kasai and Nishimura`s discovery that hydroxyl radicals react with guanine residues in DNA to form 8-oxoguanine and the development of sensitive methods for the detection and quantitation of this modified base led to the observation that approximately 1 in 10{sup 5} guanine residues in mammalian DNA are oxidized atmore » the C-8 position. DNA containing 8-oxoguanine and synthetic analogs of the abasic site have been used to investigate the miscoding and mutagenic potential of these ubiquitous lesions. Studies in the laboratory were facilitated by the development of solid state synthetic methods by which these lesions could be introduced at defined positions in DNA. In this paper, the authors review studies in which 8-oxoguanine and abasic sites have been used in model systems to explore various early events in the replication of selectively damaged DNA.« less

  12. On the Formation and Properties of Interstrand DNA-DNA Cross-links Forged by Reaction of an Abasic Site With the Opposing Guanine Residue of 5′-CAp Sequences in Duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin M.; Price, Nathan E.; Wang, Jin; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Dutta, Sanjay; Seiner, Derrick R.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the aldehyde residue of an abasic (Ap) site in duplex DNA can generate an interstrand cross-link via reaction with a guanine residue on the opposing strand. This finding is intriguing because the highly deleterious nature of interstrand cross-links suggests that even small amounts of Ap-derived cross-links could make a significant contribution to the biological consequences stemming from the generation of Ap sites in cellular DNA. Incubation of 21-bp duplexes containing a central 5′-CAp sequence under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3, pH 5.2) generated much higher yields of cross-linked DNA than reported previously. At pH 7, in the absence of reducing agents, these Ap-containing duplexes also produced cross-linked duplexes that were readily detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Cross-link formation was not highly sensitive to reaction conditions and, once formed, the cross-link was stable to a variety of work-up conditions. Results of multiple experiments including MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, gel mobility, methoxyamine capping of the Ap aldehyde, inosine-for-guanine replacement, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and LCMS/MS were consistent with a cross-linking mechanism involving reversible reaction of the Ap aldehyde residue with the N2-amino group of the opposing guanine residue in 5′-CAp sequences to generate hemiaminal, imine, or cyclic hemiaminal cross-links (7-10) that were irreversibly converted under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3/pH 5.2) to a stable amine linkage. Further support for the importance of the exocyclic N2-amino group in this reaction was provided by an experiment showing that installation of a 2-aminopurine-thymine base pair at the cross-linking site produced high yields (15-30%) of a cross-linked duplex at neutral pH, in the absence of NaCNBH3. PMID:23215239

  13. Unusual interaction of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) with abasic sites via the Schiff-base-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ilina, Ekaterina S; Khodyreva, Svetlana N; Lavrik, Olga I

    2018-05-03

    Clustered apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are more cytotoxic than isolated AP lesions because double strand breaks (DSB) can be formed during repair of closely positioned bistranded AP sites. Formation of DSB due to simultaneous cleavage of bistranded AP sites may be regulated by proteins specifically interacting with this complex lesion. A set of AP DNA duplexes containing AP sites in both strands in different mutual orientation (BS-AP DNAs) was used for search in the extracts of human cells proteins specifically recognizing clustered AP sites. A protein, which formed the Schiff-base-dependent covalent products having an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa with the subset of BS-AP DNAs, was identified by mass spectrometry as apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1). The identity of trapped protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis with anti-APE1 antibodies. Purified recombinant human APE1 is also capable of forming the 50 kDa-adducts with efficiency of BS-AP DNAs cross-linking to APE1 being dependent on the mutual orientation of AP sites. In spite of formation of the Schiff-base-dependent intermediate, which is prerequisite for the β-elimination mechanism, APE1 is unable to cleave AP sites. APE1 lacking the first 34 amino acids at the N-terminus, unlike wild type enzyme, is unable to form cross-links with BS-AP DNAs that testifies to the involvement of disordered N-terminal extension, which is enriched in lysine residues, in the interaction with AP sites. The yield of APE1-AP DNA cross-links was found to correlate with the enzyme amount in the extracts estimated by the immunochemical approach; therefore the BS-AP DNA-probes can be useful for comparative analysis of APE1 content in cell extracts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pre-steady-state fluorescence analysis of damaged DNA transfer from human DNA glycosylases to AP endonuclease APE1.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Saparbaev, Murat K; Fedorova, Olga S

    2014-10-01

    DNA glycosylases remove the modified, damaged or mismatched bases from the DNA by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bonds. Some enzymes can further catalyze the incision of a resulting abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) site through β- or β,δ-elimination mechanisms. In most cases, the incision reaction of the AP-site is catalyzed by special enzymes called AP-endonucleases. Here, we report the kinetic analysis of the mechanisms of modified DNA transfer from some DNA glycosylases to the AP endonuclease, APE1. The modified DNA contained the tetrahydrofurane residue (F), the analogue of the AP-site. DNA glycosylases AAG, OGG1, NEIL1, MBD4(cat) and UNG from different structural superfamilies were used. We found that all DNA glycosylases may utilise direct protein-protein interactions in the transient ternary complex for the transfer of the AP-containing DNA strand to APE1. We hypothesize a fast "flip-flop" exchange mechanism of damaged and undamaged DNA strands within this complex for monofunctional DNA glycosylases like MBD4(cat), AAG and UNG. Bifunctional DNA glycosylase NEIL1 creates tightly specific complex with DNA containing F-site thereby efficiently competing with APE1. Whereas APE1 fast displaces other bifunctional DNA glycosylase OGG1 on F-site thereby induces its shifts to undamaged DNA regions. Kinetic analysis of the transfer of DNA between human DNA glycosylases and APE1 allows us to elucidate the critical step in the base excision repair pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and binding properties of new selective ligands for the nucleobase opposite the AP site.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-06-01

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress or DNA alkylating agents. These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3'-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the AP site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical repair activity of free radical scavenger edaravone: reduction reactions with dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts and suppression of base lesions and AP sites on irradiated plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Kuniki; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yamashita, Shinichi; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Fu, Haiying; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Reactions of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) with deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) hydroxyl radical adducts were investigated by pulse radiolysis technique. Edaravone was found to reduce the dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts through electron transfer reactions. The rate constants of the reactions were greater than 4 × 108 dm3 mol−1 s−1 and similar to those of the reactions of ascorbic acid, which is a representative antioxidant. Yields of single-strand breaks, base lesions, and abasic sites produced in pUC18 plasmid DNA by gamma ray irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10–1000 μmol dm−3) of edaravone were also quantified, and the chemical repair activity of edaravone was estimated by a method recently developed by the authors. By comparing suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, it was found that base lesions and abasic sites were suppressed by the chemical repair activity of edaravone, although the suppression of single-strand breaks was not very effective. This phenomenon was attributed to the chemical repair activity of edaravone toward base lesions and abasic sites. However, the chemical repair activity of edaravone for base lesions was lower than that of ascorbic acid. PMID:25212600

  17. Chemical repair activity of free radical scavenger edaravone: reduction reactions with dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts and suppression of base lesions and AP sites on irradiated plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Hata, Kuniki; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yamashita, Shinichi; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Fu, Haiying; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Reactions of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) with deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) hydroxyl radical adducts were investigated by pulse radiolysis technique. Edaravone was found to reduce the dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts through electron transfer reactions. The rate constants of the reactions were greater than 4 × 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) and similar to those of the reactions of ascorbic acid, which is a representative antioxidant. Yields of single-strand breaks, base lesions, and abasic sites produced in pUC18 plasmid DNA by gamma ray irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10-1000 μmol dm(-3)) of edaravone were also quantified, and the chemical repair activity of edaravone was estimated by a method recently developed by the authors. By comparing suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, it was found that base lesions and abasic sites were suppressed by the chemical repair activity of edaravone, although the suppression of single-strand breaks was not very effective. This phenomenon was attributed to the chemical repair activity of edaravone toward base lesions and abasic sites. However, the chemical repair activity of edaravone for base lesions was lower than that of ascorbic acid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  18. Characterization of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) binding sites in cultured chromaffin cells: evidence for a P2y site.

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, J.; Torres, M.; Castro, E.; Miras-Portugal, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    1. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) a dinucleotide, which is stored in secretory granules, presents two types of high affinity binding sites in chromaffin cells. A Kd value of 8 +/- 0.65 x 10(-11) M and Bmax value of 5420 +/- 450 sites per cell were obtained for the high affinity binding site. A Kd value of 5.6 +/- 0.53 x 10(-9) M and a Bmax value close to 70,000 sites per cell were obtained for the second binding site with high affinity. 2. The diadenosine polyphosphates, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A, displaced [3H]-Ap4A from the two binding sites, the Ki values being 1.0 nM, 0.013 nM, 0.013 nM and 0.013 nM for the very high affinity binding site and 0.5 microM, 0.13 microM, 0.062 microM and 0.75 microM for the second binding site. 3. The ATP analogues displaced [3H]-Ap4A with the potency order of the P2y receptors, adenosine 5'-O-(2 thiodiphosphate) (ADP-beta-S) greater than 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) greater than alpha, beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP), in both binding sites. The Ki values were respectively 0.075 nM, 0.2 nM and 0.75 nM for the very high affinity binding site and 0.125 microM, 0.5 microM and 0.9 microM for the second binding site. PMID:1912985

  19. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  20. Abasic pivot substitution harnesses target specificity of RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sook; Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Dong Ha; Ham, Juyoung; Lee, Wooje; Youm, Emilia Moonkyung; Yoo, Jin Seon; Lee, Yong-Seung; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Gene silencing via RNA interference inadvertently represses hundreds of off-target transcripts. Because small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can function as microRNAs, avoiding miRNA-like off-target repression is a major challenge. Functional miRNA–target interactions are known to pre-require transitional nucleation, base pairs from position 2 to the pivot (position 6). Here, by substituting nucleotide in pivot with abasic spacers, which prevent base pairing and alleviate steric hindrance, we eliminate miRNA-like off-target repression while preserving on-target activity at ∼80–100%. Specifically, miR-124 containing dSpacer pivot substitution (6pi) loses seed-mediated transcriptome-wide target interactions, repression activity and biological function, whereas other conventional modifications are ineffective. Application of 6pi allows PCSK9 siRNA to efficiently lower plasma cholesterol concentration in vivo, and abolish potentially deleterious off-target phenotypes. The smallest spacer, C3, also shows the same improvement in target specificity. Abasic pivot substitution serves as a general means to harness the specificity of siRNA experiments and therapeutic applications. PMID:26679372

  1. Roles of Rev1, Pol ζ, Pol32 and Pol η in the bypass of chromosomal abasic sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Paul A.; Demple, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) on DNA is a process by which potentially cytotoxic replication-blocking lesions are bypassed, but at the risk of increased mutagenesis. The exact in vivo role of the individual TLS enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been difficult to determine from previous studies due to differing results from the variety of systems used. We have generated a series of S.cerevisiae strains in which each of the TLS-related genes REV1, REV3, REV7, RAD30 and POL32 was deleted, and in which chromosomal apyrimidinic sites were generated during normal cell growth by the activity of altered forms of human uracil-DNA glycosylase that remove undamaged cytosines or thymines. Deletion of REV1, REV3 or REV7 resulted in slower growth dependent on (rev3Δ and rev7Δ) or enhanced by (rev1Δ) expression of the mutator glycosylases and a nearly complete abolition of glycosylase-induced mutagenesis. Deletion of POL32 resulted in cell death when the mutator glycosylases were expressed and, in their absence, diminished spontaneous mutagenesis. RAD30 appeared to be unnecessary for mutagenesis in response to abasic sites, as deleting this gene caused no significant change in either the mutation rates or the mutational spectra due to glycosylase expression. PMID:19901007

  2. Development and evaluation of human AP endonuclease inhibitors in melanoma and glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M Z; Vyjayanti, V N; Laughton, C A; Dekker, L V; Fischer, P M; Wilson, D M; Abbotts, R; Shah, S; Patel, P M; Hickson, I D; Madhusudan, S

    2011-02-15

    Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer. In the current study, we aimed to develop small molecule inhibitors of APE1 for cancer therapy. An industry-standard high throughput virtual screening strategy was adopted. The Sybyl8.0 (Tripos, St Louis, MO, USA) molecular modelling software suite was used to build inhibitor templates. Similarity searching strategies were then applied using ROCS 2.3 (Open Eye Scientific, Santa Fe, NM, USA) to extract pharmacophorically related subsets of compounds from a chemically diverse database of 2.6 million compounds. The compounds in these subsets were subjected to docking against the active site of the APE1 model, using the genetic algorithm-based programme GOLD2.7 (CCDC, Cambridge, UK). Predicted ligand poses were ranked on the basis of several scoring functions. The top virtual hits with promising pharmaceutical properties underwent detailed in vitro analyses using fluorescence-based APE1 cleavage assays and counter screened using endonuclease IV cleavage assays, fluorescence quenching assays and radiolabelled oligonucleotide assays. Biochemical APE1 inhibitors were then subjected to detailed cytotoxicity analyses. Several specific APE1 inhibitors were isolated by this approach. The IC(50) for APE1 inhibition ranged between 30 nM and 50 μM. We demonstrated that APE1 inhibitors lead to accumulation of AP sites in genomic DNA and potentiated the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in melanoma and glioma cell lines. Our study provides evidence that APE1 is an emerging drug target and could have therapeutic application in patients with melanoma and glioma.

  3. Detecting single-abasic residues within a DNA strand immobilized in a biological nanopore using an integrated CMOS sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsuk; Maitra, Raj D; Pedrotti, Ken; Dunbar, William B

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a novel current-measuring sensor (CMS) customized for nanopore applications. The low-noise CMS is fabricated in a 0.35μm CMOS process and is implemented in experiments involving DNA captured in an α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore. Specifically, the CMS is used to build a current amplitude map as a function of varying positions of a single-abasic residue within a homopolymer cytosine single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is captured and held in the pore. Each ssDNA is immobilized using a biotin-streptavidin linkage. Five different DNA templates are measured and compared: one all-cytosine ssDNA, and four with a single-abasic residue substitution that resides in or near the ~1.5nm aperture of the α-HL channel when the strand is immobilized. The CMOS CMS is shown to resolves the ~5Å displacements of the abasic residue within the varying templates. The demonstration represents an advance in application-specific circuitry that is optimized for small-footprint nanopore applications, including genomic sequencing.

  4. Clathrin- and AP-2-binding sites in HIP1 uncover a general assembly role for endocytic accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S K; Agostinelli, N R; Brett, T J; Mizukami, I; Ross, T S; Traub, L M

    2001-12-07

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major pathway for the internalization of macromolecules into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The principle coat components, clathrin and the AP-2 adaptor complex, assemble a polyhedral lattice at plasma membrane bud sites with the aid of several endocytic accessory proteins. Here, we show that huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1), a binding partner of huntingtin, copurifies with brain clathrin-coated vesicles and associates directly with both AP-2 and clathrin. The discrete interaction sequences within HIP1 that facilitate binding are analogous to motifs present in other accessory proteins, including AP180, amphiphysin, and epsin. Bound to a phosphoinositide-containing membrane surface via an epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain, HIP1 associates with AP-2 to provide coincident clathrin-binding sites that together efficiently recruit clathrin to the bilayer. Our data implicate HIP1 in endocytosis, and the similar modular architecture and function of HIP1, epsin, and AP180 suggest a common role in lipid-regulated clathrin lattice biogenesis.

  5. APS SCIENCE 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, Richard B.

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) occupies an 80-acre site on the Argonne national laboratory campus, about 25 miles from downtown chicago, illinois. it shares the site with the center for nanoscale materials and the Advanced Protein characterization facility. for directions to Argonne, see http://www.anl.gov/directions-and-visitor-information. The APS, a national synchrotron radiation research facility operated by Argonne for the u.S. department of energy (doe) office of Science, provides this nation’s brightest high-energy x-ray beams for science. research by APS users extends from the center of the earth to outer space, from new information on combustion engines and microcircuits to new drugs andmore » nanotechnologies whose scale is measured in billionths of a meter. The APS helps researchers illuminate answers to the challenges of our high-tech world, from developing new forms of energy, to sustaining our nation’s technological and economic competitiveness, to pushing back against the ravages of disease. research at the APS promises to have far-reaching« less

  6. Evidence for a G protein-coupled diadenosine-5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) receptor binding site in lung membranes from rat.

    PubMed

    Laubinger, W; Reiser, G

    1999-01-29

    Nucleotide receptors are of considerable importance in the treatment of lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. Because diadenosine polyphosphates may also be of significance as signalling molecules in lung, as they are in a variety of tissues, in the present work we investigated the binding sites for [3H]diadenosine-5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in plasma membranes from rat lung and studied their possible coupling to G proteins. We present evidence for a single high-affinity binding site for [3H]Ap4A with similar affinity for other diadenosine polyphosphates ApnA (n = 2 to 6). Displacement studies with different nucleotides revealed that the [3H]Ap4A binding site was different from P2X and P2Y2 receptor binding sites. Pretreatment of lung membranes with GTPgammaS or GTP in the presence of Mg2+ increased the Ki for Ap4A from 91 nM to 5.1 microM, which is indicative of G protein coupling. The putative coupling to G proteins was further confirmed by the enhancement of [35S]GTPgammaS binding (to Galpha proteins) to lung membranes by Ap4A (63% increase over basal) in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our data for the first time provide evidence of a G protein-coupled Ap4A binding site in lung membranes.

  7. AP1 binding site is another target of FGF2 regulation of bone sialoprotein gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Takai, Hideki; Araki, Shouta; Mezawa, Masaru; Kim, Dong-Soon; Li, Xinyue; Yang, Li; Li, Zhengyang; Wang, Zhitao; Nakayama, Youhei; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2008-02-29

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. We previously reported that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) regulates BSP gene transcription via FGF2 response element (FRE) in the proximal promoter of rat BSP gene. We here report that activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site overlapping with glucocorticoid response element (GRE) AP1/GRE in the rat BSP gene promoter is another target of FGF2. Using the osteoblastic cell line ROS17/2.8, we determined that BSP mRNA levels increased by 10 ng/ml FGF2 at 6 and 12 h. Runx2 protein levels increased by FGF2 (10 ng/ml) at 3 h. Treatment of ROS17/2.8 cells with FGF2 (10 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activities of constructs including -116 to +60 and -938 to +60 of the rat BSP gene promoter. Effects of FGF2 abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the FRE and AP1/GRE elements. Luciferase activities induced by FGF2 were blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, src-tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 and MAP kinase kinase inhibitor U0126. Gel shift analyses showed that FGF2 increased binding of FRE and AP1/GRE elements. Notably, the AP1/GRE-protein complexes were supershifted by Smad1 and c-Fos antibodies, c-Jun and Dlx5 antibodies disrupted the complexes formation, on the other hand AP1/GRE-protein complexes did not change by Runx2 antibody. These studies demonstrate that FGF2 stimulates BSP gene transcription by targeting the FRE and AP1/GRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.

  8. ANKRD1 Acts as a Transcriptional Repressor of MMP13 via the AP-1 Site

    PubMed Central

    Almodóvar-García, Karinna; Kwon, Minjae; Samaras, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional cofactor ANKRD1 is sharply induced during wound repair, and its overexpression enhances healing. We recently found that global deletion of murine Ankrd1 impairs wound contraction and enhances necrosis of ischemic wounds. A quantitative PCR array of Ankrd1−/− (KO) fibroblasts indicated that ANKRD1 regulates MMP genes. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses associated ANKRD1 with nucleolin, which represses AP-1 activation of MMP13. Ankrd1 deletion enhanced both basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP13 promoter activity; conversely, Ankrd1 overexpression in control cells decreased PMA-induced MMP13 promoter activity. Ankrd1 reconstitution in KO fibroblasts decreased MMP13 mRNA, while Ankrd1 knockdown increased these levels. MMP13 mRNA and protein were elevated in intact skin and wounds of KO versus Ankrd1fl/fl (FLOX) mice. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay gel shift patterns suggested that additional transcription factors bind to the MMP13 AP-1 site in the absence of Ankrd1, and this concept was reinforced by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis as greater binding of c-Jun to the AP-1 site in extracts from FLOX versus KO fibroblasts. We propose that ANKRD1, in association with factors such as nucleolin, represses MMP13 transcription. Ankrd1 deletion additionally relieved MMP10 transcriptional repression. Nuclear ANKRD1 appears to modulate extracellular matrix remodeling by MMPs. PMID:24515436

  9. Heat shock protein 70 enhanced deoxyribonucleic acid base excision repair in human leukemic cells after ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bases, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) of DNA damage in irradiated THP1 human leukemic cells was stimulated by pretreating the cells with exogenous recombinant Hsp70. The treatment of THP1 cells with recombinant Hsp70 in cell culture promoted repair by reducing the frequency of apurinic, apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA before and after 1.3 Gy of radiation. However, by 30 minutes after 2.6 Gy, accelerated repair of abasic sites supervened, which may contribute to the loss of the very-low-dose cell hypersensitivity seen in clonogenic studies of other laboratories. After irradiation with 2.6 Gy, the crucial initial glycosylase step was markedly incomplete when cells had been transfected 24 hours before with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) designed to inhibit synthesis of Hsp70. In confirmation, lysates from irradiated siRNA-treated cells after 2.6 Gy were deficient in uracil glycosylase activity (UDG). Transfection with a scrambled RNA of the same size did not interfere with the glycosylase step, ie, the prompt conversion of damaged pyrimidine sites to abasic sites as well as the subsequent repair of those sites. BER measured by reduction of DNA AP sites before and after low-dose radiation was also deficient in THP1 cells that had been transfected with the siRNA designed to inhibit synthesis of Hsp70. These results implicate BER and the participation of Hsp70 in the repair of DNA in human leukemic cells with the doses of ionizing radiation used in clinical regimens. PMID:17009597

  10. Crystal structures of Salmonella typhimurium propionate kinase and its complex with Ap4A: evidence for a novel Ap4A synthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Savithri, H S; Murthy, M R N

    2008-03-01

    Propionate kinase catalyses the last step in the anaerobic breakdown of L-threonine to propionate in which propionyl phosphate and ADP are converted to propionate and ATP. Here we report the structures of propionate kinase (TdcD) in the native form as well as in complex with diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) by X-ray crystallography. Structure of TdcD obtained after cocrystallization with ATP showed Ap4A bound to the active site pocket suggesting the presence of Ap4A synthetic activity in TdcD. Binding of Ap4A to the enzyme was confirmed by the structure determination of a TdcD-Ap4A complex obtained after cocrystallization of TdcD with commercially available Ap4A. Mass spectroscopic studies provided further evidence for the formation of Ap4A by propionate kinase in the presence of ATP. In the TdcD-Ap4A complex structure, Ap4A is present in an extended conformation with one adenosine moiety present in the nucleotide binding site and other in the proposed propionate binding site. These observations tend to support direct in-line transfer of phosphoryl group during the kinase reaction. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Tiron Inhibits UVB-Induced AP-1 Binding Sites Transcriptional Activation on MMP-1 and MMP-3 Promoters by MAPK Signaling Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Quan-Wu; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research found that Tiron was an effective antioxidant that could act as the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger or alleviate the acute toxic metal overload in vivo. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Tiron on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 expression in human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot and ELISA analysis revealed that Tiron inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced protein expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that Tiron could inhibit UVB-induced mRNA expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Furthermore, Tiron significantly blocked UVB-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and activator protein (AP)-1 in the downstream of this transduction pathway in fibroblasts. Through the AP-1 binding site mutation, it was found that Tiron could inhibit AP-1-induced upregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression through blocking AP-1 binding to the AP-1 binding sites in the MMP-1 and MMP-3 promoter region. In conclusion, Tiron may be a novel antioxidant for preventing and treating skin photoaging UV-induced. PMID:27486852

  12. The exonuclease activity of hPMC2 is required for transcriptional regulation of the QR gene and repair of estrogen-induced abasic sites.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, N; Ngam, C R; Berdis, A J; Montano, M M

    2011-11-24

    We have previously reported that the expression of antioxidative stress enzymes is upregulated by trans-hydroxytamoxifen (TOT) in breast epithelial cell lines providing protection against estrogen-induced DNA damage. This regulation involves Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ) recruitment to the Electrophile Response Element (EpRE) and a novel protein, human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2). We have also demonstrated that ERβ and hPMC2 are required for TOT-dependent recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and Topoisomerase IIβ (Topo IIβ) to the EpRE. Sequence analysis reveals that the C-terminus of hPMC2 encodes a putative exonuclease domain. Using in vitro kinetic assays, we found that hPMC2 is a 3'-5' non-processive exonuclease that degrades both single-stranded and double-stranded substrates. Mutation of two conserved carboxylate residues drastically reduced the exonuclease activity of hPMC2, indicating the relative importance of the catalytic residues. Western blot analysis of breast cancer cell lines for Quinone Reductase (QR) levels revealed that the intrinsic exonuclease activity of hPMC2 was required for TOT-induced QR upregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays also indicated that hPMC2 was involved in the formation of strand breaks observed with TOT treatment and is specific for the EpRE-containing region of the QR gene. We also determined that the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is involved in the specificity of hPMC2 for the EpRE. In addition, we determined that the catalytic activity of hPMC2 is required for repair of abasic sites that result from estrogen-induced DNA damage. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic basis for transcriptional regulation by hPMC2 and provides novel insights into its role in cancer prevention.

  13. The exonuclease activity of hPMC2 is required for transcriptional regulation of the QR gene and repair of estrogen-induced abasic sites

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Nirmala; Ngam, Caitlyn R.; Berdis, Anthony J.; Montano, Monica M.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported that the expression of antioxidative stress enzymes are upregulated by trans-hydroxytamoxifen (TOT) in breast epithelial cell lines providing protection against estrogen-induced DNA damage. This regulation involves Estrogen Receptor beta (ERβ) recruitment to the Electrophile Response Element (EpRE) and a novel protein, human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2). We have also demonstrated that ERβ and hPMC2 are required for TOT-dependent recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and Topoisomerase IIβ (Topo IIβ) to the EpRE. Sequence analysis reveals that the C-terminus of hPMC2 encodes a putative exonuclease domain. Using in vitro kinetic assays, we found that hPMC2 is a 3'–5' non-processive exonuclease that degrades both single stranded and double stranded substrates. Mutation of two conserved carboxylate residues drastically reduced the exonuclease activity of hPMC2 indicating the relative importance of the catalytic residues. Western blot analysis of breast cancer cell lines for Quinone Reductase (QR) levels revealed that the intrinsic exonuclease activity of hPMC2 was required for TOT-induced QR upregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) also indicated that hPMC2 was involved in the formation of strand breaks observed with TOT-treatment and is specific for the EpRE-containing region of the QR gene. We also determined that the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is involved in the specificity of hPMC2 for the EpRE. In addition, we determined that the catalytic activity of hPMC2 is required for repair of abasic sites that result from estrogen-induced DNA damage. Thus our study provides a mechanistic basis for transcriptional regulation by hPMC2 and provides novel insights into its role in cancer prevention. PMID:21602889

  14. Functional Analysis of AP-2 α and μ2 Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Alison M.; Berg, Nicola; Taylor, Marcus J.; Sahlender, Daniela A.; Hirst, Jennifer; Owen, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The AP-2 adaptor complex plays a key role in cargo recognition and clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane. To investigate the functions of individual binding sites and domains of the AP-2 complex in vivo, we have stably transfected HeLa cells with wild-type and mutant small interfering RNA–resistant α and μ2 subunits and then used siRNA knockdowns to deplete the endogenous proteins. Mutating the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding site of α, the phosphorylation site of μ2, or the YXXΦ binding site of μ2 impairs AP-2 function, as assayed by transferrin uptake. In contrast, removing the C-terminal appendage domain of α, or mutating the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding site of μ2, has no apparent effect. However, adding a C-terminal GFP tag to α renders it completely nonfunctional. These findings demonstrate that there is some functional redundancy in the binding sites of the various AP-2 subunits, because no single mutation totally abolishes function. They also help to explain why GFP-tagged AP-2 never appears to leave the plasma membrane in some live cell imaging studies. Finally, they establish a new model system that can be used both for additional structure-function analyses, and as a way of testing tagged constructs for function in vivo. PMID:17035630

  15. Oxidized Base Damage and Single-Strand Break Repair in Mammalian Genomes: Role of Disordered Regions and Posttranslational Modifications in Early Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Izumi, Tadahide; Mitra, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative genome damage induced by reactive oxygen species includes oxidized bases, abasic (AP) sites, and single-strand breaks, all of which are repaired via the evolutionarily conserved base excision repair/single-strand break repair (BER/SSBR) pathway. BER/SSBR in mammalian cells is complex, with preferred and backup sub-pathways, and is linked to genome replication and transcription. The early BER/SSBR enzymes, namely, DNA glycosylases (DGs) and the end-processing proteins such as abasic endonuclease 1 (APE1), form complexes with downstream repair (and other noncanonical) proteins via pairwise interactions. Furthermore, a unique feature of mammalian early BER/ SSBR enzymes is the presence of a disordered terminal extension that is absent in their Escherichia coli prototypes. These nonconserved segments usually contain organelle-targeting signals, common interaction interfaces, and sites of posttranslational modifications that may be involved in regulating their repair function including lesion scanning. Finally, the linkage of BER/SSBR deficiency to cancer, aging, and human neurodegenerative diseases, and therapeutic targeting of BER/SSBR are discussed. PMID:22749145

  16. Unexpected Heterodivalent Recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS Reveals Multiple Sites for Pharmacological Intervention in Neuronal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, Raquel M; Chen, Jia; Ba, Wei; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Zhang, Mingjie; Courtney, Michael J

    2015-05-13

    The protein NOS1AP/CAPON mediates signaling from a protein complex of NMDA receptor, PSD95 and nNOS. The only stroke trial for neuroprotectants that showed benefit to patients targeted this ternary complex. NOS1AP/nNOS interaction regulates small GTPases, iron transport, p38MAPK-linked excitotoxicity, and anxiety. Moreover, the nos1ap gene is linked to disorders from schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and autism to cardiovascular disorders and breast cancer. Understanding protein interactions required for NOS1AP function, therefore, has broad implications for numerous diseases. Here we show that the interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS differs radically from the classical PDZ docking assumed to be responsible. The NOS1AP PDZ motif does not bind nNOS as measured by multiple methods. In contrast, full-length NOS1AP forms an unusually stable interaction with nNOS. We mapped the discrepancy between full-length and C-terminal PDZ motif to a novel internal region we call the ExF motif. The C-terminal PDZ motif, although neither sufficient nor necessary for binding, nevertheless promotes the stability of the complex. It therefore potentially affects signal transduction and suggests that functional interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP might be targetable at two distinct sites. We demonstrate that excitotoxic pathways can be regulated, in cortical neuron and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rat, either by the previously described PDZ ligand TAT-GESV or by the ExF motif-bearing region of NOS1AP, even when lacking the critical PDZ residues as long as the ExF motif is intact and not mutated. This previously unrecognized heterodivalent interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP may therefore provide distinct opportunities for pharmacological intervention in NOS1AP-dependent signaling and excitotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357349-16$15.00/0.

  17. Lesion-induced DNA weak structural changes detected by pulsed EPR spectroscopy combined with site-directed spin labelling.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Giuseppe; Mathis, Gérald; Aci-Sèche, Samia; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Boulard, Yves; Gasparutto, Didier; Gambarelli, Serge

    2009-06-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) was applied to determine nanometre spin-spin distances on DNA duplexes that contain selected structural alterations. The present approach to evaluate the structural features of DNA damages is thus related to the interspin distance changes, as well as to the flexibility of the overall structure deduced from the distance distribution. A set of site-directed nitroxide-labelled double-stranded DNA fragments containing defined lesions, namely an 8-oxoguanine, an abasic site or abasic site analogues, a nick, a gap and a bulge structure were prepared and then analysed by the DEER spectroscopic technique. New insights into the application of 4-pulse DEER sequence are also provided, in particular with respect to the spin probes' positions and the rigidity of selected systems. The lesion-induced conformational changes observed, which were supported by molecular dynamics studies, confirm the results obtained by other, more conventional, spectroscopic techniques. Thus, the experimental approaches described herein provide an efficient method for probing lesion-induced structural changes of nucleic acids.

  18. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  19. Carbinolamine Formation and Dehydration in a DNA Repair Enzyme Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, M. L.; Walker, Ross C.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In order to suggest detailed mechanistic hypotheses for the formation and dehydration of a key carbinolamine intermediate in the T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4PDG) reaction, we have investigated these reactions using steered molecular dynamics with a coupled quantum mechanics–molecular mechanics potential (QM/MM). We carried out simulations of DNA abasic site carbinolamine formation with and without a water molecule restrained to remain within the active site quantum region. We recovered potentials of mean force (PMF) from thirty replicate reaction trajectories using Jarzynski averaging. We demonstrated feasible pathways involving water, as well as those independent of water participation. The water–independent enzyme–catalyzed reaction had a bias–corrected Jarzynski–average barrier height of approximately for the carbinolamine formation reaction and ) for the reverse reaction at this level of representation. When the proton transfer was facilitated with an intrinsic quantum water, the barrier height was approximately in the forward (formation) reaction and for the reverse. In addition, two modes of unsteered (free dynamics) carbinolamine dehydration were observed: in one, the quantum water participated as an intermediate proton transfer species, and in the other, the active site protonated glutamate hydrogen was directly transferred to the carbinolamine oxygen. Water–independent unforced proton transfer from the protonated active site glutamate carboxyl to the unprotonated N–terminal amine was also observed. In summary, complex proton transfer events, some involving water intermediates, were studied in QM/MM simulations of T4PDG bound to a DNA abasic site. Imine carbinolamine formation was characterized using steered QM/MM molecular dynamics. Dehydration of the carbinolamine intermediate to form the final imine product was observed in free, unsteered, QM/MM dynamics simulations, as was unforced acid-base transfer between the active site

  20. Diadenosine polyphosphates Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Reusch, Hans Peter

    2008-05-15

    Depending on the number of phosphate groups, diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A) differ in properties such as proliferation, apoptosis, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Possible signaling pathways leading to effects such as proliferation are still unknown. This study examined the proliferative effects of diadenosine polyphosphates on VSMCs and their intracellular pathways. Proliferation of VSMCs was measured by the cell count and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Single-cell [Ca(2+)](i) measurements were done to determine the influence of [Ca(2+)](i) on intracellular signaling. Stress fiber formation was assessed by fluorescence microscopy to detect an influence of G alpha(12). Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, were shown to increase proliferation of VSMCs by activating P2Y receptors, which leads to stimulation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 cascade. Ap3A- and Ap4A-induced activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was dependent on a signaling pathway that included the EGF receptor, PKC, PLCbeta and the increase of [Ca(2+)](i). In conclusion, Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of VSMCs by a signaling pathway that begins with activation of P2Y receptors and leads to stimulation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2.

  1. Ap4A and ADP-beta-S binding to P2 purinoceptors present on rat brain synaptic terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, J.; Díaz-Rey, M. A.; Miras-Portugal, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    1. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) a dinucleotide stored and released from rat brain synaptic terminals presents two types of affinity binding sites in synaptosomes. When [3H]-Ap4A was used for binding studies a Kd value of 0.10 +/- 0.014 nM and a Bmax value of 16.6 +/- 1.2 fmol mg-1 protein were obtained for the high affinity binding site from the Scatchard analysis. The second binding site, obtained by displacement studies, showed a Ki value of 0.57 +/- 0.09 microM. 2. Displacement of [3H]-Ap4A by non-labelled Ap4A and P2-purinoceptor ligands showed a displacement order of Ap4A > adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADP-beta-S) > 5'-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) > alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-MeATP) in both sites revealed by the Ki values of 0.017 nM, 0.030 nM, 0.058 nM and 0.147 nM respectively for the high affinity binding site and values of 0.57 microM, 0.87 microM, 2.20 microM and 4.28 microM respectively for the second binding site. 3. Studies of the P2-purinoceptors present in synaptosomes were also performed with [35S]-ADP-beta-S. This radioligand showed two binding sites the first with Kd and Bmax values of 0.11 +/- 0.022 nM and 3.9 +/- 2.1 fmol mg-1 of protein respectively for the high affinity binding site obtained from the Scatchard plot. The second binding site showed a Ki of 0.018 +/- 0.0035 microM obtained from displacement curves. 4. Competition studies with diadenosine polyphosphates of [35S]-ADP-beta-S binding showed a displacement order of Ap4A > Ap5A > Ap6A in the high affinity binding site and Ki values of 0.023 nM, 0.081 nM and 5.72 nM respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8485620

  2. Molecular Basis for Association of PIPKIγ-p90 with Clathrin Adaptor AP-2*

    PubMed Central

    Kahlfeldt, Nina; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Koo, Seong Joo; Schäfer, Johannes G.; Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro; Saenger, Wolfram; Krauss, Michael; Haucke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is an essential determinant in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). In mammals three type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIPK) enzymes are expressed, with the Iγ-p90 isoform being highly expressed in the brain where it regulates synaptic vesicle (SV) exo-/endocytosis at nerve terminals. How precisely PI(4,5)P2 metabolism is controlled spatially and temporally is still uncertain, but recent data indicate that direct interactions between type I PIPK and components of the endocytic machinery, in particular the AP-2 adaptor complex, are involved. Here we demonstrated that PIPKIγ-p90 associates with both the μ and β2 subunits of AP-2 via multiple sites. Crystallographic data show that a peptide derived from the splice insert of the human PIPKIγ-p90 tail binds to a cognate recognition site on the sandwich subdomain of the β2 appendage. Partly overlapping aromatic and hydrophobic residues within the same peptide also can engage the C-terminal sorting signal binding domain of AP-2μ, thereby potentially competing with the sorting of conventional YXXØ motif-containing cargo. Biochemical and structure-based mutagenesis analysis revealed that association of the tail domain of PIPKIγ-p90 with AP-2 involves both of these sites. Accordingly the ability of overexpressed PIPKIγ tail to impair endocytosis of SVs in primary neurons largely depends on its association with AP-2β and AP-2μ. Our data also suggest that interactions between AP-2 and the tail domain of PIPKIγ-p90 may serve to regulate complex formation and enzymatic activity. We postulate a model according to which multiple interactions between PIPKIγ-p90 and AP-2 lead to spatiotemporally controlled PI(4,5)P2 synthesis during clathrin-mediated SV endocytosis. PMID:19903820

  3. P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) inhibits proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium in rats.

    PubMed

    Stiepanow-Trzeciak, Anna; Jankowski, Maciej; Angielski, Stefan; Szczepanska-Konkel, Miroslawa

    2007-01-01

    P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is a vasoactive dinucleotide possessing natriuretic activity. It is unclear, however, which part of the nephron is the target site of action for Ap4A. We evaluated the tubular sites of Ap4A action using the lithium clearance technique. Ap4A at a priming dose of 2 micromol/kg with subsequent infusion at 20 nmol/kg/min increased fractional water and sodium excretion 2.5- and 5.6-fold, respectively. Moreover, Ap4A increased lithium clearance 1.9-fold and fractional lithium excretion 2.8-fold. Fractional water and sodium excretion from distal nephron segments was not significantly affected by Ap4A. These results suggest that Ap4A induces natriuresis mainly through inhibition of proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Crystal structure and DNA repair activities of the AP endonuclease from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Antonio E; Harkiolaki, Maria; Gallego, Claribel; Castillo-Acosta, Victor M; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M; Wilson, Keith; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2007-11-02

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases initiate the repair of abasic sites produced either spontaneously, from attack of bases by reactive oxygen species or as intermediates during base excision repair. The catalytic properties and crystal structure of Leishmania major apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease are described and compared with those of human APE1 and bacterial exonuclease III. The purified enzyme is shown to possess apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity of the same order as eukaryotic and prokaryotic counterparts and an equally robust 3'-phosphodiesterase activity. Consistent with this, expression of the L. major endonuclease confers resistance to both methyl methane sulphonate and H2O2 in Escherichia coli repair-deficient mutants while expression of the human homologue only reverts methyl methane sulphonate sensitivity. Structural analyses and modelling of the enzyme-DNA complex demonstrates a high degree of conservation to previously characterized homologues, although subtle differences in the active site geometry might account for the high 3'-phosphodiesterase activity. Our results confirm that the L. major's enzyme is a key element in mediating repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and 3'-blocked termini and therefore must play an important role in the survival of kinetoplastid parasites after exposure to the highly oxidative environment within the host macrophage.

  5. A commercial PCV2a-based vaccine is effective in protection from experimental challenge of PCV2 mutant with two amino acids elongation in capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jun; Fu, Yu-Jie; Huang, Li-Ping; Wang, Yi-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2015-07-17

    Current commercial PCV2 vaccines are almost based on PCV2a and have been shown to be effective in reducing PCV2a and PCV2b viremia and PCV2-associated lesions and diseases. The recent emergence of novel mutant PCV2 (mPCV2) strains and linkage of mPCV2 with cases of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in pig herds have raised concerns over emergence of vaccine-escape mutants and reduced efficacy of PCV2a-based vaccines. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of a commercial PCV2a-based vaccine developed by our laboratory to protect conventional pigs against experimental challenge with mPCV2 at 9 weeks of age. Twenty 4-week-old pigs free of PCV2 infection were randomly divided into four treatment groups with 5 pigs each. Two groups were unvaccinated as positive and negative controls. Another two groups were vaccinated with the commercial PCV2a-based vaccine (PCV2-LG strain, China) at 4 weeks of age and identical booster immunization was conducted 3 weeks post primary immunization. At 9 weeks of age, all pigs except the negative control were challenged with a mutant PCV2b/YJ (mPCV2b/YJ) with two amino acids elongation in capsid protein. The experiment was terminated 28 days after challenge. Under the conditions of this study, vaccinated pigs were protected against PCV2 viremia and lesions whereas unvaccinated pigs were not. Moreover, mPCV2b/YJ infection was demonstrated in positive control and almost all had macroscopic or microscopic lesions consistent with PCVAD while negative control did not develop PCVAD. This study indicates that mPCV2b/YJ infection alone can trigger PCVAD development and that the commercial vaccine (PCV2-LG) is still effective in protecting conventional pigs against the emerging mPCV2b/YJ strain in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. TelAP1 links telomere complexes with developmental expression site silencing in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Helena; Schwebs, Marie; Dietz, Sabrina; Janzen, Christian J; Butter, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Abstract During its life cycle, Trypanosoma brucei shuttles between a mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector. In the mammalian host, immune evasion of T. brucei bloodstream form (BSF) cells relies on antigenic variation, which includes monoallelic expression and periodic switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from only 1 of the 15 subtelomeric expression sites (ESs). During differentiation from BSF to the insect-resident procyclic form (PCF), the active ES is transcriptionally silenced. We used mass spectrometry-based interactomics to determine the composition of telomere protein complexes in T. brucei BSF and PCF stages to learn more about the structure and functions of telomeres in trypanosomes. Our data suggest a different telomere complex composition in the two forms of the parasite. One of the novel telomere-associated proteins, TelAP1, forms a complex with telomeric proteins TbTRF, TbRAP1 and TbTIF2 and influences ES silencing kinetics during developmental differentiation. PMID:29385523

  7. Novel fluorescent labelled affinity probes for diadenosine-5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A)-binding studies.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael; Miller, Andrew D

    2006-02-15

    Tandem synthetic-biosynthetic procedures were used to prepare two novel fluorescent labelled affinity probes for diadenosine-5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A)-binding studies. These compounds (dial-mant-Ap4A and azido-mant-Ap4A) are shown to clearly distinguish known Ap4A-binding proteins from Escherichia coli (LysU and GroEL) and a variety of other control proteins. Successful labelling of chaperonin GroEL appears to be allosteric with respect to the well-characterized adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding site, suggesting that GroEL possesses a distinct Ap4A-binding site.

  8. In silico modeling of the cryptic E2∼ubiquitin-binding site of E6-associated protein (E6AP)/UBE3A reveals the mechanism of polyubiquitin chain assembly.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Virginia P; Kim, Elizabeth D; Summa, Christopher M; Klein, Jennifer M; Haas, Arthur L

    2017-11-03

    To understand the mechanism for assembly of Lys 48 -linked polyubiquitin degradation signals, we previously demonstrated that the E6AP/UBE3A ligase harbors two functionally distinct E2∼ubiquitin-binding sites: a high-affinity Site 1 required for E6AP Cys 820 ∼ubiquitin thioester formation and a canonical Site 2 responsible for subsequent chain elongation. Ordered binding to Sites 1 and 2 is here revealed by observation of UbcH7∼ubiquitin-dependent substrate inhibition of chain formation at micromolar concentrations. To understand substrate inhibition, we exploited the PatchDock algorithm to model in silico UbcH7∼ubiquitin bound to Site 1, validated by chain assembly kinetics of selected point mutants. The predicted structure buries an extensive solvent-excluded surface bringing the UbcH7∼ubiquitin thioester bond within 6 Å of the Cys 820 nucleophile. Modeling onto the active E6AP trimer suggests that substrate inhibition arises from steric hindrance between Sites 1 and 2 of adjacent subunits. Confirmation that Sites 1 and 2 function in trans was demonstrated by examining the effect of E6APC820A on wild-type activity and single-turnover pulse-chase kinetics. A cyclic proximal indexation model proposes that Sites 1 and 2 function in tandem to assemble thioester-linked polyubiquitin chains from the proximal end attached to Cys 820 before stochastic en bloc transfer to the target protein. Non-reducing SDS-PAGE confirms assembly of the predicted Cys 820 -linked 125 I-polyubiquitin thioester intermediate. Other studies suggest that Glu 550 serves as a general base to generate the Cys 820 thiolate within the low dielectric binding interface and Arg 506 functions to orient Glu 550 and to stabilize the incipient anionic transition state during thioester exchange. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Translocation pathway of protein substrates in ClpAP protease

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Beuron, Fabienne; Kessel, Martin; Wickner, Sue; Maurizi, Michael R.; Steven, Alasdair C.

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular protein degradation, which must be tightly controlled to protect normal proteins, is carried out by ATP-dependent proteases. These multicomponent enzymes have chaperone-like ATPases that recognize and unfold protein substrates and deliver them to the proteinase components for digestion. In ClpAP, hexameric rings of the ClpA ATPase stack axially on either face of the ClpP proteinase, which consists of two apposed heptameric rings. We have used cryoelectron microscopy to characterize interactions of ClpAP with the model substrate, bacteriophage P1 protein, RepA. In complexes stabilized by ATPγS, which bind but do not process substrate, RepA dimers are seen at near-axial sites on the distal surface of ClpA. On ATP addition, RepA is translocated through ≈150 Å into the digestion chamber inside ClpP. Little change is observed in ClpAP, implying that translocation proceeds without major reorganization of the ClpA hexamer. When translocation is observed in complexes containing a ClpP mutant whose digestion chamber is already occupied by unprocessed propeptides, a small increase in density is observed within ClpP, and RepA-associated density is also seen at other axial sites. These sites appear to represent intermediate points on the translocation pathway, at which segments of unfolded RepA subunits transiently accumulate en route to the digestion chamber. PMID:11287666

  10. Covalent trapping of human DNA polymerase beta by the oxidative DNA lesion 2-deoxyribonolactone.

    PubMed

    DeMott, Michael S; Beyret, Ergin; Wong, Donny; Bales, Brian C; Hwang, Jae-Taeg; Greenberg, Marc M; Demple, Bruce

    2002-03-08

    Oxidized abasic residues in DNA constitute a major class of radiation and oxidative damage. Free radical attack on the nucleotidyl C-1' carbon yields 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL) as a significant lesion. Although dL residues are efficiently incised by the main human abasic endonuclease enzyme Ape1, we show here that subsequent excision by human DNA polymerase beta is impaired at dL compared with unmodified abasic sites. This inhibition is accompanied by accumulation of a protein-DNA cross-link not observed in reactions of polymerase beta with unmodified abasic sites, although a similar form can be trapped by reduction with sodium borohydride. The formation of the stably cross-linked species with dL depends on the polymerase lysine 72 residue, which forms a Schiff base with the C-1 aldehyde during excision of an unmodified abasic site. In the case of a dL residue, attack on the lactone C-1 by lysine 72 proceeds more slowly and evidently produces an amide linkage, which resists further processing. Consequently dL residues may not be readily repaired by "short-patch" base excision repair but instead function as suicide substrates in the formation of protein-DNA cross-links that may require alternative modes of repair.

  11. Free and ATP-bound structures of Ap4A hydrolase from Aquifex aeolicus V5.

    PubMed

    Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Nishida, Yuya; Nakagawa, Noriko; Praveen, Surendran; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2010-02-01

    Asymmetric diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) hydrolases degrade the metabolite Ap(4)A back into ATP and AMP. The three-dimensional crystal structure of Ap(4)A hydrolase (16 kDa) from Aquifex aeolicus has been determined in free and ATP-bound forms at 1.8 and 1.95 A resolution, respectively. The overall three-dimensional crystal structure of the enzyme shows an alphabetaalpha-sandwich architecture with a characteristic loop adjacent to the catalytic site of the protein molecule. The ATP molecule is bound in the primary active site and the adenine moiety of the nucleotide binds in a ring-stacking arrangement equivalent to that observed in the X-ray structure of Ap(4)A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. Binding of ATP in the active site induces local conformational changes which may have important implications in the mechanism of substrate recognition in this class of enzymes. Furthermore, two invariant water molecules have been identified and their possible structural and/or functional roles are discussed. In addition, modelling of the substrate molecule at the primary active site of the enzyme suggests a possible path for entry and/or exit of the substrate and/or product molecule.

  12. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects.more » The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.« less

  13. AP1000{sup R} licensing and deployment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R. P.; Russ, P. A.; Filiak, P. P.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, both domestic and foreign utilities have turned to the standardized Westinghouse AP1000 plant design in satisfying their near - and long-term - sustainable energy needs. As direct support to these actions, licensing the AP1000 design has played a significant role by providing one of the fundamental bases in clearing regulatory hurdles leading to the start of new plant construction. Within the U.S. alone, Westinghouse AP1000 licensing activities have reached unprecedented milestones with the approvals of both AP1000 Design Certification and Southern Company's combined construction permit and operating license (COL) application directly supporting the construction of two newmore » nuclear plants in Georgia. Further COL application approvals are immediately pending for an additional two AP1000 plants in South Carolina. And, across the U.S. nuclear industry spectrum, there are 10 other COL applications under regulatory review representing some 16 new plants at 10 sites. In total, these actions represent the first wave of new plant licensing under the regulatory approval process since 1978. Fundamental to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's AP1000 Design Certification is the formal recognition of the AP1000 passive safety design through regulatory acceptance rulemaking. Through recognition and deployment of the AP1000 Design Certification, the utility licensee / operator of this reactor design are now offered an opportunity to use a simplified 'one-step' combined license process, thereby managing substantial back-end construction schedule risk from regulatory and intervention delays. Application of this regulatory philosophy represents both acceptance and encouragement of standardized reactor designs like the AP1000. With the recent AP1000 Design Certification and utility COL acceptances, the fundamental licensing processes of this philosophy have successfully proven the attainment of significant milestones with the next stage licensing actions

  14. Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 Is the Essential Nuclease during Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Shahnaz; Han, Li

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that catalyzes numerous DNA cytosine deaminations within switch regions. The resulting uracils are processed by uracil base excision and/or mismatch repair enzymes that ultimately generate switch region DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Uracil glycosylase 2 (UNG2) is required for CSR, most likely by removing uracils to generate abasic sites. Although it is presumed that the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) generates DNA strand incisions (a prerequisite for CSR) at these abasic sites, a direct test of the requirement for APE1 in CSR has been difficult because of the embryonic lethality of APE1 ablation in mice. Here, we report the successful deletion of the APE1 gene in a mouse B cell line (CH12F3) capable of robust CSR in vitro. In contrast to the general assumption that APE1 is essential for cellular viability, deletion of APE1 in CH12F3 cells has no apparent effect on cell viability or growth. Moreover, CSR in APE1-null CH12F3 cells is drastically reduced, providing direct evidence for an essential role for APE1 in switch region cleavage and CSR. Finally, deletion of AP endonuclease 2 (APE2) has no effect on CSR in either APE1-proficient or -deficient cells. PMID:23382073

  15. Delayed repair of radiation induced clustered DNA damage: Friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Laura J.; O’Neill, Peter; Lomax, Martine E.

    2011-01-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation exposure is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites, defined as two or more lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA by passage of a single radiation track. Clustered damage is made up of double strand breaks (DSB) with associated base lesions or abasic (AP) sites, and non-DSB clusters comprised of base lesions, AP sites and single strand breaks. This review will concentrate on the experimental findings of the processing of non-DSB clustered damaged sites. It has been shown that non-DSB clustered damaged sites compromise the base excision repair pathway leading to the lifetime extension of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions, thus the likelihood that the lesions persist to replication and induce mutation is increased. In addition certain non-DSB clustered damaged sites are processed within the cell to form additional DSB. The use of E. coli to demonstrate that clustering of DNA lesions is the major cause of the detrimental consequences of ionizing radiation is also discussed. The delayed repair of non-DSB clustered damaged sites in humans can be seen as a “friend”, leading to cell killing in tumour cells or as a “foe”, resulting in the formation of mutations and genetic instability in normal tissue. PMID:21130102

  16. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  17. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  18. Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions

    DOE PAGES

    Cunniffe, Siobhan; O’Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; ...

    2014-04-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repairmore » is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase β, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL.« less

  19. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's Advanced…

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis CT771 (nudH) is an asymmetric Ap4A hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Barta, Michael L; Lovell, Scott; Sinclair, Amy N; Battaile, Kevin P; Hefty, P Scott

    2014-01-14

    Asymmetric diadenosine 5',5‴-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases are members of the Nudix superfamily that asymmetrically cleave the metabolite Ap4A into ATP and AMP while facilitating homeostasis. The obligate intracellular mammalian pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis possesses a single Nudix family protein, CT771. As pathogens that rely on a host for replication and dissemination typically have one or zero Nudix family proteins, this suggests that CT771 could be critical for chlamydial biology and pathogenesis. We identified orthologues to CT771 within environmental Chlamydiales that share active site residues suggesting a common function. Crystal structures of both apo- and ligand-bound CT771 were determined to 2.6 Å and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. The structure of CT771 shows a αβα-sandwich motif with many conserved elements lining the putative Nudix active site. Numerous aspects of the ligand-bound CT771 structure mirror those observed in the ligand-bound structure of the Ap4A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. These structures represent only the second Ap4A hydrolase enzyme member determined from eubacteria and suggest that mammalian and bacterial Ap4A hydrolases might be more similar than previously thought. The aforementioned structural similarities, in tandem with molecular docking, guided the enzymatic characterization of CT771. Together, these studies provide the molecular details for substrate binding and specificity, supporting the analysis that CT771 is an Ap4A hydrolase (nudH).

  1. Identification and embryonic expression of a new AP-2 transcription factor, AP-2 epsilon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Ven; Vaupel, Kristina; Buettner, Reinhard; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Moser, Markus

    2004-09-01

    AP-2 proteins comprise a family of highly related transcription factors, which are expressed during mouse embryogenesis in a variety of ectodermal, neuroectodermal, and mesenchymal tissues. AP-2 transcription factors were shown to be involved in morphogenesis of craniofacial, urogenital, neural crest-derived, and placental tissues. By means of a partial cDNA fragment identified during an expressed sequence tag search for AP-2 genes, we identified a fifth, previously unknown AP-2-related gene, AP-2 epsilon. AP-2 epsilon encodes an open reading frame of 434 amino acids, which reveals the typical modular structure of AP-2 transcription factors with highly conserved C-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. Although the N-terminally localized activation domain is less homologous, position and identity of amino acids essential for transcriptional transactivation are conserved. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses of murine embryos revealed AP-2 epsilon expression from gestational stage embryonic day 7.5 throughout all later embryonic stages until birth. Whole-mount in situ hybridization using a specific AP-2 epsilon cDNA fragment demonstrated that during embryogenesis, expression of AP-2 epsilon is mainly restricted to neural tissue, especially the midbrain, hindbrain, and olfactory bulb. This expression pattern was confirmed by immunohistochemistry with an AP-2 epsilon-specific antiserum. By using this antiserum, we could further localize AP-2 epsilon expression in a hypothalamic nucleus and the neuroepithelium of the vomeronasal organ, suggesting an important function of AP-2 epsilon for the development of the olfactory system.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold dependingmore » on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.« less

  3. Baseline water quality of Long Meadow Lake, Ponds AP-9 and AP-10, and Black Dog Creek, Hennepin and Dakota counties, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Long Meadow Lake, Black Dog Creek, and Ponds AP-9 and AP-10 which lie in an area designated for a trunk highway bridge crossing the Minnesota River, were sampled for baseline water quality prior to construction of the bridge. Data collected show that dissolved solids fluctuate seasonally. Dissolved oxygen:/ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter under an ice cover to 13-9 milligrams per liter in the September sample at site 4 in Long Meadow Lake. The phytoplankton analyses showed pulses in algae populations, blue-green algae being the dominant type in at least one sample from each of the water courses.

  4. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and triphosphate (Ap3A) signaling of human sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Chan, P J; Su, B C; Tredway, D R

    1991-01-01

    The ubiquitous dinucleotide polyphosphate, diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), has been shown to be a signal molecule for DNA replication in mammalian cells. In this study, Ap4A and a related compound, diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A), were tested for possible signaling functions in human spermatozoa. A computerized automated semen analyzer was used to detect changes in spermatozoa motility parameters. Cryopreserved-thawed donor spermatozoa were washed and incubated in 0.1 mM Ap4A, 0.1 mM Ap3A, or control medium. The data indicated that both Ap4A and Ap3A decreased the percentage of motile spermatozoa after 4 or more hours of incubation in vitro. The two dinucleotide polyphosphates caused an increase in the amplitude of lateral spermatozoa head displacement parameter only at the start of incubation. The other spermatozoa kinematic parameters were unaffected. No opposing ying-yang dual actions of Ap4A to Ap3A were seen. From the results, Ap4A and Ap3A were observed to be potential inhibitory signals of spermatozoa motility after prolonged exposure.

  5. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APSmore » would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have

  6. Got AP?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digby, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Families, especially those considering sending their children to a private four-year university, need all the help they can get in funding college. Annmarie Guzy's essay "AP, Dual Enrollment, and the Survival of Honors Education" in this issue powerfully spells out the financial benefits that accrue from using AP courses to satisfy…

  7. Modulation of KvAP Unitary Conductance and Gating by 1-Alkanols and Other Surface Active Agents

    PubMed Central

    Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K.; McArthur, Jeffrey R.; Juranka, Peter F.; French, Robert J.; Morris, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The actions of alcohols and anesthetics on ion channels are poorly understood. Controversy continues about whether bilayer restructuring is relevant to the modulatory effects of these surface active agents (SAAs). Some voltage-gated K channels (Kv), but not KvAP, have putative low affinity alcohol-binding sites, and because KvAP structures have been determined in bilayers, KvAP could offer insights into the contribution of bilayer mechanics to SAA actions. We monitored KvAP unitary conductance and macroscopic activation and inactivation kinetics in PE:PG/decane bilayers with and without exposure to classic SAAs (short-chain 1-alkanols, cholesterol, and selected anesthetics: halothane, isoflurane, chloroform). At levels that did not measurably alter membrane specific capacitance, alkanols caused functional changes in KvAP behavior including lowered unitary conductance, modified kinetics, and shifted voltage dependence for activation. A simple explanation is that the site of SAA action on KvAP is its entire lateral interface with the PE:PG/decane bilayer, with SAA-induced changes in surface tension and bilayer packing order combining to modulate the shape and stability of various conformations. The KvAP structural adjustment to diverse bilayer pressure profiles has implications for understanding desirable and undesirable actions of SAA-like drugs and, broadly, predicts that channel gating, conductance and pharmacology may differ when membrane packing order differs, as in raft versus nonraft domains. PMID:20197029

  8. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to themore » efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the

  9. Conformational Dynamics of DNA Repair by Escherichia coli Endonuclease III*

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A.; Kladova, Olga A.; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A.; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Saparbaev, Murat K.; Zharkov, Dmitry O.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth) is a DNA glycosylase with a broad substrate specificity for oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases. Endo III possesses two types of activities: N-glycosylase (hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond) and AP lyase (elimination of the 3′-phosphate of the AP-site). We report a pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of structural rearrangements of the DNA substrates and uncleavable ligands during their interaction with Endo III. Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 5,6-dihydrouracil, a natural abasic site, its tetrahydrofuran analog, and undamaged duplexes carried fluorescent DNA base analogs 2-aminopurine and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine as environment-sensitive reporter groups. The results suggest that Endo III induces several fast sequential conformational changes in DNA during binding, lesion recognition, and adjustment to a catalytically competent conformation. A comparison of two fluorophores allowed us to distinguish between the events occurring in the damaged and undamaged DNA strand. Combining our data with the available structures of Endo III, we conclude that this glycosylase uses a multistep mechanism of damage recognition, which likely involves Gln41 and Leu81 as DNA lesion sensors. PMID:25869130

  10. AP-Gate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    In May 2001, students in the author's Advanced Placement (AP) United States History class were embroiled in a controversy surrounding the AP exam, in particular, having access to the exam's Document Based Question (DBQ) and free response portion prior to the test's administration. Prior to the exam, the College Board had provided a fifty-year time…

  11. L-Cysteine and L-AP4 microinjections in the rat caudal ventrolateral medulla decrease arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2014-12-01

    The thiol amino acid L-cysteine increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid space in conscious rats, indicating a pressor response to centrally acting L-cysteine. A prior synaptic membrane binding assay suggests that L-cysteine has a strong affinity for the L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) binding site. The central action of L-cysteine may be vial-AP4 sensitive receptors. The present study investigated cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine and L-ap4 microinjected into the autonomic area of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) where inhibitory neurons regulate ABP via pre-sympathetic vasomotor neurons. Both the injection of L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM sites identified with L-glutamate produced the same depressor and bradycardic responses in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neither a prior antagonist microinjection of MK801 for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor nor CNQX for the non-NMDA receptor attenuated the responses to L-cysteine, but the combination of the two receptor blocking with an additional prior injection abolished the response. In contrast, either receptor blockade alone abolished the response to L-AP4, indicating distinct mechanisms between responses to L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM. The results indicate that the CVLM is a central active site for L-cysteine's cardiovascular response. Central L-cysteine's action could be independent of the L-AP4 sensitive receptors. Cardiovascular regulation may involve endogenous L-cysteine in the CVLM. Further multidisciplinary examinations are required to elaborate on L-cysteine's functional roles in the CVLM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. AP Music Theory Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  13. The adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein aP2 is required in allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Bennett O.V.; Mackay, Charles R.; Gorgun, Cem Z.; Frost, Melinda J.; Kumar, Rakesh K.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Rolph, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein aP2 regulates systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. We report that aP2, in addition to being abundantly expressed by adipocytes, is also expressed by human airway epithelial cells and shows a striking upregulation following stimulation of epithelial cells with the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Regulation of aP2 mRNA expression by Th2 cytokines was highly dependent on STAT6, a transcription factor with a major regulatory role in allergic inflammation. We examined aP2-deficient mice in a model of allergic airway inflammation and found that infiltration of leukocytes, especially eosinophils, into the airways was highly dependent on aP2 function. T cell priming was unaffected by aP2 deficiency, suggesting that aP2 was acting locally within the lung, and analysis of bone marrow chimeras implicated non-hematopoietic cells, most likely bronchial epithelial cells, as the site of action of aP2 in allergic airway inflammation. Thus, aP2 regulates allergic airway inflammation and may provide a link between fatty acid metabolism and asthma. PMID:16841093

  14. Bioconjugation of Oligodeoxynucleotides Carrying 1,4-Dicarbonyl Groups via Reductive Amination with Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Jinnouchi, Akiko; Usui, Kazuteru; Katayama, Tsutomu; Fujii, Masayuki; Suemune, Hiroshi; Aso, Mariko

    2015-08-19

    We evaluated the efficacy of bioconjugation of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing 1,4-dicarbonyl groups, a C4'-oxidized abasic site (OAS), and a newly designed 2'-methoxy analogue, via reductive amination with lysine residues. Dicarbonyls, aldehyde and ketone at C1- and C4-positions of deoxyribose in the ring-opened form of OAS allowed efficient reaction with amines. Kinetic studies indicated that reductive amination of OAS-containing ODNs with a proximal amine on the complementary strand proceeded 10 times faster than the corresponding reaction of an ODN containing an abasic site with C1-aldehyde. Efficient reductive amination between the DNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli DnaA protein and ODNs carrying OAS in the DnaA-binding sequence proceeded at the lysine residue in proximity to the phosphate group at the 5'-position of the OAS, in contrast to unsuccessful conjugation with abasic site ODNs, even though they have similar aldehydes. Theoretical calculation indicated that the C1-aldehyde of OAS was more accessible to the target lysine than that of the abasic site. These results demonstrate the potential utility of cross-linking strategies that use dicarbonyl-containing ODNs for the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Conjugation with a lysine-containing peptide that lacked specific affinity for ODN was also successful, further highlighting the advantages of 1,4-dicarbonyls.

  15. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first levelmore » of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all

  16. The area postrema (AP) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are important sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) to decrease evoked phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

    PubMed

    Whiting, Lynda; McCutcheon, James E; Boyle, Christina N; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lutz, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN. To determine whether and how peripheral amylin or sCT affect mesolimbic reward circuitry we utilized fast scan cyclic voltammetry under anesthesia to measure phasic DA release in the NAc evoked by electrical stimulation of the VTA in intact, AP lesioned and bilaterally PBN lesioned rats. Amylin (50μg/kg i.p.) did not change phasic DA responses compared to saline control rats. However, sCT (50μg/kg i.p.) decreased evoked DA release to VTA-stimulation over 1h compared to saline treated control rats. Further investigations determined that AP and bilateral PBN lesions abolished the ability of sCT to suppress evoked phasic DA responses to VTA-stimulation. These findings implicate the AP and the PBN as important sites for peripheral sCT to decrease evoked DA release in the NAc and suggest that these nuclei may influence hedonic and motivational processes to modulate food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peculiar Traits of Coarse AP (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    coarse AP Bircumshaw, Newman Active centers are sources of AP decomposition gases AP low temperature decomposition (LTD) Most unstable AP particles ...delay before coarse AP ejection *Coarse AP particle flame retardancy 19 Air Force Research Laboratory Distribution A: Approved for public release...distribution unlimited. PA clearance #. Combustion bomb trials 2 AP phase change may enable coarse particle breakage Fractured coarse AP ejection agrees

  18. The duality of LysU, a catalyst for both Ap4A and Ap3A formation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Tanner, Julian A; Hindley, Alison D; Miller, Andrew D

    2006-08-01

    Heat shock inducible lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Escherichia coli (LysU) is known to be a highly efficient diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) synthase. However, we use an ion-exchange HPLC technique to demonstrate that active LysU mixtures actually have a dual catalytic activity, initially producing Ap4A from ATP, before converting that tetraphosphate to a triphosphate. LysU appears to be an effective diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) synthase. Mechanistic investigations reveal that Ap3A formation requires: (a) that the second step of Ap4A formation is slightly reversible, thereby leading to a modest reappearance of adenylate intermediate; and (b) that phosphate is present to trap the intermediate (either as inorganic phosphate, as added ADP, or as ADP generated in situ from inorganic phosphate). Ap3A forms readily from Ap4A in the presence of such phosphate-based adenylate traps (via a 'reverse-trap' mechanism). LysU is also clearly demonstrated to exist in a phosphorylated state that is more physically robust as a catalyst of Ap4A formation than the nonphosphorylated state. However, phosphorylated LysU shows only marginally improved catalytic efficiency. We note that Ap3A effects have barely been studied in prokaryotic organisms. By contrast, there is a body of literature that describes Ap3A and Ap4A having substantially different functions in eukaryotic cells. Our data suggest that Ap3A and Ap4A biosynthesis could be linked together through a single prokaryotic dual 'synthase' enzyme. Therefore, in our view there is a need for new research into the effects and impact of Ap3A alone and the intracellular [Ap3A]/[Ap4A] ratio on prokaryotic organisms.

  19. Theoretical studies on the electronic and optoelectronic properties of [A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC)/C.2AP(w)/C*.2AP(WC)/C.A(w)/C*.A(WC)]-Au8 mismatch nucleobase complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ruby

    2018-01-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of [A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC)/C.2AP(w)/C*.2AP(WC)/C.A(w)/ C*.A(WC)]-Au8 metal-mismatch nucleobase complexes are investigated by means of density functional theory and time-dependent methods. We selected these mispairs as 2-aminopurine (2AP) produces incorporation errors when binding with cytosine (C) into the wobble (w) C.2AP(w) mispair, and is tautomerised into Watson-Crick (WC)-like base mispair C*.2AP(WC) and less effectively produces A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC) mispairs. The vertical ionisation potential, vertical electron affinity, hardness and electrophilicity index of these complexes have also been discussed. The modifications of energy levels and charge density distributions of the frontier orbitals are also analysed. The absorption spectra of these complexes lie in the visible region, which suggests their application in fluorescent-bio imaging. The mechanism of cooperativity effect is studied by molecular orbital potential (MEP), atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and natural bond orbital analyses. Most metalated pairs have smaller HOMO-LUMO band gaps than the isolated mismatch nucleobases which suggest interesting consequences for electron transfer through DNA duplexes.

  20. Structure of the endonuclease IV homologue from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of active-site divalent metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Hughes, Ronny C.; Ng, Joseph D.; Coates, Leighton

    2010-01-01

    The most frequent lesion in DNA is at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites resulting from DNA-base losses. These AP-site lesions can stall DNA replication and lead to genome instability if left unrepaired. The AP endonucleases are an important class of enzymes that are involved in the repair of AP-site intermediates during damage-general DNA base-excision repair pathways. These enzymes hydrolytically cleave the 5′-phosphodiester bond at an AP site to generate a free 3′-­hydroxyl group and a 5′-terminal sugar phosphate using their AP nuclease activity. Specifically, Thermotoga maritima endonuclease IV is a member of the second conserved AP endonuclease family that includes Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is the archetype of the AP endonuclease superfamily. In order to more fully characterize the AP endonuclease family of enzymes, two X-­ray crystal structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue were determined in the presence of divalent metal ions bound in the active-site region. These structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue further revealed the use of the TIM-barrel fold and the trinuclear metal binding site as important highly conserved structural elements that are involved in DNA-binding and AP-site repair processes in the AP endonuclease superfamily. PMID:20823514

  1. Comparison of expression and enzymatic properties of Aspergillus oryzae lysine aminopeptidases ApsA and ApsB.

    PubMed

    Marui, Junichiro; Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2012-08-01

    The apsA and apsB genes encoding family M1 aminopeptidases were identified in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae. The apsB was transcriptionally up-regulated up to 2.5-fold in response to the deprivation of nitrogen or carbon sources in growth media, while up-regulation of apsA was less significant. The encoded proteins were bacterially expressed and purified to characterize their enzymatic properties. ApsA and ApsB were optimally active at pH 7.0 and 35 °C and stable at pH ranges of 6-10 and 4-10, respectively, up to 40 °C. The enzymes were inhibited by bestatin and EDTA, as has been reported for family M1 aminopeptidases that characteristically contain a zinc-binding catalytic motif. Both enzymes preferentially liberated N-terminal lysine, which is an essential amino acid and an important additive to animal feed. Enzymes that efficiently release N-terminal lysine from peptides could be useful for food and forage industries. Examination of the reactivity toward peptide substrate of varying length revealed that ApsB exhibited broader substrate specificity than ApsA although the reactivity of ApsB decreased as the length of peptide substrate decreased.

  2. Functions of Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in Tyrosinase Sorting from Endosomes to MelanosomesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Theos, Alexander C.; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A.; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2005-01-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies. PMID:16162817

  3. Artificial pancreas (AP) clinical trial participants' acceptance of future AP technology.

    PubMed

    Bevier, Wendy C; Fuller, Serena M; Fuller, Ryan P; Rubin, Richard R; Dassau, Eyal; Doyle, Francis J; Jovanovič, Lois; Zisser, Howard C

    2014-09-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems are currently an active field of diabetes research. This pilot study examined the attitudes of AP clinical trial participants toward future acceptance of the technology, having gained firsthand experience. After possible influencers of AP technology adoption were considered, a 34-question questionnaire was developed. The survey assessed current treatment satisfaction, dimensions of clinical trial participant motivation, and variables of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Forty-seven subjects were contacted to complete the survey. The reliability of the survey scales was tested using Cronbach's α. The relationship of the factors to the likelihood of AP technology adoption was explored using regression analysis. Thirty-six subjects (76.6%) completed the survey. Of the respondents, 86.1% were either highly likely or likely to adopt the technology once available. Reliability analysis of the survey dimensions revealed good internal consistency, with scores of >0.7 for current treatment satisfaction, convenience (motivation), personal health benefit (motivation), perceived ease of use (TAM), and perceived usefulness (TAM). Linear modeling showed that future acceptance of the AP was significantly associated with TAM and the motivation variables of convenience plus the individual item benefit to others (R(2)=0.26, P=0.05). When insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor use were added, the model significance improved (R(2)=0.37, P=0.02). This pilot study demonstrated that individuals with direct AP technology experience expressed high likelihood of future acceptance. Results support the factors of personal benefit, convenience, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use as reliable scales that suggest system adoption in this highly motivated patient population.

  4. Lesion bypass activity of DNA polymerase θ (POLQ) is an intrinsic property of the pol domain and depends on unique sequence inserts.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Matthew; Seki, Mineaki; Wood, Richard D; Doublié, Sylvie; Wallace, Susan S

    2011-01-21

    DNA polymerase θ (POLQ, polθ) is a large, multidomain DNA polymerase encoded in higher eukaryotic genomes. It is important for maintaining genetic stability in cells and helping protect cells from DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. POLQ contains an N-terminal helicase-like domain, a large central domain of indeterminate function, and a C-terminal polymerase domain with sequence similarity to the A-family of DNA polymerases. The enzyme has several unique properties, including low fidelity and the ability to insert and extend past abasic sites and thymine glycol lesions. It is not known whether the abasic site bypass activity is an intrinsic property of the polymerase domain or whether helicase activity is also required. Three "insertion" sequence elements present in POLQ are not found in any other A-family DNA polymerase, and it has been proposed that they may lend some unique properties to POLQ. Here, we analyzed the activity of the DNA polymerase in the absence of each sequence insertion. We found that the pol domain is capable of highly efficient bypass of abasic sites in the absence of the helicase-like or central domains. Insertion 1 increases the processivity of the polymerase but has little, if any, bearing on the translesion synthesis properties of the enzyme. However, removal of insertions 2 and 3 reduces activity on undamaged DNA and completely abrogates the ability of the enzyme to bypass abasic sites or thymine glycol lesions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Covalent Fluorescent Labeling of Hairpin DNA Probe Coupled with Hybridization Chain Reaction for Sensitive DNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Luna; Zhang, Yonghua; Li, Junling; Gao, Qiang; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2016-04-01

    An enzyme-free signal amplification-based assay for DNA detection was developed using fluorescent hairpin DNA probes coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The hairpin DNAs were designed to contain abasic sites in the stem moiety. Non-covalent labeling of the hairpin DNAs was achieved when a fluorescent ligand was bound to the abasic sites through hydrogen bonding with the orphan cytosine present on the complementary strand, accompanied by quench of ligand fluorescence. As a result, the resultant probes, the complex formed between the hairpin DNA and ligand, showed almost no fluorescence. Upon hybridization with target DNA, the probe underwent a dehybridization of the stem moiety containing an abasic site. The release of ligand from the abasic site to the solution resulted in an effective fluorescent enhancement, which can be used as a signal. Compared with a sensing system without HCR, a 20-fold increase in the sensitivity was achieved using the sensing system with HCR. The fluorescent intensity of the sensing system increased with the increase in target DNA concentration from 0.5 nM to 100 nM. A single mismatched target ss-DNA could be effectively discriminated from complementary target DNA. Genotyping of a G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was successfully demonstrated with the sensing system. Therefore, integrating HCR strategy with non-covalent labeling of fluorescent hairpin DNA probes provides a sensitive and cost-effective DNA assay. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Downregulation of hPMC2 imparts chemotherapeutic sensitivity to alkylating agents in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Nirmala; Liu, Lili; Xiong, Xiahui; Zhang, Junran; Montano, Monica M

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer cell lines have been reported to be resistant to the cyotoxic effects of temozolomide (TMZ). We have shown previously that a novel protein, human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2) has a role in the repair of estrogen-induced abasic sites. Our present study provides evidence that downregulation of hPMC2 in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells treated with temozolomide (TMZ) decreases cell survival. This increased sensitivity to TMZ is associated with an increase in number of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in the DNA. We also show that treatment with another alkylating agent, BCNU, results in an increase in AP sites and decrease in cell survival. Quantification of western blot analyses and immunofluorescence experiments reveal that treatment of hPMC2 downregulated cells with TMZ results in an increase in γ-H2AX levels, suggesting an increase in double strand DNA breaks. The enhancement of DNA double strand breaks in TMZ treated cells upon downregulation of hPCM2 is also revealed by the comet assay. Overall, we provide evidence that downregulation of hPMC2 in breast cancer cells increases cytotoxicity of alkylating agents, representing a novel mechanism of treatment for breast cancer. Our data thus has important clinical implications in the management of breast cancer and brings forth potentially new therapeutic strategies.

  7. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

  8. Physico-chemical profiles of the wobble ↔ Watson-Crick G*·2AP(w) ↔ G·2AP(WC) and A·2AP(w) ↔ A*·2AP(WC) tautomerisations: a QM/QTAIM comprehensive survey.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Voiteshenko, Ivan S; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2017-12-20

    This study is intended to clarify in detail the tautomeric transformations of the wobble (w) G*·2AP(w) and A·2AP(w) nucleobase mispairs involving 2-aminopurine (2AP) into the Watson-Crick (WC) G·2AP(WC) and A*·2AP(WC) base mispairs (asterisks denote mutagenic tautomers of the DNA bases), respectively, by quantum-mechanical methods and Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. Our previously reported methodology has been used, which allows the evolution of the physico-chemical parameters to be tracked along the entire internal reaction coordinate (IRC), not exclusively in the stationary states of these reactions. These biologically important G*·2AP(w) ↔ G·2AP(WC) and A·2AP(w) ↔ A*·2AP(WC) w ↔ WC tautomerisations, which are involved in mutagenic tautomerically-conformational pathways, determine the origin of the transitions and transversions induced by 2AP. In addition, it is established that they proceed through planar, highly stable, zwitterionic transition states and they exhibit similar physico-chemical profiles and stages of sequential intrapair proton transfer, followed by spatial rearrangement of the nucleobases relative to each other within the base pairs. These w ↔ WC tautomerisations occur non-dissociatively and are accompanied by a significant alteration in geometry (from wobble to Watson-Crick and vice versa) and redistribution of the specific intermolecular interactions, which can be divided into 10 patterns including AHB H-bonds and loosened A-H-B covalent bridges along the IRC of tautomerisation. Based on the redistribution of the geometrical and electron-topological parameters of the intrapair hydrogen bonds, exactly 9 key points have been allocated to characterize the evolution of these reactions.

  9. Structural Basis for the Recognition of Tyrosine-based Sorting Signals by the μ3A Subunit of the AP-3 Adaptor Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Lin, Yimo; Kloer, Daniel P.; Magadán, Javier G.; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine-based signals fitting the YXXØ motif mediate sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes, lysosomes, the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, and the somatodendritic domain of neurons through interactions with the homologous μ1, μ2, μ3, and μ4 subunits of the corresponding AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4 complexes. Previous x-ray crystallographic analyses identified distinct binding sites for YXXØ signals on μ2 and μ4, which were located on opposite faces of the proteins. To elucidate the mode of recognition of YXXØ signals by other members of the μ family, we solved the crystal structure at 1.85 Å resolution of the C-terminal domain of the μ3 subunit of AP-3 (isoform A) in complex with a peptide encoding a YXXØ signal (SDYQRL) from the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38. The μ3A C-terminal domain consists of an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich organized into two subdomains, A and B. The YXXØ signal binds in an extended conformation to a site on μ3A subdomain A, at a location similar to the YXXØ-binding site on μ2 but not μ4. The binding sites on μ3A and μ2 exhibit similarities and differences that account for the ability of both proteins to bind distinct sets of YXXØ signals. Biochemical analyses confirm the identification of the μ3A site and show that this protein binds YXXØ signals with 14–19 μm affinity. The surface electrostatic potential of μ3A is less basic than that of μ2, in part explaining the association of AP-3 with intracellular membranes having less acidic phosphoinositides. PMID:23404500

  10. Structural basis for the recognition of tyrosine-based sorting signals by the μ3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor complex.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Gonzalo A; Burgos, Patricia V; Lin, Yimo; Kloer, Daniel P; Magadán, Javier G; Hurley, James H; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2013-03-29

    Tyrosine-based signals fitting the YXXØ motif mediate sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes, lysosomes, the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, and the somatodendritic domain of neurons through interactions with the homologous μ1, μ2, μ3, and μ4 subunits of the corresponding AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4 complexes. Previous x-ray crystallographic analyses identified distinct binding sites for YXXØ signals on μ2 and μ4, which were located on opposite faces of the proteins. To elucidate the mode of recognition of YXXØ signals by other members of the μ family, we solved the crystal structure at 1.85 Å resolution of the C-terminal domain of the μ3 subunit of AP-3 (isoform A) in complex with a peptide encoding a YXXØ signal (SDYQRL) from the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38. The μ3A C-terminal domain consists of an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich organized into two subdomains, A and B. The YXXØ signal binds in an extended conformation to a site on μ3A subdomain A, at a location similar to the YXXØ-binding site on μ2 but not μ4. The binding sites on μ3A and μ2 exhibit similarities and differences that account for the ability of both proteins to bind distinct sets of YXXØ signals. Biochemical analyses confirm the identification of the μ3A site and show that this protein binds YXXØ signals with 14-19 μm affinity. The surface electrostatic potential of μ3A is less basic than that of μ2, in part explaining the association of AP-3 with intracellular membranes having less acidic phosphoinositides.

  11. Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.

    2009-09-01

    Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

  12. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Induces Self-Ubiquitination of the E6AP Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Wynn H.; Beaudenon, Sylvie L.; Talis, Andrea L.; Huibregtse, Jon M.; Howley, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    The E6 protein of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and the cellular ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP form a complex which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of p53. We show here that HPV16 E6 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of E6AP itself. The half-life of E6AP is shorter in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells than in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells, and E6AP is stabilized in HPV-positive cancer cells when expression of the viral oncoproteins is repressed. Expression of HPV16 E6 in cells results in a threefold decrease in the half-life of transfected E6AP. E6-mediated degradation of E6AP requires (i) the binding of E6 to E6AP, (ii) the catalytic activity of E6AP, and (iii) activity of the 26S proteasome, suggesting that E6-E6AP interaction results in E6AP self-ubiquitination and degradation. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that E6AP self-ubiquitination results primarily from an intramolecular transfer of ubiquitin from the active-site cysteine to one or more lysine residues; however, intermolecular transfer can also occur in the context of an E6-mediated E6AP multimer. Finally, we demonstrate that an E6 mutant that is able to immortalize human mammary epithelial cells but is unable to degrade p53 retains its ability to bind and degrade E6AP, raising the possibility that E6-mediated degradation of E6AP contributes to its ability to transform mammalian cells. PMID:10864652

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of two aspartic proteinases TcAP1 and TcAP2 from Theobroma cacao seeds.

    PubMed

    Laloi, Maryse; McCarthy, James; Morandi, Olivia; Gysler, Christof; Bucheli, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Aspartic proteinase (EC 3.4.23) activity plays a pivotal role in the degradation of Theobroma cacao L. seed proteins during the fermentation step of cacao bean processing. Therefore, this enzyme is believed to be critical for the formation of the peptide and amino acid cocoa flavor precursors that occurs during fermentation. Using cDNA cloning and northern blot analysis, we show here that there are at least two distinct aspartic proteinase genes ( TcAP1 and TcAP2) expressed during cacao seed development. Both genes are expressed early during seed development and their mRNA levels decrease towards the end of seed maturation. TcAP2 is expressed at a much higher level than TcAP1, although the expression of TcAP1 increases slightly during germination. The proteins encoded by TcAP1 and TcAP2 are relatively different from each other (73% identity). This, and the fact that the two corresponding genes have different expression patterns, suggests that the TcAP1 and TcAP2 proteins may have different functions in the maturing seeds and during germination. Because the TcAP2 gene is expressed at a much higher level during seed development than TcAP1, it is likely that the TcAP2 protein is primarily responsible for the majority of the industrially important protein hydrolysis that occurs during cacao bean fermentation. Finally, TcAP2 has been functionally expressed in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The secreted recombinant protein is able to hydrolyse bovine haemoglobin at acidic pH and is sensitive to pepstatin A, confirming that TcAP2 encodes an aspartic proteinase, and strongly suggests that this gene encodes the well-characterized aspartic proteinase of mature cacao seeds.

  15. VGLUT2 Trafficking Is Differentially Regulated by Adaptor Proteins AP-1 and AP-3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan; Santos, Magda S.; Park, Chihyung K.; Dobry, Yuriy; Voglmaier, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Release of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by synaptic vesicle exocytosis depends on glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The two principal isoforms, VGLUT1 and 2, exhibit a complementary pattern of expression in adult brain that broadly distinguishes cortical (VGLUT1) and subcortical (VGLUT2) systems, and correlates with distinct physiological properties in synapses expressing these isoforms. Differential trafficking of VGLUT1 and 2 has been suggested to underlie their functional diversity. Increasing evidence suggests individual synaptic vesicle proteins use specific sorting signals to engage specialized biochemical mechanisms to regulate their recycling. We observed that VGLUT2 recycles differently in response to high frequency stimulation than VGLUT1. Here we further explore the trafficking of VGLUT2 using a pHluorin-based reporter, VGLUT2-pH. VGLUT2-pH exhibits slower rates of both exocytosis and endocytosis than VGLUT1-pH. VGLUT2-pH recycling is slower than VGLUT1-pH in both hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express mostly VGLUT1, and thalamic neurons, which endogenously express mostly VGLUT2, indicating that protein identity, not synaptic vesicle membrane or neuronal cell type, controls sorting. We characterize sorting signals in the C-terminal dileucine-like motif, which plays a crucial role in VGLUT2 trafficking. Disruption of this motif abolishes synaptic targeting of VGLUT2 and essentially eliminates endocytosis of the transporter. Mutational and biochemical analysis demonstrates that clathrin adaptor proteins (APs) interact with VGLUT2 at the dileucine-like motif. VGLUT2 interacts with AP-2, a well-studied adaptor protein for clathrin mediated endocytosis. In addition, VGLUT2 also interacts with the alternate adaptors, AP-1 and AP-3. VGLUT2 relies on distinct recycling mechanisms from VGLUT1. Abrogation of these differences by pharmacological and molecular inhibition reveals that

  16. VGLUT2 Trafficking Is Differentially Regulated by Adaptor Proteins AP-1 and AP-3.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Santos, Magda S; Park, Chihyung K; Dobry, Yuriy; Voglmaier, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    Release of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by synaptic vesicle exocytosis depends on glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The two principal isoforms, VGLUT1 and 2, exhibit a complementary pattern of expression in adult brain that broadly distinguishes cortical (VGLUT1) and subcortical (VGLUT2) systems, and correlates with distinct physiological properties in synapses expressing these isoforms. Differential trafficking of VGLUT1 and 2 has been suggested to underlie their functional diversity. Increasing evidence suggests individual synaptic vesicle proteins use specific sorting signals to engage specialized biochemical mechanisms to regulate their recycling. We observed that VGLUT2 recycles differently in response to high frequency stimulation than VGLUT1. Here we further explore the trafficking of VGLUT2 using a pHluorin-based reporter, VGLUT2-pH. VGLUT2-pH exhibits slower rates of both exocytosis and endocytosis than VGLUT1-pH. VGLUT2-pH recycling is slower than VGLUT1-pH in both hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express mostly VGLUT1, and thalamic neurons, which endogenously express mostly VGLUT2, indicating that protein identity, not synaptic vesicle membrane or neuronal cell type, controls sorting. We characterize sorting signals in the C-terminal dileucine-like motif, which plays a crucial role in VGLUT2 trafficking. Disruption of this motif abolishes synaptic targeting of VGLUT2 and essentially eliminates endocytosis of the transporter. Mutational and biochemical analysis demonstrates that clathrin adaptor proteins (APs) interact with VGLUT2 at the dileucine-like motif. VGLUT2 interacts with AP-2, a well-studied adaptor protein for clathrin mediated endocytosis. In addition, VGLUT2 also interacts with the alternate adaptors, AP-1 and AP-3. VGLUT2 relies on distinct recycling mechanisms from VGLUT1. Abrogation of these differences by pharmacological and molecular inhibition reveals that

  17. The most interesting roAp target for MONS: HR1217 ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, M. R.

    2000-04-01

    The roAp star HR1217 is presented as a good and possibly the best roAp target for MONS and the progress of the 1998 3-site STACC Campaign is briefly summarized incl. the first detection of EW oscillation in Hα and Hβ in this star, alongside evidence of EW varying with the phase of rotation. HR1217 has 6 known oscillation frequencies of which the four strongest appear to be rotationally split with photometric amplitudes ~< 1 mmag. The problem with groundbased observations is the 3-day-alias beating with neighbouring peaks which limits our chances for a solid mode id. With 30 days (2.4ṡ Prot) on MONS CAM we should have the needed observational data for doing asteroseismology on a magnetic star at last!

  18. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.

    PubMed

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-04-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar(™)) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment.

  19. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be usedmore » during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.« less

  20. Commercial PCV2a-based vaccines are effective in protecting naturally PCV2b-infected finisher pigs against experimental challenge with a 2012 mutant PCV2.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Halbur, Patrick G; Matzinger, Shannon R; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-07-23

    Current commercial PCV2 vaccines are all based on PCV2a and have been shown to be effective in reducing PCV2a and PCV2b viremia and PCV2-associated lesions and disease. The recent emergence of novel mutant PCV2 (mPCV2) strains and linkage of mPCV2 with cases of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in vaccinated herds have raised concerns over emergence of vaccine-escape mutants and reduced efficacy of PCV2a-based vaccines. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of three commercial PCV2a-based vaccines administered in the presence of an ongoing PCV2b infection and passively-acquired anti-PCV2 antibodies to protect conventional pigs against experimental challenge with mPCV2 at 11 weeks of age. Fifty naturally PCV2b-infected 2-week-old pigs were divided into five treatment groups with 10 pigs each. Pigs were unvaccinated (positive and negative controls) or vaccinated at 3 (VAC-A, VAC-B, VAC-C) and at 5 weeks of age (VAC-C). At 11 weeks of age, all pigs except the negative controls were challenged with a 2012 U.S. strain of mPCV2. The experiment was terminated 21 days after challenge. Under the conditions of this study, vaccinated pigs were protected against PCV2 viremia and lesions whereas non-vaccinated pigs were not. Moreover, concurrent PCV2b and mPCV2 infection was demonstrated in all positive controls and 3/10 had microscopic lesions consistent with PCVAD while negative controls infected with PCV2b alone did not develop PCVAD. The results indicate that concurrent PCV2b/mPCV2 infection can trigger PCVAD development and that commercial vaccines are effective in protecting conventional pigs against emerging mPCV2 strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure and substrate-binding mechanism of human Ap4A hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Swarbrick, James D; Buyya, Smrithi; Gunawardana, Dilantha; Gayler, Kenwyn R; McLennan, Alexander G; Gooley, Paul R

    2005-03-04

    Asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) hydrolases play a major role in maintaining homeostasis by cleaving the metabolite diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) back into ATP and AMP. The NMR solution structures of the 17-kDa human asymmetric Ap(4)A hydrolase have been solved in both the presence and absence of the product ATP. The adenine moiety of the nucleotide predominantly binds in a ring stacking arrangement equivalent to that observed in the x-ray structure of the homologue from Caenorhabditis elegans. The binding site is, however, markedly divergent to that observed in the plant/pathogenic bacteria class of enzymes, opening avenues for the exploration of specific therapeutics. Binding of ATP induces substantial conformational and dynamic changes that were not observed in the C. elegans structure. In contrast to the C. elegans homologue, important side chains that play a major role in substrate binding do not have to reorient to accommodate the ligand. This may have important implications in the mechanism of substrate recognition in this class of enzymes.

  2. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  3. Thioredoxin reductase regulates AP-1 activity as well as thioredoxin nuclear localization via active cysteines in response to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Karimpour, Shervin; Lou, Junyang; Lin, Lilie L; Rene, Luis M; Lagunas, Lucio; Ma, Xinrong; Karra, Sreenivasu; Bradbury, C Matthew; Markovina, Stephanie; Goswami, Prabhat C; Spitz, Douglas R; Hirota, Kiichi; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Yodoi, Junji; Gius, David

    2002-09-12

    A recently identified class of signaling factors uses critical cysteine motif(s) that act as redox-sensitive 'sulfhydryl switches' to reversibly modulate specific signal transduction cascades regulating downstream proteins with similar redox-sensitive sites. For example, signaling factors such as redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and transcription factors such as the AP-1 complex both contain redox-sensitive cysteine motifs that regulate activity in response to oxidative stress. The mammalian thioredoxin reductase-1 (TR) is an oxidoreductase selenocysteine-containing flavoprotein that also appears to regulate multiple downstream intracellular redox-sensitive proteins. Since ionizing radiation (IR) induces oxidative stress as well as increases AP-1 DNA-binding activity via the activation of Ref-1, the potential roles of TR and thioredoxin (TRX) in the regulation of AP-1 activity in response to IR were investigated. Permanently transfected cell lines that overexpress wild type TR demonstrated constitutive increases in AP-1 DNA-binding activity as well as AP-1-dependent reporter gene expression, relative to vector control cells. In contrast, permanently transfected cell lines expressing a TR gene with the active site cysteine motif deleted were unable to induce AP-1 activity or reporter gene expression in response to IR. Transient genetic overexpression of either the TR wild type or dominant-negative genes demonstrated similar results using a transient assay system. One mechanism through which TR regulates AP-1 activity appears to involve TRX sub-cellular localization, with no change in the total TRX content of the cell. These results identify a novel function of the TR enzyme as a signaling factor in the regulation of AP-1 activity via a cysteine motif located in the protein.

  4. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    SciTech Connect

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni; Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046; Sahdev, Sudhir

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors,more » which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.« less

  5. Dosimetric Comparison between Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided and Conventional Two-Dimensional Point A-Based Intracavitary Brachytherapy Planning for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Juan; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Ruihua; Wang, Qiuping; Li, Yi; Xue, Chaofan; Yan, Yanli; Ma, Xiaowei; Tan, Li; Liu, Zi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to comprehensively compare the 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided and conventional 2-dimensional (2D) point A-based intracavitary brachytherapy (BT) planning for cervical cancer with regard to target dose coverage and dosages to adjacent organs-at risk (OARs). Methods A total of 79 patients with cervical cancer were enrolled to receive 2D point A-based BT planning and then immediately to receive 3D planning between October 2011 and April 2013 at the First Hospital Affiliated to Xi’an Jiao Tong University (Xi’an, China). The dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for gross tumor volume (GTV), high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV), intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV) and OARs were compared between the 2D and 3D planning. Results In small tumors, there was no significant difference in most of the DVHs between 2D and 3D planning (all p>0.05). While in big tumors, 3D BT planning significantly increased the DVHs for most of the GTV, HR-CTV and IR-CTV, and some OARs compared with 2D planning (all P<0.05). In 3D planning, DVHs for GTV, HR-CTV, IR-CTV and some OARs were significantly higher in big tumors than in small tumors (all p<0.05). In contrast, in 2D planning, DVHs for almost all of the HR-CTV and IR-CTV were significantly lower in big tumors (all p<0.05). In eccentric tumors, 3D planning significantly increased dose coverage but decreased dosages to OARs compared with 2D planning (p<0.05). In tumors invading adjacent tissues, the target dose coverage in 3D planning was generally significantly higher than in 2D planning (P<0.05); the dosages to the adjacent rectum and bladder were significantly higher but those to sigmoid colon were lower in 3D planning (all P<0.05). Conclusions 3D MRI image-guided BT planning exhibits advantages over 2D planning in a complex way, generally showing advantages for the treatment of cervical cancer except small tumors. PMID:27611853

  6. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  7. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  8. Arsenic may be involved in fluoride-induced bone toxicity through PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi-bing; Xu, Yu-yan; Yu, Xian; Yang, Jun; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Ai-hua

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to combined fluoride and arsenic continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting thousands of people. In recent years, more and more researchers began to focus on the interaction between the fluorine and the arsenic. In this study, the selected investigation site was located in China. The study group was selected from people living in fluoride-arsenic polluted areas due to burning coal. The total number of participants was 196; including the fluoride-arsenic anomaly group (130) and the fluoride-arsenic normal group (63). By observing the changes in gene and protein expression of PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway, the results show that fluoride can increase the expression levels of PTH, PKA, and AP1, but arsenic can only affect the expression of AP1; fluoride and arsenic have an interaction on the expression of AP1. Further study found that fluoride and arsenic can affect the mRNA expression level of c-fos gene (AP1 family members), and have an interaction on the expression of c-fos, but not c-jun. The results indicate that PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway may play an important role in bone toxicity of fluoride. Arsenic can affect the expression of c-fos, thereby affecting the expression of transcription factor AP1, indirectly involved in fluoride-induced bone toxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Oncoprotein LMP1 by Transcription Factors AP-2 and Early B Cell Factor

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Chieko; Narita, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Ashio, Keiji; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kanda, Teru; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a major oncogene essential for primary B cell transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Previous studies suggested that some transcription factors, such as PU.1, RBP-Jκ, NF-κB, and STAT, are involved in this expression, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we identified binding sites for PAX5, AP-2, and EBF in the proximal LMP1 promoter (ED-L1p). We first confirmed the significance of PU.1 and POU domain transcription factor binding for activation of the promoter in latency III. We then focused on the transcription factors AP-2 and early B cell factor (EBF). Interestingly, among the three AP-2-binding sites in the LMP1 promoter, two motifs were also bound by EBF. Overexpression, knockdown, and mutagenesis in the context of the viral genome indicated that AP-2 plays an important role in LMP1 expression in latency II in epithelial cells. In latency III B cells, on the other hand, the B cell-specific transcription factor EBF binds to the ED-L1p and activates LMP1 transcription from the promoter. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is crucial for B cell transformation and oncogenesis of other EBV-related malignancies, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and T/NK lymphoma. Its expression is largely dependent on the cell type or condition, and some transcription factors have been implicated in its regulation. However, these previous reports evaluated the significance of specific factors mostly by reporter assay. In this study, we prepared point-mutated EBV at the binding sites of such transcription factors and confirmed the importance of AP-2, EBF, PU.1, and POU domain factors. Our results will provide insight into the transcriptional regulation of the major oncogene LMP1. PMID:26819314

  10. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal Year 2012 Competition AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE), Department of Education. ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition...

  11. Structural characterization of the N-terminal mineral modification domains from the molluscan crystal-modulating biomineralization proteins, AP7 and AP24.

    PubMed

    Wustman, Brandon A; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-08-05

    The AP7 and AP24 proteins represent a class of mineral-interaction polypeptides that are found in the aragonite-containing nacre layer of mollusk shell (H. rufescens). These proteins have been shown to preferentially interfere with calcium carbonate mineral growth in vitro. It is believed that both proteins play an important role in aragonite polymorph selection in the mollusk shell. Previously, we demonstrated the 1-30 amino acid (AA) N-terminal sequences of AP7 and AP24 represent mineral interaction/modification domains in both proteins, as evidenced by their ability to frustrate calcium carbonate crystal growth at step edge regions. In this present report, using free N-terminal, C(alpha)-amide "capped" synthetic polypeptides representing the 1-30 AA regions of AP7 (AP7-1 polypeptide) and AP24 (AP24-1 polypeptide) and NMR spectroscopy, we confirm that both N-terminal sequences possess putative Ca (II) interaction polyanionic sequence regions (2 x -DD- in AP7-1, -DDDED- in AP24-1) that are random coil-like in structure. However, with regard to the remaining sequences regions, each polypeptide features unique structural differences. AP7-1 possesses an extended beta-strand or polyproline type II-like structure within the A11-M10, S12-V13, and S28-I27 sequence regions, with the remaining sequence regions adopting a random-coil-like structure, a trait common to other polyelectrolyte mineral-associated polypeptide sequences. Conversely, AP24-1 possesses random coil-like structure within A1-S9 and Q14-N16 sequence regions, and evidence for turn-like, bend, or loop conformation within the G10-N13, Q17-N24, and M29-F30 sequence regions, similar to the structures identified within the putative elastomeric proteins Lustrin A and sea urchin spicule matrix proteins. The similarities and differences in AP7 and AP24 N-terminal domain structure are discussed with regard to joint AP7-AP24 protein modification of calcium carbonate growth. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Observational studies of roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.

    2014-11-01

    Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

  13. Comparative Ballistic Performance of 20mm AP M95 and 20mm AP M75 Projectiles against Rolled Homogeneous Steel Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-05-01

    Dominic A. Piccione, " Comparative Ballistic Performanceof 20mm AP M95 and 20mm AP M75 Projectiles againstRolled Homogeneous Steel Armor (U)’\\ WAL-TR-160.1/1... COMPARATIVE BALLISTIC PERFORMANCE OF 20MM AP M95 AND 20MM AP M75 PROJECTILES AGAINST ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS STEEL ARMOR (U) TECHNICAL REPORT NO. WAL TR I60.l/I(c...o > -< Abt9sortf bl O *_, o o -o WATERTOWN ARSENAL LABORATORIES co COMPARATIVE BALLISTIC PERFORMANCE OF 20MM AP M95 AND 20MM AP M75

  14. Ap4A induces apoptosis in human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, A; Alexandrov, I; Prudowski, I; McLennan, A; Kisselev, L

    1999-07-30

    Diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap(n)A) have been proposed as intracellular and extracellular signaling molecules in animal cells. The ratio of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate to diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap3A/Ap4A) is sensitive to the cellular status and alters when cultured cells undergo differentiation or are treated with interferons. In cells undergoing apoptosis induced by DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor VP16, the concentration of Ap3A decreases significantly while that of Ap4A increases. Here, we have examined the effects of exogenously added Ap3A and Ap4A on apoptosis and morphological differentiation. Penetration of Ap(n)A into cells was achieved by cold shock. Ap4A at 10 microM induced programmed cell death in human HL60, U937 and Jurkat cells and mouse VMRO cells and this effect appeared to require Ap4A breakdown as hydrolysis-resistant analogues of Ap4A were inactive. On its own, Ap3A induced neither apoptosis nor cell differentiation but did display strong synergism with the protein kinase C activators 12-deoxyphorbol-13-O-phenylacetate and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-O-phenylacetate-20-acetate in inducing differentiation of HL60 cells. We propose that Ap4A and Ap3A are physiological antagonists in determination of the cellular status: Ap4A induces apoptosis whereas Ap3A is a co-inductor of differentiation. In both cases, the mechanism of signal transduction remains unknown.

  15. DisAp-dependent striated fiber elongation is required to organize ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Bonney, Stephanie; Kronenberg, Zev; Clarissa, Christina; Yandell, Mark; Elde, Nels C.; Jerka-Dziadosz, Maria; Giddings, Thomas H.; Frankel, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cilia-organizing basal bodies (BBs) are microtubule scaffolds that are visibly asymmetrical because they have attached auxiliary structures, such as striated fibers. In multiciliated cells, BB orientation aligns to ensure coherent ciliary beating, but the mechanisms that maintain BB orientation are unclear. For the first time in Tetrahymena thermophila, we use comparative whole-genome sequencing to identify the mutation in the BB disorientation mutant disA-1. disA-1 abolishes the localization of the novel protein DisAp to T. thermophila striated fibers (kinetodesmal fibers; KFs), which is consistent with DisAp’s similarity to the striated fiber protein SF-assemblin. We demonstrate that DisAp is required for KFs to elongate and to resist BB disorientation in response to ciliary forces. Newly formed BBs move along KFs as they approach their cortical attachment sites. However, because they contain short KFs that are rotated, BBs in disA-1 cells display aberrant spacing and disorientation. Therefore, DisAp is a novel KF component that is essential for force-dependent KF elongation and BB orientation in multiciliary arrays. PMID:25533842

  16. NF-κB– and AP-1–Mediated DNA Looping Regulates Osteopontin Transcription in Endotoxin-Stimulated Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Chao; Qi, Jianni; Qiao, Yu; Kuo, Paul C.; Gao, Chengjiang

    2013-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is expressed by various immune cells and modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms that control opn gene expression, especially at the chromatin level, remain largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated many specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements that determine the extent of endotoxin (LPS)-mediated induction of OPN synthesis in murine macrophages. In the present study, we confirm that NF-κB also plays an important role in the setting of LPS-stimulated OPN expression through binding to a distal regulatory element. Importantly, we demonstrate that LPS stimulates chromosomal loops in the OPN promoter between NF-κB binding site and AP-1 binding site using chromosome conformation capture technology. The crucial role of NF-κB and AP-1 in LPS-stimulated DNA looping was confirmed, as small interfering RNA knock-down of NF-κB p65 and AP-1 c-Jun exhibited decreased levels of DNA looping. Furthermore, we demonstrate that p300 can form a complex with NF-κB and AP-1 and is involved in DNA looping and LPS-induced OPN expression. Therefore, we have identified an essential mechanism to remodel the local chromatin structures and spatial conformations to regulate LPS-induced OPN expression. PMID:21257959

  17. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure,more » each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.« less

  18. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli-Mediated Accumulation of Abasic DNA Lesions Lead to Cigarette Smoke Condensate-Induced Neoplastic Transformation of Normal Breast Epithelial Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Aruna S; Panda, Harekrushna; Pampo, Christine A; Siemann, Dietmar W; Gairola, C Gary; Hromas, Robert; Narayan, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multifunctional protein having diverse cellular functions including cell migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle control, chromosomal segregation, and apoptosis. Recently, we found a new role of APC in base excision repair (BER) and showed that it interacts with DNA polymerase β and 5′-flap endonuclease 1 and interferes in BER. Previously, we have also reported that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases expression of APC and enhances the growth of normal human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells in vitro. In the present study, using APC overexpression and knockdown systems, we have examined the molecular mechanisms by which CSC and its major component, Benzo[α]pyrene, enhances APC-mediated accumulation of abasic DNA lesions, which is cytotoxic and mutagenic in nature, leading to enhanced neoplastic transformation of MCF10A cells in an orthotopic xenograft model. PMID:23555190

  19. Induction of dystrophin Dp71 expression during neuronal differentiation: opposite roles of Sp1 and AP2alpha in Dp71 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara Luz; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Gómez, Pablo; Tapia-Ramírez, Victor; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we delineated the molecular mechanisms that modulate Dp71 expression during neuronal differentiation, using the N1E-115 cell line. We demonstrated that Dp71 expression is up-regulated in response to cAMP-mediated neuronal differentiation of these cells, and that this induction is controlled at promoter level. Functional deletion analysis of the Dp71 promoter revealed that a 5'-flanking 159-bp DNA fragment that contains Sp1 and AP2 binding sites is necessary and sufficient for basal expression of this TATA-less promoter, as well as for its induction during neuronal differentiation. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Sp1 and AP2alpha bind to their respective DNA elements within the Dp71 basal promoter. Overall, mutagenesis assays on the Sp1 and AP2 binding sites, over-expression of Sp1 and AP2alpha, as well as knock-down experiments on Sp1 and AP2alpha gene expression established that Dp71 basal expression is controlled by the combined action of Sp1 and AP2alpha, which act as activator and repressor, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that induction of Dp71 expression in differentiated cells is the result of the maintenance of positive regulation exerted by Sp1, as well as of the loss of AP2alpha binding, which ultimately releases the promoter from repression.

  20. ARF1·GTP, Tyrosine-based Signals, and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Constitute a Minimal Machinery to Recruit the AP-1 Clathrin Adaptor to Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Crottet, Pascal; Meyer, Daniel M.; Rohrer, Jack; Spiess, Martin

    2002-01-01

    At the trans-Golgi network, clathrin coats containing AP-1 adaptor complexes are formed in an ARF1-dependent manner, generating vesicles transporting cargo proteins to endosomes. The mechanism of site-specific targeting of AP-1 and the role of cargo are poorly understood. We have developed an in vitro assay to study the recruitment of purified AP-1 adaptors to chemically defined liposomes presenting peptides corresponding to tyrosine-based sorting motifs. AP-1 recruitment was found to be dependent on myristoylated ARF1, GTP or nonhydrolyzable GTP-analogs, tyrosine signals, and small amounts of phosphoinositides, most prominently phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, in the absence of any additional cytosolic or membrane bound proteins. AP-1 from cytosol could be recruited to a tyrosine signal independently of the lipid composition, but the rate of recruitment was increased by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. The results thus indicate that cargo proteins are involved in coat recruitment and that the local lipid composition contributes to specifying the site of vesicle formation. PMID:12388765

  1. High concentrations of intracellular Ap4A and/or Ap5A in developing Myxococcus xanthus cells inhibit sporulation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshio; Tanaka, Chihiro; Sasaki, Katsuho; Sasaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA) are thought to act as signalling molecules regulating stress responses and biofilm formation in prokaryotes. However, ApnA function in Myxococcus xanthus remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of ApnA in M. xanthus, using the wild-type and ApnA hydrolase (apaH) mutant strains exposed to various stress conditions. In both wild-type and apaH mutant cells cultured on starvation medium (CF agar), the levels of intracellular diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and pentaphosphate (Ap5A) increased several fold during the first 16 h of development and decreased gradually thereafter. The levels of Ap4A and Ap5A in the apaH mutant were about 5- and 11-fold higher than those in the wild-type strain at 16 h, respectively. ApnA hydrolase activity of the wild-type strain increased 1.5-fold during the first 8 h of development, and it then gradually decreased. The apaH mutant formed spores 1-2 days after the wild-type strain did, and the yield of viable spores was 5.5 % of that in the wild-type strain 5 days after inoculation onto CF agar. These results suggest the possibility that high intracellular levels of Ap4A and/or Ap5A may inhibit M. xanthus sporulation at the early stage of development and that the bacteria reduce intracellular Ap4A and Ap5A accumulation through ApnA hydrolase activity.

  2. Comparison of Spectral and Scintillation Properties of LuAP:Ce and LuAP:Ce,Sc Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, Ashot G.; Derdzyan, Marina; Ovanesyan, Karine; Shirinyan, Grigori; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Kronberger, Matthias; Frisch, Benjamin; Pedrini, Christian; Dujardin, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    Scintillation properties of LuAP:Ce and LuAP:Ce,Sc crystal series were studied under excitation by gamma-rays from a 137Cs source. Both series demonstrated comparable optical quality in terms of underlying absorption at 260 nm, slope of the optical edge and transmission in the range of emission. The light yield of LuAP:Ce crystals measured in 0.2 cm times 0.2 cm times 0.8 cm pixels increases linearly with the Ce concentration reaching at 0.58 at. % 6448 plusmn 322 ph/MeV and 9911 plusmn 496 ph/MeV in the long and in the short directions respectively (the light yield ratio is 65%) and shows no sign of light saturation. The energy resolution is found to depend, among other factors, on the uniformity of Ce concentration within the pixels and is improved to 7.1 plusmn 0.4% (I = 0.2 cm), 9.5 plusmn 0.5% (I = 0.8 cm). Intentional co-doping with Sc + ions was tested and resulted in increase of the Ce distribution coefficient to about 0.3. This enabled to increase the concentration of Ce in LuAP:Ce,Sc crystals up to 0.7 at. %, while conserving high optical quality. In contrast to LuAP:Ce, the light yield in LuAP:Ce,Sc crystals does not increase with Ce concentration, the photo peak being gradually suppressed. The involved mechanisms are discussed basing on measurements of the unit cell volumes, Ce concentration uniformity, x-ray rocking spectra, absorption spectra of pure and variously doped LuAP crystals, and emission spectra under different excitations.

  3. Insight into the architecture of the NuRD complex: structure of the RbAp48-MTA1 subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Saad S M; Murthy, Andal; Zhang, Wei; Przewloka, Marcin R; Silva, Ana P G; Watson, Aleksandra A; Lejon, Sara; Pei, Xue Y; Smits, Arne H; Kloet, Susan L; Wang, Hongxin; Shepherd, Nicholas E; Stokes, Philippa H; Blobel, Gerd A; Vermeulen, Michiel; Glover, David M; Mackay, Joel P; Laue, Ernest D

    2014-08-08

    The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a widely conserved transcriptional co-regulator that harbors both nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. It plays a critical role in the early stages of ES cell differentiation and the reprogramming of somatic to induced pluripotent stem cells. Abnormalities in several NuRD proteins are associated with cancer and aging. We have investigated the architecture of NuRD by determining the structure of a subcomplex comprising RbAp48 and MTA1. Surprisingly, RbAp48 recognizes MTA1 using the same site that it uses to bind histone H4, showing that assembly into NuRD modulates RbAp46/48 interactions with histones. Taken together with other results, our data show that the MTA proteins act as scaffolds for NuRD complex assembly. We further show that the RbAp48-MTA1 interaction is essential for the in vivo integration of RbAp46/48 into the NuRD complex. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. ParamAP: Standardized Parameterization of Sinoatrial Node Myocyte Action Potentials.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Christian; Proenza, Catherine

    2017-08-22

    Sinoatrial node myocytes act as cardiac pacemaker cells by generating spontaneous action potentials (APs). Much information is encoded in sinoatrial AP waveforms, but both the analysis and the comparison of AP parameters between studies is hindered by the lack of standardized parameter definitions and the absence of automated analysis tools. Here we introduce ParamAP, a standalone cross-platform computational tool that uses a template-free detection algorithm to automatically identify and parameterize APs from text input files. ParamAP employs a graphic user interface with automatic and user-customizable input modes, and it outputs data files in text and PDF formats. ParamAP returns a total of 16 AP waveform parameters including time intervals such as the AP duration, membrane potentials such as the maximum diastolic potential, and rates of change of the membrane potential such as the diastolic depolarization rate. ParamAP provides a robust AP detection algorithm in combination with a standardized AP parameter analysis over a wide range of AP waveforms and firing rates, owing in part to the use of an iterative algorithm for the determination of the threshold potential and the diastolic depolarization rate that is independent of the maximum upstroke velocity, a parameter that can vary significantly among sinoatrial APs. Because ParamAP is implemented in Python 3, it is also highly customizable and extensible. In conclusion, ParamAP is a powerful computational tool that facilitates quantitative analysis and enables comparison of sinoatrial APs by standardizing parameter definitions and providing an automated work flow. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV-1 Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by recruiting AP-1 to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail

    PubMed Central

    Roeth, Jeremiah F.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Filzen, Tracey M.; Collins, Kathleen L.

    2004-01-01

    To avoid immune recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef disrupts the transport of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) to the cell surface in HIV-infected T cells. However, the mechanism by which Nef does this is unknown. We report that Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by rerouting newly synthesized MHC-I from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to lysosomal compartments for degradation. The ability of Nef to target MHC-I from the TGN to lysosomes is dependent on expression of the μ1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) AP-1A, a cellular protein complex implicated in TGN to endolysosomal pathways. We demonstrate that in HIV-infected primary T cells, Nef promotes a physical interaction between endogenous AP-1 and MHC-I. Moreover, we present data that this interaction uses a novel AP-1 binding site that requires amino acids in the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail. In sum, our evidence suggests that binding of AP-1 to the Nef–MHC-I complex is an important step required for inhibition of antigen presentation by HIV. PMID:15569716

  6. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  7. [Effect of propofol at different effect-site concentrations on approximate entropy of transient evoked otoacoustic emission signals in adults].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-jian; Gu, Miao-ning; Xiao, Jin-fang

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of propofol at different effect-site concentrations on approximate entropy (ApEn) of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) signals in adults and investigate the possibility of using ApEn for monitoring anesthesia depth. Fifteen ASA class I or II patients (aged 18-49 years with normal hearing) undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this study. Anesthesia was maintained with target-controlled infusion of propofol. With the effect-site concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4 microg/ml, TEOAE signals were monitored and recorded before and after anesthesia. ApEn of TEOAE in 4 frequency ranges (0-2, 1-3, 2.5-4.5, and 4-6 kHz) were calculated using MATLAB software. The ApEn of TEOAE in different frequency ranges showed no significant differences at the same effect-site concentration of propofol, or at different effect-site concentrations in the same frequency range (P>0.05). Anesthesia with propofol at different effect-site concentrations does not obviously affect ApEn of TEOAE signals in adults, and ApEn can not be used as the indicator for evaluating the depth of anesthesia.

  8. Immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on solid surface through self-assembled monolayer and by active-site protection.

    PubMed

    Gao, En-Feng; Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2014-06-01

    Retaining biological activity of a protein after immobilization is an important issue and many studies reported to enhance the activity of proteins after immobilization. We recently developed a new immobilization method of enzyme using active-site protection and minimization of the cross-links between enzyme and surface with a DNA polymerase as a model system. In this study, we extended the new method to an enzyme with a small mono-substrate using alkaline phosphatase (AP) as another model system. A condition to apply the new method is that masking agents, in this case its own substrate needs to stay at the active-site of the enzyme to be immobilized in order to protect the active-site during the harsh immobilization process. This could be achieved by removal of essential divalent ion, Zn2+ that is required for full enzyme activity of AP from the masking solution while active-site of AP was protected with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Approximately 40% of the solution-phase activity was acquired with active-site protected immobilized AP. In addition to protection active-site of AP, the number of immobilization links was kinetically controlled. When the mole fraction of the activated carboxyl group of the linker molecule in self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 12-mercaptododecanoic acid and 6-mercapto-1-ethanol was varied, 10% of 12-mercaptododecanoic acid gave the maximum enzyme activity. Approximately 51% increase in enzyme activity of the active-site protected AP was observed compared to that of the unprotected group. It was shown that the concept of active-site protection and kinetic control of the number of covalent immobilization bonds can be extended to enzymes with small mono-substrates. It opens the possibility of further extension of the new methods of active-site protection and kinetic control of immobilization bond to important enzymes used in research and industrial fields.

  9. Power Saving Control for Battery-Powered Portable WLAN APs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi

    This paper proposes a power saving control function for battery-powered portable wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) to extend the battery life. The IEEE802.11 standard does not support power saving control for APs. To enable a sleep state for an AP, the AP forces the stations (STAs) to refrain from transmitting frames using the network allocation vector (NAV) while the AP is sleeping. Thus the sleep state for the AP can be employed without causing frame loss at the STAs. Numerical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the newly proposed control technique conserves power compared to the conventional control.

  10. Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2{beta} and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP

    SciTech Connect

    Druck, T.; Gu, Y.; Prabhala, G.

    1995-11-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles, involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing, have a surface lattice containing clathrin triskelia and stoichiometric amounts of additional components termed {open_quotes}assembly proteins,{close_quotes} or APs. The AP form at the plasma membrane, AP2, is composed of two large subunits of 100-115 kDa, denoted AP2{alpha} and AP2{beta}, a medium chain of 50 kDa, designated AP50, and a small chain. We have determined human chromosomal locations of genes for a large AP2{beta} (CLAPB1) and a medium (CLAPM1) AP subunit and of a novel clathrin-binding protein, VCP, that binds clathrin simultaneously with A1`s. Chromosomal in situ hybridization of a human genomic clonemore » demonstrated that the CLAPM1 gene mapped to chromosome region 3q28. The gene for the CLAPB1 large subunit was mapped to 17q11.2-q12 by PCR amplification of an AP2{beta} fragment from a panel of rodent-human hybrid DNAs. To map the human VCP sequence, a human-specific probe was made by RT-PCR of human mRNA using oligonucleotide primers from conserved regions of the porcine sequence. The amplified human fragment served as probe on Southern blots of hybrid DNAs to determine that the human VCP locus maps to chromosome region 9pter-q34. 13 refs., 2 figs.« less

  11. Regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling by complex formation between intersectin 1 and the clathrin adaptor complex AP2

    PubMed Central

    Pechstein, Arndt; Bacetic, Jelena; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Gromova, Kira; Sundborger, Anna; Tomlin, Nikolay; Krainer, Georg; Vorontsova, Olga; Schäfer, Johannes G.; Owe, Simen G.; Cousin, Michael A.; Saenger, Wolfram; Shupliakov, Oleg; Haucke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling involves the spatiotemporally controlled assembly of clathrin coat components at phosphatidylinositiol (4, 5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-enriched membrane sites within the periactive zone. Such spatiotemporal control is needed to coordinate SV cargo sorting with clathrin/AP2 recruitment and to restrain membrane fission and synaptojanin-mediated uncoating until membrane deformation and clathrin coat assembly are completed. The molecular events underlying these control mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that the endocytic SH3 domain-containing accessory protein intersectin 1 scaffolds the endocytic process by directly associating with the clathrin adaptor AP2. Acute perturbation of the intersectin 1-AP2 interaction in lamprey synapses in situ inhibits the onset of SV recycling. Structurally, complex formation can be attributed to the direct association of hydrophobic peptides within the intersectin 1 SH3A-B linker region with the “side sites” of the AP2 α- and β-appendage domains. AP2 appendage association of the SH3A-B linker region inhibits binding of the inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 to intersectin 1. These data identify the intersectin-AP2 complex as an important regulator of clathrin-mediated SV recycling in synapses. PMID:20160082

  12. AP Powerhouse Creates High Expectations for Dallas Students: Spreading the AP Challenge to Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Colleen McCain

    2001-01-01

    Describes how veteran teacher Joan Vinson has made Advanced Placement (AP) a "cool thing to do" for minority students. With the help of private funding and a Texas-size enthusiasm, she is also convincing more teachers to take on the AP challenge, with a focus on quality over quantity. (EV)

  13. AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony among siblings.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jochen; Angel, Peter; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina

    2004-12-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun, Fos and ATF protein dimers. It mediates gene regulation in response to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress signals, bacterial and viral infections, as well as oncogenic stimuli. Studies in genetically modified mice and cells have highlighted a crucial role for AP-1 in a variety of cellular events involved in normal development or neoplastic transformation causing cancer. However, emerging evidence indicates that the contribution of AP-1 to determination of cell fates critically depends on the relative abundance of AP-1 subunits, the composition of AP-1 dimers, the quality of stimulus, the cell type and the cellular environment. Therefore, AP-1-mediated regulation of processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and transformation should be considered within the context of a complex dynamic network of signalling pathways and other nuclear factors that respond simultaneously.

  14. Label-free functional nucleic acid sensors for detecting target agents

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-13

    A general methodology to design label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors using a vacant site approach and an abasic site approach is described. In one example, a method for designing label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors (e.g., those that include a DNAzyme, aptamer or aptazyme) that have a tunable dynamic range through the introduction of an abasic site (e.g., dSpacer) or a vacant site into the functional nucleic acids. Also provided is a general method for designing label-free fluorescent aptamer sensors based on the regulation of malachite green (MG) fluorescence. A general method for designing label-free fluorescent catalytic and molecular beacons (CAMBs) is also provided. The methods demonstrated here can be used to design many other label-free fluorescent sensors to detect a wide range of analytes. Sensors and methods of using the disclosed sensors are also provided.

  15. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  16. Peculiar Traits of Coarse AP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    propellant. Since coarse AP in particles larger than about 150 microns are used in great majority for AP oxidized solid propellants, the nature of...Microscopic amounts of liquid containing water were contained in the reactive centers. The maximum size for reactive centers was reasoned to be...bond in the original chlorate ion. Oxygen atom swapping between chlorate and perchlorate ions would provide chlorate migration without use of forces

  17. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  18. NFκB- and AP-1-mediated DNA looping regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 transcription in TNF-α-treated human leukemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the spatial association of critical genomic elements in the effect of TNF-α on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in human leukemia U937 cells. TNF-α up-regulated MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA level in U937 cells, and Akt-mediated-NFκB/p65 activation and JNK-mediated c-Jun activation were proven to be involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. Promoter luciferase activity assay revealed that NFκB (nt-600) and AP-1 (nt-79) binding sites were crucial for TNF-α-induced transcription of MMP-9 gene. The results of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that TNF-α reduced histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) recruitment but increased p300 (a histone acetyltransferase) recruitment to MMP-9 promoter regions surrounding NFκB and AP-1 binding sites. Consistently, TNF-α increased enrichment of the acetylated histone H3 mark on MMP-9 promoter regions. DNA affinity purification assay revealed that p300 and HDAC1 could bind oligonucleotides containing AP-1/c-Jun and NFκB/p65 binding sites. Chromosome conformation capture assay showed that TNF-α stimulated chromosomal loops in the MMP-9 promoter via NFκB/p65 and AP-1/c-Jun. The p300-associated acetyltransferase activity was crucial for p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping, and inhibition of HDAC activity increased the level of DNA looping. Reduction in the level of DNA looping eliminated all TNF-α-stimulated MMP-9 up-regulation. Taken together, our data suggest that p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping is involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation and that the recruitment of p300 or HDAC1 to NFκB and AP-1 binding sites modifies the level of DNA looping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Duplication and Transference of Function in the paleoAP3 Lineage of Floral Organ Identity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Galimba, Kelsey D.; Martínez-Gómez, Jesús; Di Stilio, Verónica S.

    2018-01-01

    The floral organ identity gene APETALA3 (AP3) is a MADS-box transcription factor involved in stamen and petal identity that belongs to the B-class of the ABC model of flower development. Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae), an emerging model in the non-core eudicots, has AP3 homologs derived from both ancient and recent gene duplications. Prior work has shown that petals have been lost repeatedly and independently in Ranunculaceae in correlation with the loss of a specific AP3 paralog, and Thalictrum represents one of these instances. The main goal of this study was to conduct a functional analysis of the three AP3 orthologs present in Thalictrum thalictroides, representing the paleoAP3 gene lineage, to determine the degree of redundancy versus divergence after gene duplication. Because Thalictrum lacks petals, and has lost the petal-specific AP3, we also asked whether heterotopic expression of the remaining AP3 genes contributes to the partial transference of petal function to the first whorl found in insect-pollinated species. To address these questions, we undertook functional characterization by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), protein–protein interaction and binding site analyses. Our results illustrate partial redundancy among Thalictrum AP3s, with deep conservation of B-class function in stamen identity and a novel role in ectopic petaloidy of sepals. Certain aspects of petal function of the lost AP3 locus have apparently been transferred to the other paralogs. A novel result is that the protein products interact not only with each other, but also as homodimers. Evidence presented here also suggests that expression of the different ThtAP3 paralogs is tightly integrated, with an apparent disruption of B function homeostasis upon silencing of one of the paralogs that codes for a truncated protein. To explain this result, we propose two testable alternative scenarios: that the truncated protein is a dominant negative mutant or that there is a compensational

  20. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  1. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{supmore » -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the k

  2. One-step affinity tag purification of full-length recombinant human AP-1 complexes from bacterial inclusion bodies using a polycistronic expression system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, A-Young; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor is a dimeric protein complex formed primarily between Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2) family members. These distinct AP-1 complexes are expressed in many cell types and modulate target gene expression implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. Although the importance of AP-1 has long been recognized, the biochemical characterization of AP-1 remains limited in part due to the difficulty in purifying full-length, reconstituted dimers with active DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. Using a combination of bacterial coexpression and epitope-tagging methods, we successfully purified all 12 heterodimers (3 Jun × 4 Fos) of full-length human AP-1 complexes as well as c-Jun/c-Jun, JunD/JunD, and c-Jun/JunD dimers from bacterial inclusion bodies using one-step nickel-NTA affinity tag purification following denaturation and renaturation of coexpressed AP-1 subunits. Coexpression of two constitutive components in a dimeric AP-1 complex helps stabilize the proteins when compared with individual protein expression in bacteria. Purified dimeric AP-1 complexes are functional in sequence-specific DNA binding, as illustrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting, and are also active in transcription with in vitro-reconstituted human papillomavirus (HPV) chromatin containing AP-1-binding sites in the native configuration of HPV nucleosomes. The availability of these recombinant full-length human AP-1 complexes has greatly facilitated mechanistic studies of AP-1-regulated gene transcription in many biological systems. PMID:18329890

  3. Structure of the two-domain hexameric APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans: structural basis for the absence of ATP sulfurylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Sean C.; Segel, Irwin H.; Fisher, Andrew J., E-mail: fisher@chem.ucdavis.edu

    2009-10-01

    APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans contains an inactive N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain. The structure presented unveils the first hexameric assembly for an APS kinase, and reveals that structural changes in the N-terminal domain disrupt the ATP sulfurylase active site thus prohibiting activity. The Tbd-0210 gene of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans is annotated to encode a 60.5 kDa bifunctional enzyme with ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activity. This putative bifunctional enzyme was cloned, expressed and structurally characterized. The 2.95 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure reported here revealed a hexameric assembly with D{sub 3} symmetry. Each subunit contains a large N-terminalmore » sulfurylase-like domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain reminiscent of the two-domain fungal ATP sulfurylases of Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which also exhibit a hexameric assembly. However, the T. denitrificans enzyme exhibits numerous structural and sequence differences in the N-terminal domain that render it inactive with respect to ATP sulfurylase activity. Surprisingly, the C-terminal domain does indeed display APS kinase activity, indicating that this gene product is a true APS kinase. Therefore, these results provide the first structural insights into a unique hexameric APS kinase that contains a nonfunctional ATP sulfurylase-like domain of unknown function.« less

  4. Analogs of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A).

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    This review summarizes our knowledge of analogs and derivatives of diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A), the most extensively studied member of the dinucleoside 5',5"'-P1,Pn-polyphosphate (NpnN) family. After a short discussion of enzymes that may be responsible for the accumulation and degradation of Np4)N's in the cell, this review focuses on chemically and/or enzymatically produced analogs and their practical applications. Particular attention is paid to compounds that have aided the study of enzymes involved in the metabolism of Ap4A (Np4N'). Certain Ap4A analogs were alternative substrates of Ap4A-degrading enzymes and/or acted as enzyme inhibitors, some other helped to establish enzyme mechanisms, increased the sensitivity of certain enzyme assays or produced stable enzyme:ligand complexes for structural analysis.

  5. The synergistic transactivation of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) pregenomic promoter by the E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6) with HBV X protein was mediated through the AP1 site of E element in the enhancer I (EnI) in human liver cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Choi, B H; Rho, H M

    1999-11-01

    Infection by HBV of a cell already infected with other viral species or vice versa has been suggested as being involved in hepatocellular carcinoma. Using the CAT assay method, we investigated the interactive roles of HBx and potentially oncogenic and transactivating viral early proteins such as Ad5 E1A, HPV-16 E6, and SV40 T ag. In the presence of HBx, only HPV-16 E6 showed significant synergistic transactivation of EnI. We further investigated the function of the HPV-16 E6 using deletion, heterologous promoter, and mutation analyses on the EnI promoter. The results showed that the synergistic effect was mediated through the AP1 site of the E element in EnI by the direct activation of AP1 and support the idea that the infection by HBV of the cell with other viral species such as HPV-16 could increase the transcription activity of the HBV and other oncogenes containing an AP1 site in the promoter. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. AP-1 mediated transcriptional repression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 in response to interferon β.

    PubMed

    Mittelstadt, Megan L; Patel, Rekha C

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a 92 kDa zinc-dependant endopeptidase that degrades components of the extracellular matrix. Increased expression of MMP-9 is implicated in many pathological conditions including metastatic cancer, multiple sclerosis, and atherosclerosis. Although it has been widely noted that interferon-β (IFNβ) downregulates both the basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level, the molecular mechanism of this repression is poorly understood. In the present study we identify a novel mechanism for repression of MMP-9 transcription by IFNβ in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Using reporter assays with promoter deletion constructs we show that IFNβ's inhibitory effects require a region of the promoter between -154 and -72, which contains an AP-1 binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicate that IFNβ increases histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment to the MMP-9 promoter and reduces histone H3 acetylation, in addition to reduced NF-κB recruitment. ChIP analysis shows that IFNβ induced HDAC1 recruitment to the MMP-9 promoter and IFNβ mediated transcriptional repression is lost when the AP-1 binding site is inactivated by a point mutation. Altogether, our results establish that the repression of MMP-9 transcription in response to IFNβ occurs by the recruitment of HDAC1 via the proximal AP-1 binding site.

  7. HIP1 and HIP12 display differential binding to F-actin, AP2, and clathrin. Identification of a novel interaction with clathrin light chain.

    PubMed

    Legendre-Guillemin, Valerie; Metzler, Martina; Charbonneau, Martine; Gan, Lu; Chopra, Vikramjit; Philie, Jacynthe; Hayden, Michael R; McPherson, Peter S

    2002-05-31

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and HIP12 are orthologues of Sla2p, a yeast protein with essential functions in endocytosis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We now report that HIP1 and HIP12 are major components of the clathrin coat that interact but differ in their ability to bind clathrin and the clathrin adaptor AP2. HIP1 contains a clathrin-box and AP2 consensus-binding sites that display high affinity binding to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and the ear domain of the AP2 alpha subunit, respectively. These consensus sites are poorly conserved in HIP12 and correspondingly, HIP12 does not bind to AP2 nor does it demonstrate high affinity clathrin binding. Moreover, HIP12 co-sediments with F-actin in contrast to HIP1, which exhibits no interaction with actin in vitro. Despite these differences, both proteins efficiently stimulate clathrin assembly through their central helical domain. Interestingly, in both HIP1 and HIP12, this domain binds directly to the clathrin light chain. Our data suggest that HIP1 and HIP12 play related yet distinct functional roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  8. ONLINE MINIMIZATION OF VERTICAL BEAM SIZES AT APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng

    In this paper, online minimization of vertical beam sizes along the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed and employed for the online optimization in the APS storage ring. A total of 59 families of skew quadrupole magnets were employed as knobs to adjust the coupling and the vertical dispersion in the APS storage ring. Starting from initially zero current skew quadrupoles, small vertical beam sizes along the APS storage ring were achieved in a short optimization time of one hour. The optimization results from this method are briefly compared with the onemore » from LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) response matrix correction.« less

  9. apGA: An adaptive parallel genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.; Baluja, S.

    1991-01-01

    We develop apGA, a parallel variant of the standard generational GA, that combines aggressive search with perpetual novelty, yet is able to preserve enough genetic structure to optimally solve variably scaled, non-uniform block deceptive and hierarchical deceptive problems. apGA combines elitism, adaptive mutation, adaptive exponential scaling, and temporal memory. We present empirical results for six classes of problems, including the DeJong test suite. Although we have not investigated hybrids, we note that apGA could be incorporated into other recent GA variants such as GENITOR, CHC, and the recombination stage of mGA. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mutations at the S1 sites of methionine aminopeptidases from Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens reveal the residues critical for substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Ya; Cui, Yong-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Gu, Min; Li, Jia; Nan, Fa-Jun; Ye, Qi-Zhuang

    2004-05-14

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) catalyzes the removal of methionine from newly synthesized polypeptides. MetAP carries out this cleavage with high precision, and Met is the only natural amino acid residue at the N terminus that is accepted, although type I and type II MetAPs use two different sets of residues to form the hydrophobic S1 site. Characteristics of the S1 binding pocket in type I MetAP were investigated by systematic mutation of each of the seven S1 residues in Escherichia coli MetAP type I (EcMetAP1) and human MetAP type I (HsMetAP1). We found that Tyr-65 and Trp-221 in EcMetAP1, as well as the corresponding residues Phe-197 and Trp-352 in HsMetAP1, were essential for the hydrolysis of a thiopeptolide substrate, Met-S-Gly-Phe. Mutation of Phe-191 to Ala in HsMetAP1 caused inactivity in contrast to the full activity of EcMetAP1(Y62A), which may suggest a subtle difference between the two type I enzymes. The more striking finding is that mutation of Cys-70 in EcMetAP1 or Cys-202 in HsMetAP1 opens up the S1 pocket. The thiopeptolides Leu-S-Gly-Phe and Phe-S-Gly-Phe, with previously unacceptable Leu or Phe as the N-terminal residue, became efficient substrates of EcMetAP1(C70A) and HsMetAP1(C202A). The relaxed specificity shown in these S1 site mutants for the N-terminal residues was confirmed by hydrolysis of peptide substrates and inhibition by reaction products. The structural features at the enzyme active site will be useful information for designing specific MetAP inhibitors for therapeutic applications.

  11. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  12. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.330B] Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office... AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2011 competition. SUMMARY: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting applications for the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition...

  13. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  14. PKC-dependent stimulation of the human MCT1 promoter involves transcription factor AP2.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Seema; Dwivedi, Alka; Gill, Ravinder K; Singla, Amika; Alrefai, Waddah A; Malakooti, Jaleh; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2009-02-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate in the human colon. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that phorbol ester, PMA (1 microM, 24 h), upregulates butyrate transport and MCT1 protein expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of MCT1 gene expression by PMA in the intestine are not known. In the present study, we showed that PMA (0.1 microM, 24 h) increased the MCT1 promoter activity (-871/+91) by approximately fourfold. A corresponding increase in MCT1 mRNA abundance in response to PMA was also observed. PMA-induced stimulation of MCT1 promoter activity was observed as early as 1 h and persisted until 24 h, suggesting that the effects of PMA are attributable to initial PKC activation. Kinase inhibitor and phosphorylation studies indicated that these effects may be mediated through activation of the atypical PKC-zeta isoform. 5'-deletion studies demonstrated that the MCT1 core promoter region (-229/+91) is the PMA-responsive region. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed the predominant involvement of potential activator protein 2 (AP2) binding site in the activation of MCT1 promoter activity by PMA. In addition, overexpression of AP2 in Caco-2 cells significantly increased MCT1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings showing the regulation of MCT1 promoter by PKC and AP2 are of significant importance for an understanding of the molecular regulation of SCFA absorption in the human intestine.

  15. Diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap3A and Ap4A) behave as alarmones triggering the synthesis of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna; Zielezińska, Małgorzata; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    It is known that cells under stress accumulate various dinucleoside polyphosphates, compounds suggested to function as alarmones. In plants, the phenylpropanoid pathways yield metabolites protecting these organisms against various types of stress. Observations reported in this communication link these two phenomena and provide an example of a metabolic "addressee" for an "alarm" signaled by diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A) or diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In response to added Ap3A or Ap4A, seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana incubated in full nutrition medium increased both the expression of the genes for and the specific activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, enzymes that control the beginning of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Neither adenine mononucleotides (AMP, ADP or ATP) nor adenosine evoked such effects. Reactions catalyzed in vitro by these enzymes were not affected by Ap3A or Ap4A.

  16. Multipurpose active pixel sensor (APS)-based microtracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl C.; Zhu, David Q.

    1998-12-01

    A new, photon-sensitive, imaging array, the active pixel sensor (APS) has emerged as a competitor to the CCD imager for use in star and target trackers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has undertaken a program to develop a new generation, highly integrated, APS-based, multipurpose tracker: the Programmable Intelligent Microtracker (PIM). The supporting hardware used in the PIM has been carefully selected to enhance the inherent advantages of the APS. Adequate computation power is included to perform star identification, star tracking, attitude determination, space docking, feature tracking, descent imaging for landing control, and target tracking capabilities. Its first version uses a JPL developed 256 X 256-pixel APS and an advanced 32-bit RISC microcontroller. By taking advantage of the unique features of the APS/microcontroller combination, the microtracker will achieve about an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass and power consumption compared to present state-of-the-art star trackers. It will also add the advantage of programmability to enable it to perform a variety of star, other celestial body, and target tracking tasks. The PIM is already proving the usefulness of its design concept for space applications. It is demonstrating the effectiveness of taking such an integrated approach in building a new generation of high performance, general purpose, tracking instruments to be applied to a large variety of future space missions.

  17. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  18. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-30

    efforts—the Expedited, Non-Developmental Item (NDI) APS effort and the Modular Active Protection System (MAPS) effort. The Marines describe their...17 Modular Active Protection System (MAPS) Effort .......................................................... 18 The Marine Corps APS...Merkava Mark 4 tank was designed around the Trophy APS. 32 The Army’s Modular Active Protection System (MAPS) effort, described below, is intended to

  19. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase and DNA polymerase β modulate BER inhibitor potentiation of glioma cells to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiang-bo; Svilar, David; Trivedi, Ram N.; Wang, Xiao-hong; Goellner, Eva M.; Moore, Briana; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Banze, Lauren A.; Brown, Ashley R.; Sobol, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is the preferred chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of glioma following surgical resection and/or radiation. Resistance to TMZ is attributed to efficient repair and/or tolerance of TMZ-induced DNA lesions. The majority of the TMZ-induced DNA base adducts are repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway and therefore modulation of this pathway can enhance drug sensitivity. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) initiates BER by removing TMZ-induced N3-methyladenine and N7-methylguanine base lesions, leaving abasic sites (AP sites) in DNA for further processing by BER. Using the human glioma cell lines LN428 and T98G, we report here that potentiation of TMZ via BER inhibition [methoxyamine (MX), the PARP inhibitors PJ34 and ABT-888 or depletion (knockdown) of PARG] is greatly enhanced by over-expression of the BER initiating enzyme MPG. We also show that methoxyamine-induced potentiation of TMZ in MPG expressing glioma cells is abrogated by elevated-expression of the rate-limiting BER enzyme DNA polymerase β (Polβ), suggesting that cells proficient for BER readily repair AP sites in the presence of MX. Further, depletion of Polβ increases PARP inhibitor-induced potentiation in the MPG over-expressing glioma cells, suggesting that expression of Polβ modulates the cytotoxic effect of combining increased repair initiation and BER inhibition. This study demonstrates that MPG overexpression, together with inhibition of BER, sensitizes glioma cells to the alkylating agent TMZ in a Polβ-dependent manner, suggesting that the expression level of both MPG and Polβ might be used to predict the effectiveness of MX and PARP-mediated potentiation of TMZ in cancer treatment. PMID:21377995

  20. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer; Afawi, Zaid; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stéphanie; Caglayan, Hande; Depienne, Christel; De Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Dimova, Petia; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Guerrini, Renzo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jahn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes; Lerche, Holger; Marini, Carla; Muhle, Hiltrud; Rosenow, Felix; Serratosa, Jose M.; Møller, Rikke S.; Stephani, Ulrich; Striano, Pasquale; Talvik, Tiina; Von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Zara, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  1. Evidence that a burst of DNA depurination in SENCAR mouse skin induces error-prone repair and forms mutations in the H-ras gene.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, D; Mailander, P C; Li, K M; Higginbotham, S; Zhang, H L; Gross, M L; Meza, J L; Cavalieri, E L; Rogan, E G

    2001-11-29

    Treatment of SENCAR mouse skin with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene results in abundant formation of abasic sites that undergo error-prone excision repair, forming oncogenic H-ras mutations in the early preneoplastic period. To examine whether the abundance of abasic sites causes repair infidelity, we treated SENCAR mouse skin with estradiol-3,4-quinone (E(2)-3,4-Q) and determined adduct levels 1 h after treatment, as well as mutation spectra in the H-ras gene between 6 h and 3 days after treatment. E(2)-3,4-Q formed predominantly (> or =99%) the rapidly-depurinating 4-hydroxy estradiol (4-OHE(2))-1-N3Ade adduct and the slower-depurinating 4-OHE(2)-1-N7Gua adduct. Between 6 h and 3 days, E(2)-3,4-Q induced abundant A to G mutations in H-ras DNA, frequently in the context of a 3'-G residue. Using a T.G-DNA glycosylase (TDG)-PCR assay, we determined that the early A to G mutations (6 and 12 h) were in the form of G.T heteroduplexes, suggesting misrepair at A-specific depurination sites. Since G-specific mutations were infrequent in the spectra, it appears that the slow rate of depurination of the N7Gua adducts during active repair may not generate a threshold level of G-specific abasic sites to affect repair fidelity. These results also suggest that E(2)-3,4-Q, a suspected endogenous carcinogen, is a genotoxic compound and could cause mutations.

  2. Sorting of Pmel17 to melanosomes through the plasma membrane by AP1 and AP2: evidence for the polarized nature of melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Julio C.; Watabe, Hidenori; Chi, An; Rouzaud, Francois; Chen, Kevin G.; Vieira, Wilfred D.; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Berens, Werner; Nagashima, Kunio; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Appella, Ettore; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adaptor proteins (AP) play important roles in the sorting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network, but how they function in the sorting of various melanosome-specific proteins such as Pmel17, an essential structural component of melanosomes, in melanocytes is unknown. We characterized the processing and trafficking of Pmel17 via adaptor protein complexes within melanocytic cells. Proteomics analysis detected Pmel17, AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4 in early melanosomes. Real-time PCR, immunolabeling and tissue in-situ hybridization confirmed the coexpression of AP1 isoforms μ1A and μ1B (expressed only in polarized cells) in melanocytes and keratinocytes, but expression of μ1B is missing in some melanoma cell lines. Transfection with AP1 isoforms (μ1A or μ1B) showed two distinct distribution patterns that involved Pmel17, and only μ1B was able to restore the sorting of Pmel17 to the plasma membrane in cells lacking μ1B expression. Finally, we established that expression of μ1B is regulated physiologically in melanocytes by UV radiation or DKK1. These results show that Pmel17 is sorted to melanosomes by various intracellular routes, directly or indirectly through the plasma membrane, and the presence of basolateral elements in melanocytes suggests their polarized nature. PMID:16492709

  3. Neuronal Activity and the Expression of Clathrin Assembly Protein AP180

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fangbai; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The clathrin assembly protein AP180 is known to promote the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles in the neuron. However, it is unknown whether the expression of AP180 is influenced by neuronal activity. In this study, we report that chronic depolarization results in a reduction of AP180 from hippocampal neurons, while acute depolarization causes a dispersed synaptic distribution of AP180. Activity-induced effects are observed only for AP180, but not for the structurally-related clathrin assembly proteins CALM, epsin1, or HIP1. These findings suggest that AP180 levels and synaptic distribution are highly sensitive to neuronal activity. PMID:20937255

  4. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow

  5. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow

  6. AccuNet/AP (Associated Press) Multimedia Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The AccuNet/AP Multimedia Archive is an electronic library containing the AP's current photos and a selection of pictures from their enormous print and negative library, as well as text and graphic material. It is composed of two photo databases as well as graphics, text, and audio databases. The features of this database are briefly described in…

  7. LaAP2L1, a heterosis-associated AP2/EREBP transcription factor of Larix, increases organ size and final biomass by affecting cell proliferation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai; Zhou, Yanan; Jin, Chuan; Song, Wenqin; Chen, Chengbin; Wang, Chunguo

    2013-11-01

    In Larix and in some crops, heterosis is prevalent and has been widely used in breeding to produce excellent varieties. However, the molecular basis of heterosis in Larix remains ambiguous. LaAP2L1, a member of the AP2/EREBP transcription factor family, has been suggested to be involved in heterosis in Larix hybrids. Here, the function and regulation of LaAP2L1 were further explored. Overexpression of LaAP2L1 led to markedly enlarged organs and heterosis-like traits in Arabidopsis. Fresh weight of leaves was almost twice as great as in vector controls. Likewise, seed yield of 35S::LaAP2L1 individual plants was >200% greater than that of control plants. The enlarged organs and heterosis-like traits displayed by 35S::LaAP2L1 plants were mainly due to enhanced cell proliferation and prolonged growth duration. At the molecular level, LaAP2L1 upregulated the expression of ANT, EBP1, and CycD3;1 and inhibited the expression of ARGOS in 35S::LaAP2L1 plants, suggesting an important molecular role of LaAP2L1 in regulating plant organ development. These findings provide new insights into the formation of heterosis in woody plants and suggest that LaAP2L1 has potential applications in breeding high-yielding crops and energy plants. In addition, 50 AP2/EREBP transcription factors, including LaAP2L1, in Larix were identified by transcriptome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. This provided information that will be important in further revealing the functions of these transcription factors.

  8. The APS in Public Affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2000-04-01

    Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

  9. Influence of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) on lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rüsing, D; Verspohl, E J

    2004-01-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap(x)A) are physiologically released and may be partly involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Ap(4)A (diadenosine tetraphosphate) leads to an increase in blood glucose while it decreases insulin levels in plasma. A possible link between Ap(x)A and diabetes mellitus-associated diseases such as insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia (plasma free fatty acids, cholesterol and its biosynthesis, triacylglycerols) has not been investigated yet. Parameters such as free fatty acid and cholesterol content in blood were determined enzymically. The biosynthesis of cholesterol and triacylglycerols was determined in HepG2 cells using the radioactive precursor [(14)C]-acetate and by using gas chromatography. Plasma free fatty acids were significantly decreased 5 and 10 min after an Ap(4)A bolus (0.75 mg kg(-1) b.w.) given to rats. Plasma cholesterol was reduced 5 and 60 min after Ap(4)A administration. LPDS (lipoprotein-deficient serum)-stimulated cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells was significantly reduced after 1 h incubation with Ap(4)A. Triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in HepG2 cells was not significantly influenced by Ap(4)A; there was just a tendency for a concentration-dependent decrease in TAG levels. In conclusion Ap(4)A as a diabetogenetic compound is not likely to be responsible for the development of insulin resistance or of hyperlipidemia. Parameters such as free fatty acids, cholesterol and triacylglycerols are not elevated by Ap(4)A, but are even decreased. Ap(4)A seems to be involved in the development of diabetes mellitus by increasing blood glucose and decreasing plasma insulin as shown earlier, but not in diabetes mellitus-associated diseases such as insulin resistance or hyperlipidemia.

  10. Matrix proteins of Nipah and Hendra viruses interact with beta subunits of AP-3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2014-11-01

    Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998, killing 109 people

  11. Matrix Proteins of Nipah and Hendra Viruses Interact with Beta Subunits of AP-3 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S.; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998

  12. The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage.

    PubMed

    Roszniowski, Bartosz; Latka, Agnieszka; Maciejewska, Barbara; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Olszak, Tomasz; Briers, Yves; Holt, Giles S; Valvano, Miguel A; Lavigne, Rob; Smith, Darren L; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-02-01

    Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus. The AP3 and KS5 lysis genes have conserved locations and high amino acid sequence similarity. The AP3 bacteriophage particles remain infective up to 5 h at pH 4-10 and are stable at 60 °C for 30 min, but are sensitive to chloroform, with no remaining infective particles after 24 h of treatment. AP3 lysogeny can occur by stable genomic integration and by pseudo-lysogeny. The lysogenic bacterial mutants did not exhibit any significant changes in virulence compared to wild-type host strain when tested in the Galleria mellonella moth wax model. Moreover, AP3 treatment of larvae infected with B. cenocepacia revealed a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in larvae survival in comparison to AP3-untreated infected larvae. AP3 showed robust lytic activity, as evidenced by its broad host range, the absence of increased virulence in lysogenic isolates, the lack of bacterial gene disruption conditioned by bacterial tRNA downstream integration site, and the absence of detected toxin sequences. These data suggest that the AP3 phage is a promising potent agent against bacteria belonging to the most common B. cenocepacia IIIA lineage strains.

  13. Interactions of the GM2 activator protein with phosphatidylcholine bilayers: a site-directed spin-labeling power saturation study.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Jordan D; Ran, Yong; Carter, Jeffery D; Fanucci, Gail E

    2009-09-02

    The GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) is an accessory protein that is an essential component in the catabolism of the ganglioside GM2. A function of GM2AP is to bind and extract GM2 from intralysosomal vesicles, forming a soluble protein-lipid complex, which interacts with the hydrolase Hexosaminidase A, the enzyme that cleaves the terminal sugar group of GM2. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling with power saturation electron paramagnetic resonance to determine the surface-bound orientation of GM2AP upon phosphatidylcholine vesicles. Because GM2AP extracts lipid ligands from the vesicle and is undergoing exchange on and off the vesicle surface, we utilized a nickel-chelating lipid to localize the paramagnetic metal collider to the lipid bilayer-aqueous interface. Spin-labeled sites that collide with the lipid-bound metal relaxing agent provide a means for mapping sites of the protein that interact with the lipid bilayer interface. Results show that GM2AP binds to lipid bilayers such that the residues lining the lipid-binding cavity lie on the vesicle surface. This orientation creates a favorable microenvironment that can allow for the lipid tails to flip out of the bilayer directly into the hydrophobic pocket of GM2AP.

  14. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  15. Clustered DNA damages induced in isolated DNA and in human cells by low doses of ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, B. M.; Bennett, P. V.; Sidorkina, O.; Laval, J.; Lowenstein, D. I. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Clustered DNA damages-two or more closely spaced damages (strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases) on opposing strands-are suspects as critical lesions producing lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. However, as a result of the lack of methods for measuring damage clusters induced by ionizing radiation in genomic DNA, neither the frequencies of their production by physiological doses of radiation, nor their repairability, nor their biological effects are known. On the basis of methods that we developed for quantitating damages in large DNAs, we have devised and validated a way of measuring ionizing radiation-induced clustered lesions in genomic DNA, including DNA from human cells. DNA is treated with an endonuclease that induces a single-strand cleavage at an oxidized base or abasic site. If there are two closely spaced damages on opposing strands, such cleavage will reduce the size of the DNA on a nondenaturing gel. We show that ionizing radiation does induce clustered DNA damages containing abasic sites, oxidized purines, or oxidized pyrimidines. Further, the frequency of each of these cluster classes is comparable to that of frank double-strand breaks; among all complex damages induced by ionizing radiation, double-strand breaks are only about 20%, with other clustered damage constituting some 80%. We also show that even low doses (0.1-1 Gy) of high linear energy transfer ionizing radiation induce clustered damages in human cells.

  16. Predictive Validity Study of the APS Writing and Reading Tests [and] Validating Placement Rules for the APS Writing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    California's College of the Canyons has used the College Board Assessment and Placement Services (APS) test to assess students' abilities in basic and college English since spring 1993. These two reports summarize data from a May 1994 study of the predictive validity of the APS writing and reading tests and a June 1994 effort to validate the cut…

  17. Structural basis of lipid-driven conformational transitions in the KvAP voltage-sensing domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Qufei; Wanderling, Sherry; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Perozo, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels respond to transmembrane electric fields through reorientations of the positively charged S4 helix within the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Despite a wealth of structural and functional data, the details of this conformational change remain controversial. Recent electrophysiological evidence showed that equilibrium between the resting ('down') and activated ('up') conformations of the KvAP VSD from Aeropyrum pernix can be biased through reconstitution in lipids with or without phosphate groups. We investigated the structural transition between these functional states, using site-directed spin-labeling and EPR spectroscopic methods. Solvent accessibility and interhelical distance determinations suggest that KvAP gates through S4 movements involving an ∼3-Å upward tilt and simultaneous ∼2-Å axial shift. This motion leads to large accessibly changes in the intracellular water-filled crevice and supports a new model of gating that combines structural rearrangements and electric-field remodeling.

  18. AP Physics 1 & 2; Some Things Old and Some Things New

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In fall September 2014, AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2 replaced the AP Physics B curriculum, with the first exams in the new courses coming up in May 2015. In this talk I will give an overview of the history and rationale for the changes, describe the process of developing the new Curriculum Framework, discuss changes in emphasis compared to AP Physics B, including the emphasis on laboratory work. Finally, I will give examples of the difference in the style of the questions to be used in the new AP exams.

  19. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-11-17

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  20. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN. PMID:29149040

  1. Abasic Phosphorothioate Oligomers Inhibit HIV-1 Reverse Transcription and Block Virus Transmission across Polarized Ectocervical Organ Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Fraietta, Joseph A.; Mueller, Yvonne M.; Lozenski, Karissa L.; Ratner, Deena; Boesteanu, Alina C.; Hancock, Aidan S.; Lackman-Smith, Carol; Zentner, Isaac J.; Chaiken, Irwin M.; Chung, Suhman; LeGrice, Stuart F. J.; Snyder, Beth A.; Mankowski, Marie K.; Jones, Natalie M.; Hope, Jennifer L.; Gupta, Phalguni; Anderson, Sharon H.; Wigdahl, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of universally available antiretroviral (ARV) drugs or a vaccine against HIV-1, microbicides may offer the most immediate hope for controlling the AIDS pandemic. The most advanced and clinically effective microbicides are based on ARV agents that interfere with the earliest stages of HIV-1 replication. Our objective was to identify and characterize novel ARV-like inhibitors, as well as demonstrate their efficacy at blocking HIV-1 transmission. Abasic phosphorothioate 2′ deoxyribose backbone (PDB) oligomers were evaluated in a variety of mechanistic assays and for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection and virus transmission through primary human cervical mucosa. Cellular and biochemical assays were used to elucidate the antiviral mechanisms of action of PDB oligomers against both lab-adapted and primary CCR5- and CXCR4-utilizing HIV-1 strains, including a multidrug-resistant isolate. A polarized cervical organ culture was used to test the ability of PDB compounds to block HIV-1 transmission to primary immune cell populations across ectocervical tissue. The antiviral activity and mechanisms of action of PDB-based compounds were dependent on oligomer size, with smaller molecules preventing reverse transcription and larger oligomers blocking viral entry. Importantly, irrespective of molecular size, PDBs potently inhibited virus infection and transmission within genital tissue samples. Furthermore, the PDB inhibitors exhibited excellent toxicity and stability profiles and were found to be safe for vaginal application in vivo. These results, coupled with the previously reported intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties of PDBs, support further investigations in the development of PDB-based topical microbicides for preventing the global spread of HIV-1. PMID:25224013

  2. NECAPs are negative regulators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, Gwendolyn M; Partlow, Edward A; Lange, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize transmembrane receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but it remains unclear how the machinery underpinning this process is regulated. We recently discovered that membrane-associated muniscin proteins such as FCHo and SGIP initiate endocytosis by converting the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex to an open, active conformation that is then phosphorylated (Hollopeter et al., 2014). Here we report that loss of ncap-1, the sole C. elegans gene encoding an adaptiN Ear-binding Coat-Associated Protein (NECAP), bypasses the requirement for FCHO-1. Biochemical analyses reveal AP2 accumulates in an open, phosphorylated state in ncap-1 mutant worms, suggesting NECAPs promote the closed, inactive conformation of AP2. Consistent with this model, NECAPs preferentially bind open and phosphorylated forms of AP2 in vitro and localize with constitutively open AP2 mutants in vivo. NECAPs do not associate with phosphorylation-defective AP2 mutants, implying that phosphorylation precedes NECAP recruitment. We propose NECAPs function late in endocytosis to inactivate AP2. PMID:29345618

  3. Elastic Coupling of Nascent apCAM Adhesions to Flowing Actin Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mejean, Cecile O.; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Buck, Kenneth B.; Kress, Holger; Shundrovsky, Alla; Merrill, Jason W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions are multi-molecular complexes that transmit forces generated by a cell’s acto-myosin networks to external substrates. While the physical properties of some of the individual components of adhesions have been carefully characterized, the mechanics of the coupling between the cytoskeleton and the adhesion site as a whole are just beginning to be revealed. We characterized the mechanics of nascent adhesions mediated by the immunoglobulin-family cell adhesion molecule apCAM, which is known to interact with actin filaments. Using simultaneous visualization of actin flow and quantification of forces transmitted to apCAM-coated beads restrained with an optical trap, we found that adhesions are dynamic structures capable of transmitting a wide range of forces. For forces in the picoNewton scale, the nascent adhesions’ mechanical properties are dominated by an elastic structure which can be reversibly deformed by up to 1 µm. Large reversible deformations rule out an interface between substrate and cytoskeleton that is dominated by a number of stiff molecular springs in parallel, and favor a compliant cross-linked network. Such a compliant structure may increase the lifetime of a nascent adhesion, facilitating signaling and reinforcement. PMID:24039928

  4. Molecular and functional characterization of clathrin- and AP-2-binding determinants within a disordered domain of auxilin.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Urte; Alves, Jurgen; Frank, Ronald; Duwel, Michael; Kalthoff, Christoph; Ungewickell, Ernst

    2003-07-11

    Uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles requires the J-domain protein auxilin for targeting hsc70 to the clathrin coats and for stimulating the hsc70 ATPase activity. This results in the release of hsc70-complexed clathrin triskelia and concomitant dissociation of the coat. To understand the complex role of auxilin in uncoating and clathrin assembly in more detail, we analyzed the molecular organization of its clathrin-binding domain (amino acids 547-813). CD spectroscopy of auxilin fragments revealed that the clathrin-binding domain is almost completely disordered in solution. By systematic mapping using synthetic peptides and by site-directed mutagenesis, we identified short peptide sequences involved in clathrin heavy chain and AP-2 binding and evaluated their significance for the function of auxilin. Some of the binding determinants, including those containing sequences 674DPF and 636WDW, showed dual specificity for both clathrin and AP-2. In contrast, the two DLL motifs within the clathrin-binding domain were exclusively involved in clathrin binding. Surprisingly, they interacted not only with the N-terminal domain of the heavy chain, but also with the distal domain. Moreover, both DLL peptides proved to be essential for clathrin assembly and uncoating. In addition, we found that the motif 726NWQ is required for efficient clathrin assembly activity. Auxilin shares a number of protein-protein interaction motifs with other endocytic proteins, including AP180. We demonstrate that AP180 and auxilin compete for binding to the alpha-ear domain of AP-2. Like AP180, auxilin also directly interacts with the ear domain of beta-adaptin. On the basis of our data, we propose a refined model for the uncoating mechanism of clathrin-coated vesicles.

  5. RNA polymerases react differently at d(ApG) and d(GpG) adducts in DNA modified by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Corda, Y.; Job, D.; Anin, M.F.

    1992-02-25

    Two duplexes (20-mers) were constructed containing either a single cis-(Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(d(GpG))) or cis-(Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(d(ApG))) intrastrand cross-link, the major DNA adducts of the antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). These synthetic duplexes were multimerized and the resultant polymers used as templates in single-step addition reactions of condensation of a single nucleoside triphosphate substrate to a dinucleotide primer (abortive elongation reaction) catalyzed by prokaryotic or eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Primer-substrate combinations were selected so as to direct trinucleotide product formation within the platinated bases of the templates. Transcription experiments established that cis-DDP-DNA adducts formed at d(ApG) or d(GpG) sites are not an absolute blockmore » to formation of a single phosphodiester bond by either Escherichia coli RNA polymerase or wheat germ RNA polymerase II. Furthermore, the kinetic data indicate that single-step addition reactions are much more impeded at the platinated d(GpG) than at the platinated d(ApG) site and that the mechanisms of inhibition of RNA polymerase activity are different at the two platinated sites. In particular, binding affinity between E. coli RNA polymerase and the d(GpG)-containing platinated template is lowered, as the apparent K{sub m} of enzyme for the platinated polymer is increased by a factor of 4-5. These results are discussed in reaction to the distortions induced in DNA by the two adducts.« less

  6. The replicative DNA polymerase of herpes simplex virus 1 exhibits apurinic/apyrimidinic and 5′-deoxyribose phosphate lyase activities

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Federica; Boehmer, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is essential for maintaining genome stability both to counter the accumulation of unusual bases and to protect from base loss in the DNA. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a large dsDNA virus that encodes its own DNA replication machinery, including enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. We report on a replicative family B and a herpesvirus-encoded DNA Pol that possesses DNA lyase activity. We have discovered that the catalytic subunit of the HSV-1 DNA polymerase (Pol) (UL30) exhibits apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) and 5′-deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) lyase activities. These activities are integral to BER and lead to DNA cleavage on the 3′ side of abasic sites and 5′-dRP residues that remain after cleavage by 5′-AP endonuclease. The UL30-catalyzed reaction occurs independently of divalent cation and proceeds via a Schiff base intermediate, indicating that it occurs via a lyase mechanism. Partial proteolysis of the Schiff base shows that the DNA lyase activity resides in the Pol domain of UL30. These observations together with the presence of a virus-encoded uracil DNA glycosylase indicates that HSV-1 has the capacity to perform critical steps in BER. These findings have implications on the role of BER in viral genome maintenance during lytic replication and reactivation from latency. PMID:18695225

  7. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2001-06-01

    To provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock-compressed condensed matter, a group of APS members worked within the Society to make this technical field an active part of APS. Individual papers were given at APS meetings starting in the 1950’s and then later whole sessions were organized starting at the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA where George Duvall and Dennis Hayes were co-chairs. Most all early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1985 were official APS meetings. In 1984, after consulting with a number of people in the shock wave field, Robert Graham circulated a petition to form an APS topical group. He obtained signatures from a balanced cross-section of the community. William Havens, the executive secretary of APS, informed Robert Graham by letter on November 28, 1984 that the APS Council had officially accepted the formation of this topical group at its October 28, 1984 meeting. The first election occurred July 23, 1985 where Robert Graham was elected chairman, William Nellis vice-chairman, and Jerry Forbes secretary/treasurer. The topical group remains viable today by holding a topical conference in odd numbered years and shock wave sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years A major benefit of being an official unit of APS is the allotment of APS fellows every year. The APS shock compression award established in 1987, has also provided broad recognition of many major scientific accomplishments in this field.

  8. Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zapien, Denise; Ruiz, Francesc Xavier; Poirson, Juline; Mitschler, André; Ramirez-Ramos, Juan; Forster, Anne; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Masson, Murielle; Pol, Scott Vande; Podjarny, Alberto; Travé, Gilles; Zanier, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The p53 pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor is mutated or functionally altered in most cancers. In epithelial tumors induced by “high-risk” mucosal Human Papillomaviruses (hrm-HPVs), including human cervical carcinoma and a growing number of head-and-neck cancers 1, p53 is degraded by the viral oncoprotein E6 2. In this process, E6 binds to a short LxxLL consensus sequence within the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP 3. Subsequently, the E6/E6AP heterodimer recruits and degrades p53 4. Neither E6 nor E6AP are separately able to recruit p53 3,5, and the precise mode of assembly of E6, E6AP and p53 is unknown. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising full-length HPV16 E6, the LxxLL motif of E6AP and the core domain of p53. The LxxLL motif of E6AP renders the conformation of E6 competent for interaction with p53 by structuring a p53-binding cleft on E6. Mutagenesis of critical positions at the E6-p53 interface disrupts p53 degradation. The E6-binding site of p53 is distal from previously described DNA- and protein-binding surfaces of the core domain. This suggests that, in principle, E6 may avoid competition with cellular factors by targeting both free and bound p53 molecules. The E6/E6AP/p53 complex represents a prototype of viral hijacking of both the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. The present structure provides a framework for the design of inhibitory therapeutic strategies against HPV-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:26789255

  9. AP2 hemicomplexes contribute independently to synaptic vesicle endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Mingyu; Liu, Qiang; Watanabe, Shigeki; Sun, Lin; Hollopeter, Gunther; Grant, Barth D; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2013-01-01

    The clathrin adaptor complex AP2 is thought to be an obligate heterotetramer. We identify null mutations in the α subunit of AP2 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. α-adaptin mutants are viable and the remaining μ2/β hemicomplex retains some function. Conversely, in μ2 mutants, the alpha/sigma2 hemicomplex is localized and is partially functional. α-μ2 double mutants disrupt both halves of the complex and are lethal. The lethality can be rescued by expression of AP2 components in the skin, which allowed us to evaluate the requirement for AP2 subunits at synapses. Mutations in either α or μ2 subunits alone reduce the number of synaptic vesicles by about 30%; however, simultaneous loss of both α and μ2 subunits leads to a 70% reduction in synaptic vesicles and the presence of large vacuoles. These data suggest that AP2 may function as two partially independent hemicomplexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00190.001 PMID:23482940

  10. Teaching Materials and Strategies for the AP Music Theory Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, many students take the Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory Exam, and the majority of these students enroll in specialized AP music theory classes as part of the preparation process. For the teachers of these AP music theory classes, a number of challenges are presented by the difficulty and complexity of the exam subject material as…

  11. NECAPs are negative regulators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex.

    PubMed

    Beacham, Gwendolyn M; Partlow, Edward A; Lange, Jeffrey J; Hollopeter, Gunther

    2018-01-18

    Eukaryotic cells internalize transmembrane receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but it remains unclear how the machinery underpinning this process is regulated. We recently discovered that membrane-associated muniscin proteins such as FCHo and SGIP initiate endocytosis by converting the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex to an open, active conformation that is then phosphorylated (Hollopeter et al., 2014). Here we report that loss of ncap-1 , the sole C. elegans gene encoding an adaptiN Ear-binding Coat-Associated Protein (NECAP), bypasses the requirement for FCHO-1. Biochemical analyses reveal AP2 accumulates in an open, phosphorylated state in ncap-1 mutant worms, suggesting NECAPs promote the closed, inactive conformation of AP2. Consistent with this model, NECAPs preferentially bind open and phosphorylated forms of AP2 in vitro and localize with constitutively open AP2 mutants in vivo. NECAPs do not associate with phosphorylation-defective AP2 mutants, implying that phosphorylation precedes NECAP recruitment. We propose NECAPs function late in endocytosis to inactivate AP2. © 2018, Beacham et al.

  12. Is the Shine off the A.P. Apple?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Nina; Hurwitz, Sol

    2003-01-01

    Describes challenges facing College Board's efforts to expand Advanced Placement (A.P.) courses to provide equal access to previously underserved low-performing urban and rural school students while maintaining the program's high academic standards. Includes list of strategies school boards can use to achieve greater access to A.P. courses while…

  13. AP233: An Information Model for Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, information is abundant. We have no problems generating it. But we are challenged to find, organize, and exchange information. center dot A standardized model of information can help. Such a model nearly completed its development for Systems Engineering. It is referred to as AP233 (AP = Application Protocol).

  14. The Role of AP and the Composition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahala, Daniel; Vivion, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that most programs have not based their acceptance of advanced placement credit on reasoned endorsement of the views of language, literature, and rhetoric that AP exams present. Criticizes the views implicit in the AP program and shows how they conflict with the goals of one particular college composition program. (RS)

  15. Heparin (GAG-hed) inhibits LCR activity of human papillomavirus type 18 by decreasing AP1 binding.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Rita; Morales-Peza, Néstor; Castelán-Sánchez, Irma; García-Villa, Enrique; Tapia, Rocio; Cid-Arregui, Angel; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; López-Bayghen, Esther; Gariglio, Patricio

    2006-08-31

    High risk HPVs are causative agents of anogenital cancers. Viral E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed and are largely responsible for the oncogenic activity of these viruses. Transcription of the E6 and E7 genes is controlled by the viral Long Control Region (LCR), plus several cellular transcription factors including AP1 and the viral protein E2. Within the LCR, the binding and activity of the transcription factor AP1 represents a key regulatory event in maintaining E6/E7 gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin, can inhibit tumour growth; they have also shown antiviral effects and inhibition of AP1 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to test the heparinoid GAG-hed, as a possible antiviral and antitumoral agent in an HPV18 positive HeLa cell line. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches we tested GAG-hed effects on HeLa tumour cell growth, cell proliferation and on the expression of HPV18 E6/E7 oncogenes. GAG-hed effects on AP1 binding to HPV18-LCR-DNA were tested by EMSA. We were able to record the antitumoral effect of GAG-hed in vivo by using as a model tumours induced by injection of HeLa cells into athymic female mice. The antiviral effect of GAG-hed resulted in the inhibition of LCR activity and, consequently, the inhibition of E6 and E7 transcription. A specific diminishing of cell proliferation rates was observed in HeLa but not in HPV-free colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Treated HeLa cells did not undergo apoptosis but the percentage of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle was increased. We also detected that GAG-hed prevents the binding of the transcription factor AP1 to the LCR. Direct interaction of GAG-hed with the components of the AP1 complex and subsequent interference with its ability to correctly bind specific sites within the viral LCR may contribute to the inhibition of E6/E7 transcription and cell proliferation. Our data suggest that GAG-hed could have antitumoral

  16. Prevention of Breast Cell Transformation by Blockade of the AP-1 Transcription Factor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) In this study, we are investigating the role of AP- M in controlling breast cell growth and...serum and these growth factors depend on AP-1 to transduce proliferative signal. AP- M blockade induced by the expression of TAM67 inhibits breast...demonstrated that TAM67 inhibits basal AP-1 activity and AP- M activity stimulated by several different growth factors. We have also discovered that AP-1

  17. N-terminal domains of human DNA polymerase lambda promote primer realignment during translesion DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, David J.; Dayeh, Daniel M.; Fredrickson, Saul W.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases λ (Polλ) and β (Polβ) possess similar 5′-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphatelyase (dRPase) and polymerase domains. Besides these domains, Polλ also possesses a BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain and a proline-rich domain at its N terminus. However, it is unclear how these non-enzymatic domains contribute to the unique biological functions of Polλ. Here, we used primer extension assays and a newly developed high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay (HT-SOSA) to compare the efficiency of lesion bypass and fidelity of human Polβ, Polλ and two N-terminal deletion constructs of Polλ during the bypass of either an abasic site or a 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. We demonstrate that the BRCT domain of Polλ enhances the efficiency of abasic site bypass by approximately 1.6-fold. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal domains of Polλ did not affect the efficiency of 8-oxodG bypass relative to nucleotide incorporations opposite undamaged dG. HT-SOSA analysis demonstrated that Polλ and Polβ preferentially generated −1 or −2 frameshift mutations when bypassing an abasic site and the single or double base deletion frequency was highly sequence dependent. Interestingly, the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ cooperatively promoted the generation of −2 frameshift mutations when the abasic site was situated within a sequence context that was susceptible to homology-driven primer realignment. Furthermore, both N-terminal domains of Polλ increased the generation of −1 frameshift mutations during 8-oxodG bypass and influenced the frequency of substitution mutations produced by Polλ opposite the 8-oxodG lesion. Overall, our data support a model wherein the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ act cooperatively to promote primer/template realignment between DNA strands of limited sequence homology. This function of the N-terminal domains may facilitate the role of Polλ as a gap-filling polymerase

  18. AP@home: a novel European approach to bring the artificial pancreas home.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Benesch, Carsten; DeVries, J Hans

    2011-11-01

    The development of an artificial pancreas (AP) made huge strides from 2006 to 2008 and a large number of activities are going on in this area of research. Until now, most AP systems under development were tested only under highly controlled conditions. The aim of our project, funded by the European Union, is to develop an AP system to such a level that it can be studied under daily life conditions at the home of patients with diabetes (hence AP@home). Based on a subcutaneous-subcutaneous closed-loop strategy (i.e., glucose sensing and insulin infusion in the subcutaneous tissue), two different approaches will be taken to achieve this aim: a two-port AP system and a single-port AP system. The two-port AP system will use off-the-shelf-components for the glucose sensor and insulin pump in combination with closed-loop algorithms generated in Europe. As to the single-port AP system, two different innovative single-port systems will be developed; in this case, continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion will take place via a single catheter. The first clinical trials with the two-port AP system under controlled clinical conditions have started and good progress has been made in the development of the single-port AP systems. We believe that our consortium of 12 European partners, which builds on existing achievements and close cooperation between academic centers and industry, can contribute substantially to the development of an AP system that can be used by patients in daily life. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Glossary for the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP).

    PubMed

    Freiler, Alix; Muntaner, Carles; Shankardass, Ketan; Mah, Catherine L; Molnar, Agnes; Renahy, Emilie; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is becoming increasingly popular as a governmental strategy to improve population health by coordinating action across health and non-health sectors. A variety of intersectoral initiatives may be used in HiAP that frame health determinants as the bridge between policies and health outcomes. The purpose of this glossary is to present concepts and terms useful in understanding the implementation of HiAP as a cross-sectoral policy. The concepts presented here were applied and elaborated over the course of case studies of HiAP in multiple jurisdictions, which used key informant interviews and the systematic review of literature to study the implementation of specific HiAP initiatives.

  20. The POLD3 subunit of DNA polymerase δ can promote translesion synthesis independently of DNA polymerase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Kouji; Yoshikiyo, Kazunori; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Murai, Junko; Tsuda, Masataka; Phillips, Lara G.; Narita, Takeo; Nishihara, Kana; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yamada, Kouich; Nakamura, Jun; Pommier, Yves; Lehmann, Alan; Sale, Julian E.; Takeda, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    The replicative DNA polymerase Polδ consists of a catalytic subunit POLD1/p125 and three regulatory subunits POLD2/p50, POLD3/p66 and POLD4/p12. The ortholog of POLD3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pol32, is required for a significant proportion of spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis through its additional role in translesion synthesis (TLS) as a subunit of DNA polymerase ζ. Remarkably, chicken DT40 B lymphocytes deficient in POLD3 are viable and able to replicate undamaged genomic DNA with normal kinetics. Like its counterpart in yeast, POLD3 is required for fully effective TLS, its loss resulting in hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents, a diminished ability to maintain replication fork progression after UV irradiation and a significant decrease in abasic site-induced mutagenesis in the immunoglobulin loci. However, these defects appear to be largely independent of Polζ, suggesting that POLD3 makes a significant contribution to TLS independently of Polζ in DT40 cells. Indeed, combining polη, polζ and pold3 mutations results in synthetic lethality. Additionally, we show in vitro that POLD3 promotes extension beyond an abasic by the Polδ holoenzyme suggesting that while POLD3 is not required for normal replication, it may help Polδ to complete abasic site bypass independently of canonical TLS polymerases. PMID:25628356

  1. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  2. EPA’s AP-42 development methodology: Converting or rerating current AP-42 datasets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  3. ERalpha and AP-1 interact in vivo with a specific sequence of the F promoter of the human ERalpha gene in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Tavanti, Elisa; Torreggiani, Elena; Penolazzi, Letizia; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta

    2008-07-01

    Estrogen-responsive genes often have an estrogen response element (ERE) positioned next to activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding sites. Considering that the interaction between ERE and AP-1 elements has been described for the modulation of bone-specific genes, we investigated the 17-beta-estradiol responsiveness and the role of these cis-elements present in the F promoter of the human estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene. The F promoter, containing the sequence analyzed here, is one of the multiple promoters of the human ERalpha gene and is the only active promoter in bone tissue. Through electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and re-ChIP assays, we investigated the binding of ERalpha and four members of the AP-1 family (c-Jun, c-fos, Fra-2, and ATF2) to a region located approximately 800 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site of exon F of the human ERalpha gene in SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells. Reporter gene assay experiments in combination with DNA binding assays demonstrated that F promoter activity is under the control of upstream cis-acting elements which are recognized by specific combinations of ERalpha, c-Jun, c-fos, and ATF2 homo- and heterodimers. Moreover, ChIP and re-ChIP experiments showed that these nuclear factors bind the F promoter in vivo with a simultaneous occupancy stimulated by 17-beta-estradiol. Taken together, our findings support a model in which ERalpha/AP-1 complexes modulate F promoter activity under conditions of 17-beta-estradiol stimulation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A seven-year northern sky survey of Ap stars for rapid variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Matthew J.; Kreidl, Tobias J.

    1993-01-01

    A high-speed photometric survey of 120 Ap stars in the northern sky, has been conducted, between 1985 and 1991, in order to search for rapid variability. Stars of spectral types, namely from B8 to F4, have been selected for the survey. The selected pulsational variable stars occupy the hotter regions of the instability strip of the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. Noted is the absence of pulsations in the hotter B8-A3 Ap stars; this does not, however, preclude the existence of pulsations, since HD 218495 was recently discovered to be a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star. The primary result of this study is that various combinations of photometric indices, while pointing towards roAp stars having the characteristic signatures of cool, SrCrEu stars, still fail to isolate the roAp phenomenon from similar nonpulsating Ap stars. Color-magnitude and color-color diagrams are presented in order to complete this survey.

  5. Therapeutically equivalent pharmacokinetic profile across three application sites for AG200-15, a novel low-estrogen dose contraceptive patch.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Archer, David F; Rubin, Arkady; Foegh, Marie

    2013-06-01

    AG200-15 Agile Patch (AP) is a novel 7-day contraceptive patch providing ethinyl estradiol (EE) exposure comparable to low-dose combination oral contraceptives. This study determined whether application of the AP to three different anatomical sites (lower abdomen, buttock and upper torso) influences the pharmacokinetic profile of EE and levonorgestrel (LNG). In this open-label, three-period, crossover study, 24 subjects were randomized to one of six treatment sequences; each included application of patch to abdomen, buttock and upper torso, with the AP worn on one site for 7 days. After a 7-day washout, a new patch was applied to the next anatomical site. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 240 h after patch application. For plasma EE levels, median time to maximum drug concentration (Tmax, 24-48 h) and mean maximum concentration (Cmax, 47.9-61.5 pg/mL) were similar among application sites. Compared with lower abdomen, EE exposure was higher (16%-30%) at buttock and upper torso (15%-22%). For plasma LNG levels, median Tmax (72-120 h) and mean Cmax (1436-1589 pg/mL) were similar across application sites. Compared with lower abdomen, LNG exposure was higher at buttock (1%-7%) and upper torso (16%-17%). No serious adverse events (AEs) or AE-related discontinuations occurred. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea, application site pruritus and headache, with frequencies comparable across anatomical sites. Absorption from the abdomen was slightly lower versus other sites; however, exposure to EE and LNG for all sites was therapeutically equivalent. The AP was well tolerated at all three anatomical sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SEPTUM MAGNET DESIGN FOR THE APS-U

    SciTech Connect

    Abliz, M.; Jaski, M.; Xiao, A.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of upgrading its storage ring from a double-bend to a multi-bend lattice as part of the APS Upgrade Project (APS-U). A swap-out injection scheme is planned for the APS-U to keep a constant beam current and to enable a small dynamic aperture. A septum magnet with a minimum thickness of 2 mm and an injection field of 1.06 T has been designed, delivering the required total deflecting angle is 89 mrad with a ring energy of 6 GeV. The stored beam chamber has an 8 mm x 6 mm super-ellipsoidal aperture. Themore » magnet is straight; however, it is tilted in yaw, roll, and pitch from the stored beam chamber to meet the on axis swap out injection requirements for the APS-U lattice. In order to minimize the leakage field inside the stored beam chamber, four different techniques were utilized in the design. As a result, the horizontal deflecting angle of the stored beam was held to only 5 µrad, and the integrated skew quadrupole inside the stored beam chamber was held to 0.09 T. The detailed techniques that were applied to the design, field multipoles, and resulting trajectories of the injected and stored beams are reported.« less

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    SciTech Connect

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-11-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance ofmore » the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.« less

  8. AP-2α and AP-2β cooperatively orchestrate homeobox gene expression during branchial arch patterning.

    PubMed

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Li, Hong; Jones, Kenneth L; Williams, Trevor

    2018-01-25

    The evolution of a hinged moveable jaw with variable morphology is considered a major factor behind the successful expansion of the vertebrates. DLX homeobox transcription factors are crucial for establishing the positional code that patterns the mandible, maxilla and intervening hinge domain, but how the genes encoding these proteins are regulated remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the concerted action of the AP-2α and AP-2β transcription factors within the mouse neural crest is essential for jaw patterning. In the absence of these two proteins, the hinge domain is lost and there are alterations in the size and patterning of the jaws correlating with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression, with reduced levels of Emx, Msx and Dlx paralogs accompanied by an expansion of Six1 expression. Moreover, detailed analysis of morphological features and gene expression changes indicate significant overlap with various compound Dlx gene mutants. Together, these findings reveal that the AP-2 genes have a major function in mammalian neural crest development, influencing patterning of the craniofacial skeleton via the DLX code, an effect that has implications for vertebrate facial evolution, as well as for human craniofacial disorders. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. AP2/EREBP transcription factors are part of gene regulatory networks and integrate metabolic, hormonal and environmental signals in stress acclimation and retrograde signalling.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Vogel, Marc Oliver; Viehhauser, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    To optimize acclimation responses to environmental growth conditions, plants integrate and weigh a diversity of input signals. Signal integration within the signalling networks occurs at different sites including the level of transcription factor activation. Accumulating evidence assigns a major and diversified role in environmental signal integration to the family of APETALA 2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors. Presently, the Plant Transcription Factor Database 3.0 assigns 147 gene loci to this family in Arabidopsis thaliana, 200 in Populus trichocarpa and 163 in Oryza sativa subsp. japonica as compared to 13 to 14 in unicellular algae ( http://plntfdb.bio.uni-potsdam.de/v3.0/ ). AP2/EREBP transcription factors have been implicated in hormone, sugar and redox signalling in context of abiotic stresses such as cold and drought. This review exemplarily addresses present-day knowledge of selected AP2/EREBP with focus on a function in stress signal integration and retrograde signalling and defines AP2/EREBP-linked gene networks from transcriptional profiling-based graphical Gaussian models. The latter approach suggests highly interlinked functions of AP2/EREBPs in retrograde and stress signalling.

  10. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  11. Regulation of CCN2/CTGF Expression in the Nucleus Pulposus of the Intervertebral Disc: Role of Smad and AP1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cassie M.; Markova, Dessislava; Smith, Harvey E.; Susarla, Bala; Ponnappan, Ravi Kumar; Anderson, D Greg; Symes, Aviva; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate TGFβ regulation of CTGF expression in cells of the nucleus pulposus. Methods Real Time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis was used to measure CTGF expression in the nucleus pulposus. Transfections were used to measure the effect of Smad2/3/7 and AP1on TGFβ mediated CTGF promoter activity. Results CTGF expression was lower in the neonatal disc compared with the skeletally mature rat disc. An increase in CTGF expression and promoter activity was observed in nucleus pulposus cells after TGFβ treatment. Deletion analysis indicated that promoter constructs lacking smad and AP1 motifs were unresponsive to treatment. Analysis showed that full-length Smad3 and the Smad3-MH2 domain alone increased CTGF activity. Further evidence of Smad3 and AP1 involvement was seen when DN-Smad3, SiRNA-Smad3, smad7 and DN-AP1 suppressed TGFβ mediated activation of the CTGF promoter. When either Smad3 or AP1 sites were mutated, CTGF promoter induction by TGFβ was suppressed. We also observed a decrease in expression of CTGF in discs of Smad3 null mice compared to the wild type. Analysis of human nucleus pulposus indicated a trend of increasing CTGF and TGFβ expression in the degenerate state. Conclusion TGFβ, through Smad3 and AP1, serves as a positive regulator of CTGF expression in the nucleus pulposus. We propose that CTGF is a part of the limited reparative response of the degenerate disc. PMID:20222112

  12. An improved model for the combustion of AP composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents several improvements to the BDP model of steady-state burning of AP composite solid propellants. The Price-Boggs-Derr model of AP monopropellant burning is incorporated to represent the AP. A separate energy equation is written for the binder to permit a different surface temperature from the AP; this includes an analysis of the sharing of primary diffusion flame energy, and correction of a BDP model inconsistency in treating the binder regression rate. A method for assembling component contributions to calculate the burning rates of multimodal propellants is also presented. Results are shown in the form of representative burning rate curves, comparisons with data, and calculated internal details of interest. Ideas for future work are discussed in an Appendix.

  13. NOS1 mediates AP1 nuclear translocation and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mansi; Baig, Mirza S

    2018-06-01

    A hallmark of the AP1 functioning is its nuclear translocation, which induces proinflammatory cytokine expression and hence the inflammatory response. After endotoxin shock AP1 transcription factor, which comprises Jun, ATF2, and Fos family of proteins, translocates into the nucleus and induces proinflammatory cytokine expression. In the current study, we found, NOS1 inhibition prevents nuclear translocation of the AP1 transcription factor subunits. Pharmacological inhibition of NOS1 impedes translocation of subunits into the nucleus, suppressing the transcription of inflammatory genes causing a diminished inflammatory response. In conclusion, the study shows the novel mechanism of NOS1- mediated AP1 nuclear translocation, which needs to be further explored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha contains an AP-3-sorting motif and a kinase domain that are both required for endosome traffic.

    PubMed

    Craige, Branch; Salazar, Gloria; Faundez, Victor

    2008-04-01

    The adaptor complex 3 (AP-3) targets membrane proteins from endosomes to lysosomes, lysosome-related organelles and synaptic vesicles. Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIalpha) is one of several proteins possessing catalytic domains that regulate AP-3-dependent sorting. Here we present evidence that PI4KIIalpha uniquely behaves both as a membrane protein cargo as well as an enzymatic regulator of adaptor function. In fact, AP-3 and PI4KIIalpha form a complex that requires a dileucine-sorting motif present in PI4KIIalpha. Mutagenesis of either the PI4KIIalpha-sorting motif or its kinase-active site indicates that both are necessary to interact with AP-3 and properly localize PI4KIIalpha to LAMP-1-positive endosomes. Similarly, both the kinase activity and the sorting signal present in PI4KIIalpha are necessary to rescue endosomal PI4KIIalpha siRNA-induced mutant phenotypes. We propose a mechanism whereby adaptors use canonical sorting motifs to selectively recruit a regulatory enzymatic activity to restricted membrane domains.

  15. Incorporating Ninth-Grade PSAT/NMSQT® Scores into AP Potential™ Predictions for AP® European History and AP World History. Statistical Report 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; Patel, Priyank; Ewing, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ correlations and expectancy tables have been based on 10th-and 11th-grade PSAT/NMSQT® examinees and 11th-and 12th-grade AP® examinees for all subjects (Zhang, Patel, & Ewing,2014; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Camara & Millsap, 1998). However, a large number of students take AP European History and AP…

  16. Isolation and characterization of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A K; de la Peña, C E; Barnes, L D

    1993-02-13

    An enzyme that catalyzes the asymmetric hydrolysis of Ap4A has been partially purified from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The crude supernatant fraction from log-phase cells was fractionated by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Red A dye-ligand and QAE-Sepharose resins. Two peaks of Ap4A hydrolase activity, designated major and minor, were separated on the Red A dye-ligand resin. Both the major and minor Ap4A hydrolase have an apparent molecular mass of 49 kDa based on gel filtration chromatography. On a SDS polyacrylamide gel, a protein of 22 kDa exhibited Ap4A hydrolase activity. Both forms of the enzyme have a Km value in the range of 22 to 36 microM for Ap4A. Both forms of the enzyme asymmetrically hydrolyze Ap4A to AMP and ATP as determined by HPLC. Ap4A is the optimal substrate among several nucleotides and dinucleoside polyphosphates tested at 10 microM. A divalent metal cation is required for activity. Concentrations of Pi below 30 mM stimulate Ap4A hydrolase while higher concentrations inhibit the activity. Pi is not a substrate for this Ap4A-degradative enzyme. Fluoride, from 50 microM to 20 mM, has no significant effect on Ap4A hydrolase activity.

  17. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  18. Deferoxamine synergistically enhances iron-mediated AP-1 activation: a showcase of the interplay between extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Dai, Jisen; Huang, Chuanshu; Zhang, Qi; Bhanot, Opinder; Pelle, Edward

    2007-10-01

    Deferoxamine (DFO) is a drug widely used for iron overload treatment to reduce body iron burden. In the present study, it was shown in mouse epidermal JB6 cells that all iron compounds transiently induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, whereas DFO further enhanced ERK phosphorylation over long periods. The ERK phosphorylation by DFO treatment appears to be due to the inhibition of MAPK phosphatases (MKP) by DFO. The combined effects of iron-initiated MAPK activation and DFO-mediated MKP inhibition resulted in a synergistic enhancement on AP-1 activities. The results indicate that the interplay between MAPK and MKP is important in regulating the extent of AP-1 activation. It is known that administration of DFO in iron overload patients often results in allergic responses at the injection sites. The results suggest that this synergistic AP-1 activation might play a role in DFO-induced skin immune responses of iron overload patients.

  19. AP Studio Art as an Enabling Constraint for Secondary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art is an influential force in secondary art education as is evident in the 31,800 portfolios submitted for review in 2008. From the perspectives of a high school educator and AP Reader, this author has observed how the constraints of the AP program can be used to generate support for high school art programs and…

  20. MULTI-OBJECTIVE ONLINE OPTIMIZATION OF BEAM LIFETIME AT APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng

    In this paper, online optimization of beam lifetime at the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A general genetic algorithm (GA) is developed and employed for some online optimizations in the APS storage ring. Sextupole magnets in 40 sectors of the APS storage ring are employed as variables for the online nonlinear beam dynamics optimization. The algorithm employs several optimization objectives and is designed to run with topup mode or beam current decay mode. Up to 50\\% improvement of beam lifetime is demonstrated, without affecting the transverse beam sizes and other relevant parameters. In some cases, the top-upmore » injection efficiency is also improved.« less

  1. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  2. HIV-1 Nef-induced Down-Regulation of MHC Class I Requires AP-1 and Clathrin but Not PACS-1 and Is Impeded by AP-2

    PubMed Central

    Lubben, Nienke B.; Sahlender, Daniela A.; Motley, Alison M.; Lehner, Paul J.; Benaroch, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I is down-regulated from the surface of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected cells by Nef, a virally encoded protein that is thought to reroute MHC-I to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in a phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein (PACS) 1, adaptor protein (AP)-1, and clathrin-dependent manner. More recently, an alternative model has been proposed, in which Nef uses AP-1 to direct MHC-I to endosomes and lysosomes. Here, we show that knocking down either AP-1 or clathrin with small interfering RNA inhibits the down-regulation of HLA-A2 (an MHC-I isotype) by Nef in HeLa cells. However, knocking down PACS-1 has no effect, not only on Nef-induced down-regulation of HLA-A2 but also on the localization of other proteins containing acidic cluster motifs. Surprisingly, knocking down AP-2 actually enhances Nef activity. Immuno-electron microscopy labeling of Nef-expressing cells indicates that HLA-A2 is rerouted not to the TGN, but to endosomes. In AP-2–depleted cells, more of the HLA-A2 localizes to the inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies. We propose that depleting AP-2 potentiates Nef activity by altering the membrane composition and dynamics of endosomes and causing increased delivery of HLA-A2 to a prelysosomal compartment. PMID:17581864

  3. The History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2002-07-01

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wave/high pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  4. Study of Pulsations in the Atmosphere of the roAp star HD 137949

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.; Hareter, M.; Ryabchikova, T.; Wade, G.; Kochukhov, O.; Weiss, W. W.

    The roAp star HD 137949 (33 Lib) shows the most complex pulsational behaviour among all roAp stars. Mkrtichian et al. (2003) found nearly anti-phase pulsations of Nd II and Nd III lines, which they attribute to the presence of a pulsation node high in the atmosphere of HD 137949. This was confirmed by Kurtz at al. (2005), who also find that in some REE lines the main frequency, corresponding to 8.27 min, and its harmonic have almost equal RV amplitudes. Based on high accuracy observations Ryabchikova et al. (2007a) studied pulsational characteristics of the HD 137949 atmosphere in detail. In general, spectroscopy provides 3D resolution of modes and allows to search for the photometrically undetectable frequencies. The high-accuracy space photometry provides very high-precision measurements of detected pulsation frequencies and enables an accurate phasing of multi-site spectroscopic data. A combination of simultaneous spectroscopy and photometry represents the most sophisticated asteroseismic dataset for any roAp star. In 2009 the star HD 137949 became a target of an intense observing campaign that combined ground-based spectroscopy with space photometry, obtained with the MOST satellite. We collected 780 spectra using the ESPaDOnS spectrograph mounted on the 3.6 m CFHT telescope; 374 spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph mounted on the 2.56-m NOT to perform the time-resolved spectroscopy of HD 137949. In addition, we used 111 UVES spectra (2004) from the ESO archive to check the mode stability. The frequency analysis of the new radial velocity (RV) measurements confirmed the previously reported frequency pattern (two frequencies and the first harmonic of the main frequency), and revealed an additional frequency at 1.991 mHz. The new frequency solution fits perfectly the RV variations from the 2004 and 2009 observational sets providing a strong support for the p-mode stability in the roAp star HD 137949 for at least 5 years.

  5. Activity-based assay for ricin-like toxins

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2007-02-06

    A method of detecting N-glycosylase activity in a sample involves incubating an oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrate containing a deoxyadenosine or deoxyuridine residue with the sample to be tested such that the N-glycosylase, if present, hydrolyzes the deoxyadenosine or deoxyuridine residue to result in an N-glycosylase product having an abasic site. A primer is annealed to the N-glycosylase product, and the primer is extended with a DNA polymerase, such as Taq DNA polymerase, that pauses at abasic sites. The resulting extension products are melted from the N-glycosylase product, allowed to form hairpins due to self-complementarity, and further extended in the presence of labeled precursors to result in labeled products. Extension products synthesized from undigested substrate as template do not result in labeled products. Thus, detection of labeled products results in detection of N-glycosylase activity. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates, primer, and positive controls and a kit for N-glycosylase assay are also disclosed.

  6. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) - an E. coli alarmone or a damage metabolite?

    PubMed

    Despotović, Dragana; Brandis, Alexander; Savidor, Alon; Levin, Yishai; Fumagalli, Laura; Tawfik, Dan S

    2017-07-01

    Under stress, metabolism is changing: specific up- or down-regulation of proteins and metabolites occurs as well as side effects. Distinguishing specific stress-signaling metabolites (alarmones) from side products (damage metabolites) is not trivial. One example is diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) - a side product of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases found in all domains of life. The earliest observations suggested that Ap4A serves as an alarmone for heat stress in Escherichia coli. However, despite 50 years of research, the signaling mechanisms associated with Ap4A remain unknown. We defined a set of criteria for distinguishing alarmones from damage metabolites to systematically classify Ap4A. In a nutshell, no indications for a signaling cascade that is triggered by Ap4A were found; rather, we found that Ap4A is efficiently removed in a constitutive, nonregulated manner. Several fold perturbations in Ap4A concentrations have no effect, yet accumulation at very high levels is toxic due to disturbance of zinc homeostasis, and also because Ap4A's structural overlap with ATP can result in spurious binding and inactivation of ATP-binding proteins. Overall, Ap4A met all criteria for a damage metabolite. While we do not exclude any role in signaling, our results indicate that the damage metabolite option should be considered as the null hypothesis when examining Ap4A and other metabolites whose levels change upon stress. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Raising Rigor, Getting Results: Lessons Learned from AP Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakelyn, David

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), which enables high school students to take introductory college-level courses, is the nation's oldest example of a rigorous, common curriculum. Students who score well on AP exams are more likely to persist in college and earn a degree. The Advanced Placement Expansion project of the National Governors Association Center…

  8. Data-Based Decision Making: The Road to AP Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Duggan, Odette

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Lake Buena Vista, FL in July 2012. This presentation reviews concepts central to achieving equitable AP access and success for all willing and academically prepared students. We analyze trends in participation and performance by race/ethnicity from the AP Report to the Nation and…

  9. AP-1-mediated chromatin looping regulates ZEB2 transcription: new insights into TNFα-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yichun; Shiue, Chiou-Nan; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Ting; Jonsson, Philip; Wright, Anthony P H; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2015-04-10

    The molecular determinants of malignant cell behaviour in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrate that the inflammatory cytokine TNFα induces EMT in TNBC cells via activation of AP-1 signaling and subsequently induces expression of the EMT regulator ZEB2. We also show that TNFα activates both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways, which act upstream of AP-1. We further investigated in detail AP-1 regulation of ZEB2 expression. We show that two ZEB2 transcripts derived from distinct promoters are both expressed in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Using the chromosome conformation capture assay, we demonstrate that AP-1, when activated by TNFα, binds to a site in promoter 1b of the ZEB2 gene where it regulates the expression of both promoter 1b and 1a, the latter via mediating long range chromatin interactions. Overall, this work provides a plausible mechanism for inflammation-induced metastatic potential in TNBC, involving a novel regulatory mechanism governing ZEB2 isoform expression.

  10. AP-1-mediated chromatin looping regulates ZEB2 transcription: new insights into TNFα-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yichun; Shiue, Chiou-Nan; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Ting; Jonsson, Philip; Wright, Anthony P.H.; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The molecular determinants of malignant cell behaviour in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrate that the inflammatory cytokine TNFα induces EMT in TNBC cells via activation of AP-1 signaling and subsequently induces expression of the EMT regulator ZEB2. We also show that TNFα activates both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways, which act upstream of AP-1. We further investigated in detail AP-1 regulation of ZEB2 expression. We show that two ZEB2 transcripts derived from distinct promoters are both expressed in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Using the chromosome conformation capture assay, we demonstrate that AP-1, when activated by TNFα, binds to a site in promoter 1b of the ZEB2 gene where it regulates the expression of both promoter 1b and 1a, the latter via mediating long range chromatin interactions. Overall, this work provides a plausible mechanism for inflammation-induced metastatic potential in TNBC, involving a novel regulatory mechanism governing ZEB2 isoform expression. PMID:25762639

  11. Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Stevens, Claire; Teague, Jon; Edkins, Sarah; O'Meara, Sarah; Avis, Tim; Barthorpe, Syd; Buck, Gemma; Butler, Adam; Cole, Jennifer; Dicks, Ed; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Harrison, Rachel; Hills, Katy; Hinton, Jonathon; Jones, David; Menzies, Andrew; Mironenko, Tatiana; Perry, Janet; Raine, Keiran; Richardson, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Tofts, Calli; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Yates, Andy; Catford, Rachael; Butler, Julia; Mallya, Uma; Moon, Jenny; Luo, Ying; Dorkins, Huw; Thompson, Deborah; Easton, Douglas F; Wooster, Richard; Bobrow, Martin; Carpenter, Nancy; Simensen, Richard J; Schwartz, Charles E; Stevenson, Roger E; Turner, Gillian; Partington, Michael; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Raymond, F Lucy

    2006-12-01

    In a systematic sequencing screen of the coding exons of the X chromosome in 250 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), we identified two nonsense mutations and one consensus splice-site mutation in the AP1S2 gene on Xp22 in three families. Affected individuals in these families showed mild-to-profound mental retardation. Other features included hypotonia early in life and delay in walking. AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. The complex mediates the recruitment of clathrin to the vesicle membrane. Aberrant endocytic processing through disruption of adaptor protein complexes is likely to result from the AP1S2 mutations identified in the three XLMR-affected families, and such defects may plausibly cause abnormal synaptic development and function. AP1S2 is the first reported XLMR gene that encodes a protein directly involved in the assembly of endocytic vesicles.

  12. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    PubMed Central

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis. Images PMID:1408831

  13. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    PubMed

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Podocin, a raft-associated component of the glomerular slit diaphragm, interacts with CD2AP and nephrin

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Karin; Simons, Matias; Reiser, Jochen; Saleem, Moin A.; Faul, Christian; Kriz, Wihelm; Shaw, Andrey S.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Mundel, Peter

    2001-01-01

    NPHS2 was recently identified as a gene whose mutations cause autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Its product, podocin, is a new member of the stomatin family, which consists of hairpin-like integral membrane proteins with intracellular NH2- and COOH-termini. Podocin is expressed in glomerular podocytes, but its subcellular distribution and interaction with other proteins are unknown. Here we show, by immunoelectron microscopy, that podocin localizes to the podocyte foot process membrane, at the insertion site of the slit diaphragm. Podocin accumulates in an oligomeric form in lipid rafts of the slit diaphragm. Moreover, GST pull-down experiments reveal that podocin associates via its COOH-terminal domain with CD2AP, a cytoplasmic binding partner of nephrin, and with nephrin itself. That podocin interacts with CD2AP and nephrin in vivo is shown by coimmunoprecipitation of these proteins from glomerular extracts. Furthermore, in vitro studies reveal direct interaction of podocin and CD2AP. Hence, as with the erythrocyte lipid raft protein stomatin, podocin is present in high-order oligomers and may serve a scaffolding function. We postulate that podocin serves in the structural organization of the slit diaphragm and the regulation of its filtration function. PMID:11733557

  15. Crystal structures of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in complex with the inhibitors 5'-ATP, Ap3A, Ap4A, and Ap5A.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew D; Holloway, Daniel E; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Acharya, K Ravi

    2006-01-17

    Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) is a catalytically proficient member of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily secreted along with other eosinophil granule proteins during innate host defense responses and various eosinophil-related inflammatory and allergic diseases. The ribonucleolytic activity of EDN is central to its antiviral and neurotoxic activities and possibly to other facets of its biological activity. To probe the importance of this enzymatic activity further, specific inhibitors will be of great aid. Derivatives of 5'-ADP are among the most potent inhibitors currently known. Here, we use X-ray crystallography to investigate the binding of four natural nucleotides containing this moiety. 5'-ATP binds in two alternative orientations, one occupying the B2 subsite in a conventional manner and one being a retro orientation with no ordered adenosine moiety. Diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bind with one adenine positioned at the B2 subsite, the polyphosphate chain extending across the P1 subsite in an ill-defined conformation, and a disordered second adenosine moiety. Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A), the most avid inhibitor of this series, binds in a completely ordered fashion with one adenine positioned conventionally at the B2 subsite, the polyphosphate chain occupying the P1 and putative P(-1) subsites, and the other adenine bound in a retro-like manner at the edge of the B1 subsite. The binding mode of each of these inhibitors has features seen in previously determined structures of adenosine diphosphates. We examine the structure-affinity relationships of these inhibitors and discuss the implications for the design of improved inhibitors.

  16. Modeling Instruction in AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Nathan Tillman

    This action research study used data from multiple assessments in Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism to determine the viability of Modeling Instruction as a pedagogy for students in AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism. Modeling Instruction is a guided-inquiry approach to teaching science in which students progress through the Modeling Cycle to develop a fully-constructed model for a scientific concept. AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism are calculus-based physics courses, approximately equivalent to first-year calculus-based physics courses at the collegiate level. Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, students were assessed in Mechanics using the Force Concept Inventory, Mechanics Baseline Test, and 2015 AP Physics C: Mechanics Practice Exam. With the same design, students were assessed in Electricity and Magnetism on the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment, Electricity and Magnetism Conceptual Assessment, and 2015 AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism Practice Exam. In a one-shot case study design, student scores were collected from the 2017 AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism Exams. Students performed moderately well on the assessments in Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism, demonstrating that Modeling Instruction is a viable pedagogy in AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism.

  17. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-07-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency.

  18. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

  19. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    SciTech Connect

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partnermore » and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.« less

  20. Implementation and Initial Validation of the APS English Test [and] The APS English-Writing Test at Golden West College: Evidence for Predictive Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    In May 1991, Golden West College (California) conducted a validation study of the English portion of the Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges (APS), followed by a predictive validity study in July 1991. The initial study was designed to aid in the implementation of the new test at GWC by comparing data on APS use at other…

  1. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 Proteins Function in Concert with Rab38 and Rab32 Proteins to Mediate Protein Trafficking to Lysosome-related Organelles*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Burek, Carolyn L.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2012-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome. However, it is unknown what factors cooperate with the ubiquitous transport machinery to mediate transport to LROs in specialized cells. Focusing on the melanosome, we show that the ubiquitous machinery interacts with cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab38 and Rab32, to facilitate transport to the maturing organelle. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 coimmunoprecipitated with Rab38 and Rab32 from MNT-1 melanocytic cell extracts. BLOC-2, AP-3, AP-1, and clathrin partially colocalized with Rab38 and Rab32 by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in MNT-1 cells. Rab38- and Rab32-deficient MNT-1 cells displayed abnormal trafficking and steady state levels of known cargoes of the BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 pathways, the melanin-synthesizing enzymes tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These observations support the idea that Rab38 and Rab32 are the specific factors that direct the ubiquitous machinery to mediate transport from early endosomes to maturing LROs. Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis. PMID:22511774

  2. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 proteins function in concert with Rab38 and Rab32 proteins to mediate protein trafficking to lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    Bultema, Jarred J; Ambrosio, Andrea L; Burek, Carolyn L; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2012-06-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome. However, it is unknown what factors cooperate with the ubiquitous transport machinery to mediate transport to LROs in specialized cells. Focusing on the melanosome, we show that the ubiquitous machinery interacts with cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab38 and Rab32, to facilitate transport to the maturing organelle. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 coimmunoprecipitated with Rab38 and Rab32 from MNT-1 melanocytic cell extracts. BLOC-2, AP-3, AP-1, and clathrin partially colocalized with Rab38 and Rab32 by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in MNT-1 cells. Rab38- and Rab32-deficient MNT-1 cells displayed abnormal trafficking and steady state levels of known cargoes of the BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 pathways, the melanin-synthesizing enzymes tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These observations support the idea that Rab38 and Rab32 are the specific factors that direct the ubiquitous machinery to mediate transport from early endosomes to maturing LROs. Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis.

  3. Formononetin, a phyto-oestrogen, and its metabolites up-regulate interleukin-4 production in activated T cells via increased AP-1 DNA binding activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Seung H; Cho, Daeho; Kim, Tae S

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with oestrogen-like biological activity. Phyto-oestrogens have many biological effects including oestrogen agonist/antagonist properties. However, the effect of phyto-oestrogens on allergic responses remains unclear. In this study we investigated whether formononetin, a phyto-oestrogen, and its metabolites, daidzein and equol, affect production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), a pro-inflammatory cytokine closely associated with allergic immune response, in primary CD4+ T cells and EL4 T lymphoma cells. Formononetin, daidzein and equol significantly enhanced IL-4 production from both CD4+ T cells and EL4 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Formononetin, daidzein and equol also enhanced IL-4 gene promoter activity in EL4 cells transiently transfected with IL-4 gene promoter constructs, but this effect was impaired in EL4 cells transfected with an IL-4 promoter construct deleted of P4 site carrying nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding sites. In addition, formononetin, daidzein and equol increased AP-1 DNA binding activities while did not affect NF-AT DNA binding activities. The enhancing effects on IL-4 production and AP-1 DNA binding activities were abrogated by specific inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), indicating that formononetin, daidzein and equol might enhance IL-4 production by increased activation of AP-1 through the PI3-K/PKC/p38 MAPK signalling pathway. These results suggest that phyto-oestrogens and some of their metabolites may increase allergic responses via the enhancement of IL-4 production in T cells. PMID:16108819

  4. AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-05-18

    This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents.

  5. Cytokine Autoantibody Screening in the Swedish Addison Registry Identifies Patients With Undiagnosed APS1.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Daniel; Dalin, Frida; Eriksson, Gabriel Nordling; Landegren, Nils; Bianchi, Matteo; Hallgren, Åsa; Dahlqvist, Per; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Ekwall, Olov; Winqvist, Ola; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Rönnelid, Johan; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Husebye, Eystein S; Knappskog, Per Morten; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Bensing, Sophie; Kämpe, Olle

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features autoimmune Addison disease as a major component. Although APS1 accounts for only a small fraction of all patients with Addison disease, early identification of these individuals is vital to prevent the potentially lethal complications of APS1. To determine whether available serological and genetic markers are valuable screening tools for the identification of APS1 among patients diagnosed with Addison disease. We systematically screened 677 patients with Addison disease enrolled in the Swedish Addison Registry for autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and interferon-α4. Autoantibody-positive patients were investigated for clinical manifestations of APS1, additional APS1-specific autoantibodies, and DNA sequence and copy number variations of AIRE. In total, 17 patients (2.5%) displayed autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and/or interferon-α4, of which nine were known APS1 cases. Four patients previously undiagnosed with APS1 fulfilled clinical, genetic, and serological criteria. Hence, we identified four patients with undiagnosed APS1 with this screening procedure. We propose that patients with Addison disease should be routinely screened for cytokine autoantibodies. Clinical or serological support for APS1 should warrant DNA sequencing and copy number analysis of AIRE to enable early diagnosis and prevention of lethal complications. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  6. Building Reading, Writing and Analysis in the AP U.S. History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Stephen; Stacy, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The building of historical thinking skills has historically been a lonely endeavor for AP U.S. history teachers. Many often generate their own pedagogy, perhaps modified from an AP workshop or generally gleaned from released exam essay questions. However, as currently scheduled, in 2014, the AP U.S. history exam will undergo a redesign that will…

  7. A New Photometric Study of Ap and Am Stars in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, 426 well known confirmed Ap and Am stars are photometrically studied in the infrared. The 2MASS, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and IRAS data are employed to make analyses. The results in this paper have shown that in the 1-3 μm region over 90% Ap and Am stars have no or little infrared excesses, and infrared radiations in the near-infrared from these stars are probably dominated by the free-free emissions. It is also shown that in the 3-12 μm region, the majority of Ap stars and Am stars have very similar behavior, I.e., in the W1-W2 (3.4-4.6 μm) region, over half of Ap and Am stars have clear infrared excesses, which are possibly due to the binarity, the multiplicity, and/or the debris disk, but in the W2-W3 (4.6-12 μm) region they have no or little infrared excess. In addition, in the 12-22 μm region, some of Ap stars and Am stars show the infrared excesses and infrared radiations for these Ap and Am stars are probably due to the free-free emissions. In addition, it is seen that the probability of being the binarity, the multiplicity and/or the debris disk for Am stars is much higher than that for Ap stars. Furthermore, it can be seen that, in general, no relations can be found between infrared colors and spectral types either for Ap stars or for Am stars.

  8. Stabilization of different types of transition states in a single enzyme active site: QM/MM analysis of enzymes in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guanhua; Cui, Qiang

    2013-07-17

    The first step for the hydrolysis of a phosphate monoester (pNPP(2-)) in enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, R166S AP and wild-type NPP, is studied using QM/MM simulations based on an approximate density functional theory (SCC-DFTBPR) and a recently introduced QM/MM interaction Hamiltonian. The calculations suggest that similar loose transition states are involved in both enzymes, despite the fact that phosphate monoesters are the cognate substrates for AP but promiscuous substrates for NPP. The computed loose transition states are clearly different from the more synchronous ones previously calculated for diester reactions in the same AP enzymes. Therefore, our results explicitly support the proposal that AP enzymes are able to recognize and stabilize different types of transition states in a single active site. Analysis of the structural features of computed transition states indicates that the plastic nature of the bimetallic site plays a minor role in accommodating multiple types of transition states and that the high degree of solvent accessibility of the AP active site also contributes to its ability to stabilize diverse transition-state structures without the need of causing large structural distortions of the bimetallic motif. The binding mode of the leaving group in the transition state highlights that vanadate may not always be an ideal transition state analog for loose phosphoryl transfer transition states.

  9. Glaucoma patients present increased levels of diadenosine tetraphosphate, Ap(4)A, in the aqueous humour.

    PubMed

    Castany, Marta; Jordi, Isabel; Catala, Jaume; Gual, Arcadi; Morales, Miguel; Gasull, Xavier; Pintor, Jesus

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown the presence of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) and pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A) in the aqueous humour (AH) of different species. When topically applied to the rabbit cornea, Ap(4)A decreased IOP while Ap(5)A increased it. Here we study the presence of dinucleoside polyphosphates in the AH from human patients with or without glaucoma. AH was obtained at the time of cataract surgery from patients with (n=16) or without (n=10) primary open-angle glaucoma. AH (0.1-0.2 ml) was collected at the beginning of surgery through a corneal paracentesis and immediately cooled in liquid nitrogen, kept frozen and protected from light. AH aliquots were analyzed by HPLC for the presence of Ap(4)A and Ap(5)A. Both, Ap(4)A and Ap(5)A were detected in the AH of both experimental groups. No significant differences were found for Ap(5)A. In contrast, Ap(4)A levels were increased by ∼15-fold in the AH from glaucomatous eyes ranging from 19.5±9.2 nM in normal individuals to 286.03±30.9 nM in glaucomatous patients. In conclusion, both Ap(4)A and Ap(5)A were detected for the first time in human AH. Interestingly, glaucomatous eyes presented elevated concentrations of Ap(4)A compared to controls. The role of Ap(4)A needs to be elucidated but it may help to protect the autonomic innervation in the ciliary body/trabecular meshwork. Also, because of its higher levels in glaucoma patients it may be considered as a possible glaucoma biomarker. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and Targeting of an Interaction between a Tyrosine Motif within Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein and AP2M1 Essential for Viral Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Av, Amotz; Gerber, Doron; Jacob, Yves; Einav, Shirit

    2012-01-01

    Novel therapies are urgently needed against hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), a major global health problem. The current model of infectious virus production suggests that HCV virions are assembled on or near the surface of lipid droplets, acquire their envelope at the ER, and egress through the secretory pathway. The mechanisms of HCV assembly and particularly the role of viral-host protein-protein interactions in mediating this process are, however, poorly understood. We identified a conserved heretofore unrecognized YXXΦ motif (Φ is a bulky hydrophobic residue) within the core protein. This motif is homologous to sorting signals within host cargo proteins known to mediate binding of AP2M1, the μ subunit of clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), and intracellular trafficking. Using microfluidics affinity analysis, protein-fragment complementation assays, and co-immunoprecipitations in infected cells, we show that this motif mediates core binding to AP2M1. YXXΦ mutations, silencing AP2M1 expression or overexpressing a dominant negative AP2M1 mutant had no effect on HCV RNA replication, however, they dramatically inhibited intra- and extracellular infectivity, consistent with a defect in viral assembly. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence analysis revealed that core's YXXΦ motif mediates recruitment of AP2M1 to lipid droplets and that the observed defect in HCV assembly following disruption of core-AP2M1 binding correlates with accumulation of core on lipid droplets, reduced core colocalization with E2 and reduced core localization to trans-Golgi network (TGN), the presumed site of viral particles maturation. Furthermore, AAK1 and GAK, serine/threonine kinases known to stimulate binding of AP2M1 to host cargo proteins, regulate core-AP2M1 binding and are essential for HCV assembly. Last, approved anti-cancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK not only disrupt core-AP2M1 binding, but also significantly inhibit HCV assembly and infectious virus production

  11. X-ray optics simulation and beamline design for the APS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xianbo; Reininger, Ruben; Harder, Ross; Haeffner, Dean

    2017-08-01

    The upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) will increase the brightness of the APS by between two and three orders of magnitude. The APS upgrade (APS-U) project includes a list of feature beamlines that will take full advantage of the new machine. Many of the existing beamlines will be also upgraded to profit from this significant machine enhancement. Optics simulations are essential in the design and optimization of these new and existing beamlines. In this contribution, the simulation tools used and developed at APS, ranging from analytical to numerical methods, are summarized. Three general optical layouts are compared in terms of their coherence control and focusing capabilities. The concept of zoom optics, where two sets of focusing elements (e.g., CRLs and KB mirrors) are used to provide variable beam sizes at a fixed focal plane, is optimized analytically. The effects of figure errors on the vertical spot size and on the local coherence along the vertical direction of the optimized design are investigated.

  12. Inotropic effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) in human and animal cardiac preparations.

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, U; Bokník, P; Gombosová, I; Huke, S; Knapp, J; Linck, B; Lüss, H; Müller, F U; Neumann, J; Deng, M C; Scheld, H H; Jankowski, H; Schlüter, H; Zidek, W; Zimmermann, N; Schmitz, W

    1999-02-01

    Diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) is an endogenous compound and exerts diverse physiological effects in animal systems. However, the effects of AP4A on inotropy in ventricular cardiac preparations have not yet been studied. The effects of AP4A on force of contraction (FOC) were studied in isolated electrically driven guinea pig and human cardiac preparations. Furthermore, the effects of AP4A on L-type calcium current and [Ca]i were studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. In guinea pig left atria, AP4A (0.1-100 microM) reduced FOC maximally by 36.5 +/- 4.3%. In guinea pig papillary muscles, AP4A (100 microM) alone was ineffective, but reduced isoproterenol-stimulated FOC maximally by 29.3 +/- 3.4%. The negative inotropic effects of AP4A in atria and papillary muscles were abolished by the A1-adenosine receptor antagonist 1, 3-dipropyl-cyclopentylxanthine. In guinea pig ventricular myocytes, AP4A (100 microM) attenuated isoproterenol-stimulated L-type calcium current and [Ca]i. In human atrial and ventricular preparations, AP4A (100 microM) alone increased FOC to 158.3 +/- 12.4% and 167.5 +/- 25.1%, respectively. These positive inotropic effects were abolished by the P2-purinoceptor antagonist suramin. On the other hand, AP4A (100 microM) reduced FOC by 27.2 +/- 7.4% in isoproterenol-stimulated human ventricular trabeculae. The latter effect was abolished by 1,3-dipropyl-cyclopentylxanthine. In summary, after beta adrenergic stimulation AP4A exerts negative inotropic effects in animal and human ventricular preparations via stimulation of A1-adenosine receptors. In contrast, AP4A alone can exert positive inotropic effects via P2-purinoceptors in human ventricular myocardium. Thus, P2-purinoceptor stimulation might be a new positive inotropic principle in the human myocardium.

  13. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  14. Aerosol-delivered programmed cell death 4 enhanced apoptosis, controlled cell cycle and suppressed AP-1 activity in the lungs of AP-1 luciferase reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S-K; Jin, H; Kwon, J T; Chang, S-H; Kim, T H; Cho, C-S; Lee, K H; Young, M R; Colburn, N H; Beck, G R; Yang, H-S; Cho, M-H

    2007-09-01

    The long-term survival of lung cancer patients treated with conventional therapies remains poor and therefore the need for novel approaches remains high. This has led to the re-emergence of aerosol delivery as a therapeutic intervention. In this study, glucosylated polyethylenimine (GPEI) was used as carrier to investigate programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and PDCD4 mutant (D418A), an eIF4A-binding mutant, on PDCD4-related signaling and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in the lungs of AP-1 luciferase reporter mice. After confirming the efficiency of GPEI as a carrier in lungs, the effects of aerosol-delivered PDCD4 were investigated in AP-1 luciferase reporter mice. Aerosol delivery of GPEI/PDCD4 through a nose-only inhalation facilitated the apoptosis of lungs whereas aerosol PDCD4 mutant did not. Also, such aerosol delivery regulated proteins relevant to cell-cycle control and suppressed AP-1 activity. Results obtained by western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, luciferase assay and deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated nick end labeling study suggest that combined actions such as facilitating apoptosis, controlling cell cycle and suppression of AP-1 activity by PDCD4 may provide useful tool for designing lung tumor prevention and treatment by which PDCD4 functions as a transformation suppressor in the future.

  15. APS-U LATTICE DESIGN FOR OFF-AXIS ACCUMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.

    2017-06-25

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is being proposed for a future Advanced Photon Source (APS) multi-bend-achromat (MBA) upgrade project. This lattice design pushes for smaller emittance and requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme due to limited dynamic acceptance. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed for the APS upgrade to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow off-axis accumulation. Two such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which target a still-low emittance of 90 pm, are discussed in detail in this paper. Although the single-particle-dynamics performance is good, simulations ofmore » collective effects indicate that surprising difficulty would be expected accumulating high single-bunch charge in this lattice. The brightness of the 90-pm lattice is also a factor of two lower than the 67-pm H7BA lattice.« less

  16. Adaptor Protein Complex-2 (AP-2) and Epsin-1 Mediate Protease-activated Receptor-1 Internalization via Phosphorylation- and Ubiquitination-dependent Sorting Signals*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Buxin; Dores, Michael R.; Grimsey, Neil; Canto, Isabel; Barker, Breann L.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2011-01-01

    Signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is regulated by desensitization and internalization. PAR1 desensitization is mediated by β-arrestins, like most classic GPCRs. In contrast, internalization of PAR1 occurs through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of β-arrestins. PAR1 displays two modes of internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), where the μ2-adaptin subunit binds directly to a tyrosine-based motif localized within the receptor C-tail domain. However, AP-2 depletion only partially inhibits agonist-induced internalization of PAR1, suggesting a function for other clathrin adaptors in this process. Here, we now report that AP-2 and epsin-1 are both critical mediators of agonist-stimulated PAR1 internalization. We show that ubiquitination of PAR1 and the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of epsin-1 are required for epsin-1-dependent internalization of activated PAR1. In addition, activation of PAR1 promotes epsin-1 de-ubiquitination, which may increase its endocytic adaptor activity to facilitate receptor internalization. AP-2 also regulates activated PAR1 internalization via recognition of distal C-tail phosphorylation sites rather than the canonical tyrosine-based motif. Thus, AP-2 and epsin-1 are both required to promote efficient internalization of activated PAR1 and recognize discrete receptor sorting signals. This study defines a new pathway for internalization of mammalian GPCRs. PMID:21965661

  17. A paradoxical increase of a metabolite upon increased expression of its catabolic enzyme: the case of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and Ap4A phosphorylase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, D M; Robinson, A K; Kaushal, V; Barnes, L D

    1991-01-01

    The APA1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes Ap4A phosphorylase I, the catabolic enzyme for diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A). APA1 has been inserted into a multicopy plasmid and into a centromeric plasmid with a GAL1 promoter. Enhanced expression of APA1 via the plasmids resulted in 10- and 90-fold increases in Ap4A phosphorylase activity, respectively, as assayed in vitro. However, the intracellular concentration of Ap4A exhibited increases of 2- and 15-fold, respectively, from the two different plasmids. Intracellular Ap4A increased 3- to 20-fold during growth on galactose of a transformant with APA1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter. Intracellular adenosine 5'-P1-tetraphospho-P4-5"'-guanosine (Ap4G) and diguanosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Gp4G) also increased in the transformant under these conditions. The chromosomal locus of APA1 has been disrupted in a haploid strain. The Ap4A phosphorylase activity decreased by 80% and the intracellular Ap4A concentration increased by a factor of five in the null mutant. These results with the null mutant agree with previous results reported by Plateau et al. (P. Plateau, M. Fromant, J.-M. Schmitter, J.-M. Buhler, and S. Blancquet, J. Bacteriol. 171:6437-6445, 1989). The paradoxical increase in Ap4A upon enhanced expression of APA1 indicates that the metabolic consequences of altered gene expression may be more complex than indicated solely by assay of enzymatic activity of the gene product. PMID:1660456

  18. A paradoxical increase of a metabolite upon increased expression of its catabolic enzyme: the case of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and Ap4A phosphorylase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Avila, D M; Robinson, A K; Kaushal, V; Barnes, L D

    1991-12-01

    The APA1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes Ap4A phosphorylase I, the catabolic enzyme for diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A). APA1 has been inserted into a multicopy plasmid and into a centromeric plasmid with a GAL1 promoter. Enhanced expression of APA1 via the plasmids resulted in 10- and 90-fold increases in Ap4A phosphorylase activity, respectively, as assayed in vitro. However, the intracellular concentration of Ap4A exhibited increases of 2- and 15-fold, respectively, from the two different plasmids. Intracellular Ap4A increased 3- to 20-fold during growth on galactose of a transformant with APA1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter. Intracellular adenosine 5'-P1-tetraphospho-P4-5"'-guanosine (Ap4G) and diguanosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Gp4G) also increased in the transformant under these conditions. The chromosomal locus of APA1 has been disrupted in a haploid strain. The Ap4A phosphorylase activity decreased by 80% and the intracellular Ap4A concentration increased by a factor of five in the null mutant. These results with the null mutant agree with previous results reported by Plateau et al. (P. Plateau, M. Fromant, J.-M. Schmitter, J.-M. Buhler, and S. Blancquet, J. Bacteriol. 171:6437-6445, 1989). The paradoxical increase in Ap4A upon enhanced expression of APA1 indicates that the metabolic consequences of altered gene expression may be more complex than indicated solely by assay of enzymatic activity of the gene product.

  19. Clinical application of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A:F-1500) for controlled hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Y; Ohiwa, E; Okada, K; Watanabe, A; Haruki, S

    1999-01-01

    In our animal study, it was revealed that diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A:F-1500) has a dose-dependent hypotension effect of up to 60% decrease in mean arterial pressure compared to control value. Furthermore, in healthy male volunteers, the safety of Ap4A up to 4 mg.min-1 was confirmed. In patients who require surgical procedures under general anesthesia together with controlled hypotension, hypotension was induced by Ap4A in order to examine its hypotensive effect and modulating action on the blood pressure. Ten patients who required controlled hypotension and who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were studied. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane (n = 7) or sevoflurane (n = 3) in oxygen-nitrous oxide. Controlled hypotension was induced by Ap4A administered at a rate of 10-20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1. The dose was adjusted at a maximum rate of 80 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 until the target blood pressure was achieved. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Arterial samples were drawn at 4 separate time points to measure the concentration of Ap4A in the plasma. The time required for attaining the target blood pressure after initiation of Ap4A infusion was about 16 min, and the time lapse between withdrawal of infusion to recovery of blood pressure was about 18 min. No reflex tachycardia was observed during infusion of Ap4A and no rebound hypertension was evident after withdrawal. The plasma Ap4A concentration increased in response to the acceleration rate of Ap4A administration with a tendency of augmented hypotensive effect. As it produces an excellent hypotensive effect together with a modulating action on blood pressure, Ap4A was assessed as useful in producing controlled hypotension.

  20. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-30

    safe enough for operational use, the benefits of MAPS relative to non-developmental efforts, MAPS’ impacts on NDI APS performance and costs, the Army’s...APSs Effective and Safe Enough for Operational Use? .............................. 24 What are the Benefits of MAPS Relative to Non-Developmental...corrosion—which will also factor into their eventual APS plans. Potential issues for Congress include whether current NDI APSs are effective and

  1. Health in All Policies (HiAP) governance: lessons from network governance.

    PubMed

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald; Kenis, Patrick; Akbari-Javar, Mohammad Reza

    2018-05-25

    The Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach requires formal and sustained governance structures and mechanisms to ensure that the policies of various non-health sectors maximize positive and minimize negative impacts on population health. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of a network perspective in understanding and contributing to the effectiveness of HiAP. We undertook an exploratory, qualitative case study of a HiAP structure in Iran, the Kerman province Council of Health and Food Security (CHFS) with diverse members from health and non-health sectors. We analyzed relevant policy texts and interviewed 32 policy actors involved in the CHFS. Data were analyzed using within-case analysis and constant comparative methodology. Our findings suggest that CHFS governance from a network perspective drew in practice on elements of two competing network governance modes: the network administrative organization (NAO) and the lead organization mode. Our results also show that a shift from a hierarchical and market-based mode of interaction to a network logic within CHFS has not yet taken place. In addition, CHFS suffers from large membership and an inability to address complex 'wicked problems', as well as low trust, legitimacy and goal consensus among its members. Drawing on other HiAP studies and commentaries, insights from organization network theory, and in-depth findings from our case study, we conclude that a NAO may be the most effective mode of governance for tackling complex social problems in HiAP structures. Since similar studies are limited, and our single case study may not be transferable across all contexts, we suggest that further research be undertaken to explore HiAP structures from a network perspective in different institutional and cultural settings. With increasing emphasis given to HiAP approaches in national and international health policy discourse, it is important that comparative knowledge about the effectiveness of HiAP governance

  2. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  3. An open reading frame in intron seven of the sea urchin DNA-methyltransferase gene codes for a functional AP1 endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Anna Valentina; Ferrara, Diana; Cubellis, Maria Vittoria; Aniello, Francesco; Corrado, Marcella; Liguori, Francesca; Amoroso, Alessandro; Fucci, Laura; Branno, Margherita

    2002-08-01

    Analysis of the genome structure of the Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) gene showed the presence of an open reading frame, named METEX, in intron 7 of the gene. METEX expression is developmentally regulated, showing no correlation with DNA MTase expression. In fact, DNA MTase transcripts are present at high concentrations in the early developmental stages, while METEX is expressed at late stages of development. Two METEX cDNA clones (Met1 and Met2) that are different in the 3' end have been isolated in a cDNA library screening. The putative translated protein from Met2 cDNA clone showed similarity with Escherichia coli endonuclease III on the basis of sequence and predictive three-dimensional structure. The protein, overexpressed in E. coli and purified, had functional properties similar to the endonuclease specific for apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites on the basis of the lyase activity. Therefore the open reading frame, present in intron 7 of the P. lividus DNA MTase gene, codes for a functional AP endonuclease designated SuAP1.

  4. A New Photometric Study of Ap and Am Stars in the Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: chenps@ynao.ac.cn

    In this paper, 426 well known confirmed Ap and Am stars are photometrically studied in the infrared. The 2MASS, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ), and IRAS data are employed to make analyses. The results in this paper have shown that in the 1–3 μ m region over 90% Ap and Am stars have no or little infrared excesses, and infrared radiations in the near-infrared from these stars are probably dominated by the free–free emissions. It is also shown that in the 3–12 μ m region, the majority of Ap stars and Am stars have very similar behavior, i.e.,more » in the W 1– W 2 (3.4–4.6 μ m) region, over half of Ap and Am stars have clear infrared excesses, which are possibly due to the binarity, the multiplicity, and/or the debris disk, but in the W 2– W 3 (4.6–12 μ m) region they have no or little infrared excess. In addition, in the 12–22 μ m region, some of Ap stars and Am stars show the infrared excesses and infrared radiations for these Ap and Am stars are probably due to the free–free emissions. In addition, it is seen that the probability of being the binarity, the multiplicity and/or the debris disk for Am stars is much higher than that for Ap stars. Furthermore, it can be seen that, in general, no relations can be found between infrared colors and spectral types either for Ap stars or for Am stars.« less

  5. Exploring the mechanism of how tvMyb2 recognizes and binds ap65-1 by molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Kang; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    TvMyb2, one of the Myb-like transcriptional factors in Trichomonas vaginalis, binds to two closely spaced promoter sites, MRE-1/MRE-2r and MRE-2f, on the ap65-1 gene. However, detailed dynamical structural characteristics of the tvMyb2-ap65-1 complex and a detailed study of the protein in the complex have not been done. Focused on a specific tvMyb2-MRE-2-13 complex (PDB code: ) and a series of mutants K51A, R84A and R87A, we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) free energy calculations to examine the role of the tvMyb2 protein in recognition interaction. The simulation results indicate that tvMyb2 becomes stable when it binds the DNA duplex. A series of mutants, K51A, R84A and R87A, have been followed, and the results of statistical analyses of the H-bond and hydrophobic contacts show that some residues have significant influence on recognition and binding to ap65-1 DNA. Our work gives important information to understand the interactions of tvMyb2 with ap65-1.

  6. HIV-1 Vpu Antagonizes CD317/Tetherin by Adaptor Protein-1-Mediated Exclusion from Virus Assembly Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, François M.; Laketa, Vibor; Schmidt, Florian; Mukenhirn, Markus; Müller, Barbara; Boulant, Steeve; Grimm, Dirk; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The host cell restriction factor CD317/tetherin traps virions at the surface of producer cells to prevent their release. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu antagonizes this restriction. Vpu reduces the cell surface density of the restriction factor and targets it for degradation; however, these activities are dispensable for enhancing particle release. Instead, Vpu has been suggested to antagonize CD317/tetherin by preventing recycling of internalized CD317/tetherin to the cell surface, blocking anterograde transport of newly synthesized CD317/tetherin, and/or displacing the restriction factor from virus assembly sites at the plasma membrane. At the molecular level, antagonism relies on the physical interaction of Vpu with CD317/tetherin. Recent findings suggested that phosphorylation of a diserine motif enables Vpu to bind to adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) trafficking complexes via two independent interaction motifs and to couple CD317/tetherin to the endocytic machinery. Here, we used a panel of Vpu proteins with specific mutations in individual interaction motifs to define which interactions are required for antagonism of CD317/tetherin. Impairing recycling or anterograde transport of CD317/tetherin to the plasma membrane was insufficient for antagonism. In contrast, excluding CD317/tetherin from HIV-1 assembly sites depended on Vpu motifs for interaction with AP-1 and CD317/tetherin and correlated with antagonism of the particle release restriction. Consistently, interference with AP-1 function or its expression blocked these Vpu activities. Our results define displacement from HIV-1 assembly sites as active principle of CD317/tetherin antagonism by Vpu and support a role of tripartite complexes between Vpu, AP-1, and CD317/tetherin in this process. IMPORTANCE CD317/tetherin poses an intrinsic barrier to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human cells by trapping virus particles at the surface of producer cells and thereby preventing

  7. AE8/AP8 Implementations in AE9/AP9, IRBEM, and SPENVIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    period applies to orbit generation only; AE8/AP8 utilizes geomagnetic field models from other epochs as specified in the table below.) SHIELDOSE2 model...finite and semi- infinite slab data tables for Bremsstrahlung have been reversed [Heynderickx, private communication, May 2013]. This correction is...Cain, J. C., S. J. Hendricks, R. A. Langel, and W. V. Hudson (1967), A proposed model for the international geomagnetic reference field, 1965, J

  8. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3)*

    PubMed Central

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C.; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R. C.; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H.; Feller, Stephan M.

    2015-01-01

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3. PMID:26296892

  9. Multiple Independent Genetic Factors at NOS1AP Modulate the QT Interval in a Multi-Ethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Arking, Dan E.; Khera, Amit; Xing, Chao; Kao, W. H. Linda; Post, Wendy; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2009-01-01

    Extremes of electrocardiographic QT interval are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD); thus, identification and characterization of genetic variants that modulate QT interval may elucidate the underlying etiology of SCD. Previous studies have revealed an association between a common genetic variant in NOS1AP and QT interval in populations of European ancestry, but this finding has not been extended to other ethnic populations. We sought to characterize the effects of NOS1AP genetic variants on QT interval in the multi-ethnic population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n = 3,072). The SNP most strongly associated with QT interval in previous samples of European ancestry, rs16847548, was the most strongly associated in White (P = 0.005) and Black (P = 3.6×10−5) participants, with the same direction of effect in Hispanics (P = 0.17), and further showed a significant SNP × sex-interaction (P = 0.03). A second SNP, rs16856785, uncorrelated with rs16847548, was also associated with QT interval in Blacks (P = 0.01), with qualitatively similar results in Whites and Hispanics. In a previously genotyped cohort of 14,107 White individuals drawn from the combined Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) cohorts, we validated both the second locus at rs16856785 (P = 7.63×10−8), as well as the sex-interaction with rs16847548 (P = 8.68×10−6). These data extend the association of genetic variants in NOS1AP with QT interval to a Black population, with similar trends, though not statistically significant at P<0.05, in Hispanics. In addition, we identify a strong sex-interaction and the presence of a second independent site within NOS1AP associated with the QT interval. These results highlight the consistent and complex role of NOS1AP genetic variants in modulating QT interval. PMID:19180230

  10. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-23

    with hard or soft kill capabilities to a variety of threats, including rocket -propelled grenades (RPGs) and anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs). APS...of threats, including rocket -propelled grenades (RPGs) and anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs). APS technologies are not new, and a number of nations...training. 1 RPGs are basically single man-portable, shoulder-fired, unguided rockets . RPGs have been widely proliferated but can be mitigated to a

  11. ION EFFECTS IN THE APS PARTICLE ACCUMULATOR RING

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.; Harkay, K.; Yao, CY.

    2017-06-25

    Trapped ions in the APS Particle Accumulator Ring (PAR) lead to a positive coherent tune shift in both planes, which increases along the PAR cycle as more ions accumulate. This effect has been studied using an ion simulation code developed at SLAC. After modifying the code to include a realistic vacuum profile, multiple ionization, and the effect of shaking the beam to measure the tune, the simulation agrees well with our measurements. This code has also been used to evaluate the possibility of ion instabilities at the high bunch charge needed for the APS-Upgrade.

  12. Coaching in the AP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Many parallels exist between quality coaches and quality classroom teachers--especially AP teachers, who often feel the pressure to produce positive test results. Having developed a series of techniques and strategies for building a team-oriented winning culture on the field, Jim Fornaciari writes about how he adapted those methods to work in the…

  13. Pharmaceutical analysis of synthetic lipid A-based vaccine adjuvants in poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle formulations.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Samar; Haddadi, Azita; Somayaji, Vishwa; Ruan, David; Samuel, John

    2007-08-15

    The present study had two main objectives. First, was to compare the immune stimulatory effect of two synthetic lipid A analogues (7-acyl lipid A and pentaerythritol-based lipid A (PET lipid A)) on maturation/stimulation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs). Our second objective was to develop a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the quantitative analysis of lipid A-based vaccine adjuvants. Treatment of immature DCs with 7-acyl lipid A and PET lipid A up regulated the surface expression of CD86 and CD40 molecules, and also induced similar profile of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. LC-MS analyses were performed using a Waters Micromass ZQ 4000 spectrometer, coupled to a Waters 2795 separations module with an autosampler. Calibration curves with R(2)>0.999 were constructed over the concentration range of 1.25-20 microg/ml for the solution of 7-acyl lipid A and PET lipid A. The method was tested in a 3 day validation protocol. The accuracy of the assay at different concentrations tested ranged from 89 to 108% and from 92 to 107% for 7-acyl lipid A and PET lipid A, respectively. The limit of quantification for both 7-acyl lipid A and PET lipid A was 1.25 microg/ml (signal/noise (S/N)) ratio >15:1. The sensitivity of the method (the limit of detection) was 0.35 and 0.15 ng for 7-acyl lipid A and PET lipid A, respectively (S/N ratio between 4:1 or 3:1). As a preliminary application, this method has been successfully applied to the determination of 7-acyl lipid A and PET lipid A content in poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-NP).

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of AP/HMX composite with a modified force field.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Xijun; Xiao, Jijun; Zhu, Weihua; Sun, Huai; Xiao, Heming

    2009-08-15

    An all-atom force field for ammonium perchlorate (AP) is developed with the framework of pcff force field. The structural parameters of AP obtained with the modified force field are in good agreement with experimental values. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate AP/HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane) composite at different temperatures. The binding energies, thermal expansion coefficient, and the trigger bond lengths of HMX in the AP/HMX composite have been obtained. The binding energies of the system increase slightly with temperature increasing, peak at 245K, and then gradually decrease. The volume thermal expansion coefficient of the AP/HMX composite has been derived from the volume variation with temperature. As the temperature rises, the maximal lengths of the trigger bond N-NO(2) of HMX increase gradually. The simulated results indicate that the maximal length of trigger bond can be used as a criterion for judging the sensitivity of energetic composite.

  15. Effect of the 3-halo substitution of the 2'-deoxy aminopyridinyl-pseudocytidine derivatives on the selectivity and stability of antiparallel triplex DNA with a CG inversion site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Okamura, Hidenori; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2017-07-15

    Triplex formation against a target duplex DNA has the potential to become a tool for the genome research. However, there is an intrinsic restriction on the duplex DNA sequences capable of forming the triplex DNA. Recently, we demonstrated the selective formation of the stable antiparallel triplexes containing the CG inversion sites using the 2'-deoxy-1-methylpseudocytidine derivative (ΨdC), whose amino group was conjugated with the 2-aminopyridine at its 5-position as an additional hydrogen bonding unit (AP-ΨdC). The 1-N of 2-aminopyridine was supposed to be protonated to form the hydrogen bond with the guanine of the CG inversion site. In this study, to test the effect of the 3-substitution of the 2-aminopyridine unit of AP-ΨdC on the triplex stability, we synthesized the 3-halogenated 2-aminopyridine derivatives of AP-ΨdC. The pKa values 1-N of the 2-aminopyridine unit of AP-ΨdC as the monomer nucleoside were determined to be 6.3 for 3-CH 3 ( Me AP-ΨdC), 6.1 for 3-H (AP-ΨdC), 4.3 for 3-Cl ( Cl AP-ΨdC), 4.4 for 3-Br ( Br AP-ΨdC), and 4.7 for 3-I ( I AP-ΨdC), suggesting that all the halogenated AP-ΨdCs are not protonated under neutral conditions. Interestingly, although the recognition selectivity depends on the sequence context, the TFO having the sequence of the 3'-G-( I AP-ΨdC)-A-5' context showed the selective triplex formation with the CG inversion site. These results suggest that the protonation at the 1-N position plays an important role in the stable and selective triplex formation of AP-ΨdC derivatives in any sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ten Things to Consider When Teaching AP U.S. History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libresco, Andrea S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes 10 recommendations for creativity, higher-order thinking, and meaningful learning activities that can be used to guide teachers in constructing an engaging AP course: (1) Be on the committee that decides how students will be selected for AP; (2) Maximize time and connections through blocks of time with an English colleague;…

  17. APS Goes to ComicCon and Other Tales: Reaching out for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Broadly interpreting the core mission of APS ``to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics", APS carries out programmatic activities in Education, Outreach, International Affairs, Public Affairs, and Advocacy, which benefit the physics community as well as society at large. These programs are highly valued by APS members who know about them, but the challenge has been to find ways to effectively communicate to our members about all the good things we are doing. APS programs have also achieved significant recognition in the external community for their outstanding quality and success. I will describe several examples of how we ``reach out" to promote physics and physics education in a variety of venues.

  18. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  19. Mutation of CD2AP and SH3KBP1 Binding Motif in Alphavirus nsP3 Hypervariable Domain Results in Attenuated Virus.

    PubMed

    Mutso, Margit; Morro, Ainhoa Moliner; Smedberg, Cecilia; Kasvandik, Sergo; Aquilimeba, Muriel; Teppor, Mona; Tarve, Liisi; Lulla, Aleksei; Lulla, Valeria; Saul, Sirle; Thaa, Bastian; McInerney, Gerald M; Merits, Andres; Varjak, Margus

    2018-04-27

    Infection by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Old World alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) in humans can cause arthritis and arthralgia. The virus encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP) (nsP1, nsp2, nsP3 and nsP4) that act as subunits of the virus replicase. These proteins also interact with numerous host proteins and some crucial interactions are mediated by the unstructured C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD) of nsP3. In this study, a human cell line expressing EGFP tagged with CHIKV nsP3 HVD was established. Using quantitative proteomics, it was found that CHIKV nsP3 HVD can bind cytoskeletal proteins, including CD2AP, SH3KBP1, CAPZA1, CAPZA2 and CAPZB. The interaction with CD2AP was found to be most evident; its binding site was mapped to the second SH3 ligand-like element in nsP3 HVD. Further assessment indicated that CD2AP can bind to nsP3 HVDs of many different New and Old World alphaviruses. Mutation of the short binding element hampered the ability of the virus to establish infection. The mutation also abolished ability of CD2AP to co-localise with nsP3 and replication complexes of CHIKV; the same was observed for Semliki Forest virus (SFV) harbouring a similar mutation. Similar to CD2AP, its homolog SH3KBP1 also bound the identified motif in CHIKV and SFV nsP3.

  20. SARS coronavirus protein 7a interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Natalia; Moshynskyy, Igor; Zakhartchouk, Alexander

    2010-02-09

    The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) open reading frame 7a (ORF 7a) encodes a 122 amino acid accessory protein. It has no significant sequence homology with any other known proteins. The 7a protein is present in the virus particle and has been shown to interact with several host proteins; thereby implicating it as being involved in several pathogenic processes including apoptosis, inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. In this study we present data demonstrating that the SARS-CoV 7a protein interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase (asymmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, EC 3.6.1.17). Ap4A-hydrolase is responsible for metabolizing the "allarmone" nucleotide Ap4A and therefore likely involved in regulation of cell proliferation, DNA replication, RNA processing, apoptosis and DNA repair. The interaction between 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase was identified using yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from cultured human cells transiently expressing V5-His tagged 7a and HA tagged Ap4A-hydrolase. Human tissue culture cells transiently expressing 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase tagged with EGFP and Ds-Red2 respectively show these proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm.

  1. The Reconstruction of Condition-Specific Transcriptional Modules Provides New Insights in the Evolution of Yeast AP-1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Goudot, Christel; Etchebest, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    AP-1 proteins are transcription factors (TFs) that belong to the basic leucine zipper family, one of the largest families of TFs in eukaryotic cells. Despite high homology between their DNA binding domains, these proteins are able to recognize diverse DNA motifs. In yeasts, these motifs are referred as YRE (Yap Response Element) and are either seven (YRE-Overlap) or eight (YRE-Adjacent) base pair long. It has been proposed that the AP-1 DNA binding motif preference relies on a single change in the amino acid sequence of the yeast AP-1 TFs (an arginine in the YRE-O binding factors being replaced by a lysine in the YRE-A binding Yaps). We developed a computational approach to infer condition-specific transcriptional modules associated to the orthologous AP-1 protein Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p, in three yeast species: the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two pathogenic species Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Exploitation of these modules in terms of predictions of the protein/DNA regulatory interactions changed our vision of AP-1 protein evolution. Cis-regulatory motif analyses revealed the presence of a conserved adenine in 5′ position of the canonical YRE sites. While Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p shared a remarkably low number of target genes, an impressive conservation was observed in the YRE sequences identified by Yap1p and Cap1p. In Candida glabrata, we found that Cgap1p, unlike Yap1p and Cap1p, recognizes YRE-O and YRE-A motifs. These findings were supported by structural data available for the transcription factor Pap1p (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Thus, whereas arginine and lysine substitutions in Cgap1p and Yap1p proteins were reported as responsible for a specific YRE-O or YRE-A preference, our analyses rather suggest that the ancestral yeast AP-1 protein could recognize both YRE-O and YRE-A motifs and that the arginine/lysine exchange is not the only determinant of the specialization of modern Yaps for one motif or another. PMID:21695268

  2. The 8th Annual AP[R] Report to the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In classrooms around the country, AP (Advanced Placement) teachers are preparing students for tomorrow by teaching them how to think and learn today. AP students learn to construct solid arguments, test theories, and see many sides of an issue--the kind of thinking that solves tough problems both in and outside the classroom, in college and…

  3. Expansion and stress responses of the AP2/EREBP superfamily in cotton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2017-01-31

    The allotetraploid cotton originated from one hybridization event between an extant progenitor of Gosssypium herbaceum (A 1 ) or G. arboreum (A 2 ) and another progenitor, G. raimondii Ulbrich (D 5 ) 1-1.5 million years ago (Mya). The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors constitute one of the largest and most conserved gene families in plants. They are characterized by their AP2 domain, which comprises 60-70 amino acids, and are classified into four main subfamilies: the APETALA2 (AP2), Related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV), Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding protein (DREB) and Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF) subfamilies. The AP2/EREBP genes play crucial roles in plant growth, development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Hence, understanding the molecular characteristics of cotton stress tolerance and gene family expansion would undoubtedly facilitate cotton resistance breeding and evolution research. A total of 269 AP2/EREBP genes were identified in the G. raimondii (D5) cotton genome. The protein domain architecture and intron/exon structure are simple and relatively conserved within each subfamily. They are distributed throughout all chromosomes but are clustered on various chromosomes due to genomic tandem duplication. We identified 73 tandem duplicated genes and 221 segmental duplicated gene pairs which contributed to the expansion of AP2/EREBP superfamily. Of them, tandem duplication was the most important force of the expansion of the B3 group. Transcriptome analysis showed that 504 AP2/EREBP genes were expressed in at least one tested G. hirsutum TM-1 tissues. In G. hirsutum, 151 non-repeated genes of the DREB and ERF subfamily genes were responsive to different stresses: 132 genes were induced by cold, 63 genes by drought and 94 genes by heat. qRT-PCR confirmed that 13 GhDREB and 15 GhERF genes were induced by cold and/or drought. No transcripts detected for 53 of the 111 tandem duplicated genes in TM-1

  4. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  5. aP2-Cre-mediated inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 causes growth retardation and reduced lipid accumulation in adipose tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adipose tissue is one of the major sites for fatty acid synthesis and lipid storage. We generated adipose (fat)-specific ACC1 knockout (FACC1KO) mice using the aP2-Cre/loxP system. FACC1KO mice showed prenatal growth retardation; after weaning, however, their weight gain was comparable to that of wi...

  6. CLEARING MAGNET DESIGN FOR APS-U

    SciTech Connect

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Jaski, Y.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of developing an upgrade (APS-U) of the storage ring. The upgrade will be converting the current double bend achromat (DBA) lattice to a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice. In addition, the storage ring will be operated at 6 GeV and 200 mA with regular swap-out injection to keep the stored beam current constant [1]. The swap-out injection will take place with beamline shutters open. For radiation safety to ensure that no electrons can exit the storage ring, a passive method of protecting the beamline and containing the electrons inside the storage ring ismore » proposed. A clearing magnet will be located in all beamline front ends inside the storage ring tunnel. This article will discuss the features and design of the clearing magnet scheme for APS-U.« less

  7. Magnetic Doppler imaging of Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, J.; Wade, G. A.; Kochukhov, O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.

    2008-04-01

    Historically, the magnetic field geometries of the chemically peculiar Ap stars were modelled in the context of a simple dipole field. However, with the acquisition of increasingly sophisticated diagnostic data, it has become clear that the large-scale field topologies exhibit important departures from this simple model. Recently, new high-resolution circular and linear polarisation spectroscopy has even hinted at the presence of strong, small-scale field structures, which were completely unexpected based on earlier modelling. This project investigates the detailed structure of these strong fossil magnetic fields, in particular the large-scale field geometry, as well as small scale magnetic structures, by mapping the magnetic and chemical surface structure of a selected sample of Ap stars. These maps will be used to investigate the relationship between the local field vector and local surface chemistry, looking for the influence the field may have on the various chemical transport mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, convection and mass loss). This will lead to better constraints on the origin and evolution, as well as refining the magnetic field model for Ap stars. Mapping will be performed using high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio time-series of spectra in both circular and linear polarisation obtained using the new-generation ESPaDOnS (CFHT, Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and NARVAL spectropolarimeters (Pic du Midi Observatory). With these data we will perform tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV Zeeman profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 magnetic Doppler imaging code, simultaneously recovering the detailed surface maps of the vector magnetic field and chemical abundances.

  8. Enantioselective Reduction of Citral Isomers in NCR Ene Reductase: Analysis of an Active-Site Mutant Library.

    PubMed

    Kress, Nico; Rapp, Johanna; Hauer, Bernhard

    2017-04-18

    A deeper understanding of the >99 % S-selective reduction of both isomers of citral catalyzed by NCR ene reductase was achieved by active-site mutational studies and docking simulation. Though structurally similar, the E/Z isomers of citral showed a significantly varying selectivity response to introduced mutations. Although it was possible to invert (E)-citral reduction enantioselectivity to ee 46 % (R) by introducing mutation W66A, for (Z)-citral it remained ≥88 % (S) for all single-residue variants. Residue 66 seems to act as a lever for opposite binding modes. This was underlined by a W66A-based double-mutant library that enhanced the (E)-citral derived enantioselectivity to 63 % (R) and significantly lowered the S selectivity for (Z)-citral to 44 % (S). Formation of (R)-citronellal from an (E/Z)-citral mixture is a desire in industrial (-)-menthol synthesis. Our findings pave the way for a rational enzyme engineering solution. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of cargo-binding sites on the μ4-subunit of adaptor protein complex 4.

    PubMed

    Ross, Breyan H; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A; Burgos, Patricia V; Mardones, Gonzalo A

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cargo-Binding Sites on the μ4-Subunit of Adaptor Protein Complex 4

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Breyan H.; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  11. Detection of DNA Sequences Refractory to PCR Amplification Using a Biophysical SERRS Assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M.; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction – based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage. PMID:25502338

  12. Detection of DNA sequences refractory to PCR amplification using a biophysical SERRS assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy).

    PubMed

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction - based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage.

  13. [Cloning, subcellular localization, and heterologous expression of ApNAC1 gene from Andrographis paniculata].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Meng-Die; Guo, Juan; Shen, Ye; Lin, Hui-Xin; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata is widely used as medicinal herb in China for a long time and andrographolide is its main medicinal constituent. To investigate the underlying andrographolide biosynthesis mechanisms, RNA-seq for A. paniculata leaves with MeJA treatment was performed. In A. paniculata transcriptomic data, the expression pattern of one member of NAC transcription factor family (ApNAC1) matched with andrographolide accumulation. The coding sequence of ApNAC1 was cloned by RT-PCR, and GenBank accession number was KY196416. The analysis of bioinformatics showed that the gene encodes a peptide of 323 amino acids, with a predicted relative molecular weight of 35.9 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.14. To confirm the subcellular localization, ApNAC1-GFP was transiently expressed in A. paniculata protoplast. The results indicated that ApNAC1 is a nucleus-localized protein. The analysis of real-time quantitative PCR revealed that ApNAC1 gene predominantly expresses in leaves. Compared with control sample, its expression abundance sharply increased with methyl jasmonate treatment. Based on its expression pattern, ApNAC1 gene might involve in andrographolide biosynthesis. ApNAC1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA agarose. Further study will help us to understand the function of ApNAC1 in andrographolide biosynthesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. IKKα contributes to UVB-induced VEGF expression by regulating AP-1 transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Li, Yi; Gao, Ming; Hu, Meiru; Li, Xiaoguang; Mai, Sanyue; Guo, Ning; Yuan, Shengtao; Song, Lun

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation from sunlight induces the upregulation of VEGF, a potent angiogenic factor that is critical for mediating angiogenesis-associated photodamage. However, the molecular mechanisms related to UVB-induced VEGF expression have not been fully defined. Here, we demonstrate that one of the catalytic subunits of the IκB kinase complex (IKK), IKKα, plays a critical role in mediating UVB-induced VEGF expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which requires IKKα kinase activity but is independent of IKKβ, IKKγ and the transactivation of NF-κB. We further show that the transcriptional factor AP-1 functions as the downstream target of IKKα that is responsible for VEGF induction under UVB exposure. Both the accumulation of AP-1 component, c-Fos and the transactivation of AP-1 by UVB require the activated IKKα located within the nucleus. Moreover, nuclear IKKα can associate with c-Fos and recruit to the vegf promoter regions containing AP-1-responsive element and then trigger phosphorylation of the promoter-bound histone H3. Thus, our results have revealed a novel independent role for IKKα in controlling VEGF expression during the cellular UVB response by regulating the induction of the AP-1 component and phosphorylating histone H3 to facilitate AP-1 transactivation. Targeting IKKα shows promise for the prevention of UVB-induced angiogenesis and the associated photodamage. PMID:22169952

  15. Magnetic Measurements of Storage Ring Magnets for the APS Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doose, C.; Dejus, R.; Jaski, M.

    2017-06-01

    Extensive prototyping of storage ring magnets is ongoing at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in support of the APS Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) upgrade project (APS-U) [1]. As part of the R&D activities four quadrupole magnets with slightly different geometries and pole tip materials, and one sextupole magnet with vanadium permendur (VP) pole tips were designed, built and tested. Magnets were measured individually using a rotating coil and a Hall probe for detailed mapping of the magnetic field. Magnets were then assembled and aligned relative to each other on a steel support plate and concrete plinth using precision machined surfaces tomore » gain experience with the alignment method chosen for the APS-U storage ring magnets. The required alignment of magnets on a common support structure is 30 μm rms. Measurements of magnetic field quality, strength and magnet alignment after subjecting the magnets and assemblies to different tests are presented.« less

  16. P alpha-chiral phosphorothioate analogues of bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A); their enzymatic synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Lazewska, D; Guranowski, A

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis of Sp and Rp diastereomers of Ap4A alpha S has been characterized in two enzymatic systems, the lysyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli and the Ap4A alpha, beta-phosphorylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The synthetase was able to use both (Sp)ATP alpha S and (Rp)ATP alpha S as acceptors of adenylate thus yielding corresponding monothioanalogues of Ap4A,(Sp) Ap4A alpha S and (Rp)Ap4A alpha S. No dithiophosphate analogue was formed. Relative synthetase velocities of the formation of Ap4A,(Sp) Ap4A alpha S and (Rp)Ap4A alpha S were 1:0.38:0.15, and the computed Km values for (Sp)ATP alpha S and (Rp)ATP alpha S were 0.48 and 1.34 mM, respectively. The yeast Ap4A phosphorylase synthesized (Sp)Ap4A alpha S and (Rp)Ap4A alpha S using adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) as source of adenylate. The adenylate was accepted by corresponding thioanalogues of ATP. In that system, relative velocities of Ap4A, (Sp)Ap4A alpha S and (Rp)Ap4A alpha S formation were 1:0.15:0.60. The two isomeric phosphorothioate analogues of Ap4A were tested as substrates for the following specific Ap4A-degrading enzymes: (asymmetrical) Ap4A hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17) from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds hydrolyzed each of the analogues to AMP and the corresponding isomer of ATP alpha S; (symmetrical) Ap4A hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.41) from E. coli produced ADP and the corresponding diastereomer of ADP alpha S; and Ap4A phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from S. cerevisiae cleaved the Rp isomer only at the unmodified end yielding ADP and (Rp)ATP alpha S whereas the Sp isomer was degraded non-specifically yielding a mixture of ADP, (Sp)ADP alpha S, ATP and (Sp)ATP alpha S. For all the Ap4A-degrading enzymes, the Rp isomer of Ap4A alpha S appeared to be a better substrate than its Sp counterpart; stereoselectivity of the three enzymes for the Ap4A alpha S diastereomers is 51, 6 and 2.5, respectively. Basic kinetic parameters of the degradation reactions are presented and structural requirements of

  17. Understanding and Using the New Guided-Inquiry AP Chemistry Laboratory Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    To support teaching and learning in the advanced placement (AP) chemistry laboratory, the College Board published a laboratory manual, "AP Chemistry Guided-Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science Practices," in 2013 as part of the redesigned course. This article provides a discussion of the rationale for the existence of the manual as…

  18. Panel Discussion : Report of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Barthelemy, Ramon; Garmon, Savannah; Reeves, Kyle; APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues Team

    Following the presentation of the findings and recommendations of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues (C-LGBT) by Committee Chair Michael Falk, a panel discussion will be held featuring several members of the committee. The discussion will focus on how APS can best ensure the recommendations of the committee are carried out in a timely fashion and other ideas on future APS efforts toward LGBT inclusion in physics. Discussion topics will also include the research and other input that shaped the committee's findings and recommendations.

  19. Cardioprotective effect of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) cardioplegia in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Ahmet, I; Sawa, Y; Nishimura, M; Matsuda, H

    2000-01-01

    Preischemic administration of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) has been shown to be cardioprotective. We evaluated the protective effect of AP4A when used as a cardioplegic adjuvant and tested contributions of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K ATP channel), adenosine receptor (AR), and purine 2y receptor (P2yR) to the effect of AP4A. Isolated buffer-perfused rat hearts were subjected to 23 min of ischemia (37 degrees C) followed by 20 min of reperfusion. Cardioplegia solution (St. Thomas Hospital solution) was infused during the first 3 min of ischemia. AP4A (10 microM) or AP4A with glibenclamide (K ATP channel blocker, 100 microM), 8-SPT (AR antagonist, 300 microM) or reactive blue (P2yR antagonist, 13 nM) were added to the cardioplegia solution. Compared with the cardioplegia solution alone, administration of AP4A with the solution significantly increased the recovery of rate-pressure production (75% +/- 11% vs 58% +/- 10%; P < 0.05) and dp/dt at the end of reperfusion, and reduced the leakage of creatine kinase (3.2 +/- 3.7 vs 13.2 +/- 10.1 IU/g; P < 0.05) during reperfusion. This effect was reversed by coadministration of glibenclamide or reactive blue but not 8-SPT. The addition of AP4A into the cardioplegia solution led to an added cardioprotective effect, either by opening the K ATP channel or by activating P2yR.

  20. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

  1. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Itzhak, Daniel N.; Antrobus, Robin; Borner, Georg H. H.

    2018-01-01

    The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5–associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:29381698

  2. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, X; Yang, D

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was usedmore » to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System.« less

  3. Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 μm on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

  4. Structural modeling and molecular simulation analysis of HvAP2/EREBP from barley.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bharati; Sharma, Pradeep; Tyagi, Chetna; Goyal, Sukriti; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    AP2/ERF transcription factors play a critical role in plant development and stress adaptation. This study reports the three-dimensional ab initio-based model of AP2/EREBP protein of barley and its interaction with DNA. Full-length coding sequence of HvAP2/EREBP gene isolated from two Indian barley cultivars, RD 2503 and RD 31, was used to model the protein. Of five protein models obtained, the one with lowest C-score was chosen for further analysis. The N- and C-terminal regions of HvAP2 protein were found to be highly disordered. The dynamic properties of AP2/EREBP and its interaction with DNA were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of trajectories from simulation yielded the equilibrated conformation between 2-10ns for protein and 7-15ns for protein-DNA complex. We established relationship between DNA having GCC box and DNA-binding domain of HvAP2/EREBP was established by modeling 11-base-pair-long nucleotide sequence and HvAP2/EREBP protein using ab initio method. Analysis of protein-DNA interaction showed that a β-sheet motif constituting amino acid residues THR105, ARG100, ARG93, and ARG83 seems to play important role in stabilizing the complex as they form strong hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA motif. Taken together, this study provides first-hand comprehensive information detailing structural conformation and interactions of HvAP2/EREBP proteins in barley. The study intensifies the role of computational approaches for preliminary examination of unknown proteins in the absence of experimental information. It also provides molecular insight into protein-DNA binding for understanding and enhancing abiotic stress resistance for improving the water use efficiency in crop plants.

  5. The AP1000{sup R} China projects move forward to construction completion and equipment installation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrop, G.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000 design is the only Generation III+ technology to receive design certification from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This evolutionary design provides the highest safety and performance standards and has several distinct advantages over other designs, including improved operations and reduced construction schedule risks through the use of modern, modular, engineering principles that allow construction and fabrication tasks traditionally performed in sequence to be undertaken in parallel. Since the first granting of Design Certification in 2005 by the NRC, the AP1000 design has been modified to meet emergent NRC requirements such as those requiring the design to withstand themore » impact of an aircraft crash. Both domestic and foreign utilities have turned to the Westinghouse AP1000 plant design to meet their near - and long-term sustainable energy needs. The first ever deployment of this advanced U.S. nuclear power technology began in China in 2007 with the award of a contract to build four AP1000 units, constructed in pairs at the coastal sites of Sanmen (Zhejiang Province) and Haiyang (Shandong Province). Currently, all four units are at an advanced stage of construction. The commercial operation date for Sanmen Unit 1 is November 2013 followed by Haiyang Unit 1 being operational in May 2014. Construction and equipment manufacture is at an advanced stage. Sanmen Unit 1 equipment that has been delivered includes the reactor vessel, the reactor vessel closure head, the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger, the integrated head package, the polar crane, and the refueling machine. The steam generators are also completed. The RV was installed within the containment vessel building in September 2011. The installation of this major equipment will allow the setting of the containment vessel top head. Haiyang Unit 1 is also achieving significant progress. Significant benefits continue to be realized as a result of lessons learned and experience

  6. CMOS-APS Detectors for Solar Physics: Lessons Learned during the SWAP Preflight Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Nicula, B.; Halain, J.-P.; Defise, J.-M.; Thibert, T.; Schühle, U.

    2008-05-01

    CMOS-APS imaging detectors open new opportunities for remote sensing in solar physics beyond what classical CCDs can provide, offering far less power consumption, simpler electronics, better radiation hardness, and the possibility of avoiding a mechanical shutter. The SWAP telescope onboard the PROBA2 technology demonstration satellite of the European Space Agency will be the first actual implementation of a CMOS-APS detector for solar physics in orbit. One of the goals of the SWAP project is precisely to acquire experience with the CMOS-APS technology in a real-live space science context. Such a precursor mission is essential in the preparation of missions such as Solar Orbiter where the extra CMOS-APS functionalities will be hard requirements. The current paper concentrates on specific CMOS-APS issues that were identified during the SWAP preflight calibration measurements. We will discuss the different readout possibilities that the CMOS-APS detector of SWAP provides and their associated pros and cons. In particular we describe the “image lag” effect, which results in a contamination of each image with a remnant of the previous image. We have characterised this effect for the specific SWAP implementation and we conclude with a strategy on how to successfully circumvent the problem and actually take benefit of it for solar monitoring.

  7. Ecto-diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A)-hydrolase is expressed as an ectoenzyme in a variety of mammalian and human cells and adds new aspects to the turnover of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, A; Ogilvie, A

    2000-01-01

    Ap4A and other dinucleotides participate in the regulation of hemostasis and blood pressure control. With the exception of two previously reported surface anchored ectoAp4A-hydrolases on bovine aortic endothelial and chromaffine cells, all Ap4A-hydrolases reported are intracellular or freely soluble. We demonstrated that ectoAp4A-hydrolases are present on a broad variety of cell types of different species: rat mesangial, bovine corneal epithelial, human Hep-G2 and peridontal cells. Ectoenzyme properties were evaluated on rat mesangium cells. Chromatography of purified plasma membranes on Sephacel 300 resulted in enrichment of ectoAp4A-hydrolase and in separation from ectoATPase. In contrast to ATPase, Ap4A-hydrolase was stable at room temperature. EctoAp4A-hydrolase also recognized ATP as substrate, and therefore is not highly specific. The molecular weight was 180 kD. Unlike ectoAMPase ectoAp4A-hydrolase was not attached via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-moiety. Concentrations of PI-PLC 10-100-fold higher than effective for ectoAMPase cleavage (10-100 mU/ml) plus extensively extended incubation times up to eight hours did not result in cleavage of ectoAp4A-hydrolase. The enzyme ectoAp4A-hydrolase might presage a direction for pharmaceutical manipulation in the control of blood pressure and hemostasis.

  8. AP1000{sup R} severe accident features and post-Fukushima considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Scobel, J. H.; Schulz, T. L.; Williams, M. G.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} passive nuclear power plant is uniquely equipped to withstand an extended station blackout scenario such as the events following the earthquake and tsunami at Fukushima without compromising core and containment integrity. The AP1000 plant shuts down the reactor, cools the core, containment and spent fuel pool for more than 3 days using passive systems that do not require AC or DC power or operator actions. Following this passive coping period, minimal operator actions are needed to extend the operation of the passive features to 7 days using installed equipment. To provide defense-in-depth for design extension conditions, themore » AP1000 plant has engineered features that mitigate the effects of core damage. Engineered features retain damaged core debris within the reactor vessel as a key feature. Other aspects of the design protect containment integrity during severe accidents, including unique features of the AP1000 design relative to passive containment cooling with water and air, and hydrogen management. (authors)« less

  9. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  10. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  11. AP-1 Oligodeoxynucleotides Reduce Aortic Elastolysis in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arif, Rawa; Zaradzki, Marcin; Remes, Anca; Seppelt, Philipp; Kunze, Reiner; Schröder, Hannes; Schwill, Simon; Ensminger, Stephan M; Robinson, Peter N; Karck, Matthias; Müller, Oliver J; Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H; Kallenbach, Klaus

    2017-12-15

    Marfan syndrome is characterized by high expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) associated with medial elastolysis and aortic root aneurysm. We aimed to reduce aortic elastolysis through decrease of MMP expression with decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (dODNs) neutralizing the transcription factor activating factor-1 (AP-1). AP-1 abundance in nuclear extracts as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were significantly increased in isolated mAoSMC of mgR/mgR Marfan mice compared to wild-type cells. Exposure to AP-1 neutralizing dODNs resulted in a significant reduction of basal and interleukin-1β-stimulated MMP expression and activity in mAoSMCs. Moreover, increased migration and formation of superoxide radical anions was substantially decreased in mAoSMCs by AP-1 dODN treatment. Aortic grafts from donor Marfan mice were treated with AP-1- dODN ex vivo and implanted as infrarenal aortic interposition grafts in mgR/mgR mice. Pretreatment of aortic grafts with AP-1 dODN led to reduced elastolysis, macrophage infiltration, and MMP activity. Permeability of the endothelial monolayer was increased for dODN in mgR/mgR aortae with observed loss of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, enabling dODN to reach the tunica media. Targeting AP-1 activity offers a new potential strategy to treat the vascular phenotype associated with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural Determinants of DNA Binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 Transcriptional Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.

    2010-11-05

    Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan Apetala2 (AP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical Apicomplexan AP2 protein, PF14{_}0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a {beta}-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent {alpha}-helix supports the {beta}-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened ormore » eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the {alpha}-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the {beta}-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14{_}0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multisite binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14{_}0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation.« less

  13. Back to the Future: Merit or Equity in AP Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address severe budget deficits at both the state and local levels, schools and educational programs are being asked to trim budgets. The Advanced Placement Program is one program that will certainly be scrutinized. This article presents a general overview of AP social studies, a brief history of the AP social studies program, and…

  14. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  15. COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) regulates E6AP/UBE3A in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shujun; Fang, Lekun; Phan, Liem Minh; Qdaisat, Aiham; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-09-29

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major cause in almost 99.7% of cervical cancer. E6 oncoprotein of HPV and E6-associated protein (E6AP) are critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy. Understanding the E6AP regulation is critical to develop treating strategy for cervical cancer patients. The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. We found that both CSN6 and E6AP are overexpressed in cervical cancer. We characterized that CSN6 associated with E6AP and stabilized E6AP expression by reducing E6AP poly-ubiquitination, thereby regulating p53 activity in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that CSN6-E6AP axis can be regulated by EGF/Akt signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CSN6-E6AP axis hinders cervical cancer growth in mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CSN6 is a positive regulator of E6AP and is important for cervical cancer development.

  16. Degraded λ-carrageenan activates NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in macrophages and enhances LPS-induced TNF-α secretion through AP-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haimin; Wang, Feng; Mao, Haihua; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan (CGN), a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide, is a traditional ingredient used in food industry. Its degraded forms have been identified as potential carcinogens, although the mechanism remains unclear. The effects of degraded λ-carrageenan (λ-dCGN) on murine RAW264.7 cells and human THP-1-derived macrophage cells were investigated by studying its actions on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and activation of nuclear factor-κb (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) pathways. We found that λ-dCGN was much stronger than native λ-CGN in the activation of macrophages to secrete TNF-α. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with λ-dCGN resulted in the upregulation of TLR4, CD14 and MD-2 expressions, but it did not increase the binding of lipopolysacchride (LPS) with macrophages. Meanwhile, λ-dCGN treatment activated NF-κB via B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (Bcl10) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation. In addition, λ-dCGN induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases/1/2/mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2/MAPK) and AP-1 activation. Interestingly, pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with λ-dCGN markedly enhanced LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion. This pretreatment resulted in the enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and intensified activation of AP-1. λ-dCGN induced an inflammatory reaction via both NF-κB and AP-1, and enhanced the inflammatory effect of LPS through AP-1 activation. The study demonstrated the role of λ-dCGN to induce the inflammatory reaction and to aggravate the effect of LPS on macrophages, suggesting that λ-dCGN produced during food processing and gastric digestion may be a safety concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A method of semi-quantifying β-AP in brain PET-CT 11C-PiB images.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehui; Lin, Xiaoman; Wen, Junlin; Huang, Zhemin; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem for elderly populations. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)11C-PiB for beta-P (amyloid-β peptide, β-AP) imaging is an advanced method to diagnose AD in early stage. However, in practice radiologists lack a standardized value to semi-quantify β-AP. This paper proposes such a standardized value: SVβ-AP. This standardized value measures the mean ratio between the dimension of β-AP areas in PET and CT images. A computer aided diagnosis approach is also proposed to achieve SVβ-AP. A simulation experiment was carried out to pre-test the technical feasibility of the CAD approach and SVβ-AP. The experiment results showed that it is technically feasible.

  18. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  19. WCPSS Advanced Placement (AP) Test Results, 2009-10. E&R Report No. 10.29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of WCPSS' 2009-10 AP reports from the College Board reveal that the number and proportion of WCPSS students taking AP courses and exams continues to grow. Between 1996-97 and 2009-10, the number of students enrolled in WCPSS grew by approximately 63% and the number taking AP exams increased by 238% with a corresponding increase in exams…

  20. 78 FR 21817 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 12-AEA-7] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA AGENCY... limits and time of designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The U.S. Army requested... limits and increase the time of designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA, (77 FR 35308...

  1. Osmium (VI) complexes of the 3', 5'-dinucleoside monophosphates, ApU and UpA.

    PubMed

    Daniel, F B; Behrman, E J

    1976-02-10

    The dinucleoside monophosphates, ApU and UpA, react with potassium osmate (VI) and 2,2'-bipyridyl to form the corresponding oxo-osmium (VI) bipyridyl sugar ester in which the osmate group is bonded to the terminal 2',3'-glycol. Osmium (VIII) tetroxide and 2,2'-bipyridyl react with the dinucleosides to form the corresponding oxo-osmium (VI) bipyridyl heterocyclic esters which result from addition of the tetroxide to the 5,6-double bond of the uracil residue. Although capable of transesterification reactions, these heterocyclic esters are exceptionally stable toward exchange reactions in solution. No apparent exchange was observed after 1 month. This reaction thus seems promising for single-site osmium labeling in polynucleotides.

  2. HIV-1 Nef hijacks clathrin coats by stabilizing AP-1:Arf1 polygons.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Tao; Ren, Xuefeng; Zhang, Rui; Lee, Il-Hyung; Hurley, James H

    2015-10-23

    The lentiviruses HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) subvert intracellular membrane traffic as part of their replication cycle. The lentiviral Nef protein helps viruses evade innate and adaptive immune defenses by hijacking the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) and AP-2 clathrin adaptors. We found that HIV-1 Nef and the guanosine triphosphatase Arf1 induced trimerization and activation of AP-1. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Nef- and Arf1-bound AP-1 trimer in the active and inactive states. A central nucleus of three Arf1 molecules organizes the trimers. We combined the open trimer with a known dimer structure and thus predicted a hexagonal assembly with inner and outer faces that bind the membranes and clathrin, respectively. Hexagons were directly visualized and the model validated by reconstituting clathrin cage assembly. Arf1 and Nef thus play interconnected roles in allosteric activation, cargo recruitment, and coat assembly, revealing an unexpectedly intricate organization of the inner AP-1 layer of the clathrin coat. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Complicated spastic paraplegia in patients with AP5Z1 mutations (SPG48)

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Madeo, Marianna; Smets, Katrien; Edgar, James R.; Schols, Ludger; Li, Jun; Yarrow, Anna; Deconinck, Tine; Baets, Jonathan; Van Aken, Elisabeth; De Bleecker, Jan; Datiles, Manuel B.; Roda, Ricardo H.; Liepert, Joachim; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; De Jonghe, Peter; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Biallelic mutations in the AP5Z1 gene encoding the AP-5 ζ subunit have been described in a small number of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) (SPG48); we sought to define genotype–phenotype correlations in patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous sequence variants predicted to be deleterious. Methods: We performed clinical, radiologic, and pathologic studies in 6 patients with biallelic mutations in AP5Z1. Results: In 4 of the 6 patients, there was complete loss of AP-5 ζ protein. Clinical features encompassed not only prominent spastic paraparesis but also sensory and motor neuropathy, ataxia, dystonia, myoclonus, and parkinsonism. Skin fibroblasts from affected patients tested positive for periodic acid Schiff and autofluorescent storage material, while electron microscopic analysis demonstrated lamellar storage material consistent with abnormal storage of lysosomal material. Conclusions: Our findings expand the spectrum of AP5Z1-associated neurodegenerative disorders and point to clinical and pathophysiologic overlap between autosomal recessive forms of HSP and lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:27606357

  4. Transcriptional repression by ApiAP2 factors is central to chronic toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Danielle; Huang, Sherri

    2018-01-01

    Tachyzoite to bradyzoite development in Toxoplasma is marked by major changes in gene expression resulting in a parasite that expresses a new repertoire of surface antigens hidden inside a modified parasitophorous vacuole called the tissue cyst. The factors that control this important life cycle transition are not well understood. Here we describe an important transcriptional repressor mechanism controlling bradyzoite differentiation that operates in the tachyzoite stage. The ApiAP2 factor, AP2IV-4, is a nuclear factor dynamically expressed in late S phase through mitosis/cytokinesis of the tachyzoite cell cycle. Remarkably, deletion of the AP2IV-4 locus resulted in the expression of a subset of bradyzoite-specific proteins in replicating tachyzoites that included tissue cyst wall components BPK1, MCP4, CST1 and the surface antigen SRS9. In the murine animal model, the mis-timing of bradyzoite antigens in tachyzoites lacking AP2IV-4 caused a potent inflammatory monocyte immune response that effectively eliminated this parasite and prevented tissue cyst formation in mouse brain tissue. Altogether, these results indicate that suppression of bradyzoite antigens by AP2IV-4 during acute infection is required for Toxoplasma to successfully establish a chronic infection in the immune-competent host. PMID:29718996

  5. Transcriptional repression by ApiAP2 factors is central to chronic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Radke, Joshua B; Worth, Danielle; Hong, David; Huang, Sherri; Sullivan, William J; Wilson, Emma H; White, Michael W

    2018-05-01

    Tachyzoite to bradyzoite development in Toxoplasma is marked by major changes in gene expression resulting in a parasite that expresses a new repertoire of surface antigens hidden inside a modified parasitophorous vacuole called the tissue cyst. The factors that control this important life cycle transition are not well understood. Here we describe an important transcriptional repressor mechanism controlling bradyzoite differentiation that operates in the tachyzoite stage. The ApiAP2 factor, AP2IV-4, is a nuclear factor dynamically expressed in late S phase through mitosis/cytokinesis of the tachyzoite cell cycle. Remarkably, deletion of the AP2IV-4 locus resulted in the expression of a subset of bradyzoite-specific proteins in replicating tachyzoites that included tissue cyst wall components BPK1, MCP4, CST1 and the surface antigen SRS9. In the murine animal model, the mis-timing of bradyzoite antigens in tachyzoites lacking AP2IV-4 caused a potent inflammatory monocyte immune response that effectively eliminated this parasite and prevented tissue cyst formation in mouse brain tissue. Altogether, these results indicate that suppression of bradyzoite antigens by AP2IV-4 during acute infection is required for Toxoplasma to successfully establish a chronic infection in the immune-competent host.

  6. Foundations for College and Beyond: Looking Back on AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbohm, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    It was years after this author's AP Art History course in high school, and two years after college. She and some friends decided to fill a day during the Thanksgiving visits appreciating fine art. Prior to that AP course her senior year of high school, touring an art museum had seemed like the equivalent of going to the dentist. But after…

  7. ATP6AP2 over-expression causes morphological alterations in the hippocampus and in hippocampus-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bracke, A; Schäfer, S; von Bohlen Und Halbach, V; Klempin, F; Bente, K; Bracke, K; Staar, D; van den Brandt, J; Harzsch, S; Bader, M; Wenzel, U O; Peters, J; von Bohlen Und Halbach, O

    2018-02-23

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], also known as ATP6AP2 [ATPase 6 accessory protein 2], is highly expressed in the brain. ATP6AP2 plays a role in early brain development, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and in cognitive functions. Lack of ATP6AP2 has deleterious effects, and mutations of ATP6AP2 in humans are associated with, e.g. X-linked intellectual disability. However, little is known about the effects of over-expression of ATP6AP2 in the adult brain. We hypothesized that mice over-expressing ATP6AP2 in the brain might exhibit altered neuroanatomical features and behavioural responses. To this end, we investigated heterozygous transgenic female mice and confirmed increased levels of ATP6AP2 in the brain. Our data show that over-expression of ATP6AP2 does not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis, exercise-induced cell proliferation, or dendritic spine densities in the hippocampus. Only a reduced ventricular volume on the gross morphological level was found. However, ATP6AP2 over-expressing mice displayed altered exploratory behaviour with respect to the hole-board and novel object recognition tests. Moreover, primary adult hippocampal neural stem cells over-expressing ATP6AP2 exhibit a faster cell cycle progression and increased cell proliferation. Together, in contrast to the known deleterious effects of ATP6AP2 depletion, a moderate over-expression results in moderate behavioural changes and affects cell proliferation rate in vitro.

  8. Ultraviolet photometry from the orbiting astronomical observatory. 8: The blue Ap stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    The filter photometers in the Wisconsin Experiment Package on OAO-2 were used to obtain data for a carefully selected set of 24 blue Ap stars and 31 comparison standard B and A dwarfs and giants for a program of relative photometry. Observations were made in seven bandpasses over the effective wavelength range 1430A-4250A. The Ap stars observed include members of the Si, Hg-Mn and Sr-Cr-Eu peculiarity classes. Most of them are too blue in B-V for their published MK spectral classes. The blue Ap stars are markedly deficient in emitted ultraviolet flux and are underluminous as compared to normal stars with the same UBV colors. The Hg-Mn stars appear less flux deficient in the ultraviolet for their UBV colors than do Si or Sr-cr-Eu stars. Most of the Ap stars observed possess ultraviolet flux distributions, or ultraviolet color temperatures, consistent with their published MK spectral classes to well within the classification uncertainties.

  9. A second-generation superconducting undulator cryostat for the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A second-generation cryocooler-based cryostat has been designed and built to support a new helically wound superconducting undulator (SCU) magnet for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design represents an evolution of existing SCU cryostats currently in operation in the APS storage ring. Value engineering and lessons learned have resulted in a smaller, cheaper, and simpler cryostat design compatible with existing planar magnets as well as the new helically wound device. We describe heat load and quench response results, design and operational details, and the “build-to-spec” procurement strategy.

  10. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  11. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  12. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  13. Physical interaction between the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 and an associated partner FaAP: Interaction of Fra a 1 proteins and FaAP.

    PubMed

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Langer, Andreas; Strasser, Ralf; Isono, Erika; Ranftl, Quirin L; Wunschel, Christian; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-10-01

    The strawberry fruit allergens Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 belong to the group of pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins and are homologs of the major birch pollen Bet v 1 and apple allergen Mal d 1. Bet v 1 related proteins are the most extensively studied allergens but their physiological function in planta remains elusive. Since Mal d 1-Associated Protein has been previously identified as interaction partner of Mal d 1 we studied the binding of the orthologous Fra a 1-Associated Protein (FaAP) to Fra a 1.01E/1.02/1.03. As the C-terminal sequence of FaAP showed strong auto-activation activity in yeast 2-hybrid analysis a novel time resolved DNA-switching system was successfully applied. Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02, and Fra a 1.03 bind to FaAP with K D of 4.5 ± 1.1, 15 ± 3, and 11 ± 2 nM, respectively. Fra a 1.01E forms a dimer, whereas Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 bind as monomer. The results imply that PR-10 proteins might be integrated into a protein-interaction network and FaAP binding appears to be essential for the physiological function of the Fra a 1 proteins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Building a world-class A/P function: how UPMC went paperless.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Michael; Smith, Corey

    2010-03-01

    UPMC engaged people, processes, and technology to move its A/P function from a highly manual, paper-based operation to a completely automated process. UPMC's CFO hired a chief supply chain officer to develop a strategic plan, and UPMC named a value analysis team to gain clinician buy-in. UPMC automated A/P by enabling receipt of electronic invoices. UPMC streamlined its processes for invoices.

  15. Predicting the Presence of Companions for Stripped-envelope Supernovae: The Case of the Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapartas, E.; de Mink, S. E.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Fox, O. D.; Smith, N.; Bostroem, K. A.; de Koter, A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Izzard, R. G.; Kelly, P. L.; Neijssel, C. J.; Renzo, M.; Ryder, S.

    2017-06-01

    Many young, massive stars are found in close binaries. Using population synthesis simulations we predict the likelihood of a companion star being present when these massive stars end their lives as core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We focus on stripped-envelope SNe, whose progenitors have lost their outer hydrogen and possibly helium layers before explosion. We use these results to interpret new Hubble Space Telescope observations of the site of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, 14 years post-explosion. For a subsolar metallicity consistent with SN 2002ap, we expect a main-sequence (MS) companion present in about two thirds of all stripped-envelope SNe and a compact companion (likely a stripped helium star or a white dwarf/neutron star/black hole) in about 5% of cases. About a quarter of progenitors are single at explosion (originating from initially single stars, mergers, or disrupted systems). All of the latter scenarios require a massive progenitor, inconsistent with earlier studies of SN 2002ap. Our new, deeper upper limits exclude the presence of an MS companion star >8-10 {M}⊙ , ruling out about 40% of all stripped-envelope SN channels. The most likely scenario for SN 2002ap includes nonconservative binary interaction of a primary star initially ≲ 23 {M}⊙ . Although unlikely (<1% of the scenarios), we also discuss the possibility of an exotic reverse merger channel for broad-lined Type Ic events. Finally, we explore how our results depend on the metallicity and the model assumptions and discuss how additional searches for companions can constrain the physics that govern the evolution of SN progenitors.

  16. Associations between bacteremia from oral sources and distant-site infections: tooth brushing versus single tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Farah K Bahrani; Saunders, Sabrina E; Brennan, Michael T; Lockhart, Peter B

    2015-04-01

    To determine the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) on the incidence of bacteremia caused by oral bacterial species associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and to compare the incidence of following tooth brushing versus single tooth extraction. Bacterial species in blood following single tooth extraction, with or without AP, and tooth brushing(1) were compared with IE- and PJI-associated bacteria reported in the literature. Of the 98 bacterial species identified in blood following single tooth extraction and tooth brushing, 32(1) and 12 were species were associated with IE and PJI, respectively. AP decreased the frequency of IE- and PJI-causing oral bacterial species in blood; however, single tooth extraction versus brushing resulted in bacteremia with IE- and PJI-causing species with similar frequencies: 65% versus 56% for IE, and 31% versus 28% for PJI. Although AP significantly decreased the incidence of bacteremia, the similarity between the incidence of bacteremia following brushing and extraction undermines AP as an effective strategy for the prevention of these distant-site infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical Model of Large Data Transactions in CoAP Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ludovici, Alessandro; Di Marco, Piergiuseppe; Calveras, Anna; Johansson, Karl H.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel analytical model to study fragmentation methods in wireless sensor networks adopting the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for medium access control (MAC). The blockwise transfer technique proposed in CoAP and the 6LoWPAN fragmentation are included in the analysis. The two techniques are compared in terms of reliability and delay, depending on the traffic, the number of nodes and the parameters of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. The results are validated trough Monte Carlo simulations. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that evaluates and compares analytically the performance of CoAP blockwise transfer and 6LoWPAN fragmentation. A major contribution is the possibility to understand the behavior of both techniques with different network conditions. Our results show that 6LoWPAN fragmentation is preferable for delay-constrained applications. For highly congested networks, the blockwise transfer slightly outperforms 6LoWPAN fragmentation in terms of reliability. PMID:25153143

  18. Genome-wide investigation and expression analysis of AP2-ERF gene family in salt tolerant common bean

    PubMed Central

    Kavas, Musa; Kizildogan, Aslihan; Gökdemir, Gökhan; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Apetala2-ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2-ERF) superfamily with common AP2-DNA binding domain have developmentally and physiologically important roles in plants. Since common bean genome project has been completed recently, it is possible to identify all of the AP2-ERF genes in the common bean genome. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide in silico analysis identified 180 AP2-ERF superfamily genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Based on the amino acid alignment and phylogenetic analyses, superfamily members were classified into four subfamilies: DREB (54), ERF (95), AP2 (27) and RAV (3), as well as one soloist. The physical and chemical characteristics of amino acids, interaction between AP2-ERF proteins, cis elements of promoter region of AP2-ERF genes and phylogenetic trees were predicted and analyzed. Additionally, expression levels of AP2-ERF genes were evaluated by in silico and qRT-PCR analyses. In silico micro-RNA target transcript analyses identified nearly all PvAP2-ERF genes as targets of by 44 different plant species' miRNAs were identified in this study. The most abundant target genes were PvAP2/ERF-20-25-62-78-113-173. miR156, miR172 and miR838 were the most important miRNAs found in targeting and BLAST analyses. Interactome analysis revealed that the transcription factor PvAP2-ERF78, an ortholog of Arabidopsis At2G28550, was potentially interacted with at least 15 proteins, indicating that it was very important in transcriptional regulation. Here we present the first study to identify and characterize the AP2-ERF transcription factors in common bean using whole-genome analysis, and the findings may serve as a references for future functional research on the transcription factors in common bean. PMID:27152109

  19. Diagnostic utility of aP2/FABP4 expression in soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Kashima, T G; Turley, H; Dongre, A; Pezzella, F; Athanasou, N A

    2013-04-01

    Adipocyte P2 (aP2), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), is a fatty acid-binding protein found in the cytoplasm of cells of adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we examined a large number of soft tissue tumours with a commercial polyclonal anti-aP2/FABP4 antibody and a newly developed mouse monoclonal antibody raised against this protein to determine the diagnostic utility of aP2/FABP4 as a marker of tumours of adipose differentiation. A mouse monoclonal antibody, clone 175d, was raised against a mixture of synthetic peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of residues 10-28 and 121-132 of the human aP2/FABP4 protein. Antigen expression with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies was immunohistochemically determined in paraffin sections of normal adipose tissue and a wide range of benign and malignant primary soft tissue tumours (n = 200). aP2/FABP4 was expressed around the cytoplasmic lipid vacuole in white and brown fat cells in benign lipomas and hibernomas. Immature fat cells and lipoblasts in spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma, atypical lipomatous tumour/well-differentiated liposarcoma, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and pleomorphic liposarcoma also reacted strongly for aP2/FABP4. No specific staining was seen in non-adipose benign and malignant mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal tumours. aP2/FABP4 is expressed by mature and immature fat cells and is a marker of tumours of adipose differentiation. Immunophenotypic aP2/FABP4 expression is useful in identifying lipoblasts, and immunohistochemistry with polyclonal/monoclonal anti-aP2/FABP4 antibodies should be useful in distinguishing liposarcoma from other malignancies, particularly round cell, myxoid and pleomorphic soft tissue sarcomas.

  20. AP4M1 is abnormally expressed in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Cheng, X Y; Sheng, G Y

    2014-03-20

    AP4M1 mutations have been suggested to be associated with autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome. But the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how AP4M1 expression is changed in injured neurons. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were prepared for this experiment. They were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leading to apoptosis, mimicking brain ischemia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was labeled immunofluorescently to confirm that the purity of neuron was higher than 90%. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the gene expression. AP4M1 was labeled with MAP2 or Tau-1 to observe the distribution. We found that the AP4M1 protein levels immediately after the procedure were similar between the OGD group and the sham group. However, down-regulation was observed 12h after the reperfusion, and became more notable at 24h. The real-time PCR showed similar results, except that the down-regulation of mRNA was able to be detected immediately after the OGD. Immunofluorescent labeling revealed AP4M1 distributed in the dendrites of normal neurons, but it redistributed to the axons after the OGD procedure. In conclusion, AP4M1 is not only down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels, but also redistributed from dendrites to axons in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. BDNF mRNA abundance regulated by antidromic action potentials and AP-LTD in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bukalo, Olena; Lee, Philip R; Fields, R Douglas

    2016-12-02

    Action-potential-induced LTD (AP-LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity that reduces synaptic strength in CA1 hippocampal neurons firing antidromically during sharp-wave ripples. This firing occurs during slow-wave sleep and quiet moments of wakefulness, which are periods of offline replay of neural sequences learned during encoding sensory information. Here we report that rapid and persistent down-regulation of different mRNA transcripts of the BDNF gene accompanies AP-LTD, and that AP-LTD is abolished in mice with the BDNF gene knocked out in CA1 hippocampal neurons. These findings increase understanding of the mechanism of AP-LTD and the cellular mechanisms of memory consolidation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Expression of Death Receptor 4 Is Positively Regulated by MEK/ERK/AP-1 Signaling and Suppressed upon MEK Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Weilong; Oh, You-Take; Deng, Jiusheng; Yue, Ping; Deng, Liang; Huang, Henry; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor 4 (DR4) is a cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and triggers apoptosis upon ligation with TRAIL or aggregation. MEK/ERK signaling is a well known and the best-studied effector pathway downstream of Ras and Raf. This study focuses on determining the impact of pharmacological MEK inhibition on DR4 expression and elucidating the underlying mechanism. We found that several MEK inhibitors including MEK162, AZD6244, and PD0325901 effectively decreased DR4 protein levels including cell surface DR4 in different cancer cell lines. Accordingly, pre-treatment of TRAIL-sensitive cancer cell lines with a MEK inhibitor desensitized them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that MEK inhibition negatively regulates DR4 expression and cell response to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MEK inhibitors did not alter DR4 protein stability, rather decreased its mRNA levels, suggesting a transcriptional regulation. In contrast, enforced activation of MEK/ERK signaling by expressing ectopic B-Raf (V600E) or constitutively activated MEK1 (MEK1-CA) or MEK2 (MEK2-CA) activated ERK and increased DR4 expression; these effects were inhibited when a MEK inhibitor was present. Promoter analysis through deletion and mutation identified the AP-1 binding site as an essential response element for enhancing DR4 transactivation by MEK1-CA. Furthermore, inhibition of AP-1 by c-Jun knockdown abrogated the ability of MEK1-CA to increase DR4 promoter activity and DR4 expression. These results suggest an essential role of AP-1 in mediating MEK/ERK activation-induced DR4 expression. Our findings together highlight a previously undiscovered mechanism that positively regulates DR4 expression through activation of the MEK/ERK/AP-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27576686

  3. AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A.; Navarini, Alexander A.; Patel, Varsha M.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A. David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H.; Barker, Jonathan N.; Capon, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit σ1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  4. The Adaptor Protein CD2AP Is a Coordinator of Neurotrophin Signaling-Mediated Axon Arbor Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Lamb, James L.; Hutson, Tom H.; Drury, Cassa; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Barlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin E.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of intact axons of noninjured neurons, often termed collateral sprouting, contributes to both adaptive and pathological plasticity in the adult nervous system, but the intracellular factors controlling this growth are largely unknown. An automated functional assay of genes regulated in sensory neurons from the rat in vivo spared dermatome model of collateral sprouting identified the adaptor protein CD2-associated protein (CD2AP; human CMS) as a positive regulator of axon growth. In non-neuronal cells, CD2AP, like other adaptor proteins, functions to selectively control the spatial/temporal assembly of multiprotein complexes that transmit intracellular signals. Although CD2AP polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, its role in axon growth is unknown. Assessments of neurite arbor structure in vitro revealed CD2AP overexpression, and siRNA-mediated knockdown, modulated (1) neurite length, (2) neurite complexity, and (3) growth cone filopodia number, in accordance with CD2AP expression levels. We show, for the first time, that CD2AP forms a novel multiprotein complex with the NGF receptor TrkA and the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, with the degree of TrkA:p85 association positively regulated by CD2AP levels. CD2AP also regulates NGF signaling through AKT, but not ERK, and regulates long-range signaling though TrkA+/RAB5+ signaling endosomes. CD2AP mRNA and protein levels were increased in neurons during collateral sprouting but decreased following injury, suggesting that, although typically considered together, these two adult axonal growth processes are fundamentally different. These data position CD2AP as a major intracellular signaling molecule coordinating NGF signaling to regulate collateral sprouting and structural plasticity of intact adult axons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Growth of noninjured axons in the adult nervous system contributes to adaptive and maladaptive plasticity, and dysfunction of this process may

  5. Comparative hemodynamic effects of hypotension induced by diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) and ATP in dogs.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shohei; Inada, Yutaka; Fukui, Noriyuki; Tomaru, Teruaki

    1997-03-01

    ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP 4 A) have been shown to produce vasodilation mediated by P 1 - and P 2 -purinoceptor, respectively. The differing mechanisms involved in this vasodilating activity may induce different systemic hemodynamic changes. We compared the hemodynamic effects of AP 4 A-induced hypotension with those induced by ATP. Fourteen mongrel dogs were anesthetized with 0.87% halothane in oxygen (1 MAC). After the baseline period, mean arterial pressure was reduced to 60 mmHg for 60 min by the infusion of AP 4 A or ATP. The ATP- and AP 4 A-induced hypotension resulted in a maximum reduction in systemic vascular resistance of 43% and 46%, respectively (P<0.01), associated with a significant increase in stroke volume index. With ATP, a 20% of maximum increase (P<0.05) in cardiac index (CI) was observed during the induced hypotension. In contrast, AP 4 A-induced hypotension did not result in any changes in CI throughout the observation period. The varying results concerning CI during the ATP- and AP 4 A-induced hypotension were probably due to differences in ventricular filling pressure, since AP 4 A-induced hypotension was associated with decreases (P<0.01) in both right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, whereas neither of these variables significantly changed with ATP. The hypotension induced by either ATP or AP 4 A was associated with a significant decrease in heart rate (HR). However, both the magnitude and duration of decreases in HR due to ATP-induced hypotension were more pronounced than those seen with AP 4 A. In conclusion, while both drugs were equally capable of inducing hypotension, our results suggest that AP 4 A was more suitable for induced hypotension because of its potent vasodilatory action with venodilation and less negative chronotropic action.

  6. Aps and Tep Chemical Characterization: Link Between The Dom and Pom Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogou, A.; Repeta, D. J.

    The ocean inventory of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is approximately 750 GT, comprising one of the Earth's largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. Despite its potential significance, the mechanisms that lead to DOM production and to spatial and temporal variations of DOM concentration in the world ocean are poorly understood. Chemical characterization studies show that up to 50% of HMW DOM is a structurally well-defined class of acylated polysaccharides (APS), which exhibits novel molecular-level characteris tics. Although APS synthesis occurs in the euphotic zone, a large fraction of the marine inventory of APS (appr. 10-30 GT C), resides in the deep ocean, and is approximately equal in mass to the total marine inventory of particulate organic carbon. While radiocarbon dating of deep sea DOC yields very old apparent ages (4000-6000 ybp), radiocarbon measurements made by our group on individual APS sugars shows that APS in the deep ocean has a radiocarbon value of +56 per mil, equivalent to surface water POC and DIC. This is the first clear evidence for the presence of "young" DOC in the deep ocean. One mechanism that could be important for the rapid removal of APS from surface seawater is physical removal by macroaggregates. To investigate the significance of this mechanism, we studied the chemical composition of surface-active POM (TEP) produced naturally on surface waters and in laboratory experiments, after bubbling of HMW DOM isolated from algal cultures. 1H-NMR spectral properties and molecular-level distribution of neutral sugars in natural and artificially produced TEP closely resembled those observed for cultured and oceanic HMW DOM, while they are significantly different from those of suspended particulate matter in the ocean (Gogou and Repeta, 2000). The results of these experiments provide evidence that POM with similar chemical characteristics to HMW DOM can be produced from algal-derived DOM in the surface ocean.

  7. AP American History and the History Major: Keeping Body and Soul Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbo, Paul S.

    For college-level American History, in the high school advanced placement (AP) program and on university campuses, these are the best of times and the worst of times. For the American History AP program, the early 1970's were difficult times, with the examinations under attack as elitist and irrelevant to contemporary problems. The program…

  8. Health in All Policies (HiAP) framework for country action.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    This document serves as a 'starter's kit' for applying Health in All Policies (HiAP) in decision-making and implementation at national and subnational levels. It can be easily adapted for use in different country contexts and at the regional and global levels. WHAT IS HIAP?: HiAP is an approach to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. As a concept, it reflects the principles of: legitimacy, accountability, transparency and access to information, participation, sustainability and collaboration across sectors and levels of government. Health and health equity are values in their own right and are also important prerequisites for achieving many other societal goals. Many of the determinants of health and health inequities in populations have social, environmental and economic origins that extend beyond the direct influence of the health sector and health policies. Thus, public policies in all sectors and at different levels of governance can have a significant impact on population health and health equity. The Framework sets out six key components that should be addressed in order to put the HiAP approach into action: (1) establish the need and priorities for HiAP, (2) frame planned action, (3) identify supportive structures and processes, (4) facilitate assessment and engagement, (5) ensure monitoring, evaluation and reporting, (6) build capacity. These components are not fixed in order or priority. Rather, individual countries will adopt and adjust the components in ways that are most relevant for their specific governance, economic and social contexts. Although governments as a whole bear the ultimate responsibility for the health of their citizens, health authorities at all levels are key actors in promoting HiAP. They should therefore actively seek opportunities to collaborate with and

  9. MALDI, AP/MALDI and ESI techniques for the MS detection of amyloid [beta]-peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mineo, Placido; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    Amyloid [beta]-peptides (A[beta]s) are involved in several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and considerable experimental evidences have emerged indicating that different proteases play a major role in regulating the accumulation of A[beta]s in the brain. Particularly, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) has been shown to degrade A[beta]s at different cleavage sites, but the experimental results reported in the literature and obtained by mass spectrometry methods are somehow fragmentary. The detection of A[beta]s is often complicated by solubility issues, oxidation artifacts and spontaneous aggregation/cleavage and, in order to rationalize the different reported results, we analyzed A[beta]s solutions by three different MS approaches: matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI ion trap and electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap. Differences in the obtained results are discussed and ESI is chosen as the most suitable MS method for A[beta]s detection. Finally, cleavage sites produced by interaction of A[beta]s with IDE are identified, two of which had never been reported in the literature.

  10. Synthesis and properties of ApA analogues with shortened phosphonate internucleotide linkage.

    PubMed

    Králíková, Sárka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Barvík, Ivan; Masojídková, Milena; Točík, Zdeněk; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A complete series of the 2 '-5 ' and 3 '-5 ' regioisomeric types of r(ApA) and 2 '-d(ApA) analogues with the α-hydroxy-phosphonate C3 '-O-P-CH(OH)-C4 ″ internucleotide linkage, isopolar but non-isosteric with the phosphodiester one, were synthesized and their hybridization properties with polyU studied. Due to the chirality on the 5 '-carbon atom of the modified internucleotide linkage bearing phosphorus and hydroxy moieties, each regioisomeric type of ApA dimer is split into epimeric pairs. To examine the role of the 5 '-hydroxyl of the α-hydroxy-phosphonate moiety during hybridization, the appropriate r(ApA) analogues with 3 '(2 ')-O-P-CH(2)-C4 ″ linkage lacking the 5 '-hydroxyl were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy study on the conformation of the modified sugar-phosphate backbone, along with the hybridization measurements, revealed remarkable differences in the stability of complexes with polyU, depending on the 5 '-carbon atom configuration. Potential usefulness of the α-hydroxy-phosphonate linkage in modified oligoribonucleotides is discussed.

  11. New Splice Site Acceptor Mutation in AIRE Gene in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Mireia; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Pradas-Juni, Marta; Aranda, Gloria B.; Halperin, Irene; Puig-Domingo, Manuel; Aguiló, Sira; Fernández-Rebollo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 240300) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by the presence of at least two of three major diseases: hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We aim to identify the molecular defects and investigate the clinical and mutational characteristics in an index case and other members of a consanguineous family. We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site acceptor (SSA) of intron 5 (c.653-1G>A) in two siblings with different clinical outcomes of APS-1. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that this AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the constitutive SSA of intron 5, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSA in intron 5. Surprisingly, the use of an alternative SSA entails the uncovering of a cryptic donor splice site in exon 5. This new transcript generates a truncated protein (p.A214fs67X) containing the first 213 amino acids and followed by 68 aberrant amino acids. The mutation affects the proper splicing, not only at the acceptor but also at the donor splice site, highlighting the complexity of recognizing suitable splicing sites and the importance of sequencing the intron-exon junctions for a more precise molecular diagnosis and correct genetic counseling. As both siblings were carrying the same mutation but exhibited a different APS-1 onset, and one of the brothers was not clinically diagnosed, our finding highlights the possibility to suspect mutations in the AIRE gene in cases of childhood chronic candidiasis and/or hypoparathyroidism otherwise unexplained, especially when the phenotype is associated with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988226

  12. Crystal structure of wild-type and mutant human Ap4A hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Ge, Honghua; Chen, Xiaofang; Yang, Weili; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, EC 3.6.1.17), an enzyme involved in a number of biological processes, is characterized as cleaving the polyphosphate chain at the fourth phosphate from the bound adenosine moiety. This paper presents the crystal structure of wild-type and E58A mutant human Ap4A hydrolase. Similar to the canonical Nudix fold, human Ap4A hydrolase shows the common αβα-sandwich architecture. Interestingly, two sulfate ions and one diphosphate coordinated with some conserved residues were observed in the active cleft, which affords a better understanding of a possible mode of substrate binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Component Database for the APS Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, S.; Arnold, N. D.; Jarosz, D. P.

    The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) project will replace the existing APS storage ring with a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice to provide extreme transverse coherence and extreme brightness x-rays to its users. As the time to replace the existing storage ring accelerator is of critical concern, an aggressive one-year removal/installation/testing period is being planned. To aid in the management of the thousands of components to be installed in such a short time, the Component Database (CDB) application is being developed with the purpose to identify, document, track, locate, and organize components in a central database. Three major domains are beingmore » addressed: Component definitions (which together make up an exhaustive "Component Catalog"), Designs (groupings of components to create subsystems), and Component Instances (“Inventory”). Relationships between the major domains offer additional "system knowledge" to be captured that will be leveraged with future tools and applications. It is imperative to provide sub-system engineers with a functional application early in the machine design cycle. Topics discussed in this paper include the initial design and deployment of CDB, as well as future development plans.« less

  14. In vivo evidence for translesion synthesis by the replicative DNA polymerase δ

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Kouji; Tsuda, Masataka; Mohiuddin; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Cohen, Isadora S.; Livneh, Zvi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Narita, Takeo; Nishihara, Kana; Murai, Junko; Iwai, Shigenori; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Sale, Julian E.; Takeda, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    The intolerance of DNA polymerase δ (Polδ) to incorrect base pairing contributes to its extremely high accuracy during replication, but is believed to inhibit translesion synthesis (TLS). However, chicken DT40 cells lacking the POLD3 subunit of Polδ are deficient in TLS. Previous genetic and biochemical analysis showed that POLD3 may promote lesion bypass by Polδ itself independently of the translesion polymerase Polζ of which POLD3 is also a subunit. To test this hypothesis, we have inactivated Polδ proofreading in pold3 cells. This significantly restored TLS in pold3 mutants, enhancing dA incorporation opposite abasic sites. Purified proofreading-deficient human Polδ holoenzyme performs TLS of abasic sites in vitro much more efficiently than the wild type enzyme, with over 90% of TLS events resulting in dA incorporation. Furthermore, proofreading deficiency enhances the capability of Polδ to continue DNA synthesis over UV lesions both in vivo and in vitro. These data support Polδ contributing to TLS in vivo and suggest that the mutagenesis resulting from loss of Polδ proofreading activity may in part be explained by enhanced lesion bypass. PMID:27185888

  15. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  16. AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A; Navarini, Alexander A; Patel, Varsha M; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M B; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N; Capon, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit σ1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. Results An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages. One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. Conclusions The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process. PMID:21171999

  18. [Atp6ap2/ (Pro) renin Receptor is Required for Laminar Formation during Retinal Development in Mice].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsuhiro

    2015-11-01

    (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR], a key molecule for tissue renin-angiotensin system, was originally identified as Atp6ap2, an accessory subunit for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase that is a multi-subunit proton pump involved in fundamental cellular physiology. In this study, to elucidate the physiological functions of Atp6ap2/ (P) RR during retinal development in mammals, we used Cre-LoxP system to generate photoreceptor-specific conditional knock-out (CKO) mice, and revealed a critical role of Atp6ap2/(P) RR in photoreceptor development. Deletion of photoreceptor Atp6ap2/ (P) RR did not affect retinal cell differentiation, but led to laminar disorganization in the photoreceptor layer with dysfunction of photoreceptors. Cell adhesion and polarity molecules, all of which were co-localized with Atp6ap2 at the apical edge of the developing retina, were dispersed together with mislocalization of retinal progenitors apart from the apical surface in Atp6ap2 conditional knockout mice. Among these molecules, co-immunoprecipitation using retinal homogenates and Atp6ap2/(P) RR-transfected cells showed that Atp6ap2/(P) RR interacted with partitioning defective 3 homolog (Par3) protein, known to play a pivotal role in planar cell polarity in the Par-atypical protein kinase C system. Atp6ap2 interacted with Par3 protein that plays a pivotal role in planar cell polarity. Our data provide a novel function of Atp6ap2 required as a cell polarity determinant for retinal laminar formation.

  19. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  20. An Insider's History of Some of the Significant Changes In the APS from the 1960s to Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2014-03-01

    It has been over 50 years since I first joined the American Physical Society. A lot has changed. The APS in the 60s did not have a single Forum and all divisions were related to sub-field of physics research plus the History of Physics Division. The APS governance and meeting's structure did not provide for issues relate to physics and society, undergraduate and graduate education, minorities, women, industrial physics, international physics, communication of science, and many more subjects quite typical of APS in 2014. From the start, I was a very active member of APS and one of the original petitioners for the Division on Physics and Society. Ultimately this led to the APS Forum structure, the Panel on Public Affairs and many APS formal committees. Two of the major impetuses for change in the late 60s were the need to debate the role of science in the unpopular war in Vietnam and the overproduction and poor employment prospects for new Ph.D.s. I, and colleagues, (with little original encouragement from the APS leadership), arranged for the discussion on many new topics at the meeting and proposed changes within the governance of the Society. In the late 1980s I joined the APS and was involved in many changes over the next 20 years. ultimately as Associate Executive Officer and Director of the APS Centennial in 1999. As indicated earlier, I've been with the APS for over 50 years and will present its history as a participant-insider. Topic covered include my surprise election to the APS governance in 1972, the establishment of the Forum on Physics and Society (and the restrictions imposed on its governance), my role as the father (or mother) of the women's movement at APS, the complexities and politics of the move of APS headquarters from New York to College Park, the establishment of the tabloid APS News and many more subjects. Currently I am producing staged-readings of science-based plays at the March and April 2014 APS meetings for the Forum on History of

  1. 78 FR 19691 - Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program... Information Advanced Placement Test Fee Program. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year... Program: The AP Test Fee program awards grants to eligible State educational agencies (SEAs) to enable...

  2. 77 FR 8848 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program... Information: Advanced Placement Test Fee Program. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year... Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test Fee program awards grants to eligible State educational agencies...

  3. 5',5'''-P1, P4 diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A): a putative initiator of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Baril, E F; Coughlin, S A; Zamecnik, P C

    1985-01-01

    The proposal that Ap4A acts as an inducer of DNA replication is based primarily on two pieces of evidence (7). The intracellular levels of Ap4A increase ten- to 1000-fold as cells progress into S phase and the introduction of Ap4A into nonproliferating cells stimulated DNA synthesis. There is also some additional suggestive evidence such as the binding of Ap4A to a protein that is associated with multiprotein forms of the replicative DNA polymerase alpha and the ability of this enzyme to use Ap4A as a primer for DNA synthesis in vitro with single-stranded DNA templates. These observations have stimulated interest in the cellular metabolism of Ap4A. This is well since there is a great need for additional experimentation in order to clearly establish Ap4A as an inducer of DNA replication. Microinjection experiments of Ap4A into quiescent cells are needed in order to ascertain if Ap4A will stimulate DNA replication and possibly cell division in intact cells. Studies of the effects of nonhydrolyzable analogs of Ap4A on DNA replication in intact quiescent cells could also prove valuable. Although Ap4A can function as a primer for in vitro DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase alpha this may not be relevant in regard to its in vivo role in DNA replication. Ap4A in vivo could interact with key protein(s) in DNA replication and in this way act as an effector molecule in the initiation of DNA replication. In this regard the interaction of Ap4A with a protein associated with a multiprotein form of DNA polymerase alpha isolated from S-phase cells is of interest. More experiments are required to determine if there is a specific target protein(s) for Ap4A in vivo and what its role in DNA replication is. The cofractionation of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase with the replicative DNA polymerase alpha from animal and plant cells is of interest. The DNA polymerase alpha from synchronized animal cells also interacted with Ap4A. Although the plant cell alpha-like DNA polymerase did not

  4. Preparation and characterization of superfine ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystals through ceramic membrane anti-solvent crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhenye; Li, Cheng; Wu, Rujun; Chen, Rizhi; Gu, Zhenggui

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, a novel ceramic membrane anti-solvent crystallization (CMASC) method was proposed for the safe and rapid preparation ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystals, in which the acetone and ethyl acetate were chosen as solvent and anti-solvent, respectively. Comparing with the conventional liquid anti-solvent crystallization (LASC), CMASC which successfully introduces ceramic membrane with regular pore structure to the LASC as feeding medium, is favorable to control the rate of feeding rate and, therefore, to obtain size and morphology controllable AP. Several kinds of micro-sized AP particles with different morphology were obtained including polyhedral-like, quadrate-like to rod-like. The effect of processing parameters on the crystal size and shape of AP crystals such as volume ratio of anti-solvent to solvent, feeding pressure and crystallization temperature were investigated. It is found that higher volume ratio of anti-solvent to solvent, higher feeding pressure and higher temperature result in smaller particle size. Scaning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the resulting AP crystals. The nucleation and growth kinetic of the resulting AP crystals were also discussed.

  5. Overexpression of two PsnAP1 genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra causes early flowering in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 proteins are localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in tobacco under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter significantly enhanced early flowering. These transgenic plants also showed much earlier stem initiation and higher rates of photosynthesis than did wild-type tobacco. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 resulted in up-regulation of genes related to flowering, such as NtMADS4, NtMADS5 and NtMADS11. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in Arabidopsis also induced early flowering, but did not complement the ap1-10 floral morphology to any noticeable extent. This study indicates that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 play a role in floral transition of poplar.

  6. Overexpression of Two PsnAP1 Genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra Causes Early Flowering in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 proteins are localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in tobacco under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter significantly enhanced early flowering. These transgenic plants also showed much earlier stem initiation and higher rates of photosynthesis than did wild-type tobacco. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 resulted in up-regulation of genes related to flowering, such as NtMADS4, NtMADS5 and NtMADS11. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in Arabidopsis also induced early flowering, but did not complement the ap1-10 floral morphology to any noticeable extent. This study indicates that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 play a role in floral transition of poplar. PMID:25360739

  7. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  8. Pathways of Metabolite-related Damage to A Synthetic p53 Gene Exon 7 Oligonucleotide using Magnetic Enzyme Bioreactor Beads and LC-MS/MS Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Malla, Spundana; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Jiang, Di; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Rusling, James F

    2018-05-11

    Reactive metabolites of environmental chemicals and drugs can cause site-specific damage to p53 tumor suppressor gene in a major pathway for genotoxicity. We report here a high throughput, cell-free, 96-well plate magnetic bead-enzyme system interfaced with LC-MS/MS sequencing to bioactivate test chemicals and identify resulting adduction sites on genes. Bioactivated aflatoxin B1 was reacted with a 32 bp exon 7 fragment of the p53 gene using 8 microsomal cyt P450 enzymes from different organs coated on magnetic beads. All cyt P450s converted aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide that adducts guanine (G) in codon 249, with subsequent depurination to give abasic sites, then strand breaks. This is the first demonstration in a cell-free medium that aflatoxin B1 metabolite selectively causes abasic site formation and strand breaks at codon 249 of the p53 probe, corresponding to the chemical pathway and mutations of p53 in human liver cells and tumors. Molecular modeling supports the view that binding of aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide to G in codon 249 precedes the SN2 adduction reaction. Among a range of metabolic enzymes characteristic of different organs, human liver microsomes and cyt P450 3A5 supersomes showed the highest bioactivation rate for p53 exon 7 damage. This method to identify metabolite-related gene damage sites may facilitate predictions of organ-specific cancers for test chemicals via correlations with mutation sites.

  9. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  10. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  11. An Ap-Structure with Finslerian Flavor II:. Torsion, Curvature and Other Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.

    An absolute parallelism (AP-) space having Finslerian properties is called FAP-space. This FAP-structure is wider than both conventional AP and Finsler structures. In the present work, more geometric objects as curvature and torsion tensors are derived in the context of this structure. Also second order tensors, usually needed for physical applications, are derived and studied. Furthermore, the anti-curvature and the W-tensor are defined for the FAP-structure. Relations between Riemannian, AP, Finsler and FAP structures are given. These relations facilitate comparison between results of applications carried out in the framework of these structures. We hope that the use of the FAP-structure, in applications may throw some light on some of the problems facing geometric field theories.

  12. A European aerosol phenomenology -5: climatology of black carbon optical properties at 9 regional background sites across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, Marco; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, Ernest; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Putaud, Jean Philippe; Müller, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs; Laj, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigate the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (σap) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (mEC). σap and mEC have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. σap was determined using filter based absorption photometers and mEC using a thermo-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data set was ensured by harmonization of the instruments deployed at all sites during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration. Annual mean values of σap at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.75 - 1.6 Mm-1 in southern Scandinavia, 4.1 - 11 Mm-1 in central Europen and 2.3-2.8 Mm-1 in the Mediterranean region. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.75 and 1.6 μg m-3 in southern Scandinavia, 0.28-1.1 in Central Europe and British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both σap and mEC in southern Scandinavia and central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites such that a MAC value of 10± 2.5 m2 g-1 (mean ± SD of station means) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites. This is rather small spatial variability compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However

  13. Automated Procurement System (APS): Project management plan (DS-03), version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is implementing an Automated Procurement System (APS) to streamline its business activities that are used to procure goods and services. This Project Management Plan (PMP) is the governing document throughout the implementation process and is identified as the APS Project Management Plan (DS-03). At this point in time, the project plan includes the schedules and tasks necessary to proceed through implementation. Since the basis of APS is an existing COTS system, the implementation process is revised from the standard SDLC. The purpose of the PMP is to provide the framework for the implementation process. It discusses the roles and responsibilities of the NASA project staff, the functions to be performed by the APS Development Contractor (PAI), and the support required of the NASA computer support contractor (CSC). To be successful, these three organizations must work together as a team, working towards the goals established in this Project Plan. The Project Plan includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  14. Prediction of three-dimensional femoral offset from AP pelvis radiographs in primary hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Merle, C; Waldstein, W; Pegg, E C; Streit, M R; Gotterbarm, T; Aldinger, P R; Murray, D W; Gill, H S

    2013-08-01

    In pre-operative planning for total hip arthroplasty (THA), femoral offset (FO) is frequently underestimated on AP pelvis radiographs as a result of inaccurate patient positioning, imprecise magnification, and radiographic beam divergence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of predicting three-dimensional (3-D) FO from standardised AP pelvis radiographs. In a retrospective cohort study, pre-operative AP pelvis radiographs, AP hip radiographs and CT scans of a consecutive series of 345 patients (345 hips, 146 males, 199 females, mean age 60 (range: 40-79) years, mean body-mass-index 27 (range: 19-57)kg/m(2)) with primary end-stage hip OA were reviewed. Patients were positioned according to a standardised protocol and all images were calibrated. Using validated custom programmes, FO was measured on corresponding radiographs and CT scans. Measurement reliability was evaluated using intra-class-correlation-coefficients. To predict 3-D FO from AP pelvis measurements and to assess the accuracy compared to CT, the entire cohort was randomly split into subgroups A and B. Gender specific regression equations were derived from group A (245 patients) and the accuracy of prediction was evaluated in group B (100 patients) using Bland-Altman plots. In the entire cohort, mean FO was 39.2mm (95%CI: 38.5-40.0mm) on AP pelvis radiographs, 44.1mm (95%CI: 43.4-44.9mm) on AP hip radiographs and 44.6mm (95%CI: 44.0-45.2mm) on CT scans. In group B, we observed no significant difference between gender specific predicted FO (males: 48.0mm, 95%CI: 47.1-48.8mm; females: 42.0mm, 95%CI: 41.1-42.8mm) and FO as measured on CT (males: 47.7mm, 95%CI: 46.1-49.4mm, p=0.689; females: 41.6mm, 95%CI: 40.3-43.0mm, p=0.607). The present study suggests that FO can be accurately and reliably predicted from AP pelvis radiographs in patients with primary end-stage hip osteoarthritis. Our findings support the surgeon in pre-operative templating on AP-pelvis radiographs

  15. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...-0739; Airspace Docket No. 09-AEA-14] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Fort A.P. Hill, VA. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC... Service Center, Federal Aviation Administration, P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia 30320; telephone (404...

  16. A glossary of terms for understanding political aspects in the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP).

    PubMed

    Oneka, Goldameir; Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Muntaner, Carles; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Mahabir, Deb Finn; Freiler, Alix; O'Campo, Patricia; Shankardass, Ketan

    2017-08-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a strategy that seeks to integrate health considerations into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies across various non-health sectors of the government. Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the uptake of HiAP by local, regional and national governments. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, most existing literature on HiAP implementation remains descriptive rather than explanatory in its orientation. Moreover, prior research has focused on the more technical aspects of the implementation process. Thus, studies that aim to 'build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP' abound. Conversely, there is little emphasis on the political aspects of HiAP implementation. Neglecting the role of politics in shaping the use of HiAP is problematic, since health and the strategies by which it is promoted are partially political.This glossary addresses the politics gap in the existing literature by drawing on theoretical concepts from political, policy, and public health sciences to articulate a framework for studying how political mechanisms influence HiAP implementation. To this end, the glossary forms part of an on-going multiple explanatory case study of HiAP implementation, HARMONICS (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods on International Case Studies, harmonics-hiap.ca), and is meant to expand on a previously published glossary addressing the topic of HiAP implementation more broadly. Collectively, these glossaries offer a conceptual toolkit for understanding how politics explains implementation outcomes of HiAP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L.; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity. PMID:25915900

  18. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  19. AP-Cloud: Adaptive particle-in-cloud method for optimal solutions to Vlasov–Poisson equation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xingyu; Samulyak, Roman; Jiao, Xiangmin; ...

    2016-04-19

    We propose a new adaptive Particle-in-Cloud (AP-Cloud) method for obtaining optimal numerical solutions to the Vlasov–Poisson equation. Unlike the traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which is commonly used for solving this problem, the AP-Cloud adaptively selects computational nodes or particles to deliver higher accuracy and efficiency when the particle distribution is highly non-uniform. Unlike other adaptive techniques for PIC, our method balances the errors in PDE discretization and Monte Carlo integration, and discretizes the differential operators using a generalized finite difference (GFD) method based on a weighted least square formulation. As a result, AP-Cloud is independent of the geometric shapes ofmore » computational domains and is free of artificial parameters. Efficient and robust implementation is achieved through an octree data structure with 2:1 balance. We analyze the accuracy and convergence order of AP-Cloud theoretically, and verify the method using an electrostatic problem of a particle beam with halo. Here, simulation results show that the AP-Cloud method is substantially more accurate and faster than the traditional PIC, and it is free of artificial forces that are typical for some adaptive PIC techniques.« less

  20. AP-Cloud: Adaptive Particle-in-Cloud method for optimal solutions to Vlasov–Poisson equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xingyu; Samulyak, Roman, E-mail: roman.samulyak@stonybrook.edu; Computational Science Initiative, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973

    We propose a new adaptive Particle-in-Cloud (AP-Cloud) method for obtaining optimal numerical solutions to the Vlasov–Poisson equation. Unlike the traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which is commonly used for solving this problem, the AP-Cloud adaptively selects computational nodes or particles to deliver higher accuracy and efficiency when the particle distribution is highly non-uniform. Unlike other adaptive techniques for PIC, our method balances the errors in PDE discretization and Monte Carlo integration, and discretizes the differential operators using a generalized finite difference (GFD) method based on a weighted least square formulation. As a result, AP-Cloud is independent of the geometric shapes ofmore » computational domains and is free of artificial parameters. Efficient and robust implementation is achieved through an octree data structure with 2:1 balance. We analyze the accuracy and convergence order of AP-Cloud theoretically, and verify the method using an electrostatic problem of a particle beam with halo. Simulation results show that the AP-Cloud method is substantially more accurate and faster than the traditional PIC, and it is free of artificial forces that are typical for some adaptive PIC techniques.« less

  1. AP-Cloud: Adaptive particle-in-cloud method for optimal solutions to Vlasov–Poisson equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xingyu; Samulyak, Roman; Jiao, Xiangmin

    We propose a new adaptive Particle-in-Cloud (AP-Cloud) method for obtaining optimal numerical solutions to the Vlasov–Poisson equation. Unlike the traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which is commonly used for solving this problem, the AP-Cloud adaptively selects computational nodes or particles to deliver higher accuracy and efficiency when the particle distribution is highly non-uniform. Unlike other adaptive techniques for PIC, our method balances the errors in PDE discretization and Monte Carlo integration, and discretizes the differential operators using a generalized finite difference (GFD) method based on a weighted least square formulation. As a result, AP-Cloud is independent of the geometric shapes ofmore » computational domains and is free of artificial parameters. Efficient and robust implementation is achieved through an octree data structure with 2:1 balance. We analyze the accuracy and convergence order of AP-Cloud theoretically, and verify the method using an electrostatic problem of a particle beam with halo. Here, simulation results show that the AP-Cloud method is substantially more accurate and faster than the traditional PIC, and it is free of artificial forces that are typical for some adaptive PIC techniques.« less

  2. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  3. The formation of double-strand breaks at multiply damaged sites is driven by the kinetics of excision/incision at base damage in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Sedletska, Yuliya; Reynaud-Angelin, Anne; Gasparutto, Didier; Sage, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    It has been stipulated that repair of clustered DNA lesions may be compromised, possibly leading to the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB) and, thus, to deleterious events. Using a variety of model multiply damaged sites (MDS), we investigated parameters that govern the formation of DSB during the processing of MDS. Duplexes carrying MDS were inserted into replicative or integrative vectors, and used to transform yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Formation of DSB was assessed by a relevant plasmid survival assay. Kinetics of excision/incision and DSB formation at MDS was explored using yeast cell extracts. We show that MDS composed of two uracils or abasic sites, were rapidly incised and readily converted into DSB in yeast cells. In marked contrast, none of the MDS carrying opposed oG and hU separated by 3–8 bp gave rise to DSB, despite the fact that some of them contained preexisting single-strand break (a 1-nt gap). Interestingly, the absence of DSB formation in this case correlated with slow excision/incision rates of lesions. We propose that the kinetics of the initial repair steps at MDS is a major parameter that direct towards the conversion of MDS into DSB. Data provides clues to the biological consequences of MDS in eukaryotic cells. PMID:19174565

  4. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, alters late atherosclerotic lesion formation in severe hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Boord, Jeffrey B; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Makowski, Liza; Babaev, Vladimir R; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2002-10-01

    The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, has important effects on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Its expression in macrophages enhances early foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. This study was designed to determine whether aP2 deficiency has a similar effect in the setting of advanced atherosclerosis and severe hypercholesterolemia. Mice deficient in aP2 and apolipoprotein E (aP2(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice) and apolipoprotein E-deficient control mice (apoE(-/-) mice) were fed a Western diet for 14 weeks. No significant differences in fasting serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids were found between groups for each sex. Compared with apoE(-/-) control mice, male and female aP2(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice had significant reductions in mean atherosclerotic lesion size in the proximal aorta, en face aorta, and innominate/right carotid artery. Feeding the Western diet in the apoE-deficient background did not cause a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity in vivo, as determined by steady-state serum glucose levels and insulin tolerance testing. These data demonstrate an important role for aP2 expression in the advanced stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Thus, aP2 provides an important physiological link between different features of the metabolic syndrome and is a potential target for therapy of atherosclerosis.

  5. Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

  6. Functional identification and characterization of the Brassica napus transcription factor gene BnAP2, the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Bo; Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered.

  7. Chemical synthesis of 5'-pyrophosphate and triphosphate derivatives of 3'-5' ApA, ApG, GpA and GpG. CD study of the effect of 5'-phosphate groups on the conformation of 3'-5' GpG.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasz, J; Simoncsits, A; Kajtár, M; Krug, R M; Shatkin, A J

    1978-01-01

    A simple, two-step method is described for the synthesis of the 5'-pyro- and triphosphate derivatives of 3'-5' ApA, ApG, GpA and GpG. The readily accessible 2'(3')-5' ApA, ApG, GpA and GpG were converted in one step to the corresponding 5'-phosphoramidate derivatives which were then transformed to the 5'-pyro- and triphosphates. CD spectra of 3'-5' pn GpG (n = 0,1,2 or 3) derivatives, measured at pH 1, indicated stabilization of the (syn) G+p (anti)G conformation by the 5'-phosphate groups. PMID:211490

  8. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R.; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H.; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptor proteins (AP 1–5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking. Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we show that there is complete loss of AP-5 ζ protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 µ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive for markers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and ‘fingerprint bodies’. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5 ζ. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. PMID:26085577

  9. A Knockout Screen of ApiAP2 Genes Reveals Networks of Interacting Transcriptional Regulators Controlling the Plasmodium Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Modrzynska, Katarzyna; Pfander, Claudia; Chappell, Lia; Yu, Lu; Suarez, Catherine; Dundas, Kirsten; Gomes, Ana Rita; Goulding, David; Rayner, Julian C; Choudhary, Jyoti; Billker, Oliver

    2017-01-11

    A family of apicomplexa-specific proteins containing AP2 DNA-binding domains (ApiAP2s) was identified in malaria parasites. This family includes sequence-specific transcription factors that are key regulators of development. However, functions for the majority of ApiAP2 genes remain unknown. Here, a systematic knockout screen in Plasmodium berghei identified ten ApiAP2 genes that were essential for mosquito transmission: four were critical for the formation of infectious ookinetes, and three were required for sporogony. We describe non-essential functions for AP2-O and AP2-SP proteins in blood stages, and identify AP2-G2 as a repressor active in both asexual and sexual stages. Comparative transcriptomics across mutants and developmental stages revealed clusters of co-regulated genes with shared cis promoter elements, whose expression can be controlled positively or negatively by different ApiAP2 factors. We propose that stage-specific interactions between ApiAP2 proteins on partly overlapping sets of target genes generate the complex transcriptional network that controls the Plasmodium life cycle. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Freshman Nine: Helping High School Freshmen Be Successful in AP Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Teaching AP Human Geography to freshmen seems like a daunting task and while there are many arguments both for and against offering the course to freshmen, for many teachers it is reality. In this article, the author offers nine tips to help high school freshmen be successful in the course and on the AP exam.

  11. Monitoring the freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols (AP) around a Norwegian oil platform by holistic passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Harman, Christopher; Thomas, Kevin V; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Meier, Sonnich; Bøyum, Olav; Grung, Merete

    2009-11-01

    In order to assess the environmental impact of aquatic discharges from the offshore oil industry, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed around an oil platform and at reference locations in the North Sea. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylated phenols (AP) was determined from passive sampler accumulations using an empirical uptake model, the dissipation of performance reference compounds and adjusted laboratory derived sampling rates. Exposure was relatively similar within 1-2 km of the discharge point, with levels dominated by short chained C1-C3 AP isomers (19-51 ngL(-1)) and alkylated naphthalenes, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes (NPD, 29-45 ngL(-1)). Exposure stations showed significant differences to reference sites for NPD, but not always for more hydrophobic PAH. These concentrations are several orders of magnitude lower than those reported to give both acute and sub-lethal effects, although their long term consequences are unknown.

  12. Combining H/D exchange mass spectroscopy and computational docking reveals extended DNA-binding surface on uracil-DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Victoria A.; Pique, Michael E.; Hsu, Simon; Li, Sheng; Slupphaug, Geir; Rambo, Robert P.; Jamison, Jonathan W.; Liu, Tong; Lee, Jun H.; Tainer, John A.; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.; Woods, Virgil L.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray crystallography provides excellent structural data on protein–DNA interfaces, but crystallographic complexes typically contain only small fragments of large DNA molecules. We present a new approach that can use longer DNA substrates and reveal new protein–DNA interactions even in extensively studied systems. Our approach combines rigid-body computational docking with hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). DXMS identifies solvent-exposed protein surfaces; docking is used to create a 3-dimensional model of the protein–DNA interaction. We investigated the enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), which detects and cleaves uracil from DNA. UNG was incubated with a 30 bp DNA fragment containing a single uracil, giving the complex with the abasic DNA product. Compared with free UNG, the UNG–DNA complex showed increased solvent protection at the UNG active site and at two regions outside the active site: residues 210–220 and 251–264. Computational docking also identified these two DNA-binding surfaces, but neither shows DNA contact in UNG–DNA crystallographic structures. Our results can be explained by separation of the two DNA strands on one side of the active site. These non-sequence-specific DNA-binding surfaces may aid local uracil search, contribute to binding the abasic DNA product and help present the DNA product to APE-1, the next enzyme on the DNA-repair pathway. PMID:22492624

  13. Size response of an SMPS-APS system to commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Bok; Lee, Jun-Hyun; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2010-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are representative-engineered nanomaterials with unique properties. The safe production of CNTs urgently requires reliable tools to assess inhalation exposure. In this study, on-line aerosol instruments were employed to detect the release of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) in workplace environments. The size responses of aerosol instruments consisting of both a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were examined using five types of commercial MWCNTs. A MWCNT solution and powder were aerosolized using atomizing and shaking methods, respectively. Regardless of the phase and purity, the aerosolized MWCNTs showed consistent size distributions with both SMPS and APS. The SMPS and APS measurements revealed a dominant broad peak at approximately 200-400 nm and a distinct narrow peak at approximately 2 μm, respectively. Comparing with field application of the two aerosol instruments, the APS response could be a fingerprint of the MWCNTs in a real workplace environment. A modification of the atomizing method is recommended for the long-term inhalation toxicity studies.

  14. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation: Mold-Resistant Armacell Insulation--Armacell LLC, AP Armaflex Black

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ESTE test program measured the mold resistance of Armacell AP Armaflex Black insulation. Tests for emissions of VOCs and formaldehyde were also performed. AP Armaflex Roll Insulation is a black flexible closed-cell, fiber-free elastomeric thermal insulation. The expanded clos...

  15. Hypermethylation of AP-2Alpha as a Prognostic Marker for DCIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Unfortunately, among the methylation status of the AP2, CYCLIN D, ECAD , GSTP, and SSOCS genes, either as individual genes, or in combinations, no...0.61 to 4.10) 1.00 (referent) 0.35 ECAD M UM 0 100 3 97 GSTP M UM 40 60 24 76 2.02 (0.72 to 5.64) 1.00...Missing data: 1.4% for AP2, CYCLIN D, ECAD , GSTP; 4.2% for SSOCS; 2.8% for nuclear grade. §M=methylated; UM=unmethylated; +Two-sided

  16. APS-Workshop on Characterization of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) Devices for Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, Jerry (Editor); Mittra, Raj (Editor); Laprade, Nick; Edward, Bryan; Zaghloul, Amir

    1987-01-01

    The IEEE AP-S ADCOM is attempting to expand its educational, tutorial and information exchange activities as a further benefit to all members. To this end, ADCOM will be forming specialized workshops on topics of interest to its members. The first such workshop on Characterization and Packaging of MMIC Devices for Array Antennas was conceived. The workshop took place on June 13, 1986 as part of the 1986 International Symposium sponsored by IEEE AP-S and URSI in Philadelphia, PA, June 9-13, 1986. The workshop was formed to foster the interchange of ideas among MMIC device users and to provide a forum to collect and focus information among engineers experienced and interested in the topic. After brief presentations by the panelists and comments from attendees on several subtopics, the group was divided into working committees. Each committee evaluated and made recommendations on one of the subtopics.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP. PMID:27455262

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of upland (VS16) and lowland (AP13) ecotypes of switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Saha, Malay C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Bhide, Ketaki P; Fiedler, Elizabeth; Hayford, Rita K; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptomes of two switchgrass genotypes representing the upland and lowland ecotypes will be key tools in switchgrass genome annotation and biotic and abiotic stress functional genomics. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important bioenergy feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. We report genome-wide transcriptome profiling of two contrasting tetraploid switchgrass genotypes, VS16 and AP13, representing the upland and lowland ecotypes, respectively. A total of 268 million Illumina short reads (50 nt) were generated, of which, 133 million were obtained in AP13 and the rest 135 million in VS16. More than 90% of these reads were mapped to the switchgrass reference genome (V1.1). We identified 6619 and 5369 differentially expressed genes in VS16 and AP13, respectively. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis identified key genes that regulate important pathways including C4 photosynthesis, photorespiration and phenylpropanoid metabolism. A series of genes (33) involved in photosynthetic pathway were up-regulated in AP13 but only two genes showed higher expression in VS16. We identified three dicarboxylate transporter homologs that were highly expressed in AP13. Additionally, genes that mediate drought, heat, and salinity tolerance were also identified. Vesicular transport proteins, syntaxin and signal recognition particles were seen to be up-regulated in VS16. Analyses of selected genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interaction, membrane transporters, heat, drought and salinity stress responses confirmed significant variation in the relative expression reflected in RNA-Seq data between VS16 and AP13 genotypes. The phenylpropanoid pathway genes identified here are potential targets for biofuel conversion.

  19. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  20. Geminivirus-encoded TrAP suppressor inhibits the histone methyltransferase SUVH4/KYP to counter host defense

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-González, Claudia; Liu, Xiuying; Huang, Changjun; Zhao, Changjiang; Ma, Zeyang; Hu, Tao; Sun, Feng; Zhou, Yijun; Zhou, Xueping; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Xiuren

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) can serve as an innate immunity against invading DNA viruses throughout Eukaryotes. Geminivirus code for TrAP protein to suppress the TGS pathway. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis H3K9me2 histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9 homolog 4/Kryptonite (SUVH4/KYP), as a bona fide cellular target of TrAP. TrAP interacts with the catalytic domain of KYP and inhibits its activity in vitro. TrAP elicits developmental anomalies phenocopying several TGS mutants, reduces the repressive H3K9me2 mark and CHH DNA methylation, and reactivates numerous endogenous KYP-repressed loci in vivo. Moreover, KYP binds to the viral chromatin and controls its methylation to combat virus infection. Notably, kyp mutants support systemic infection of TrAP-deficient Geminivirus. We conclude that TrAP attenuates the TGS of the viral chromatin by inhibiting KYP activity to evade host surveillance. These findings provide new insight on the molecular arms race between host antiviral defense and virus counter defense at an epigenetic level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06671.001 PMID:26344546

  1. FABP4/aP2 Regulates Macrophage Redox Signaling and Inflammasome Activation via Control of UCP2.

    PubMed

    Steen, Kaylee A; Xu, Hongliang; Bernlohr, David A

    2017-01-15

    Obesity-linked metabolic disease is mechanistically associated with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chronic low-grade inflammation. Previous work has demonstrated that deletion of the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4/aP2) uncouples obesity from inflammation via upregulation of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Here, we demonstrate that ablation of FABP4/aP2 regulates systemic redox capacity and reduces cellular protein sulfhydryl oxidation and, in particular, oxidation of mitochondrial protein cysteine residues. Coincident with the loss of FABP4/aP2 is the upregulation of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase, methionine sulfoxide reductase A, and the 20S proteasome subunits PSMB5 and αβ. Reduced mitochondrial protein oxidation in FABP4/aP2 -/- macrophages attenuates the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (mtUPR) as measured by expression of heat shock protein 60, Clp protease, and Lon peptidase 1. Consistent with a diminished mtUPR, FABP4/aP2 -/- macrophages exhibit reduced expression of cleaved caspase-1 and NLRP3. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), in response to inflammasome activation, is ablated in FABP4/aP2 -/- macrophages, as well as in FABP4/aP2 inhibitor-treated cells, but partially rescued in FABP4/aP2-null macrophages when UCP2 is silenced. Collectively, these data offer a novel pathway whereby FABP4/aP2 regulates macrophage redox signaling and inflammasome activation via control of UCP2 expression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Effects of aluminum and iron nanoparticle additives on composite AP/HTPB solid propellant regression rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styborski, Jeremy A.

    This project was started in the interest of supplementing existing data on additives to composite solid propellants. The study on the addition of iron and aluminum nanoparticles to composite AP/HTPB propellants was conducted at the Combustion and Energy Systems Laboratory at RPI in the new strand-burner experiment setup. For this study, a large literature review was conducted on history of solid propellant combustion modeling and the empirical results of tests on binders, plasticizers, AP particle size, and additives. The study focused on the addition of nano-scale aluminum and iron in small concentrations to AP/HTPB solid propellants with an average AP particle size of 200 microns. Replacing 1% of the propellant's AP with 40-60 nm aluminum particles produced no change in combustive behavior. The addition of 1% 60-80 nm iron particles produced a significant increase in burn rate, although the increase was lesser at higher pressures. These results are summarized in Table 2. The increase in the burn rate at all pressures due to the addition of iron nanoparticles warranted further study on the effect of concentration of iron. Tests conducted at 10 atm showed that the mean regression rate varied with iron concentration, peaking at 1% and 3%. Regardless of the iron concentration, the regression rate was higher than the baseline AP/HTPB propellants. These results are summarized in Table 3.

  3. Identification of one of the apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase active sites of topoisomerase V by structural and functional studies

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Prasad, Rajendra; Taneja, Bhupesh; Wilson, Samuel H.; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only member of a novel topoisomerase subtype. Topo-V is unique because it is a bifunctional enzyme carrying both topoisomerase and DNA repair lyase activities within the same protein. Previous studies had shown that the topoisomerase domain spans the N-terminus of the protein and is followed by 12 tandem helix–hairpin–helix [(HhH)2] domains. There are at least two DNA repair lyase active sites for apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site processing, one within the N-terminal region and the second within the C-terminal domain of Topo-V, but their exact locations and characteristics are unknown. In the present study, the N-terminal 78-kDa fragment of Topo-V (Topo-78), containing the topoisomerase domain and one of the lyase DNA repair domains, was characterized by structural and biochemical studies. The results show that an N-terminal 69-kDa fragment is the minimal fragment with both topoisomerase and AP lyase activities. The lyase active site of Topo-78 is at the junction of the fifth and sixth (HhH)2 domains. From the biochemical and structural data, it appears that Lys571 is the most probable nucleophile responsible for the lyase activity. Our experiments also suggest that Topo-V most likely acts as a Class I AP endonuclease in vivo. PMID:23125368

  4. Decreased gene expression of CD2AP in Chinese patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Li, Hong-Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, De-Shan; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Jian-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2017-08-01

    Many sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) risk genes have been identified in the last decades, but most of them have not been consistently accepted. Here, we sought to identify SAD-associated genes and their potential mechanisms involved in SAD pathogenesis. A 2-stage design was employed. In stage 1, 95 variants in 75 genes that were previously reported as SAD-risk genes in Caucasian populations were evaluated in 1857 subjects (422 SAD patients and 1435 controls). In stage 2, a subset of promising variants found in stage 1 were further evaluated in an independent cohort of 1001 subjects (254 SAD and 747 controls). Variants in CD2AP were significantly associated with SAD risk in our subjects. Furthermore, CD2AP gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 209 SAD patients and 213 controls was determined. CD2AP gene expression in PBL was significantly decreased in patients with SAD as compared with controls. Our study suggests that CD2AP is an SAD-risk gene in Chinese Han population and CD2AP gene expression is decreased in the PBL of patients with SAD, indicating its possible systemic involvement in SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. o,p'-DDT induces cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in murine macrophages: Role of AP-1 and CRE promoter elements and PI3-kinase/Akt/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyung-Kyun

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used as an insecticide to prevent the devastation of malaria in tropical zones. However, many reports suggest that DDT may act as an endocrine disruptor and may have possible carcinogenic effects. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) acts as a link between inflammation and carcinogenesis through its involvement in tumor promotion. In the present study, we examined the effect of o,p'-DDT on COX-2 gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Exposure to o,p'-DDT markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major COX-2 metabolite, in murine macrophages. Furthermore, o,p'-DDTmore » dose-dependently increased the levels of COX-2 protein and mRNA. Transfection with human COX-2 promoter construct, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA-affinity protein-binding assay experiments revealed that o,p'-DDT activated the activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cyclic AMP response element (CRE) sites, but not the NF-{kappa}B site. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, its downstream signaling molecule, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were also significantly activated by the o,p'-DDT-induced AP-1 and CRE activation. These results demonstrate that o,p'-DDT induced COX-2 expression via AP-1 and CRE activation through the PI3-K/Akt/ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the carcinogenic effects of o,p'-DDT.« less

  6. Adipocyte Fatty Acid–Binding Protein, aP2, Alters Late Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Severe Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Boord, Jeffrey B.; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Makowski, Liza; Babaev, Vladimir R.; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, has important effects on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Its expression in macrophages enhances early foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. This study was designed to determine whether aP2 deficiency has a similar effect in the setting of advanced atherosclerosis and severe hypercholesterolemia. Methods and Results Mice deficient in aP2 and apolipoprotein E (aP2−/−apoE−/− mice) and apolipoprotein E-deficient control mice (apoE−/− mice) were fed a Western diet for 14 weeks. No significant differences in fasting serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids were found between groups for each sex. Compared with apoE−/− control mice, male and female aP2−/−apoE−/− mice had significant reductions in mean atherosclerotic lesion size in the proximal aorta, en face aorta, and innominate/right carotid artery. Feeding the Western diet in the apoE-deficient background did not cause a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity in vivo, as determined by steady-state serum glucose levels and insulin tolerance testing. Conclusions These data demonstrate an important role for aP2 expression in the advanced stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Thus, aP2 provides an important physiological link between different features of the metabolic syndrome and is a potential target for therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:12377750

  7. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for Alcohol Preference, Withdrawal, and Ap3m2 Expression Using Integrative Functional Genomics and Precision Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jason A.; Jay, Jeremy J.; Baker, Christopher L.; Bergeson, Susan E.; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.; Chesler, Elissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. PMID:24923803

  8. Area postrema projects to FoxP2 neurons of the pre-locus coeruleus and parabrachial nuclei: brainstem sites implicated in sodium appetite regulation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Matthew K; Loewy, Arthur D

    2010-11-04

    The area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ located in the dorsal midline of the medulla. It functions as a chemosensor for blood-borne peptides and solutes, and converts this information into neural signals that are transmitted to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus (PB). One of its NTS targets in the rat is the aldosterone-sensitive neurons which contain the enzyme 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). The HSD2 neurons are part of a central network involved in sodium appetite regulation, and they innervate numerous brain sites including the pre-locus coeruleus (pre-LC) and PB external lateral-inner (PBel-inner) cell groups of the dorsolateral pons. Both pontine cell groups express the transcription factor FoxP2 and become c-Fos activated following sodium depletion. Because the AP is a component in this network, we wanted to determine whether it also projects to the same sites as the HSD2 neurons. By using a combination of anterograde axonal and retrograde cell body tract-tracing techniques in individual rats, we show that the AP projects to FoxP2 immunoreactive neurons in the pre-LC and PBel-inner. Thus, the AP sends a direct projection to both the first-order medullary (HSD2 neurons of the NTS) and the second-order dorsolateral pontine neurons (pre-LC and PB-el inner neurons). All three sites transmit information related to systemic sodium depletion to forebrain sites and are part of the central neural circuitry that regulates the complex behavior of sodium appetite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Regulation of Voltage-Gated Chloride Channels by Ligands Preferring a VDR-Alternative Pocket (VDR-AP)

    PubMed Central

    Menegaz, Danusa; Mizwicki, Mathew T.; Barrientos-Duran, Antonio; Chen, Ning; Henry, Helen L.

    2011-01-01

    We have postulated that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) contains two overlapping ligand binding sites, a genomic pocket and an alternative pocket (AP), that mediate regulation of gene transcription and rapid responses, respectively. Flexible VDR + ligand docking calculations predict that the major blood metabolite, 25(OH)-vitamin D3 (25D3), and curcumin (CM) bind more selectively to the VDR-AP when compared with the seco-steroid hormone 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25D3). In VDR wild-type-transfected COS-1 cells and TM4 Sertoli cells, 1,25D3, 25D3, and CM each trigger voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC) currents that can be blocked by the VDR antagonist 1β,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 and the chloride channel antagonist (4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid). VDR mutational analysis in transfected COS-1 cells demonstrate the DNA-binding domain is not, but the ligand binding and hinge domains of the VDR are, required for 1,25D3 and 25D3 to activate the ORCC. Dose-response studies demonstrate that 25D3 and 1,25D3 are approximately equipotent in stimulating ORCC rapid responses, whereas 1 nm 1,25D3 was 1000-fold more potent than 25D3 and CM in stimulating gene expression. The VDR-AP agonist effects of 1,25D3, 25D3, and low-dose CM are lost after pretreatment of TM4 cells with VDR small interfering RNA. Collectively, these results are consistent with an essential role for the VDR-AP in initiating the signaling required for rapid opening of ORCC. The fact that 25D3 is equipotent to 1,25D3 in opening ORCC suggests that reconsideration of the ability of 25D3 to generate biological responses in vivo may be in order. PMID:21659475

  10. Time Trials--An AP Physics Challenge Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    I have come to the conclusion that for high school physics classroom and laboratory experiences, simpler is better! In this paper I describe a very simple and effective lab experience that my AP students have thoroughly enjoyed year after year. I call this lab exercise "Time Trials." The experiment is simple in design and it is a lot of fun for…

  11. AP-IO: asynchronous pipeline I/O for hiding periodic output cost in CFD simulation.

    PubMed

    Xiaoguang, Ren; Xinhai, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO) optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pipeline mode, therefore the write overhead can be hidden with more calculation than classic asynchronous I/O. We design the framework of AP-IO and implement it in OpenFOAM, providing CFD users with a user-friendly interface. Experimental results on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer demonstrate that AP-IO can achieve a good optimization effect for the periodical snapshot output in CFD application, and the effect is especially better for massively parallel CFD simulations, which can reduce the total execution time up to about 40%.

  12. AP-IO: Asynchronous Pipeline I/O for Hiding Periodic Output Cost in CFD Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Xiaoguang, Ren; Xinhai, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO) optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pipeline mode, therefore the write overhead can be hidden with more calculation than classic asynchronous I/O. We design the framework of AP-IO and implement it in OpenFOAM, providing CFD users with a user-friendly interface. Experimental results on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer demonstrate that AP-IO can achieve a good optimization effect for the periodical snapshot output in CFD application, and the effect is especially better for massively parallel CFD simulations, which can reduce the total execution time up to about 40%. PMID:24955390

  13. A Proxy Design to Leverage the Interconnection of CoAP Wireless Sensor Networks with Web Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ludovici, Alessandro; Calveras, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) proxy able to interconnect Web applications based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and WebSocket with CoAP based Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensor networks are commonly used to monitor and control physical objects or environments. Smart Cities represent applications of such a nature. Wireless Sensor Networks gather data from their surroundings and send them to a remote application. This data flow may be short or long lived. The traditional HTTP long-polling used by Web applications may not be adequate in long-term communications. To overcome this problem, we include the WebSocket protocol in the design of the CoAP proxy. We evaluate the performance of the CoAP proxy in terms of latency and memory consumption. The tests consider long and short-lived communications. In both cases, we evaluate the performance obtained by the CoAP proxy according to the use of WebSocket and HTTP long-polling. PMID:25585107

  14. Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

    2014-08-01

    The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Mass spectrometry of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adducts with the dinucleosidemonophosphates d(ApG), d(GpG) and d(TpC) in an ion trap.

    PubMed

    Hagemeister, Timo; Linscheid, Michael

    2002-07-01

    The detection and fragmentation behaviour of adducts of the chemotherapeutic cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) with the dinucleosidemonophosphates d(ApG), d(GpG) and d(TpC) as model compounds for DNA adducts in an ion trap with electrospray ionization were studied. Mainly the monofunctional adduct, the bifunctional adduct and the bifunctional adduct with platinum bridging two dinucleosidemonophosphates were detected. In addition, several more complex adducts were seen resulting from reactions among these species. Adduct formation was low in the case of d(TpC). Fragmentation could be controlled strongly by varying the temperature of the transfer capillary; furthermore, tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments on both the monofunctional and the bifunctional adducts were performed. For the adducts of d(ApG) and d(GpG) losses of NH(3) and HCl were the most dominant reactions, followed by the losses of one, then another two units of 98 amu from the sugar-phosphate backbone, whereas d(TpC)-Pt predominantly forms the dinucleosidemonophosphate. In the gas phase, the conversion of the monofunctional into the bifunctional adducts through binding to another site in the dinucleotide accompanied by loss of NH(3) or HCl could also be observed. The removal of a ligand from the coordination sphere of the square-planar platinum complexes appeared to be the crucial step for the induction of further fragmentation of the dinucleotide ligand. MS(n) experiments of the bifunctional adducts of d(ApG) and d(GpG) revealed different fragmentation pathways involving the loss of phosphoric acid, metaphosphoric acid, deoxyribose units (intact or dehydrated) and the nucleobases in different orders, leaving characteristic binding site-determining fragments. Fragmentation of these ions was also performed, mainly resulting in fragmentation of the bases. The study confirmed the remarkable stability of the platinum-guanine bond compared with other nucleobases. Copyright 2002 John

  16. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1more » functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.« less

  17. Accurate age determinations of several nearby open clusters containing magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaj, J.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2014-06-01

    Context. To study the time evolution of magnetic fields, chemical abundance peculiarities, and other characteristics of magnetic Ap and Bp stars during their main sequence lives, a sample of these stars in open clusters has been obtained, as such stars can be assumed to have the same ages as the clusters to which they belong. However, in exploring age determinations in the literature, we find a large dispersion among different age determinations, even for bright, nearby clusters. Aims: Our aim is to obtain ages that are as accurate as possible for the seven nearby open clusters α Per, Coma Ber, IC 2602, NGC 2232, NGC 2451A, NGC 2516, and NGC 6475, each of which contains at least one magnetic Ap or Bp star. Simultaneously, we test the current calibrations of Te and luminosity for the Ap/Bp star members, and identify clearly blue stragglers in the clusters studied. Methods: We explore the possibility that isochrone fitting in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (i.e. log (L/L⊙) vs. log Te), rather than in the conventional colour-magnitude diagram, can provide more precise and accurate cluster ages, with well-defined uncertainties. Results: Well-defined ages are found for all the clusters studied. For the nearby clusters studied, the derived ages are not very sensitive to the small uncertainties in distance, reddening, membership, metallicity, or choice of isochrones. Our age determinations are all within the range of previously determined values, but the associated uncertainties are considerably smaller than the spread in recent age determinations from the literature. Furthermore, examination of proper motions and HR diagrams confirms that the Ap stars identified in these clusters are members, and that the presently accepted temperature scale and bolometric corrections for Ap stars are approximately correct. We show that in these theoretical HR diagrams blue stragglers are particularly easy to identify. Conclusions: Constructing the theoretical HR diagram

  18. A Novel GLP1 Receptor Interacting Protein ATP6ap2 Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Feihan F.; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinye Serena; Huang, Xinyi; Luu, Lemieux; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    GLP1 activates its receptor, GLP1R, to enhance insulin secretion. The activation and transduction of GLP1R requires complex interactions with a host of accessory proteins, most of which remain largely unknown. In this study, we used membrane-based split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays to identify novel GLP1R interactors in both mouse and human islets. Among these, ATP6ap2 (ATPase H+-transporting lysosomal accessory protein 2) was identified in both mouse and human islet screens. ATP6ap2 was shown to be abundant in islets including both alpha and beta cells. When GLP1R and ATP6ap2 were co-expressed in beta cells, GLP1R was shown to directly interact with ATP6ap2, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. In INS-1 cells, overexpression of ATP6ap2 did not affect insulin secretion; however, siRNA knockdown decreased both glucose-stimulated and GLP1-induced insulin secretion. Decreases in GLP1-induced insulin secretion were accompanied by attenuated GLP1 stimulated cAMP accumulation. Because ATP6ap2 is a subunit required for V-ATPase assembly of insulin granules, it has been reported to be involved in granule acidification. In accordance with this, we observed impaired insulin granule acidification upon ATP6ap2 knockdown but paradoxically increased proinsulin secretion. Importantly, as a GLP1R interactor, ATP6ap2 was required for GLP1-induced Ca2+ influx, in part explaining decreased insulin secretion in ATP6ap2 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings identify a group of proteins that interact with the GLP1R. We further show that one interactor, ATP6ap2, plays a novel dual role in beta cells, modulating both GLP1R signaling and insulin processing to affect insulin secretion. PMID:26272612

  19. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... reference Revision 15 of the design control document (DCD) (ADAMS Accession No. ML053460400), which... to DAC in the areas of piping design (Chapter 3), instrumentation and control (I&C) systems (Chapter... Systems Manual, as described in the AP1000 Design Control Document, Revision 17, meets the criteria of...

  20. 30 Years of APS Congressional Fellows: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    In 1973 AAAS launched a Congressional Fellows Program, and APS was one of three founding participants. Since then, APS has funded one or two Fellows annually to work with a Congressional Committee or on the personal staff of a Member of Congress. These fellows individually and collectively have had and continue to have a large impact in Washington. Six Fellows from different periods of the 30-year program, including a current Member of Congress, will present their views and assessments of the Fellowship program. They will address how it affected them, what it has done for the country and how APS should plan for the future. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Panelists: Ben Cooper, Association of Oil Pipe Lines (Fellow, 1973-74) Rush Holt, Member, House of Representatives (Fellow, 1982-83) Jane Alexander, Office of Naval Research (Fellow, 1986-87) Duncan Moore, University of Rochester (Fellow, 1993-94) Peter Rooney, House Committee on Science (Fellow, 1997-98) Sherri Stephan, Senate Committee on Government Affairs (Fellow, 2000-01)

  1. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC. MEMBRANE FILTRATION SYSTEM ON CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formed-in-place, membrane filtration system offered by SBP Technologies, Inc. of Stone Mountain, Georgia was evaluated by the U.S. EPA Superfund Inno- vative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The evaluation lasted six days; ap- proximately 1000 gallons per day of water co...

  2. Stimulation of Pol III-dependent 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA gene expression by AP-1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-01

    RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Effect of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) on coronary arterial microvessels in the beating canine heart.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, A; Kanatsuka, H; Tanikawa, T; Ong, B H; Shirato, K

    2000-11-01

    Diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) can be released from activated platelets and the present study examined its effect on coronary arterial microvessels. The role of purinoceptors in the coronary microcirculation in vivo was also investigated. In open chest dogs, coronary arterioles were observed using a microscope with a floating objective. In Protocol 1, AP4A (1, 10, 100 and 1,000 micromol/L) was superfused onto the heart surface before and during the superfusion of 10 micromol/L of 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), a P1 purinoceptor blocker. In Protocol 2, AP4A (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was infused into the left anterior descending coronary artery before and during the superfusion of 10 micromol/L of 8-PT. In addition to 8-PT, 30 micromol/L of pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl 2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), a P2X purinoceptor blocker in Protocol 3, or 300 micromol/L of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) in Protocol 4, was continuously superfused, and 4 doses of AP4A were cumulatively superfused as in Protocol 1. In Protocol 5, 10 micromol/L of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, an agonist of P2X purinoceptors, was superfused for 60 min. Superfused AP4A dilated arterioles in a dose-dependent manner. The magnitude of dilatation was greater in smaller arterioles (small vessel < or = 150 microm: 24.5+/-2.2% vs large vessel > 150 microm: 10.6+/-1.5% at a dose of 1,000 micromol/L, p<0.001). On the other hand, intraluminally applied AP4A also dilated arterioles, but no size dependency was shown. In the presence of 8-PT, vasodilatory responses to superfused and intraluminally applied AP4A were attenuated and the lower doses of AP4A constricted arterioles. This vasoconstrictor effect was not affected by PPADS. The vasodilatory effect of the higher doses of AP4A was almost abolished in the presence of LNNA. Alpha,beta-methylene ATP had no effect on coronary microvascular diameters. AP4A has bidirectional effects on coronary arterial microvessels: vasodilatory effects

  4. Engineered disulfide bonds increase active-site local stability and reduce catalytic activity of a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Adalbjörnsson, Björn Vidar; Gylfason, Gudjón Andri

    2007-06-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an extracellular enzyme that is membrane-bound in eukaryotes but resides in the periplasmic space of bacteria. It normally carries four cysteine residues that form two disulfide bonds, for instance in the APs of Escherichia coli and vertebrates. An AP variant from a Vibrio sp. has only one cysteine residue. This cysteine is second next to the nucleophilic serine in the active site. We have individually modified seven residues to cysteine that are on two loops predicted to be within a 5 A radius. Four of them formed a disulfide bond to the endogenous cysteine. Thermal stability was monitored by circular dichroism and activity measurements. Global stability was similar to the wild-type enzyme. However, a significant increase in heat-stability was observed for the disulfide-containing variants using activity as a measure, together with a large reduction in catalytic rates (k(cat)) and a general decrease in Km values. The results suggest that a high degree of mobility near the active site and in the helix carrying the endogenous cysteine is essential for full catalytic efficiency in the cold-adapted AP.

  5. Dose estimates for the 1104 m APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, H.J.

    1989-06-01

    The estimated dose equivalent rates outside the shielded storage ring, and the estimated annual dose equivalent to members of the public due to direct radiation and skyshine from the ring, have been recalculated. The previous estimates found in LS-84 (MOE 87) and cited in the 1987 Conceptual Design Report of the APS (ANL 87) required revision because of changes in the ring circumference and in the proposed location of the ring with respect to the nearest site boundary. The values assumed for the neutron quality factors were also overestimated (by a factor of 2) in the previous computation, and themore » correct values have been used for this estimate. The methodology used to compute dose and dose rate from the storage ring is the same as that used in LS-90 (MOE 87a). The calculations assumed 80 cm thick walls of ordinary concrete (or the shielding equivalent of this) and a roof thickness of 1 meter of ordinary concrete. The circumference of the ring was increased to 1,104 m, and the closest distance to the boundary was taken as 140 m. The recalculation of the skyshine component used the same methodology as that used in LS-84.« less

  6. Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant China project

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C.

    2012-07-01

    The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, themore » organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)« less

  7. Genome-Wide Investigation and Expression Profiling of AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Superfamily in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Charu; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic

  8. Genome-wide investigation and expression profiling of AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    PubMed

    Lata, Charu; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic

  9. A Comparison of Van Allen Belt Radiation Environment Modeling Programs: AE8/AP8 Legacy, AE9/AP9, and SPENVIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Evan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the space surrounding Earth there exists an active radiation environment consisting mostly of electrons and protons that have been trapped by Earths magnetic field. This radiation, also known as the Van Allen Belts, has the potential to damage man-made satellites in orbit; thus, proper precautions must be taken to shield NASA assets from this phenomenon. Data on the Van Allen Belts has been collected continuously by a multitude of space-based instruments since the beginning of space exploration. Subsequently, using theory to fill in the gaps in the collected data, computer models have been developed that take in the orbital information of a hypothetical mission and output the expected particle fluence and flux for that orbit. However, as new versions of the modeling system are released, users are left wondering how the new version differs from the old. Therefore, we performed a comparison of three different editions of the modeling system: AE8/AP8 (legacy), which is included in the model 9 graphical user interface as an option for ones calculations, AE9/AP9, and the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS), which is an online-based form of AE8/AP8 developed by NASA and the European Space Agency that changed the code to allow the program to extrapolate data to predict fluence and flux at higher energies. Although this evaluation is still ongoing, it is predicted that the model 8 (legacy) and SPENVIS version will have identical outputs with the exception of the extended energy levels from SPENVIS, while model 9 will provide different fluences than model 8 based on additional magnetic field descriptions and on-orbit data.

  10. pH-Dependent Binding of Chloride to a Marine Alkaline Phosphatase Affects the Catalysis, Active Site Stability, and Dimer Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hjörleifsson, Jens G; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2017-09-26

    The effect of ionic strength on enzyme activity and stability varies considerably between enzymes. Ionic strength is known to affect the catalytic activity of some alkaline phosphatases (APs), such as Escherichia coli AP, but how ions affect APs is debated. Here, we studied the effect of various ions on a cold-adapted AP from Vibrio splendidus (VAP). Previously, we have found that the active form of VAP is extremely unstable at low ionic strengths. Here we show that NaCl increased the activity and stability of VAP and that the effect was pH-dependent in the range of pH 7-10. The activity profile as a function of pH formed two maxima, indicating a possible conformational change. Bringing the pH from the neutral to the alkaline range was accompanied by a large increase in both the K i for inorganic phosphate (product inhibition) and the K M for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The activity transitions observed as the pH was varied correlated with structural changes as monitored by tryptophan fluorescence. Thermal and urea-induced inactivation was shown to be accompanied by neither dissociation of the active site metal ions nor dimer dissociation. This would suggest that the inactivation involved subtle changes in active site conformation. Furthermore, the VAP dimer equilibrium was studied for the first time and shown to highly favor dimerization, which was dependent on pH and NaCl concentration. Taken together, the data support a model in which anions bind to some specific acceptor in the active site of VAP, resulting in great stabilization and catalytic rate enhancement, presumably through a different mechanism.

  11. Development of cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors for EPA’S AP-42

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. AP-42 currently contains no PM2.5 cotton gin emission factors. In an effort to develop science-based data for regulating...

  12. Zinc as a second messenger of mitogenic induction. Effects on diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grummt, F; Weinmann-Dorsch, C; Schneider-Schaulies, J; Lux, A

    1986-03-01

    DNA synthesis and adenosine(5')tetraphosphate(5')adenosine (Ap4A) levels decrease in cells treated with EDTA. The inhibitory effect of EDTA can be reversed with micromolar amounts of ZnCl2. ZnCl2 in micromolar concentrations also inhibits Ap4A hydrolase and stimulates amino acid-dependent Ap4A synthesis, suggesting that Zn2+ is modulating intracellular Ap4A pools. Serum addition to G1-arrested cells enhances uptake of Zn, whereas serum depletion leads to a fivefold decrease of the rates of zinc uptake. These results are discussed by regarding Zn2+ as a putative 'second messenger' of mitogenic induction and Ap4A as a possible 'third messenger' and trigger of DNA synthesis.

  13. Analysis of the AP-42, supplement 5 emission model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    This report examines the performance of the source strength model presented in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency publication AP-42, Supplement 5 relative to field data gathered during the AIRPOL project and relative to the previous source stre...

  14. Neuropsychological correlates of transcription factor AP-2Beta, and its interaction with COMT and MAOA in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Schabram, Ina; Eggermann, Thomas; Siegel, Steven J; Gründer, Gerhard; Zerres, Klaus; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor AP-2β has been shown to impact clinical and neuropsychological properties. Apparently, it regulates the transcription of genes that code for molecules which are part of the catecholaminergic transmission system. This investigation focuses on possible effects of the transcription factor AP-2β intron 2 polymorphism on cognitive performance parameters. This hypothesis-driven investigation examined the effects and interactions of the transcription factor AP-2β intron 2 polymorphism, the Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism, and the variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) on cognitive performance parameters within a group of 200 healthy women (age: mean ± SD, 23.93 ± 3.33 years). The AP-2β polymorphism significantly influenced cognitive performance (in particular, the Trail Making Test part B), whereas the MAOA and COMT polymorphisms did not. However, there was an interaction effect of the AP-2β × MAOA × COMT genotypes on the decision bias β of the degraded-stimulus version of the continuous performance task. Only the Val158Met COMT polymorphism showed an influence on personality questionnaires (openness and self-transcendence; NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory). The transcription factor AP-2β intron 2 polymorphism had more influence on cognition than the MAOA and COMT polymorphisms. Possibly, the AP-2β genotype might influence cognition through pathways other than those that regulate MAOA and COMT transcription. Interactions of transcription factor AP-2β, COMT, and MAOA polymorphisms suggest higher leverage effects of transcription factor AP-2β in subjects with high dopamine availability. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The USP1-UAF1 complex interacts with RAD51AP1 to promote homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Scott; Lee, Euiho; Palumbo, Emily; Benavidez, Pamela; Moldovan, George-Lucian; Kee, Younghoon

    2016-10-01

    USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme and its stoichiometric binding partner UAF1 play an essential role in promoting DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to various types of DNA damaging agents. Deubiquitination of FANCD2 may be attributed to the key role of USP1-UAF1 complex in regulating HR repair, however whether USP1-UAF1 promotes HR repair independently of FANCD2 deubiquitination is not known. Here we show evidence that the USP1-UAF1 complex has a FANCD2-independent function in promoting HR repair. Proteomic search of UAF1-interacting proteins revealed that UAF1 associates with RAD51AP1, a RAD51-interacting protein implicated in HR repair. We show that UAF1 mediates the interaction between USP1 and RAD51AP1, and that depletion of USP1 or UAF1 led to a decreased stability of RAD51AP1. Protein interaction mapping analysis identified some key residues within RAD51AP1 required for interacting with the USP1-UAF1 complex. Cells expressing the UAF1 interaction-deficient mutant of RAD51AP1 show increased chromosomal aberrations in response to Mitomycin C treatment. Moreover, similar to the RAD51AP1 depleted cells, the cells expressing UAF1-interaction deficient RAD51AP1 display persistent RAD51 foci following DNA damage exposure, indicating that these factors regulate a later step during the HR repair. These data altogether suggest that the USP1-UAF1 complex promotes HR repair via multiple mechanisms: through FANCD2 deubiquitination, as well as by interacting with RAD51AP1.

  16. The USP1-UAF1 complex interacts with RAD51AP1 to promote homologous recombination repair

    PubMed Central

    Cukras, Scott; Lee, Euiho; Palumbo, Emily; Benavidez, Pamela; Moldovan, George-Lucian; Kee, Younghoon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme and its stoichiometric binding partner UAF1 play an essential role in promoting DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to various types of DNA damaging agents. Deubiquitination of FANCD2 may be attributed to the key role of USP1-UAF1 complex in regulating HR repair, however whether USP1-UAF1 promotes HR repair independently of FANCD2 deubiquitination is not known. Here we show evidence that the USP1-UAF1 complex has a FANCD2-independent function in promoting HR repair. Proteomic search of UAF1-interacting proteins revealed that UAF1 associates with RAD51AP1, a RAD51-interacting protein implicated in HR repair. We show that UAF1 mediates the interaction between USP1 and RAD51AP1, and that depletion of USP1 or UAF1 led to a decreased stability of RAD51AP1. Protein interaction mapping analysis identified some key residues within RAD51AP1 required for interacting with the USP1-UAF1 complex. Cells expressing the UAF1 interaction-deficient mutant of RAD51AP1 show increased chromosomal aberrations in response to Mitomycin C treatment. Moreover, similar to the RAD51AP1 depleted cells, the cells expressing UAF1-interaction deficient RAD51AP1 display persistent RAD51 foci following DNA damage exposure, indicating that these factors regulate a later step during the HR repair. These data altogether suggest that the USP1-UAF1 complex promotes HR repair via multiple mechanisms: through FANCD2 deubiquitination, as well as by interacting with RAD51AP1. PMID:27463890

  17. Evaluation of Different Oligonucleotide Base Substitutions at CpG Binding sites in Multiplex Bisulfite-PCR sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jennifer; Ru, Kelin; Candiloro, Ida; Dobrovic, Alexander; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2017-03-22

    Multiplex bisulfite-PCR sequencing is a convenient and scalable method for the quantitative determination of the methylation state of target DNA regions. A challenge of this application is the presence of CpGs in the same region where primers are being placed. A common solution to the presence of CpGs within a primer-binding region is to substitute a base degeneracy at the cytosine position. However, the efficacy of different substitutions and the extent to which bias towards methylated or unmethylated templates may occur has never been evaluated in bisulfite multiplex sequencing applications. In response, we examined the performance of four different primer substitutions at the cytosine position of CpG's contained within the PCR primers. In this study, deoxyinosine-, 5-nitroindole-, mixed-base primers and primers with an abasic site were evaluated across a series of methylated controls. Primers that contained mixed- or deoxyinosine- base modifications performed most robustly. Mixed-base primers were further selected to determine the conditions that induce bias towards methylated templates. This identified an optimized set of conditions where the methylated state of bisulfite DNA templates can be accurately assessed using mixed-base primers, and expands the scope of bisulfite resequencing assays when working with challenging templates.

  18. BLOC-1 Interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 Complex to Facilitate Protein Trafficking on Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietro, Santiago M.; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M.; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba R.G.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2006-01-01

    The adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex is a component of the cellular machinery that controls protein sorting from endosomes to lysosomes and specialized related organelles such as melanosomes. Mutations in an AP-3 subunit underlie a form of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a disorder characterized by abnormalities in lysosome-related organelles. HPS in humans can also be caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of three complexes of unclear function, named biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, -2, and -3. Here, we report that BLOC-1 interacts physically and functionally with AP-3 to facilitate the trafficking of a known AP-3 cargo, CD63, and of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), a melanosomal membrane protein previously thought to traffic only independently of AP-3. BLOC-1 also interacts with BLOC-2 to facilitate Tyrp1 trafficking by a mechanism apparently independent of AP-3 function. Both BLOC-1 and -2 localize mainly to early endosome-associated tubules as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. These findings support the idea that BLOC-1 and -2 represent hitherto unknown components of the endosomal protein trafficking machinery. PMID:16837549

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  20. The Role of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) Family Members in CD30-Positive Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Garces de los Fayos Alonso, Ines; Lagger, Sabine; Merkel, Olaf; Kenner, Lukas

    2018-01-01

    The Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor (TF) family, composed of a variety of members including c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF, is involved in mediating many biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Since their discovery, the role of AP-1 TFs in cancer development has been extensively analysed. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the complexity of these TFs, mainly due to their cell-type specific homo- or hetero-dimerization resulting in diverse transcriptional response profiles. However, as a result of the increasing knowledge of the role of AP-1 TFs in disease, these TFs are being recognized as promising therapeutic targets for various malignancies. In this review, we focus on the impact of deregulated expression of AP-1 TFs in CD30-positive lymphomas including Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma and Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. PMID:29597249

  1. Molecular cloning of Rab5 (ApRab5) in Aiptasia pulchella and its retention in phagosomes harboring live zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chyuan; Cheng, Ying-Min; Hong, Min-Chang; Fang, Lee-Shing

    2004-11-19

    The intracellular association of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) with marine cnidarians is the very foundation of the highly productive and diversified coral reef ecosystems. To reveal its underlying molecular mechanisms, we previously cloned ApRab7, a Rab7 homologue of the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, and demonstrated its selective exclusion from phagosomes containing live zooxanthellae, but not from those containing either dead or photosynthesis-impaired algae. In this study, Rab5 was characterized, due to its key role in endocytosis and phagocytosis acting upstream of Rab7. The Aiptasia Rab5 homologue (ApRab5) is 79.5% identical to human Rab5C and contains all Rab-specific signature motifs. Subcellular fractionation study showed that ApRab5 is mainly cytosolic. EGFP reporter and phagocytosis studies indicated that membrane-associated ApRab5 is present in early endocytic and phagocytic compartments, and is able to promote their fusion. Significantly, immunofluorescence study showed that the majority of phagosomes containing either resident or newly internalized live zooxanthellae were labeled with ApRab5, while those containing either heat-killed or photosynthesis-impaired algae were mostly negative for ApRab5 staining whereas the opposite was observed for ApRab7. We propose that active phagosomal retention of ApRab5 is part of the mechanisms employed by live zooxanthellae to: (1) persist inside their host cells and (2) exclude ApRab7 from their phagosomes, thereby, establishing and/or maintaining an endosymbiotic relationship with their cnidarian hosts.

  2. Cold-fusion television show angers APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Cold fusion has been controversial since its inception on 23 March 1989, when chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah in the US announced that they had achieved a sustained nuclear-fusion reaction at room temperature. Two decades on, a US television documentary about the field has stirred up fresh debate after it linked the American Physical Society (APS) to an evaluation of some cold-fusion results by Robert Duncan, a physicist and vice chancellor of the University of Missouri.

  3. Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines: Magnetic field determinations from Stokes I and V spectra⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Some Ap stars that have a strong enough magnetic field and a sufficiently low v sini show spectral lines resolved into their magnetically split components. Aims: We present the results of a systematic study of the magnetic fields and other properties of those stars. Methods: This study is based on 271 new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus ⟨ B ⟩ of 43 stars, 231 determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ and of the crossover ⟨ Xz ⟩ of 34 stars, and 229 determinations of the mean quadratic magnetic field ⟨ Bq ⟩ of 33 stars. Those data were used to derive new values or meaningful lower limits of the rotation periods Prot of 21 stars. Variation curves of the mean field modulus were characterised for 25 stars, the variations of the longitudinal field were characterised for 16 stars, and the variations of the crossover and of the quadratic field were characterised for 8 stars. Our data are complemented by magnetic measurements from the literature for 41 additional stars with magnetically resolved lines. Phase coverage is sufficient to define the curve of variation of ⟨ B ⟩ for 2 of these stars. Published data were also used to characterise the ⟨ Bz ⟩ curves of variation for 10 more stars. Furthermore, we present 1297 radial velocity measurements of the 43 Ap stars in our sample that have magnetically resolved lines. Nine of these stars are spectroscopic binaries for which new orbital elements were derived. Results: The existence of a cut-off at the low end of the distribution of the phase-averaged mean magnetic field moduli ⟨ B ⟩ av of the Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines, at about 2.8 kG, is confirmed. This reflects the probable existence of a gap in the distribution of the magnetic field strengths in slowly rotating Ap stars, below which there is a separate population of stars with fields weaker than 2 kG. In more than half of the stars with magnetically resolved lines that have a

  4. AP-8 trapped proton environment for solar maximum and solar minimum. [Computer accessible models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, D. M.; Vette, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Data sets from Ov-3 and Azur indicate a need for improvement in models of the stably trapped proton flux with energies between 0.1 and 400 MeV. Two computer accessible models are described: AP8MAX and AP8MIN. The models are presented in the form of nomographs, B-L plots, R-lambda plots, and equatorial radial profiles. Nomographs of the orbit-integrated fluxes are also discussed. The models are compared with each other, with the data, and with previous AP models. Requirements for future improvements include more complete data coverage and periodic comparisons with new data sets as they become available. The machine-sensible format in which the models are available are described.

  5. Proteomic identification of E6AP as a molecular target of tamoxifen in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lochab, Savita; Pal, Pooja; Kanaujiya, Jitendra K; Tripathi, Shashi B; Kapoor, Isha; Bhatt, Madan L B; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Behre, Gerhard; Trivedi, Arun K

    2012-05-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is most widely used selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for treatment of hormone-responsive breast cancer. Despite being regularly used in clinical therapy for breast cancer since 1971, the mechanism of Tam action remains largely unclear. In order to gain insights into Tam-mediated antibreast cancer actions, we applied 2DE and MS based proteomics approach to identify target proteins of Tam. We identified E6-associated protein, i.e. E6AP (UBE3A) among others to be regulated by Tam that otherwise is upregulated in breast tumors. We confirmed our 2DE finding by immunoblotting and further show that Tam leads to inhibition of E6AP expression presumably by promoting its autoubiquitination, which is coupled with nuclear export and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Furthermore, we show that Tam- and siE6AP-mediated inhibition of E6AP leads to enhanced G0-G1 growth arrest and apoptosis, which is also evident from significant upregulation of cytochrome-c, Bax, p21, and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our data suggest that, Tam-targeted E6AP inhibition is in fact required for Tam-mediated antibreast cancer actions. Thus, E6AP may be a therapeutic target in breast cancer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Protein phosphatase AP2C1 negatively regulates basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Boniecka, Justyna; Schweighofer, Alois; Simulis, Justinas; Kvederaviciute, Kotryna; Stumpe, Michael; Mauch, Felix; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Boutrot, Freddy; Zipfel, Cyril; Meskiene, Irute

    2017-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate plant immune responses to pathogenic bacteria. However, less is known about the cell autonomous negative regulatory mechanism controlling basal plant immunity. We report the biological role of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 as a negative regulator of plant basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae. AP2C2, a closely related MAPK phosphatase, also negatively controls plant resistance. Loss of AP2C1 leads to enhanced pathogen-induced MAPK activities, increased callose deposition in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000, and enhanced resistance to bacterial infection with Pto. We also reveal the impact of AP2C1 on the global transcriptional reprogramming of transcription factors during Pto infection. Importantly, ap2c1 plants show salicylic acid-independent transcriptional reprogramming of several defense genes and enhanced ethylene production in response to Pto. This study pinpoints the specificity of MAPK regulation by the different MAPK phosphatases AP2C1 and MKP1, which control the same MAPK substrates, nevertheless leading to different downstream events. We suggest that precise and specific control of defined MAPKs by MAPK phosphatases during plant challenge with pathogenic bacteria can strongly influence plant resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, M.; O'Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  8. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  9. Tank 241-AP-103 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples and Analytical Results for the Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-12-09

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-103 (AP-103) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-103 samples were performed as directed in ''Compatibility Grub Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999'' (Sasaki 1999a). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. No notification limits were exceeded.

  10. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Single d(ApG)/cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adduct-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Burnouf, D.; Fuchs, R.P.P.; Gauthier, C.

    1990-08-01

    The mutation spectrum induced by the widely used antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) showed that cisDDP(d(ApG)) adducts, although they account for only 25% of the lesions formed are {approx}5 times more mutagenic than the major GG adduct. The authors report the construction of vectors bearing a single cisDDP(d(ApG)) lesion and their use in mutagenesis experiments in Escherichia coli. The mutagenic processing of the lesion is found to depend strictly on induction of the SOS system of the bacterial host cells. In SOS-induced cells, mutation frequencies of 1-2% were detected. All these mutations are targeted to the 5{prime} base of the adduct.more » Single A {yields} T transversions are mainly observed (80%), whereas A {yields} G transitions account for 10% of the total mutations. Tandem base-pair substitutions involving the adenine residue and the thymine residue immediately 5{prime} to the adduct occur at a comparable frequency (10%). No selective loss of the strand bearing the platinum adduct was seen, suggesting that, in vivo, cisDDP(d(ApG)) adducts are not blocking lesions. The high mutation specificity of cisDDP-(d(ApG))-induced mutagenesis is discussed in relation to structural data.« less

  12. Lightweight CoAP-Based Bootstrapping Service for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael

    2016-03-11

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly important in several fields of industrial applications and personal applications, such as medical e-health, smart cities, etc. The research into protocols and security aspects related to this area is continuously advancing in making these networks more reliable and secure, taking into account these aspects by design. Bootstrapping is a procedure by which a user obtains key material and configuration information, among other parameters, to operate as an authenticated party in a security domain. Until now solutions have focused on re-using security protocols that were not developed for IoT constraints. For this reason, in this work we propose a design and implementation of a lightweight bootstrapping service for IoT networks that leverages one of the application protocols used in IoT : Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP