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Sample records for abastumani astrophysical observatory

  1. Participation of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory in Different Programs for Coordinated Investigation of Cyg X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumsiashvili, M. I.; Kochiashvili, N. T.

    2000-10-01

    Broad-band photometric observations of the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 were carried out in 1975-1998 at the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory in the framework of coordinated observations, at the varies observatories of the former Soviet Union. All data have been reduced to a homogeneous set.Comparison of the optical and X-ray data clearly shows the existence of several kinds of variability. Analysis of the prolonged photoelectric observations of V 1357 Cyg=Cyg X-1 confirmed long-period optical variation of this X-ray binary system with the period of 294 d revealed by Kemp et al. This periodicity is most strongly pronounced at the orbital period phase when the optical star is in front of the X-ray source. Variations of the mean level of Cyg X-1 and of the light curve form with the phase of the period 294 d agree well with the model of the precessing accretion disk which radiates in the optical range mainly by scattering and processing of the optical star radiation. The direction of the disc precession coincides with that of the orbital motion and it is hard to understand this fact in the models with the forced precession. The triple system model is less probable. There are also observations of this objects made in the Abastumani Observatory in 1982-1988 which are represented the Table and light curves. These observations have not discussed by coordinators. The observations taken in the course of the International campaign "The Optical Monitoring of the Unique Astrophysical Objects" were realized by the observatories located on the territories of Georgia, Russia, Uzbekistan and Ukraine in 1994-1998. They are united in a single set, taking into account the systemic differences between them. Number of usual observations is 2247 in 399 nights in U B V R bands. The observations were performed simultaneously in X-ray band in the energy range of 2-10 keV (ASM/RXTE), and 20-100 keV (BASTE/CGRO), and also with radio observations at the Mullard radio observatory. Our

  2. Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, a government research institute founded in 1972, is located close to the villa where Galileo spent the last 11 years of his life. Under the directorship of Giorgio Abetti (1921-53) it became the growth point of Italian astrophysics with emphasis on solar physics; a tradition continued by his successor Guglielmo Righini (1953-78). Since 1978 the activities ha...

  3. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; Barthelmy, S. D.; Coutu, S.; DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A. D.; Gao, Shan; Hashemi, B.; Homeier, A.; Marka, S.; Owen, B. J.; Taboada, I.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  4. Protection of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Carraminana, A. P.

    The Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory, with a 2m telescope, is one of only two professional observatories in Mexico. The observatory, run by the InstitutoNacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), is located in the north of Mexico, in Cananea, Sonora. Since 1995 the observatory has faced the potential threat of pollution by an open cast mine to be opened at 3kms from the observatory. In the absence of national or regional laws enforcing protection to astronomical sites in Mexico, considerable effort has been needed to guarantee the conditions of the site. We present the studies carried out to ensure the protection of the Guillermo Haro Observatory from pollution due to dust, light and vibrations.

  5. High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three NASA orbital observatories. HEAO-1, launched in August 1977, successfully completed the most accurate all-sky survey of x-ray sources up to that time. Discovered the `Cygnus Superbubble' created by a series of supernovae. HEAO-2 (later known as EINSTEIN), launched in 1978, was the first true x-ray astronomy satellite. HEAO-3, launched in September 1979, carried a gamma ray spectro...

  6. Okayama astrophysical observatory wide field camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Okita, Kiichi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Koyano, Hisashi; Tsutsui, Hironori; Toda, Hiroyuki; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Ohta, Kouji; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2014-08-01

    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Wide Field Camera: OAOWFC is a near-infrared (0.9-2.5 μm) survey telescope, whose aperture is 0.91m. It works at Y, J, H, and Ks bands. The optics are consisted of forward Cassegrain and quasi Schmidt which yield the image circle of Φ 52 mm or Φ 1.3 deg at the focal plane. The overall F-ratio is F/2.51 which is one of the fastest among near infrared imagers in the world. A HAWAII-1 detector array placed at the focal plane cuts the central 0.48 deg. x 0.48 deg. with a pixel scale of 1.67 arcsec/pix. It will be used to survey the Galactic plane for variability and search for transients such as Gamma-ray burst afterglows optical counterpart of gravitational wave sources.

  7. A mountain observatory and the Brazilian Astrophysics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Cristina de Amorim; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian astrophysics project is intimately linked to a scientific institution that came into existence in the 1980s: the National Astrophysics Laboratory. Responsible for enabling the development of Brazilian research in this area, its history dates back to a dream to build an observatory on a mountaintop conceived at an institution formed in the nineteenth century, the Imperial Observatory of Rio de Janeiro, later the National Observatory. It is a story of national and international scientific cooperation, especially in the second half of the twentieth century. This paper tells the story of this dream and how it was transformed into reality in 1980s with the installation of what was then called the Brazilian Astrophysics Observatory, heralding a new era for astronomical research in Brazil.

  8. Long-lived space observatories for astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Becklin, Eric E.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Elliot, James L.; Gallagher, John S.; Helfand, David J.; Jenkins, Edward F.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's plan to build and launch a fleet of long-lived space observatories that include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Observatory (AXAF), and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are discussed. These facilities are expected to have a profound impact on the sciences of astronomy and astrophysics. The long-lived observatories will provide new insights about astronomical and astrophysical problems that range from the presence of planets orbiting nearby stars to the large-scale distribution and evolution of matter in the universe. An important concern to NASA and the scientific community is the operation and maintenance cost of the four observatories described above. The HST cost about $1.3 billion (1984 dollars) to build and is estimated to require $160 million (1986 dollars) a year to operate and maintain. If HST is operated for 20 years, the accumulated costs will be considerably more than those required for its construction. Therefore, it is essential to plan carefully for observatory operations and maintenance before a long-lived facility is constructed. The primary goal of this report is to help NASA develop guidelines for the operations and management of these future observatories so as to achieve the best possible scientific results for the resources available. Eight recommendations are given.

  9. Technology Development for a Neutrino AstrophysicalObservatory

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-02-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  10. Technology development for a neutrino astrophysical observatory. Letter of intent

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  11. The great observatories for space astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Neal, V.

    1986-01-01

    Motivated by the ancient urge to observe, measure, compute, and understand the nature of the Universe, the available advanced technology is used to place entire observatories into space for investigations across the spectrum. Stellar evolution, development and nature of the Universe, planetary exploration, technology, NASA's role, and careers in asronomy are displayed.

  12. Solar observations carried out at the INAF - Catania Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.

    2011-10-01

    Solar observations at the INAF - Catania Astrophysical Observatory are carried out by means of an equatorial spar, which includes: a Cook refractor, used to make daily drawings of sunspot groups from visual observations; a 150-mm refractor with an Hα Lyot filter for chromospheric observations; a 150-mm refractor feeding an Hα Halle filter for limb observations of the chromosphere. The photospheric and chromospheric data are daily distributed to several international Solar Data Centers. Recently, a program of Flare Warning has been implemented, with the aim of determining the probability that an active region yields a flare on the basis of its characteristics deduced from optical observations. Some science results obtained by means of solar data acquired at the INAF - Catania Astrophysical Observatory, as well as by space-instruments data, are briefly described.

  13. Bibliometric Investigations at the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, Ekaterina

    Bibliometric data for the Special Astrophysical Observatory are presented. Statistics and analysis of issues being brought out at SAO are given. Statistical data on publication of SAO research papers from the day of foundation of the observatory through 2000 are presented. The numbers of papers that appeared in domestic and foreign scientific issues are compared. An attempt is made to analyze the correlation of the number of scientific papers with the research of the observatory and also with the economical situation in Russia. It can be seen that the steady rise in publications observed from 1968 to 1991 gave way to an abrupt fall during the first (1991--1995) and second (1998) crises in our country.

  14. "Route of astronomical observatories'' project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. A well-known example for a thematic programme is the Struve arc, already recognized as World Heritage.I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories or the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics (La Plata, Hamburg, Nice, etc.), visible in the architecture, the choice of instruments, and the arrangement of the observatory buildings in an astronomy park. This corresponds to the main categories according to which the ``outstanding universal value'' (UNESCO criteria ii, iv and vi) of the observatories have been evaluated: historic, scientific, and aesthetic. This proposal is based on the criteria of a comparability of the observatories in terms of the urbanistic complex and the architecture, the scientific orientation, equipment of instruments, authenticity and integrity of the preserved state, as well as in terms of historic scientific relations and scientific contributions.Apart from these serial transnational applications one can also choose other groups like baroque or neo-classical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments and made by the same famous firm. I will also discuss why the implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national Tentative Lists

  15. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Vast Databanks at the Astronomers' Fingertips Summary A new European initiative called the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) is being launched to provide astronomers with a breathtaking potential for new discoveries. It will enable them to seamlessly combine the data from both ground- and space-based telescopes which are making observations of the Universe across the whole range of wavelengths - from high-energy gamma rays through the ultraviolet and visible to the infrared and radio. The aim of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) project, which started on 15 November 2001, is to allow astronomers instant access to the vast databanks now being built up by the world's observatories and which are forming what is, in effect, a "digital sky" . Using the AVO, astronomers will, for example, be able to retrieve the elusive traces of the passage of an asteroid as it passes near the Earth and so enable them to predict its future path and perhaps warn of a possible impact. When a giant star comes to the end of its life in a cataclysmic explosion called a supernova, they will be able to access the digital sky and pinpoint the star shortly before it exploded so adding invaluable data to the study of the evolution of stars. Background information on the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory is available in the Appendix. PR Photo 34a/01 : The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory - an artist's impression. The rapidly accumulating database ESO PR Photo 34a/01 ESO PR Photo 34a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 90k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 656k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2582 pix - 4.3M] ESO PR Photo 34a/01 shows an artist's impression of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory . Modern observatories observe the sky continuously and data accumulates remorselessly in the digital archives. The growth rate is impressive and many hundreds of terabytes of data - corresponding to many thousands of billions of pixels - are already available to scientists. The real sky is being

  16. The Dominion Astrophysical Observatory Spectroscopic Plate and Science Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlender, D.; Griffin, E.

    2012-09-01

    We briefly describe two archiving efforts being undertaken at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre to ensure that more than 90 years of spectroscopic data from the two telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) are safely preserved and made readily available to archival researchers around the world in a standard digital form. The DAO Spectroscopic Plate Archive project involves the digitization and conversion to FITS format of more than 100,000 spectroscopic plates obtained with the DAO 1.8 m Plaskett and 1.2 m telescopes since 1918 and 1962 respectively. In parallel, the DAO Science Archive has been established to automatically store newly acquired CCD FITS files and their associated metadata and make these available to PIs within a few minutes of acquisition as well as any archive users after a one-year proprietary period.

  17. The Educational Mission of the PSU/Greenbush Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, D. M.

    1996-09-01

    In a cooperative agreement between Pittsburg State University (PSU) and the Southeast Education Service Center (ESC) at Greenbush, KS, the PSU/Greenbush Astrophysical Observatory has been constructed. The main instrument is a 61 cm f/15 Cassegrainian telescope. Currently in house are a Boller and Chivens spectrograph, a custom-built spectrophotometer, and a single-channel photoelectric photometer. The spectrograph has been modified for use with a CCD detector. The observatory's construction was funded by a local telephone cooperative and thirty-four local school districts. Programs for elementary and secondary students and teachers have been initiated; some of these having been funded by the Kansas Board of Education through the Goals 2000 program. The ESC has spent the last several years interconnecting the schools it serves for interactive distant learning (IDL) capability. The observatory will be connected to this network and the telescope will have multiple live video feeds over fiber optic cable. In addition, the telescope is completely remotely controlled with either direct interaction with a computer via mouse and keyboard or through user-independent voice recognition software. Students in classrooms will be able to perform observing projects remotely over their IDL hookup, live two-way video/audio interaction with observatory personnel. Moreover, on-site use by groups of students, teachers, and members of the general public will be encouraged.

  18. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Vast Databanks at the Astronomers' Fingertips Summary A new European initiative called the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) is being launched to provide astronomers with a breathtaking potential for new discoveries. It will enable them to seamlessly combine the data from both ground- and space-based telescopes which are making observations of the Universe across the whole range of wavelengths - from high-energy gamma rays through the ultraviolet and visible to the infrared and radio. The aim of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) project, which started on 15 November 2001, is to allow astronomers instant access to the vast databanks now being built up by the world's observatories and which are forming what is, in effect, a "digital sky" . Using the AVO, astronomers will, for example, be able to retrieve the elusive traces of the passage of an asteroid as it passes near the Earth and so enable them to predict its future path and perhaps warn of a possible impact. When a giant star comes to the end of its life in a cataclysmic explosion called a supernova, they will be able to access the digital sky and pinpoint the star shortly before it exploded so adding invaluable data to the study of the evolution of stars. Background information on the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory is available in the Appendix. PR Photo 34a/01 : The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory - an artist's impression. The rapidly accumulating database ESO PR Photo 34a/01 ESO PR Photo 34a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 90k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 656k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2582 pix - 4.3M] ESO PR Photo 34a/01 shows an artist's impression of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory . Modern observatories observe the sky continuously and data accumulates remorselessly in the digital archives. The growth rate is impressive and many hundreds of terabytes of data - corresponding to many thousands of billions of pixels - are already available to scientists. The real sky is being

  19. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    N° 73-2001 - Paris, 5 December 2001 The aim of AVO is to give astronomers instant access to the vast databanks now being built up by the world's observatories and forming what is in effect a "digital sky". Using AVO astronomers will be able, for example, to retrieve the elusive traces of the passage of an asteroid as it passes the Earth and so predict its future path and perhaps warn of a possible impact. When a giant star comes to the end of its life in a cataclysmic explosion called a supernova, they will be able to access the digital sky and pinpoint the star shortly before it exploded, adding invaluable data to the study of the evolution of stars. Modern observatories observe the sky continuously and data accumulates remorselessly in the digital archives. The growth rate is impressive and many hundreds of terabytes of data -corresponding to many thousands of billions of pixels - are already available to scientists. The real sky is being digitally reconstructed in the databanks. The volume and complexity of data and information available to astronomers are overwhelming. Hence the problem of how astronomers can possibly manage, distribute and analyse this great wealth of data. The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory will enable them to meet the challenge and "put the Universe online". AVO is a three-year project, funded by the European Commission under its Research and Technological Development (RTD) scheme, to design and implement a virtual observatory for the European astronomical community. The Commission has awarded a contract valued at EUR 4m for the project, starting on 15 November. AVO will provide software tools to enable astronomers to access the multi-wavelength data archives over the Internet and so give them the capability to resolve fundamental questions about the Universe by probing the digital sky. Equivalent searches of the "real" sky would, in comparison, both be prohibitively costly and take far too long. Towards a Global Virtual Observatory The

  20. Laser Guide Star Based Astrophysics at Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C; Gavel, D.; Friedman, H.; Olivier, S.; Macintosh, B.; Brase, J.; Avicola, K.; Gibbard, S.; An, J.

    2000-03-10

    The resolution of ground-based telescopes is typically limited to {approx}1 second of arc because of the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) technology senses and corrects for the optical distortions due to turbulence hundreds of times per second using high-speed sensors, computers, deformable mirror, and laser technology. The goal of this project is to make AO systems widely useful astronomical tools providing resolutions up to an order of magnitude better than current, ground-based telescopes. Astronomers at the University of California Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton now routinely use the LLNL developed AO system for high resolution imaging of astrophysical objects. We report here on the instrument development progress and on the science observations made with this system during this 3-year ERI project.

  1. The Dominion Astrophysical Observatory Magnetic Field Survey (DMFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlender, David A.; Monin, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present a few results from the first three years of an ongoing survey of globally-ordered magnetic fields in relatively faint (down to V ~ 9) upper main sequence peculiar stars that we are conducting on the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) Plaskett telescope. The DMFS uses the inexpensive DAO polarimeter module, dimaPol, mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 1.8 m telescope to detect new magnetic stars and determine rotation periods and longitudinal magnetic field curves using medium-resolution (R ~ 10,000) circular spectropolarimetry of both the Hβ line and metal lines in an approximately 280 Å wide wavelength region centered on Hβ. By concentrating on the mid-B to A-type peculiar stars, the DMFS provides an extension to the `Magnetism in Massive Stars' (MIMES) Large Program which concentrated on similar field detections in more massive stars.

  2. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas where laboratory study is required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front, chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can he properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas for laboratory study required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can be properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  4. The Digitation of the Astronomical Plates of Catania Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Catalano, S.; Cigna, M.; Greco, V., Mangano, A.; Marilli, E.; Blanco, C.

    2006-07-01

    To make easily available the great amount of highly valuable information stored in the photographic archives of many Italian Observatories and of the Specola Vaticana, a large-scale National Project to digitize the plates was financially supported by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR) (Barbieri et al. 2003, 2004). The contribution of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory and of the Physics and Astronomy Department of Catania University to the Project is to digitize the image plates of the "Carte du Ciel" and of the Astrographic Catalogue obtained from 1896 to 1907. Moreover plates of the 1910 passage of Halley's comet and other plates obtained during the XX Century (Massimino et al. 2004) have been digitized. A set of identical systems, composed of a commercial flat-bed-retro-illuminated scanner, a dedicated personal computer and an acquisition software, has been installed in the Institutes involved in the Project. The main characteristics of Astroplates, a software program developed in Catania, that uses the IDL libraries to manage the astronomical images acquired with the scanner from photographic plates are presented.

  5. The Observatory for Multi-Epoch Gravitational Lens Astrophysics (OMEGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Bolton, Adam J.; Booth, Jeffrey T.; Bullock, James S.; Cheng, Edward; Coe, Dan; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Heneghan, Cate; Keeton, Charles R.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Lawrence, Charles R.; Marshall, Philip J.; Metcalf, R. Benton; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Nikzad, Shouleh; Peterson, Bradley M.; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Dark matter in a universe dominated by a cosmological constant seeds the formation of structure and is the scaffolding for galaxy formation. The nature of dark matter remains one of the fundamental unsolved problems in astrophysics and physics even though it represents 85% of the mass in the universe, and nearly one quarter of its total mass-energy budget. The mass function of dark matter "substructure" on sub-galactic scales may be enormously sensitive to the mass and properties of the dark matter particle. On astrophysical scales, especially at cosmological distances, dark matter substructure may only be detected through its gravitational influence on light from distant varying sources. Specifically, these are largely active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are accreting super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies, some of the most extreme objects ever found. With enough measurements of the flux from AGN at different wavelengths, and their variability over time, the detailed structure around AGN, and even the mass of the super-massive black hole can be measured. The Observatory for Multi-Epoch Gravitational Lens Astrophysics (OMEGA) is a mission concept for a 1.5-m near-UV through near-IR space observatory that will be dedicated to frequent imaging and spectroscopic monitoring of ~100 multiply-imaged active galactic nuclei over the whole sky. Using wavelength-tailored dichroics with extremely high transmittance, efficient imaging in six channels will be done simultaneously during each visit to each target. The separate spectroscopic mode, engaged through a flip-in mirror, uses an image slicer spectrograph. After a period of many visits to all targets, the resulting multidimensional movies can then be analyzed to a) measure the mass function of dark matter substructure; b) measure precise masses of the accreting black holes as well as the structure of their accretion disks and their environments over several decades of physical scale; and c) measure a

  6. NASA Extends Chandra X-ray Observatory Contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    NASA NASA has extended its contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. to August 2003 to provide science and operational support for the Chandra X- ray Observatory, one of the world's most powerful tools to better understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The contract is an 11-month period of performance extension to the Chandra X-ray Center contract, with an estimated value of 50.75 million. Total contract value is now 298.2 million. The contract extension resulted from the delay of the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory from August 1998 to July 1999. The revised period of performance will continue the contract through Aug. 31, 2003, which is 48 months beyond operational checkout of the observatory. The contract type is cost reimbursement with no fee. The contract covers mission operations and data analysis, which includes both the observatory operations and the science data processing and general observer (astronomer) support. The observatory operations tasks include monitoring the health and status of the observatory and developing and distributing by satellite the observation sequences during Chandra's communication coverage periods. The science data processing tasks include the competitive selection, planning, and coordination of science observations with the general observers and the processing and delivery of the resulting scientific data. Each year, there are on the order of 200 to 250 observing proposals selected out of about 800 submitted, with a total amount of observing time about 20 million seconds. X-ray astronomy can only be performed from space because Earth's atmosphere blocks X-rays from reaching the surface. The Chandra Observatory travels one-third of the way to the Moon during its orbit around the Earth every 64 hours. At its highest point, Chandra's highly elliptical, or egg-shaped, orbit is 200 times higher than that of its visible-light- gathering sister, the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA

  7. The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): A High Resolution Spectroscopic Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, M P; Cruddace, R G; Wood, K S; Yentis, D J; Gursky, H; Barbee, T W; Goldstein, W H; Kordas, J F; Fritz, G G; Hunter, W R; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Culhane, J L; Lapington, J S

    2002-07-18

    EUVE and the ROSAT WFC have left a tremendous legacy in astrophysics at EUV wavelengths. More recently, Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated at X-ray wavelengths the power of high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy, which allows the identification of weak emission lines, the measurement of Doppler shifts and line profiles, and the detection of narrow absorption features. This leads to a complete understanding of the density, temperature, abundance, magnetic, and dynamic structure of astrophysical plasmas. However, the termination of the EUVE mission has left a gaping hole in spectral coverage at crucial EUV wavelengths ({approx}100-300 {angstrom}), where hot (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} K) plasmas radiate most strongly and produce critical spectral diagnostics. CHIPS will fill this hole only partially as it is optimized for diffuse emission and has only moderate resolution (R {approx} 150). For discrete sources, we have successfully flown a follow-on instrument to the EUVE spectrometer (A{sub eff} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 400), the high-resolution spectrometer J-PEX(A{sub eff} {approx} 3 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 3000). Here we build on the J-PEX prototype and present a strawman design for an orbiting spectroscopic observatory, APEX, a SMEX-class instrument containing a suite of 8 spectrometers that together achieve both high effective area (A{sub eff} > 20 cm{sup 2}) and high spectral resolution (R {approx} 10,000) over the range 100-300 {angstrom}. We also discuss alternate configurations for shorter and longer wavelengths.

  8. OAOWFC: Okayama Astrophysical Observatory NIR Wide-Field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Yanagisawa, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Okita, K.; Nagayama, S.; Toda, H.; Ohta, K.; Kawai, N.

    2008-05-01

    In order to detect and trace the early phase of near-infrared (NIR) afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) quickly, we are now developing the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Wide-Field Camera, OAOWFC. The aperture size of OAOWFC is 91 cm. The focal plane is covered by a 2K×2K HAWAII2-RG detector with a pixel size of 18.5 μm×18.5 μm, resulting 0.95×0.95 deg2 field of view with an image scale of 1.6 arcsec/pixel. OAOWFC is designed to be a fully robotic instrument. This camera forms a part of Multicolor Imaging Telescopes for Survey and Monstrous Explosions (MITSuME), a multi telescope system dedicated to optical-NIR follow-up observations of GRB afterglows. Very wide field of view of OAOWFC enables us to catch GRB afterglows under less accurate localization sometimes given by the first alert. OAOWFC has an ability to detect bright GRB afterglow located at z = 10 easily, and it might be detectable at z = 18 if the conditions are met.

  9. OAOWFC: Okayama Astrophysical Observatory NIR Wide-Field Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, M.; Yanagisawa, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Okita, K.; Nagayama, S.; Toda, H.; Ohta, K.; Kawai, N.

    2008-05-22

    In order to detect and trace the early phase of near-infrared (NIR) afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) quickly, we are now developing the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Wide-Field Camera, OAOWFC. The aperture size of OAOWFC is 91 cm. The focal plane is covered by a 2Kx2K HAWAII2-RG detector with a pixel size of 18.5 {mu}mx18.5 {mu}m, resulting 0.95x0.95 deg{sup 2} field of view with an image scale of 1.6 arcsec/pixel. OAOWFC is designed to be a fully robotic instrument. This camera forms a part of Multicolor Imaging Telescopes for Survey and Monstrous Explosions (MITSuME), a multi telescope system dedicated to optical-NIR follow-up observations of GRB afterglows. Very wide field of view of OAOWFC enables us to catch GRB afterglows under less accurate localization sometimes given by the first alert. OAOWFC has an ability to detect bright GRB afterglow located at z = 10 easily, and it might be detectable at z = 18 if the conditions are met.

  10. Chromospheric telescope of Baikal Astrophysical Observatory. New light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomorovsky, Valeriy; Kushtal, Galina; Lopteva, Lyubov; Proshin, Vladimir; Trifonov, Viktor; Chuprakov, Sergey; Khimich, Valeriy

    2016-06-01

    A chromospheric telescope is an important instrument for synoptic observations and solar research. After several decades of observations with the chromospheric telescope at Baikal Astrophysical Observatory, a need arose to improve the characteristics of this telescope and filter. A new reimaging lens to produce full-disk solar images 18 mm in diameter at the CCD camera Hamamatsu C-124 with a detector 36×24 mm (4000×2672 pixels) was designed and manufactured to replace the out-of-operation 50×50 mm Princeton Instruments camera. A contrast interference blocking filter and a new Iceland spar and quartz crystal plates instead of damaged ones were made and installed in the Hα birefringent filter (BF), manufactured by Bernhard Halle Nachfl. The optical immersion in the filter was changed. All telescope optics was cleaned and adjusted. We describe for the first time the design features and their related BF passband tuning. The wavefront interferograms of optical elements and telescope as a whole show that the wavefront distortion of the optical path is within 0.25 λ. The BF and pre-filter spectral parameters provide high-contrast monochromatic images. Besides, we give examples of solar chromospheric images in the Hα line core and wing.

  11. Chromospheric telescope of Baikal Astrophysical Observatory. New light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomorovsky, Valeriy; Kushtal, Galina; Lopteva, Lyubov; Proshin, Vladimir; Trifonov, Viktor; Chuprakov, Sergey; Khimich, Valeriy

    2016-06-01

    A chromospheric telescope is an important instrument for synoptic observations and solar research. After several decades of observations with the chromospheric telescope at Baikal Astrophysical Observatory, a need arose to improve the characteristics of this telescope and filter. A new reimaging lens to produce full-disk solar images 18 mm in diameter at the CCD camera Hamamatsu C-124 with a detector 36×24 mm (4000×2672 pixels) was designed and manufactured to replace the out-of-operation 50×50 mm Princeton Instruments camera. A contrast interference blocking filter and a new Iceland spar and quartz crystal plates instead of damaged ones were made and installed in the Hα birefringent filter (BF), manufactured by Bernhard Halle Nachfl. The optical immersion in the filter was changed. All telescope optics was cleaned and adjusted. We describe for the first time the design features and their related BF passband tuning. The wavefront interferograms of optical elements and telescope as a whole show that the wavefront distortion of the optical path is within 0.25 λ. The BF and pre-filter spectral parameters provide high-contrast monochromatic images. Besides, we give examples of solar chromospheric images in the H&apha; line core and wing.

  12. The solar vector magnetograph of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makita, M.; Hamana, S.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The vector magnetograph of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory is fed to the 65 cm solar coude telescope with a 10 m Littrow spectrograph. The polarimeter put at the telescope focus analyzes the incident polarization. Photomultipliers (PMT) at the exit of the spectrograph pick up the modulated light signals and send them to the electronic controller. The controller analyzes frequency and phase of the signal. The analyzer of the polarimeter is a combination of a single wave plate rotating at 40 Hz and a Wallaston prism. Incident linear and circular polarizations are modified at four times and twice the rotation frequency, respectively. Two compensators minimize the instrumental polarization, mainly caused by the two tilt mirrors in the optical path of the telescope. The four photomultipliers placed on the wings of the FeI 5250A line give maps of intensity, longitudinal field and transverse field. The main outputs, maps of intensity, and net linear and circular polarizations in the neighboring continuum are obtained by the other two monitor PMTs.

  13. The Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory: Cloud-based Mock Galaxy Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren J.; Tonini, Chiara; Hodkinson, Luke; Hassan, Amr H.; Garel, Thibault; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Hegarty, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    We introduce the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO), an online virtual laboratory that houses mock observations of galaxy survey data. Such mocks have become an integral part of the modern analysis pipeline. However, building them requires expert knowledge of galaxy modeling and simulation techniques, significant investment in software development, and access to high performance computing. These requirements make it difficult for a small research team or individual to quickly build a mock catalog suited to their needs. To address this TAO offers access to multiple cosmological simulations and semi-analytic galaxy formation models from an intuitive and clean web interface. Results can be funnelled through science modules and sent to a dedicated supercomputer for further processing and manipulation. These modules include the ability to (1) construct custom observer light cones from the simulation data cubes; (2) generate the stellar emission from star formation histories, apply dust extinction, and compute absolute and/or apparent magnitudes; and (3) produce mock images of the sky. All of TAO’s features can be accessed without any programming requirements. The modular nature of TAO opens it up for further expansion in the future.

  14. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  15. Cultural Heritage of Observatories and Instruments - From Classical Astronomy to Modern Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Until the middle of the 19th century positioal astronomy with meridian circles played the dominant role. Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg, was the leading institution for this kind of research. The design of this observatory was a model for the construction of observatories in the 19th century. In addition, in Hamburg Observatory and in some other observatories near the coast, time keeping and teaching of navigation were important tasks for astronomers. Around 1860 astronomy underwent a revolution. Astronomers began to investigate the properties of celestial bodies with physical and chemical methods. In the context of “classical astronomy”, only the direction of star light was studied. In the 1860s quantity and quality of radiation were studied for the first time. This was the beginning of modern “astrophysics”, a notion coined in 1865 by the Leipzig astronomer Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882). It is remarkable that many amateurs started this new astrophysics in private observatories but not in the established observatories like Greenwich, Paris or Pulkovo. In Germany this development started in Bothkamp Observatory near Kiel, with Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), strongly influenced by Zöllner. An important enterprise was the foundation of the Astrophysical Observatory in Potsdam, near Berlin, in 1874 as the first observatory in the world dedicated to astrophysics - a foundation that inspired others. Important innovations and discoveries were made in Potsdam. The new field of astrophysics caused, and was caused by, new instrumentation: spectrographs, instruments for astrophotography, photometers and solar physics instruments. In particular, the glass mirror reflecting telescope was recognised as a more important instrument than a large refractor; for the new observatory in Hamburg-Bergedorf a 1-m reflector, the fourth largest in the world, made by Zeiss of Jena, was acquired in 1911. Another change was made in the architecture, the idea of a park

  16. High-Energy Astrophysics. American and Soviet Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G. (Editor); Clark, George W. (Editor); Sunyaev, Rashid A. (Editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (Editor); Abramson, David M. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the American-Soviet high energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989, is presented. Topics discussed at the workshop include the inflationary universe; the large scale structure of the universe, the diffuse x-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs); infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); Supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the x-ray flux of low mass X-ray binaries; and gamma ray bursts.

  17. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. Astrophysics science operations in the Great Observatories era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegler, Guenter R.

    1991-01-01

    Plans for Astrophysics science operations during the decade of the nineties are described from the point of view of a scientist who wishes to make a space-borne astronomical observation or to use archival astronomical data. 'Science Operations' include the following: proposal preparation, observation planning and execution, data collection, data processing and analysis, and dissemination of results. For each of these areas of science operations, we derive technology requirements for the next ten to twenty years. The scientist will be able to use a variety of services and infrastructure, including the 'Astrophysics Data System.' The current status and plans for these science operations services are described.

  19. BRAVO (Brazilian Astrophysical Virtual Observatory): data mining development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carvalho, R. R.; Capelato, H. V.; Velho, H. C.

    2007-08-01

    The primary goal of the BRAVO project is to generate investment in information technology, with particular emphasis on datamining and statistical analysis. From a scientific standpoint, the participants assembled to date are engaged in several scientific projects in various fields of cosmology, astrophysics, and data analysis, with significant contributions from international partners. These scientists conduct research on clusters of galaxies, small groups of galaxies, elliptical galaxies, population synthesis, N-body simulations, and a variety of studies in stellar astrophysics. One of the main aspects of this project is the incorporation of these disparate areas of astrophysical research within the context of the coherent development of database technology.Observational cosmology is one of the branches of science experiencing the largest growth in the past few decades. large photometric and spectroscopic surveys have been carried out in both hemispheres. As a result, an extraordinary amount of data in all portions of the electromagnetic spectrum exists, but without standard techniques for storage and distribution. This project will utilize several specific astronomical databases, created to store data generated by several instruments (including SOAR, Gemini, BDA, etc), uniting them within a common framework and with standard interfaces. We are inviting members of the entire Brazilian astronomical community to partake in this effort. This will certainly impact both education and outreach efforts, as well as the future development of astrophysical research. Finally, this project will provide a constant investment in human resources. First, it will do so by stimulating ongoing short technical visits to Johns Hopkins University and Caltech. These will allow us to bring software technology and expertise in datamining back to Brazil. Second, we will organize the Summer School on Software Technology in Astrophysics, which will be designed to ensure that the Brazilian

  20. The annual and semi-annual variations in the distributions of cloudless days and nights in Abastumani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todua, Maya; Didebulidze, Goderdzi G.; Gudadze, Nikoloz

    2015-04-01

    To reveal the influence of cosmic factors on cloud covering, we study the inter-annual distributions of cloudless days (CD) and cloudless nights (CN) in Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (AAO - 41.75N, 42.82E), using the continuous data of CD and CN, covering three 11-year solar cycles. It was revealed that the greatest number of CD was in August, while the greatest number of CN was in September. This picture changed when geomagnetically disturbed conditions had been considered. For weak and moderate geomagnetic disturbances, the greatest number of CD moves to September, where the frequency of magnetically disturbed day-nights is the highest during a year. On the other hand, at geomagnetically quiet conditions the maximum number of CN appears in August. These observed properties in the inter-annual distributions of cloud cover may indicate the impact of cosmic factors on cloud formation process. It is demonstrated for the considered dataset that the inter-annual variations of relative number of CD are well described by the sum of harmonic functions with annual and semi-annual periods. By this description the maximum of the annual relative number of CD is in Augusts and the amplitude of its variations does not depend on the planetary geomagnetic Ap index. For the semi-annual variations of these CD the maxima are in March and April, the amplitude depending on Ap index values, which also may indicate possible impact of cosmic factors on cloud cover. These maxima in March and April are significant at Ap≥8 and increase at Ap≥12 and Ap≥20. Cloud covering processes differ during day-time and night-time which can influence the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. This influence is different in various seasons resulting in different variability of day- and night-time cloud covering which can affect the regional climate.

  1. The Astrophysics Visualization Archive: Toward a Virtual Observatory Node at AMNH/Hayden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Liu, C. T.; Tyson, N. D.

    2001-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History and the Hayden Planetarium are developing a node for the Virtual Observatory (http://www.haydenplanetarium.org/hp/vo/). Consistent with our institutional mission, part of this node includes a component dedicated to education and public outreach. As a first step, we have developed the Astrophysics Visualization Archive (AVA), a searchable clearinghouse of scientific visualizations, particularly focusing on computational astrophysics. This archive is an educational tool that brings research astronomy down to a level appropriate for use in the classroom. In addition, it will also serve as a point of communication for the computational astrophysics community to present and follow recent research results produced throughout the community. In the future, we will build our virtual observatory node to include features such as data distribution as well as real-time, interactive data visualization. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation via the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  2. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSpeybroeck, L.; Smith, Carl M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This period included many scientific observations made with the Chandra Observatory. The results, as is well known, are spectacular. Fortunately, the HRMA performance continues to be essentially identical to that predicted from ground calibration data. The Telescope Scientist Team has improved the mirror model to provide a more accurate description to the Chandra observers and enable them to reduce the systematic errors and uncertainties in their data reduction. There also has been progress in the scientific program. At this time 47 distant clusters of galaxies have been observed. We are performing a systematic analysis of this rather large data set for the purpose of determining absolute distances utilizing the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect.

  3. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSpeybroeck, L.; Smith, Carl M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This period included many scientific observations made with the Chandra Observatory. The results, as is well known, are spectacular. Fortunately, the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) performance continues to be essentially identical to that predicted from ground calibration data. The Telescope Scientist Team has improved the mirror model to provide a more accurate description to the Chandra observers and enable them to reduce the systematic errors and uncertainties in their data reduction. We also have made considerable progress in improving the scattering model. There also has been progress in the scientific program. At this time 58 distant clusters of galaxies have been observed. We are performing a systematic analysis of this rather large data set for the purpose of determining absolute distances utilizing the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. These observations also have been used to study the evolution of the cluster baryon mass function and the cosmological constraints which result from this evolution.

  4. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSpeybroeck, Leon

    1999-01-01

    The most important activity during this reporting period was the calibration of the AXAF High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and the analysis of the copious data which were obtained during that project. The calibration was highly successful, and will result in the AXAF being by far the best calibrated X-ray observatory ever flown, and more accurate results by all of its users. This period also included participation in the spacecraft alignment and assembly activities and final flight readiness reviews. The planning of the first year of Telescope Scientist AXAF observations also was accomplished. The Telescope Scientist team also served as a technical resource for various problems which were encountered during this period. Many of these contributions have been documented in memoranda sent to the project.

  5. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl M. (Technical Monitor); VanSpeybroeck, Leon; Tananbaum, Harvey D.

    2004-01-01

    In this period, the Chandra X-ray Observatory continued to perform exceptionally well, with many scientific observations and spectacular results. The HRMA performance continues to be essentially identical to that predicted from ground calibration data. The Telescope Scientist Team has improved the mirror model to provide a more accurate description to the Chandra observers, enabling them to reduce the systematic errors and uncertainties in their data reduction. There also has been good progress in the scientific program. Using the Telescope Scientist GTO time, we carried out an extensive Chandra program to observe distant clusters of galaxies. The goals of this program were to use clusters to derive cosmological constraints and to investigate the physics and evolution of clusters. A total of 71 clusters were observed with ACIS-I; the last observations were completed in December 2003.

  6. Astrophysics Motivation behind the Pierre Auger Southern Observatory Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-09-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration intends to extend the energy range of its southern observatory in Argentina for high quality data from 0.1 to 3 EeV. The extensions, described in accompanying papers, include three additional fluorescence telescopes with a more elevated field of view (HEAT) and a nested surface array with 750 and 433 m spacing respectively and additional muon detection capabilities (AMIGA). The enhancement of the detector will allow measurement of cosmic rays, using the same techniques, from below the second knee up to the highest energies observed. The evolution of the spectrum through the second knee and ankle, and corresponding predicted changes in composition, are crucial to the understanding of the end of Galactic confinement and the effects of propagation on the lower energy portion of the extragalactic flux. The latter is strongly related to the cosmological distribution of sources and to the composition of the injected spectrum. We discuss the science motivation behind these enhancements as well as the impact of combined HEAT and AMIGA information on the assessment of shower simulations and reconstruction techniques.

  7. Bothkamp - the first astrophysical observatory in Germany. (German Title: Bothkamp - erstes astrophysikalisches Observatorium in Deutschland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Lutz

    In Germany the field of astrophysics was first established in a private observatory, situated on the grounds of the Bothkamp estate in the eastern part of the province of Schleswig-Holstein. This observatory, founded by the chamberlain Gustav von Bülow in 1869/70 following a suggestion by the astronomer Zöllner, far exceeded the rank of a private observatory thanks to its purpose and design. The first astronomers to work there were H.C. Vogel and W.O. Lohse. The programme of work focused mainly on spectroscopic and photometric investigations. Despite the fact that these studies are of fundamental importance to astrophysics, they were at that time essentially virgin territory. The relatively new field of photography was also employed in this context. The Bothkamp refractor, with its aperture of 29.3 cm and a focal length of 4.9 m, was at that time the largest single telescope assembled in Germany. The astronomers working in this observatory until its closure in 1914 changed, as did fields of astronomy being studied.

  8. Characterization of the Astrophysical Neutrino Flux at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrmann, Lars; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    With the discovery of a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located at the geographical South Pole, has opened the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy. While evidence for extraterrestrial neutrinos has been found in multiple searches, it was not yet possible to identify their sources; they appear as an isotropic excess. Nevertheless, it is possible to constrain the properties of the sources by measuring the energy spectrum and the flavor composition of the flux. Here, we present the latest results from a global analysis, combining all available detection channels and energy ranges. We derive the currently most precise constraints on the energy spectrum and flavor composition of the astrophysical neutrino flux. In addition, we show projected constraints on these properties that can be obtained with additional data in the future.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy of Astrophysical Gas, Grains, and Ices with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (sofia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Becklin, E. E.

    2009-06-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be a premier facility for studying the physics and chemistry of the stellar evolution process for many decades. SOFIA spectroscopic science applications will be discussed, with special emphasis on investigations related to infrared spectroscopy of astrophysical gas, grains, and ices. Examples will be given of spectroscopic studies of the interstellar medium, protostars, obscured sources in molecular cloud cores, circumstellar disks around young stellar objects, remnants of nova and supernova explosions, and winds of evolved stellar systems.

  10. Polarization from Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sourses: The PRAXyS Small Explorer Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; The PRAXyS Team

    2016-04-01

    Polarization is a sensitive probe of geometry near compact objects, but remains largely unexplored in the X-ray band. Polarization is expected from cosmic X-ray sources, yielding insight into the geometry of black hole emission, and the origin and nature of X-ray emission in neutron stars and magnetars. Recent progress with detectors capable of imaging the track of a photoelectron generated by a detection of a cosmic X-ray have made sensitive X-ray polarization observatories possible within the constraints of a NASA Small Explorer mission. We report on the observational capabilities and the scientific goals of the "Polarization from Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources" (PRAXyS) Observatory. PRAXyS is a small explorer which has been selected by NASA for a phase A study.

  11. Searches for Point-like Sources of Astrophysical Neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feintzeig, Jacob

    Cosmic rays are accelerated to high energies in astrophysical objects, and create neutrinos when interacting with matter or photons. Observing a point source of high-energy astro-physical neutrinos would therefore be a smoking gun signature of cosmic ray acceleration. While evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos was recently found, the origin of this flux is not yet known. We present three analyses searching for neutrino point sources with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic kilometer Cherenkov detector located at the geographic South Pole. The analyses target astrophysical sources emitting neutrinos of all flavors, and cover energies from TeV to EeV. The first analysis searches point source emission of muon neutrinos using throughgoing muon tracks. The second analysis searches for spatial clustering among high-energy astrophysical neutrino candidate events, and is sensitive to neutrinos of all three flavors. The third analysis selects starting track events, muon neutrinos with interactions vertices inside the detector, to lower the energy threshold in the southern hemisphere. In each analysis, an un-binned likelihood method tests for spatial clustering of events anywhere in the sky as well as for neutrinos correlated with known gamma-ray sources. All results are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and the resulting upper limits on E-2 neutrino emission are the most stringent throughout the entire sky. In the northern hemisphere, the upper limits are beginning to constrain emission models. In the southern hemisphere, the upper limits in the 100 TeV energy range are an order of magnitude lower than previous IceCube results, but are not yet probing predicted flux levels. By comparing the point source limits to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, we also constrain the minimum number of neutrino sources and investigate the properties of potential source populations contributing to the diffuse flux. Additionally, an a

  12. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  13. An Inexpensive Liquid Crystal Spectropolarimeter for the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory Plaskett Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monin, D.; Bohlender, D.; Hardy, T.; Saddlemyer, L.; Fletcher, M.

    2012-04-01

    A new, inexpensive polarimetric unit has been constructed for the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) 1.8 m Plaskett telescope. It is implemented as a plug-in module for the telescope's existing Cassegrain spectrograph, and it enables medium-resolution (R ≈ 10,000) circular spectropolarimetry of point sources. A dual-beam design, together with fast switching of the wave plate at rates up to 100 Hz and synchronized with charge shuffling on the CCD, is used to significantly reduce instrumental effects and achieve high-precision spectropolarimetric measurements for a very low cost. The instrument is optimized to work in the wavelength range of 4700-5300 Å to simultaneously detect polarization signals in the Hβ line, as well as nearby metallic lines. In this article we describe the technical details of the instrument, our observing strategy, and data reduction techniques, and we present tests of its scientific performance.

  14. The Eclipse Expeditions of the Lick Observatory and the Beginnings of Astrophysics in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. McKim; Pearson, John

    2012-09-01

    During the years 1898 to 1932, Lick Observatory organized a remarkable series of 17 solar eclipse expeditions, all the more remarkable because Lick astronomers evidenced no enduring interest in solar physics. The science of these expeditions involved three issues of major significance during the development of astrophysics during the first three decades of the twentieth century: (1) testing of General Relativity; (2) non-LTE in extended atmospheres and gaseous nebulae; (3) role of magnetic fields in the sun. The expeditions made major contributions to the first two topics. Even though W.W. Campbell, the director of Lick, had extensive contact with George Ellery Hale, who had measured the magnetic fields of sunspots at Mt. Wilson, Lick astronomers missed the clues concerning the importance of magnetic fields in the corona. Campbell's measurement of the deflection of starlight at the eclipse of 1922 was his major achievement of the many eclipse expeditions. He had approached that test of General Relativity with considerable distrust of Einstein's theory and considered Eddington's 1919 results to be suspect. It is to Campbell's great credit that the results published jointly with Trumpler confirmed the predictions of Einstein with higher precision than Eddington had achieved. Donald Menzel joined the staff of Lick Observatory in 1926 as their first astrophysicist. Osterbrock describes him as a ``stranger in a strange land.'' He was given the analysis of the eclipse flash spectra. This work, published in 1931, represents the beginning of the astrophysical study of chromospheres and laid the foundation for the quantitative analysis of extended atmospheres and gaseous nebula.

  15. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory: Lasers at the Frontiers of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitze, David

    2005-04-01

    The Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is poised to open a new window on the universe - the detection of gravitational waves from distant large-scale astrophysical sources. Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein almost 90 years ago but never been observed directly despite a number of experiments over the last 40 years. While there exists strong indirect evidence for gravitational waves, it is only with the construction of large-scale high precision interferometers that direct detection of gravitational waves is possible. Gravitational waves are miniscule dynamic strains applied to space-time by motion of massive astrophysical objects. A passing gravitational wave will expand and contract the distance between two mirrors (`test masses') in the arms of an interferometer. Direct observation of gravitational waves presents a formidable challenge, because the magnitude of the dynamic strain is expected to be infinitesimal, less than one part in 10-22. The astrophysical motivation for detecting gravitational waves is compelling. Unlike the visible sky, the gravitational wave `sky' is completely unexplored. The LIGO detectors and its partner GEO600 in Europe have the sensitivity to observe gravitational waves not only in our own galaxy, but in neighboring galaxies, thus opening an absolutely unique window into these phenomena. In the first part of the presentation, we will give an overview of gravitational waves - what they are and where they come from -- and describe in general terms the techniques that gravitational wave astrophysicists use to hunt for them. In the second part of the presentation, we describe the LIGO interferometers emphasizing the critical role that lasers and optics play in its operation.

  16. The CUREA 1996 Summer Program in Astrophysics at Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Joe; Faison, Michael

    1996-05-01

    The Consortium for Undergraduate Research and Education in Astronomy (CUREA) will present its hands-on course in astrophysics and observational astronomy at Mount Wilson Observatory for the seventh time, from August 7-20, 1996. Students and staff live and work at the Observatory, situated in the San Gabriel Mountains above Los Angeles. This is a beautiful site at which the atmospheric seeing conditions are equal to the best in the world. This poster paper presents in text and photographs some of the highlights of past programs. During the program informal discussions led by staff members provide the necessary background for using the following facilities: the Snow Horizontal Solar Telescope, which was the first major solar telescope in the world and the first telescope to be installed on Mount Wilson when G.E.Hale founded the Observatory; a high-resolution Littrow pit spectrograph; a 6-inch diffraction-limited refractor and 24- inch reflector; a photometer and a CCD detector; a unique atomic-beam apparatus for recording solar 5-minute oscillations; and this summer for the first time, the historic 100-inch Hooker Telescope. Attention is devoted to many observable solar phenomena, such as sunspots, granulation, limb darkening, important spectral lines, Zeeman splitting of solar lines, and the measurement of solar rotation using the Doppler shift of a spectral line. Nighttime observing includes celestial objects such as the Moon, planets, variable stars, clusters, galaxies and other deep-sky objects. Students learn how to process celestial photographs and spectral plates in the darkroom. Each student works on a special project she or he has chosen, and reports on it at the end of the program. Tours of research projects on the mountain, talks by visiting astronomers and field trips to JPL, Cal Tech and Palomar are included.

  17. A Method to Calibrate the High-resolution Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.; Avila, G.; Bellassai, G.; Bruno, P.; Catalano, S.; Di Benedetto, R.; Di Stefano, A.; Gangi, M.; Giarrusso, M.; Greco, V.; Martinetti, E.; Miraglia, M.; Munari, M.; Pontoni, C.; Scalia, C.; Scuderi, S.; Spanó, P.

    2016-05-01

    The Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS) is a white-pupil cross-dispersed échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of up to R = 55,000 in the 375–1100 nm range in a single exposure, with complete coverage up to 856 nm. CAOS is linked to the 36-inch telescope, at Mount Etna Observatory, with a couple of 100 μm optical fibers and it achieves a signal-to-noise ratio better than 60 for a V = 10 mag star in one hour. CAOS is thermally stabilized in temperature within a 0.01 K rms, so that radial velocities are measured with a precision better than 100 m s‑1 from a single spectral line. Linear and circular spectropolarimetric observations are possible by means of a Savart plate working in series with a half-wave and a quarter-wave retarder plate in the 376–850 nm range. As is usual for high-resolution spectropolarimeters, CAOS is suitable to measure all Stokes parameters across spectral lines and it cannot measure the absolute degree of polarization. Observations of unpolarized standard stars show that instrumental polarization is generally zero at 550 nm and can increase up to 3% at the other wavelengths. Since polarized and unpolarized standard stars are useless, we suggest a method to calibrate a high-resolution spectropolarimeter on the basis of the polarimetric properties of spectral lines formed in the presence of a magnetic field. As applied to CAOS, observations of magnetic chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence show that the cross-talk from linear to circular polarization is smaller than 0.4% and that conversion from circular to linear is less than 2.7%. Strength and wavelength dependences of cross-talk can be entirely ascribed, via numerical simulations, to the incorrect retardance of achromatic wave plates.

  18. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  19. Prototyping a large-scale distributed system for the Great Observatories era - NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a distributed information system intended to support research in the Great Observatories era, to simplify access to data, and to enable simultaneous analyses of multispectral data sets. Here, the user agent and interface, its functions, and system components are examined, and the system architecture and infrastructure is addressed. The present status of the system and related future activities are examined.

  20. Teaching astronomy and astrophysics at the Valencian International University (VIU): Application and use of Virtual Observatory tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diago, P. D.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Solano, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Astronomy and Astrophysics Master, running at the Valencian International University (VIU, http://www.viu.es) since march 2010, is a clear example of how development of infor- mation and communication technologies (ICTs) and new e-learning methods are changing the traditional distance learning. In the context of the European Space for Higher Edu- cation (ESHE) we present how the Virtual Observatory (VO) tools can be an important part in the Astronomy and Astrophysics teaching. The described tasks has been carried out during the last three courses. These tasks are representative of the state of the art in Astrophysics research. We attach a description and a learning results list of each one of the presented tasks. The tasks can be downloaded at the Spanish VO website: http://svo.cab.inta-csic.es/docs/index.php?pagename=Education/VOcases

  1. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  2. First Observations of a Stellar Occultation by KBO (50000) Quaoar from MIT's George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallum, Stephanie; Brothers, T.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A.; Zuluaga, C.; Levine, S.; Bright, L.; Sheppard, S.; Tilleman, T.

    2011-05-01

    Here we report the first recorded observations of a stellar occultation by Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) (50000) Quaoar. We detected a single-chord stellar occultation by Quaoar of a magnitude 16.2 star designated 26029635 UCAC2 (2MASS ID 1275509401), which occurred on 11 February 2011 UT. The prediction of the occultation was made using long baseline astrometric observations of Quaoar from several sites as part of the MIT Planetary Astronomy Laboratory's continuing effort to improve KBO positions for occultation prediction. The successful observations were made with a Celestron C14 0.36 m telescope and an SBIG STL-1001E CCD camera on a Paramount ME robotic mount. These observations show that a relatively accessible level of astronomical equipment, of the class often used by amateur astronomers, can be used to record KBO occultations. The data were taken at MIT's George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory in Westford, MA. A light curve was generated from the data using aperture photometry on the individual images and is presented here. This light curve is being analyzed by Person et al. (this meeting) to provide constraints on Quaoar's size. We also discuss various observing strategies that could be used in the future to optimize the data from this type of event. This work was supported in part by grant NNX10AB27G to MIT from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Division. Student participation was supported in part by NSF's REU program, MIT's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant, and the George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory.

  3. The international space station as an observatory for cosmic-ray physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W. Vernon

    1999-01-22

    The International Space Station is an ideal platform for observing cosmic rays. Furthermore, it can readily accommodate the instrumentation needed to address all of the top-priority science objectives identified in 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences for 'Plasma Processes that Accelerate Very Energetic Particles and Control Their Propagation'. These objectives are synergistic in their pursuit of the illusive goal of understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of the cosmic radiation. A distributed observatory on the International Space Station may be the key to answering this long-standing question in the first decade of the new millennium.

  4. A search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in the 40-string configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grullon, Sean

    Neutrinos have long been important in particle physics and are now practical tools for astronomy. Neutrino Astrophysics is expected to help answer longstanding astrophysical problems such as the origin of cosmic rays and the nature of cosmic accelerators. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1 km3 detector currently under construction at the South Pole and will help answer some of these fundamental questions. Searching for high energy neutrinos from unresolved astrophysical sources is one of the main analysis techniques used in the search for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could contribute to form a detectable signal above the atmospheric neutrino background. Since astrophysical neutrinos are expected to have a harder energy spectrum than atmospheric neutrinos, a reliable method of estimating the energy of the neutrino-induced lepton is crucial. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos across the entire northern sky.

  5. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Engaging the Public with NASA's Next Great Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel David; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise Anne

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public, to educators and students, and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing E/PO programs: for example, active classroom learning via the STEM Innovation Project (SIP) and 3-D visualizations developed for modern inexpensive platforms, the production and collection of materials for speakers related to any Webb topic (engineering, science, or education), the addition of Webb materials to the Amazing Space programs and updating them for general usage, and the development of simulated Webb observations illustrating the science of the next decade.

  6. Partial Restoration of Public Education and Outreach at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Since first light on 6 May 1918, DAO's historic 1.8-m Plaskett Telescope has been open on varying schedules to the public for interactions with astronomers and stargazing. In June 2001 the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) opened the adjacent, purpose-built, Centre of the Universe (CU) building. It was staffed by professional informal educators offering year-round outreach that helped visitors, including thousands of students annually, appreciate exciting current research, as well as Canada's high standing in contemporary astronomy, development of complex instrumentation and the associated societal benefits. On 24 August 2013 the CU-based EPO program ceased operation. Upon announcement by NRC in June 2013 of the pending closure, swift public reaction—locally, nationally and internationally—led to widespread publicity, predominantly negative, as well as two petitions signed by several thousand people. A November meeting convened by BC Legislator Lana Popham, in whose electoral district the Observatory is located, brought community leaders together with NRC senior managers to discuss ways of making available the physical assets to restore EPO activities through community organizations, rather than Federal employees, a scenario senior NRC management endorsed. Subsequently a smaller community group chaired by Don Moffatt, a DAO interpreter in the 1990s, provided a forum for discussing paths to having some outreach activities in summer 2014. The resulting two successful activities were: a) Saturday night observing sessions run by the amateur astronomers of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Victoria Centre; and b) week-long space and astronomy camps for children of grades 3-8 run by the University of Victoria's Science Venture program. As will be described, both organizations delivered well-received programs, and are in conversation with NRC about possible continuation and evolution.

  7. Real and Virtual Heritage Historical Astronomical Plate Archives in Sonneberg, Bamberg and Hamburg Observatories, the Evolution of Astrophysics and their Influence on Human Knowledge and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzmann, Björn

    The rise of astrophysics around 1860 introduced new instruments, methods and research areas. Of course, the increasing number of foundations of new observatories around the world starting at that time was forced by that new scientific discipline, too, but especially by the usage of photographic instruments. At the end of the 19th century the formation and development of photographic methods and techniques had reached a level of sufficient stability for productive usage in astronomy and astrophysics, their new instrumrents, methods and goals. The fundamental meaning of star light analysis for astrophysics by increasing discoveries of Variable Stars and the Systematic search for moving Solar System objects had basically driven the beginning of large photographic sky patrols at that time, using photographic glass plates as detectors and information storages. Sky Patrols, especially systematic long-term monitoring of the whole sky or of well defined selected areas and Sky Surveys were (and still are) an important key method that forced the evolution and progress of astrophysics. Important scientific results by famous astronomers, for example Walter Baade, Cuno Hoffmeister and Harlow Shapley depended on the analysis of photographic plates. Today, there are around 50 photographic plate archives world-wide. Most of them, unfortunately, are in a quite poor condition and not yet digitized. Following Harvard College Observatory with an estimated total of 600,000 plates, Sonneberg observatory harbours the second largest archive world-wide (around 300,000 plates) among other large ones in Germany like Bamberg (40,000 plates) and Hamburg (35,000 plates). These plate archives form an important heritage with a total of roughly two million direct plates and some ten or hundred thousands of spectroscopic plates. A lot of progress has been made by transforming this real heritage to a virtual one by systematic digitisation of the plates, but perhaps only 15% of them have been

  8. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  9. Checking the light pollution sources at Asiago Astrophysical Observatory from photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results from a unique experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolani, Sergio; Bertolo, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of recent sky brightness measurements at Asiago Observatory with the goal to understand the sources and the propagation of the light pollution.There are actually two main models for the light pollution: one is based on a dominant Lambert diffusion. A recent model, instead, includes a "cavity" effect in the urban centers, limiting the low angles horizontal propagation. The effects of the local vs. distant light centers on the brightness of the light sky at the observatories are different in the two models and the regulations required to limit the light pollution are different.A unique experiment was carried out at Asiago Observatory in order to clarify this ambiguity turning off more than 5000 public street lamps in a 500 square km area around the telescopes, in a clear, moonless night. We also investigated the sources of the emission lines in the spectra and their evolution.

  10. The cryomechanical design of MUSIC: a novel imaging instrument for millimeter-wave astrophysics at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollister, Matthew I.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Noroozian, Omid; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    MUSIC (Multicolor Submillimeter kinetic Inductance Camera) is a new facility instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) developed as a collaborative effect of Caltech, JPL, the University of Colorado at Boulder and UC Santa Barbara, and is due for initial commissioning in early 2011. MUSIC utilizes a new class of superconducting photon detectors known as microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), an emergent technology that offers considerable advantages over current types of detectors for submillimeter and millimeter direct detection. MUSIC will operate a focal plane of 576 spatial pixels, where each pixel is a slot line antenna coupled to multiple detectors through on-chip, lumped-element filters, allowing simultaneously imaging in four bands at 0.86, 1.02, 1.33 and 2.00 mm. The MUSIC instrument is designed for closed-cycle operation, combining a pulse tube cooler with a two-stage Helium-3 adsorption refrigerator, providing a focal plane temperature of 0.25 K with intermediate temperature stages at approximately 50, 4 and 0.4 K for buffering heat loads and heat sinking of optical filters. Detector readout is achieved using semi-rigid coaxial cables from room temperature to the focal plane, with cryogenic HEMT amplifiers operating at 4 K. Several hundred detectors may be multiplexed in frequency space through one signal line and amplifier. This paper discusses the design of the instrument cryogenic hardware, including a number of features unique to the implementation of superconducting detectors. Predicted performance data for the instrument system will also be presented and discussed.

  11. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded Dominion Astrophysical Observatory spectrograms. II - The mercury-manganese stars 53 Tauri, Mu Leporis and Kappa Cancri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1987-01-01

    Elemental abundance analyses based on the coaddition of at least 10 2.4 A/mm Ila-O Dominion Astrophysical Observatory spectrograms have been performed for three mercury-manganese stars, 53 Tauri, Mu Leporis, and Kappa Cancri. These fine analyses show a greater degree of internal consistency than previous studies based on lower signal-to-noise data. Lines as weak as of order 3 mA are employed in these studies, and lines of atomic species not previously identified have been discovered. The status of 53 Tau as an anomalous member of this class is confirmed in that it lacks a Hg II 3984 A line even at the 2 mA level. Further, its surface gravity indicates it is less evolved than Mu Lep and Chi Cnc. Violations of the odd-even effect in the photospheric abundances of all three stars suggest that nonnuclear processes have operated in their atmospheres. Some of the values are substantially changed from their presumably initial solar values.

  12. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  13. The inter-annual distribution of cloudless days and nights in Abastumani: Coupling with cosmic factors and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didebulidze, G. G.; Todua, M.

    2016-04-01

    We examined inter-annual variations and long-term trends of cloudless days (CD) and cloudless nights (CN) in 1957-1993 from Abastumani (41.75N, 42.82E), at different geomagnetic conditions and corresponding galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) flux changes. It showed possible influence of cosmic factors on cloud covering processes and, thus, climate change. It was demonstrated that (1) the inter-annual distribution of monthly mean values of planetary geomagnetic index Ap (for low and moderate disturbances) at CDs can be described by harmonic function with semiannual (with sharp maxima in March and September) and annual (with maximum in August) periodicities; (2) the inter-annual distribution of Ap index for CN has an additional maximum in June, where the largest decrease of GCR flux is observed. This phenomenon is expressed even stronger during Sudden Storm Commencement (SSC) events and strong geomagnetic disturbances (Ap≥50), when their relative numbers are the greatest and are accompanied by bigger reduction of GCRs flux; (3) the long-term trends of mean annual and mean seasonal values of Ap index and GCRs flux at CD and CN are estimated. It was detected that, for the latitudes of this region, long-term decreases (negative trends) of seasonal GCR flux are different at CD and CN, which could affect the radiative balance at the Earth's surface and, as a result, contribute to the climate change.

  14. Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Astsatryan, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Present astronomical archives that contain billions of objects, both Galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allow new studies and discoveries. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories (VO) use available databases and current observing material as a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools to form a research environment in which complex research programs can be conducted. Most of the modern databases give at present VO access to the stored information, which makes possible also a fast analysis and managing of these data. Cross-correlations result in revealing new objects and new samples. Very often dozens of thousands of sources hide a few very interesting ones that are needed to be discovered by comparison of various physical characteristics. VO is a prototype of Grid technologies that allows distributed data computation, analysis and imaging. Particularly important are data reduction and analysis systems: spectral analysis, SED building and fitting, modelling, variability studies, cross correlations, etc. Computational astrophysics has become an indissoluble part of astronomy and most of modern research is being done by means of it.

  15. Instability and Evolution of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, Haik A.; Nikoghosyan, Elena H.; Melikian, Norayr D.

    2014-12-01

    The book presents the papers of the Proceedings of Byurakan-Abastumani XV Colloquium dedicated to Ludwik Mirzoyan's 90th anniversary held in 2013 in Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. It is divided into 4 parts related to the sessions held during the Colloquium. The presented papers reflect the main directions of the scientific investigations in both Byurakan and Abastumani observatories. The book also includes L.V. Mirzoyan's short biography, Preface by the editors, List of Colloquium Participants and Author Index at the end.

  16. The Fermilab Particle Astrophysics Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    The Particle Astrophysics Center was established in fall of 2004. Fermilab director Michael S. Witherell has named Fermilab cosmologist Edward ''Rocky'' Kolb as its first director. The Center will function as an intellectual focus for particle astrophysics at Fermilab, bringing together the Theoretical and Experimental Astrophysics Groups. It also encompasses existing astrophysics projects, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, and the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory, as well as proposed projects, including the SuperNova Acceleration Probe to study dark energy as part of the Joint Dark Energy Mission, and the ground-based Dark Energy Survey aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state.

  17. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  18. The Virtual Observatory: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

  19. Annual and semi-annual variability in the lower and upper atmosphere-ionosphere coupling processes by observations from Abastumani (41.75 N, 42.82 E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didebulidze, G. G.; Todua, M.; Javakhishvili, G.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of annual and semi-annual variability in the long-term variations of the ionosphere F2 layer parameters (NmF2, hmF2), the hydroxyl OH bands, the oxygen green 557.7 nm and red 630.0 line intensities observed from Abastumani is noted. The amplitudes of the semi-annual variations of these upper atmosphere-ionosphere parameters with maxima at equinoctial months depend on the value of the planetary geomagnetic Ap index, also observed in the inter-annual distribution of the total ozone content (TOC) and cloud covering over this region of South Caucasus. The observed dependence of semi-annual variations of these parameters on Ap index indicated possible influence of cosmic factors on the lower and upper atmosphere-ionosphere coupling processes.

  20. The Next Century Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The Astrophysics Division within the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) has defined a set of major and moderate missions that are presently under study for flight sometime within the next 20 years. These programs include the: Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Facility; X Ray Schmidt Telescope; Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment; Hard X Ray Imaging Facility; Very High Throughput Facility; Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Observatory; Hubble Space Telescope; Lunar Transit Telescope; Astrometric Interferometer Mission; Next Generation Space Telescope; Imaging Optical Interferometer; Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer; Gravity Probe B; Laser Gravity Wave Observatory in Space; Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; Space Infrared Telescope Facility; Submillimeter Intermediate Mission; Large Deployable Reflector; Submillimeter Interferometer; and Next Generation Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer.

  1. WFIRST Observatory Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST observatory will be a powerful and flexible wide-field near-infrared facility. The planned surveys will provide data applicable to an enormous variety of astrophysical science. This presentation will provide a description of the observatory and its performance characteristics. This will include a discussion of the point spread function, signal-to-noise budgets for representative observing scenarios and the corresponding limiting sensitivity. Emphasis will be given to providing prospective Guest Observers with information needed to begin thinking about new observing programs.

  2. Extreme Scale Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without extreme-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  3. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Hardback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2004-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  4. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2011-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  5. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory laser tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Lanham, N. W.; Lehr, C. G.; Wohn, J.

    1977-01-01

    The four SAO laser satellite-ranging systems, located in Brazil, Peru, Australia, and Arizona, have been in operation for more than five years and have provided ranging data at accuracy levels of a meter or better. The paper examines system hardware (laser transmitter, the electronics, mount, photoreceiver, minicomputer, and station timing) and software (prediction program, calibration programs, and data handling and quick-look programs) and also considers calibration, station operation, and system performance.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  7. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  8. The Astrophysics of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirin, H.

    1998-06-01

    This is an entirely new edition of Harold Zirin's classic text on the solar atmosphere. Combining an introductory course in astrophysics with a comprehensive treatment of the theoretical and observational aspects of our present knowledge of the sun, the book has been completely updated. It includes a large number of spectacular new photographs, including many of the best solar pictures from the world's observatories. Professor Zirin is one of the leading scientists in his field. His lucid writing style, combined with considerable teaching experience, has resulted in a valuable and important textbook of astrophysics.

  9. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  10. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub

    1997-06-01

    Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.

  11. Astrophysics today

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Examining recent history, current trends, and future possibilities, the author reports the frontiers of research on the solar system, stars, galactic physics, and cosmological physics. The book discusses the great discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics and examines the circumstances in which they occurred. It discusses the physics of white dwarfs, the inflationary universe, the extinction of dinosaurs, black hole, cosmological models, and much more.

  12. Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Vast amount of information continuously accumulated in astronomy requires finding new solutions for its efficient storage, use and dissemination, as well as accomplishing new research projects. Virtual Observatories (VOs) have been created in a number of countries to set up a new environment for these tasks. Based on them, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) was created in 2002, which unifies 19 VO projects, including Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) founded in 2005. ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects are presented, including the Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS). Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it.

  13. Astrophysical symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Astrophysical objects, ranging from meteorites to the entire universe, can be classified into about a dozen characteristic morphologies, at least as seen by a blurry eye. Some patterns exist over an enormously wide range of distance scales, apparently as a result of similar underlying physics. Bipolar ejection from protostars, binary systems, and active galaxies is perhaps the clearest example. The oral presentation included about 130 astronomical images which cannot be reproduced here. PMID:11607715

  14. Particle astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoulet, B. |

    1992-12-31

    In the last few years, particle astrophysics has emerged as a new field at the frontier between high energy astrophysics, cosmology, and particle physics. Two spectacular achievements of this new field in the last decade have been the establishment of neutrino astronomy with the detection of solar neutrinos by two independent experiments and the spectacular observation of the neutrinos from the supernova SN1987A. In addition, the field has produced tantalizing hints of new physics beyond the standard models of astrophysics and particle physics, generating enthusiastic attempts to confirm these potential effects. This new field involves some two hundred experimentalists and a similar number of theorists, most of them coming from particle and nuclear physics, and as scientist will see, their effort is to a large extent complementary to accelerator based high energy physics. This review attempts, at the beginning of this workshop, to capture the excitement of this new field. Summary talks will describe in more detail some of the topics discussed in the study groups.

  15. Astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

  16. Ondrejov Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Ondrejov Observatory is located 20 miles from Prague in the village of Ondrejov. It was established in 1898 as a private observatory and donated to the state of Czechoslovakia in 1928. Since 1953 it has been part of the Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; there are 40 astronomers....

  17. Amateur Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, M.

    1997-08-01

    A roundup of amateur observatories in this country and abroad, with construction and location details, concluding with a detailed description and architect's drawing of the author's own observatory at Worcester Park, Surrey. The text of the 1996 Presidential Address to the British Astronomical Association.

  18. The Asiago Observatory's reflectogoniometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Pernechele, C.; Barbieri, C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the Asiago Astrophysical Observatory reflectogoniometer, a useful instrument which allows to perform laboratory studies of transmitted and diffuse light. In particular the instrument allows a complete characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Function (BDRF) for spherical shape samples and of the Transmittance Function for plane samples. The instrument is placed in an optical laboratory of the Asiago Astrophysical Observatory. Data are acquired by a CCD camera, equipped with its own frame grabber card, and analysed by a pc. Image calibration, i.e. the procedure that converts the value of each pixel of a CCD frame in a radiometric quantity, follows the standard sequence used for remote sensing application (bias, dark, flat fielding, distortion corrections, reflectogoniometric calibration, using a reflectometric standard), and it is implemented in a data reduction pipeline. The instrument tests performed until now have confirm that the imaging-goniophotometer is an instrument suitable for the quick characterization of diffusing surfaces in all the tree possible configuration: transmittance measurements (translucent plates), partial reflectance measurements (diffusing sheets), and bidirectional function characterization (coatings and paints). The goniophotometer may have different astronomical and industrial applications: it can be used for the characterization of absorbance properties of paints for baffling in spatial missions, of diffusive properties of flat field panels, of trasmittance properties of different glasses type and of reflective properties of rocks surfaces, like, for example, meteorites samples.

  19. Laboratory astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, P.T.; Goldstein, W.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Wilson, B.G.; Rogers, F.J.; Stewart, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    We propose an experiment to test opacity models for stellar atmospheres. Particularly important is to perform experiments at very low density and temperature where line shape treatments give large differences in Rosseland mean opacities for astrophysical mixtures, and to test the range of validity for the unresolved transition array treatments. Experimental requirements are ultra high spectral resolution combined with large homogenous plasma sources lasting tens of nanoseconds, and with Planckian radiation fields. These requirements dovetail nicely with emerging pulsed power capabilities. We propose a high resolution measurement of the frequency dependent opacity, for ultra low density iron plasmas in radiatively driven equilibrium plasmas.

  20. Astrophysical cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs.

  1. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (Editor); Gehrels, Neil (Editor); Dennis, Brian (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  2. Astrotech 21: A technology program for future astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Newton, George P.

    1991-01-01

    The Astrotech 21 technology program is being formulated to enable a program of advanced astrophysical observatories in the first decade of the 21st century. This paper describes the objectives of Astrotech 21 and the process that NASA is using to plan and implement it. It also describes the future astrophysical mission concepts that have been defined for the twenty-first century and discusses some of the requirements that they will impose on information systems for space astrophysics.

  3. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L. (Editor); Ramaty, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

  4. Taosi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Taosi observatory is the remains of a structure discovered at the later Neolithic Taosi site located in Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, in north-central China. The structure is a walled enclosure on a raised platform. Only rammed-earth foundations of the structure remained. Archaeoastronomical studies suggest that this structure functioned as an astronomical observatory. Historical circumstantial evidence suggests that it was probably related to the legendary kingdom of Yao from the twenty-first century BC.

  5. From AISR to the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The talk will provide a retrospective on important results enabled by the NASA AISR program. The program had a unique approach to funding research at the intersection of astrophysics, applied computer science and statistics. It had an interdisciplinary angle, encouraged high risk, high return projects. Without this program the Virtual Observatory would have never been started. During its existence the program has funded some of the most innovative applied computer science projects in astrophysics.

  6. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  7. Molecular astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzberg, G.

    1989-01-01

    A brief history of Molecular Astrophysics is presented. The first molecules in space were identified in the 1920s in comets followed soon after by those in planetary atmospheres. The recent identification by MCKELLAR of the dimer of H 2, that is, (H 2) 2 in the atmosphere of Jupiter as well as the discovery, by DROSSART, MAILLARD, WATSON and others, of the H 3+ ion in the auroral zone of Jupiter are described. In this laboratory there is a continuing interest in interstellar molecules. Several molecules and molecular ions were observed by collaboration of laboratory spectroscopists and astronomers. Only the most recent ones are discussed. Also a few of the molecules not yet observed but likely to be observed are mentioned.

  8. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    1991-01-01

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  9. Neutrino Astrophysics and the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Observatory is the largest neutrino telescope currently collecting data. With its km ^{3} volume it is designed to detect high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. With the discovery of astrophysical neutrinos, in 2013, IceCube has opened the era of neutrino astronomy. The origin of the cosmic rays, however, is still a puzzle that will be solved only in a multi-messenger and multi-wavelength approach involving several experiments and observatories. In this presentation the recent results from the IceCube Observatory will be shown, along with the multi-messenger combined analyses and real time alert plans currently in operation.

  10. Molecular Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, T. W.

    2005-07-01

    Part I. Molecular Clouds and the Distribution of Molecules in the Milky Way and Other Galaxies: 1. Molecular clouds in the Milky Way P. Friberg and A. Hjalmarson; 2. Molecules in galaxies L. Blitz; Part II. Diffuse Molecular Clouds: 3. Diffuse cloud chemistry E. F. Van Dishoeck; 4. Observations of velocity and density structure in diffuse clouds W. D. Langer; 5. Shock chemistry in diffuse clouds T. W. Hartquist, D. R. Flower and G. Pineau des Forets; Part III. Quiescent Dense Clouds: 6. Chemical modelling of quiescent dense interstellar clouds T. J. Millar; 7. Interstellar grain chemistry V. Buch; 8. Large molecules and small grains in astrophysics S. H. Lepp; Part IV. Studies of Molecular Processes: 9. Molecular photoabsorption processes K. P. Kirby; 10. Interstellar ion chemistry: laboratory studies D. Smith, N. G. Adams and E. E. Ferguson; 11. Theoretical considerations on some collisional processes D. R. Bates; 12. Collisional excitation processes E. Roueff; 13. Neutral reactions at Low and High Temperatures M. M. Graff; Part V. Atomic Species in Dense Clouds: 14. Observations of atomic species in dense clouds G. J. Melnick; 15. Ultraviolet radiation in molecular clouds W. G. Roberge; 16. Cosmic ray induced photodissociation and photoionization of interstellar molecules R. Gredel; 17. Chemistry in the molecular cloud Barnard 5 S. B. Charnley and D. A. Williams; 18. Molecular cloud structure, motions, and evolution P. C. Myers; Part VI. H in Regions of Massive Star Formation: 19. Infrared observations of line emission from molecular hydrogen T. R. Geballe; 20. Shocks in dense molecular clouds D. F. Chernoff and C. F. McKee; 21. Dissociative shocks D. A. Neufeld; 22. Infrared molecular hydrogen emission from interstellar photodissociation regions A. Sternberg; Part VII. Molecules Near Stars and in Stellar Ejecta: 23. Masers J. M. Moran; 24. Chemistry in the circumstellar envelopes around mass-losing red giants M. Jura; 25. Atoms and molecules in supernova 1987a R

  11. Keele Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Albinson, James; Bagnall, Alan; Bryant, Lian; Caisley, Dave; Doody, Stephen; Johnson, Ian; Klimczak, Paul; Maddison, Ron; Robinson, StJohn; Stretch, Matthew; Webb, John

    2015-08-01

    Keele Observatory was founded by Dr. Ron Maddison in 1962, on the hill-top campus of Keele University in central England, hosting the 1876 Grubb 31cm refractor from Oxford Observatory. It since acquired a 61cm research reflector, a 15cm Halpha solar telescope and a range of other telescopes. Run by a group of volunteering engineers and students under directorship of a Keele astrophysicist, it is used for public outreach as well as research. About 4,000 people visit the observatory every year, including a large number of children. We present the facility, its history - including involvement in the 1919 Eddington solar eclipse expedition which proved Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity - and its ambitions to erect a radio telescope on its site.

  12. Mission Planning for the CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Larry D.; Stone, Russell, L.; Evans, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The CHANDRA x-ray observatory started life as the Advanced X-ray Facility (AXAF) but was renamed Chandra in December of 1998 at the of a nationwide contest by NASA to name the new observatory. The honors the Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist S. Chandrasekar who astrophysics at the University of Chicago for more than 50 years, following graduate studies at Cambridge University in England. The observatory has been under construction for a decade under the management of the Observatory observatory, Projects office at the Marshall Space Flight Center; the same office that oversaw the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This observatory is a member of NASA's great observatory series of missions of which Hubble and Compton are members. This paper describes the mission planning that was conducted at MSFC to design the orbit and launch window that would permit the new observatory to function properly.

  13. Trends in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  14. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  15. Wendelstein Observatory Operations Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gössl, C. A.; Snigula, J. M.; Munzert, T.

    2014-05-01

    LMU München operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein which has been equipped with a modern 2m-class telescope recently. The new Fraunhofer telescope is starting science operations now with a 64 Mpixel, 0.5°×0.5° FoV wide field camera and will successively be equipped with a three channel optical/NIR camera and two fibre coupled spectrographs (IFU spectrograph VIRUSW already in operation at the 2.7m McDonald, Texas and an upgraded Echelle spectrograph FOCES formerly operated at Calar Alto oberservatory, Spain). All instruments will be mounted simultaneously and can be activated within a minute. The observatory also operates a small 40cm telescope with a CCD-camera and a simple fibre coupled spectrograph for students lab and photometric monitoring as well as a large number of support equipment like a meteo station, allsky cameras, a multitude of webcams, in addition to a complex building control system environment. Here we describe the ongoing effort to build a centralised controlling interface for all. This includes remote/robotic operation, visualisation via browser technologies, and data processing and archiving.

  16. Wendelstein Observatory control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gössl, Claus; Snigula, Jan; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Munzert, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    LMU München operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1 which has been equipped with a modern 2m-class telescope2, 3 recently. The new Fraunhofer telescope has started science operations in autumn 2013 with a 64 Mpixel, 0:5 x 0:5 square degree FoV wide field camera,4 and will successively be equipped with a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5 and 2 fibre coupled spectrographs (IFU spectrograph VIRUSW6 already in operation at the 2.7 McDonald, Texas and an upgraded Echelle spectrograph FOCES7, 8 formerly operated at Calar Alto oberservatory, Spain). All instruments will be mounted simultaneously and can be activated within a minute. The observatory also operates a small 40cm telescope with a CCD-camera and a simple fibre coupled spectrograph for students lab and photometric monitoring as well as a large number of support equipment like a meteo station, allsky cameras, a multitude of webcams, in addition to a complex building control system environment. Here we describe the ongoing effort to build a centralised controlling interface for all hardware. This includes remote/robotic operation, visualisation via web browser technologies, and data processing and archiving.

  17. Grand Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.

  18. Teaching Astronomy at the UCM Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; de Castro, E.

    There is a long tradition on teaching Astronomy at the UCM University. Since 1972 it is possible to study Astrophysics at the Faculty of Physics of the UCM. The facilities of the UCM Observatory are improving continuously every year. Nowadays two domes (4 m) are available. The west dome is mainly used for doing solar observations while the east dome is generally used to do night observations. The available instruments allow us to make a small-scaled reproduction of how people work in a large observatory. At the UCM Observatory students of the Astrophysics career do many different kinds of exercises based on the current techniques used by professional astronomers. In addition, during the last years of the career they also have the opportunity of doing a research work under the supervision of a professor.

  19. Ice Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    blugerman, n.

    2015-10-01

    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  20. Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy has been at the forefront among scientific disciplines for the sharing of data, and the advent of the World Wide Web has produced a revolution in the way astronomers do science. The recent development of the concept of Virtual Observatory builds on these foundations. This is one of the truly global endeavours of astronomy, aiming at providing astronomers with seamless access to data and tools, including theoretical data. Astronomy on-line resources provide a rare example of a world-wide, discipline-wide knowledge infrastructure, based on internationally agreed interoperability standards.

  1. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - telescope No. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Baranowski, Roman; Fagas, Monika; Borczyk, Wojciech; Dimitrov, Wojciech; Polińska, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    We present the new, second spectroscopic telescope of Poznań Astronomical Observatory. The telescope allows automatic simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations and is scheduled to begin operation from Arizona in autumn 2013. Together with the telescope located in Borowiec, Poland, it will constitute a perfect instrument for nearly continuous spectroscopic observations of variable stars. With both instruments operational, the Global Astrophysical Telescope System will be established.

  2. Review of Astrophysics Experiments on Intense Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Takabe, H; Arnett, D

    2000-01-19

    Astrophysics has traditionally been pursued at astronomical observatories and on theorists' computers. Observations record images from space, and theoretical models are developed to explain the observations. A component often missing has been the ability to test theories and models in an experimental setting where the initial and final states are well characterized. Intense lasers are now being used to recreate aspects of astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory, allowing the creation of experimental testbeds where theory and modeling can be quantitatively tested against data. We describe here several areas of astrophysics--supernovae, supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, and giant planets--where laser experiments are under development to test our understanding of these phenomena.

  3. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R. F.; VanSpeybroeck, L. P.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is the x-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories. To be launched in late 1998, AXAF will provide unprecedented capabilities for high-resolution imaging, spectrometric imaging, and high-resolution disperse spectroscopy, over the x-ray band from about 0.1 keV to 10 keV. With these capabilities, AXAF observations will address many of the outstanding questions in astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  4. Astronomy and astrophysics for the 1980's, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The programs recommended address the most significant questions that confront contemporary astronomy and fall into three general categories: prerequisites for research initiatives, including instrumentation and detectors, theory and data analysis, computational facilities, laboratory astrophysics, and technical support at ground-based observatories; programs including an Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, a Very-Long Baseline Array, a Technology Telescope and a Large Deployable Reflector; and programs for study and development, including X-ray observatories in space, instruments for the detection of gravitational waves from astronomical objects, and long duration spaceflights of infrared telescopes. Estimated costs of these programs are provided.

  5. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  6. Science with Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, T. P.; Anupama, G. C.

    Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle, is the high altitude (4500 m above msl) observatory operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) installed in the autumn of 2000 as a first step towards a national large telescope is operated remotely from Bangalore. HCT data has resulted in 70 research publications till date, with average citations of 9.2 per paper. Some of the results are described in this brief review. The development of this high altitude site has also attracted other facilities in the area of Very High Energy gamma ray astronomy using atmospheric Čerenkov technique, and also in earth sciences.

  7. Haystack Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Radio astronomy programs comprise three very-long-baseline interferometer projects, ten spectral line investigations, one continuum mapping in the 0.8 cm region, and one monitoring of variable sources. A low-noise mixer was used in mapping observations of 3C273 at 31 GHz and in detecting of a new methyl alcohol line at 36,169 MHz in Sgr B2. The new Mark 2 VLBI recording terminal was used in galactic H2O source observations using Haystack and the Crimean Observatory, USSR. One feature in W29 appears to have a diameter of 0.3 millisec of arc and a brightness temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th power K. Geodetic baseline measurements via VLBI between Green Bank and Haystack are mutually consistent within a few meters. Radar investigations of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon have continued. The favorable opposition of Mars and improvements in the radar permit measurements on a number of topographic features with unprecedented accuracy, including scarps and crater walls. The floor of Mare Serenitatis slopes upward towards the northeast and is also the location of a strong gravitational anomaly.

  8. Future Experiments in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement methodologies of astrophysics experiments reflect the enormous variation of the astrophysical radiation itself. The diverse nature of the astrophysical radiation, e.g. cosmic rays, electromagnetic radiation, and neutrinos, is further complicated by the enormous span in energy, from the 1.95 Kappa relic neutrino background to cosmic rays with energy greater than 10(exp 20)eV. The measurement of gravity waves and search for dark matter constituents are also of astrophysical interest. Thus, the experimental techniques employed to determine the energy of the incident particles are strongly dependent upon the specific particles and energy range to be measured. This paper summarizes some of the calorimetric methodologies and measurements planned by future astrophysics experiments. A focus will be placed on the measurement of higher energy astrophysical radiation. Specifically, future cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino experiments will be discussed.

  9. Theory and laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Alcock, Charles; Allamandola, Lou; Chevalier, Roger A.; Cline, David B.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Fall, S. Michael; Ferland, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Science opportunities in the 1990's are discussed. Topics covered include the large scale structure of the universe, galaxies, stars, star formation and the interstellar medium, high energy astrophysics, and the solar system. Laboratory astrophysics in the 1990's is briefly surveyed, covering such topics as molecular, atomic, optical, nuclear and optical physics. Funding recommendations are given for the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Department of Energy. Recommendations for laboratory astrophysics research are given.

  10. Astrophysics and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Jeremy; Brinks, Elias; Khanna, Ramon

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysics and Space Science publishes original contributions and invited reviews covering the entire range of astronomy, astrophysics, astrophysical cosmology, planetary and space science, and the astrophysical aspects of astrobiology. This includes both observational and theoretical research, the techniques of astronomical instrumentation and data analysis, and astronomical space instrumentation. We particularly welcome papers in the general fields of high-energy astrophysics, astrophysical and astrochemical studies of the interstellar medium including star formation, planetary astrophysics, the formation and evolution of galaxies and the evolution of large scale structure in the Universe. Papers in mathematical physics or in general relativity which do not establish clear astrophysical applications will not longer be considered.The journal also publishes topical collections consisting of invited reviews and original research papers selected special issues in research fields of particular scientific interest. These consist of both invited reviews and original research papers.Conference proceedings will not be considered. All papers published in the journal are subject to thorough and strict peer-reviewing.Astrophysics and Space Science has an Impact Factor of 2.4 and features short editorial turnaround times as well as short publication times after acceptance, and colour printing free of charge. Published by Springer the journal has a very wide online dissemination and can be accessed by researchers at a very large number of institutes worldwide.

  11. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) contract team during the six months during the reporting period (10/95 - 3/96) and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science, Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  12. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed-by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, visiting the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA); X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE); X-ray Spectrometer (XRS); Astro-E; High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  13. Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.

  14. AXAF: The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will be the X-ray astronomy component of U.S. space exploration via Great Observatories (mostly orbital) for the remainder of the century. AXAF and the research planned for it are discussed for a lay audience.

  15. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, was successfully launched on July 23, 1999 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. After release from Columbia, an Inertial Upper Stage was used to further boost the observatory. After five subsequent firings over 15 days of an internal propulsion system, the Observatory was placed in a highly elliptical orbit. The first x-rays focussed by the telescope were observed on August 12, 1999. Despite an initial surprise that the x-ray telescope was far more efficient for concentrating low-energy protons than had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Operating together with other space observatories, most notably the recently activated XMM-Newton, it is clear that with Chandra we are entering a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  16. Theoretical Astrophysics - Volume 1, Astrophysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2000-12-01

    Preface; 1. Order-of-magnitude astrophysics; 2. Dynamics; 3. Special relativity, electrodynamics and optics; 4. Basics of electromagnetic radiation; 5. Statistical mechanics; 6. Radiative processes; 7. Spectra; 8. Neutral fluids; 9. Plasma physics; 10. Gravitational dynamics; 11. General theory of relativity; 12. Basics of nuclear physics; Notes and References; Index.

  17. Validation of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's OMI Water Vapor Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    We perform a comprehensive validation of SAO's OMI water vapor product. The SAO OMI water vapor slant column is retrieved using the 430 - 480 nm wavelength range. In addition to water vapor, the retrieval considers O3, NO2, liquid water, O4, C2H2O2, the Ring effect, water ring, 3rd order polynomial, common mode and under-sampling. The slant column is converted to vertical column using AMF. AMF is calculated using GEOS-Chem water vapor profile shape, OMCLDO2 cloud information and OMLER surface albedo information. We validate our product using NCAR's GPS network data over the world and RSS's gridded microwave data over the ocean. We also compare our product with the total precipitable water derived from the AERONET ground-based sun photometer data, the GlobVapour gridded product, and other datasets. We investigate the influence of sub-grid scale variability and filtering criteria on the comparison. We study the influence of clouds, aerosols and a priori profiles on the retrieval. We also assess the long-term performance and stability of our product and seek ways to improve it.

  18. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Reference System Bulletin, no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The reference system is described which involves timing, scale, coordinate systems and their transformations, and observations of the rotation of the earth. Timing (epochs) and STADAT timing corrections are discussed. The coordinates for locations, and MSL height are listed for each observing station.

  19. The synthesis telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landecker, T. L.; Dewdney, P. E.; Burgess, T. A.; Gray, A. D.; Higgs, L. A.; Hoffmann, A. P.; Hovey, G. J.; Karpa, D. R.; Lacey, J. D.; Prowse, N.; Purton, C. R.; Roger, R. S.; Willis, A. G.; Wyslouzil, W.; Routledge, D.; Vaneldik, J. F.

    2000-09-01

    We describe an aperture synthesis radio telescope optimized for studies of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM), providing the ability to image extended structures with high angular resolution over wide fields. The telescope produces images of atomic hydrogen emission using the 21-cm H I spectral line, and, simultaneously, continuum emission in two bands centred at 1420 MHz and 408 MHz, including linearly polarized emission at 1420 MHz, with synthesized beams of 1' and 3.4' at the respective frequencies. A full synthesis can achieve a continuum sensitivity (rms) of 0.28 mJy/beam at 1420 MHz and 3.8 mJy/beam at 408 MHz, and the 256-channel H I spectrometer has an rms sensitivity of 3.5B-0.5sin delta K per channel, for total spectrometer bandwidth B MHz and declination delta . The tuning range of the telescope permits studies of Galactic and nearby extragalactic objects. The array uses 9 m antennas, which provide very wide fields of view of 3.1°\\ and 9.6°\\ (at the 10% level), at the two frequencies, and also allow data to be gathered on short baselines, yielding extremely good sensitivity to extended structure. Single-antenna data are also routinely incorporated into images to ensure complete coverage of emission on all angular scales down to the resolution limit. In this paper we describe the telescope and its receiver and correlator systems in detail, together with calibration and observing strategies that make this instrument an efficient survey machine.

  20. The MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  1. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  2. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  3. Astrophysics and cosmic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuniaev, R. A.

    Recent astrophysical studies undertaken in the Soviet Union are surveyed. Papers are presented on the role of observations of galactic clusters in cosmological studies; photometric observations of active nuclei; investigations of the fine structure of radio sources; and interstellar molecules. Also considered are Type I supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, the motion of the sun in the interstellar medium, and astrophysical observations on Mt. Maidanak in Central Asia.

  4. SPAN: Astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Valerie L.; Green, James L.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Lopez-Swafford, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a multi-mission, correlative data comparison network which links science research and data analysis computers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. The purpose of this document is to provide Astronomy and Astrophysics scientists, currently reachable on SPAN, with basic information and contacts for access to correlative data bases, star catalogs, and other astrophysic facilities accessible over SPAN.

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  6. Spectral photographic archives of observatories of Ukraine: digital versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L.; Shlyapnikov, A.; Rosenbush, A.; Gorbunov, M.

    Photographic archives of Ukrainian observatories contain a large number of plates in collections of spectral observations. First attempts to digitize them and to make them available via VO formats and protocols of data transfer and processing were undertaken during last years. The involved observatories are Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Main Astronomical observatory NAS of Ukraine (MAO NASU).The project of spectral archive digitizing is carried out within the framework of Ukrainian Virtual Observatory - UkrVO. The core of UkrVO is a Joint Digital Archive (JDA) of photographic and CCD observations. On-line databases of spectral photographic collections and their fitting for VO tools set are the further enhancement of the idea of JDA.

  7. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2008-01-01

    astrophysical modelling, and new theoretical approaches in nuclear physics are spurned by a wealth of new experimental data. It has been recognized by all participants that a joint effort by these disciplines is required in order to further our understanding of stars in all the phases of their lifespan and of the creation of energy and the chemical elements. The conference took place in the city of Dresden, in the geographical heart of Europe. Dresden is a traditional centre of culture and the fine arts, and its recently reconstructed Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) symbolizes the desire of Europeans to leave war and division behind them and revive their traditionally lively cultural and scientific exchange. Scientists from all parts of Europe attended NPA3, as well as participants from North America, Japan and the Near East. Especially encouraging was the great echo among young scientists whose devotion promises a bright future to the field. Fresh, dedicated and interdisciplinary efforts are indeed needed to solve some of the astrophysical puzzles presented at NPA3. New satellite observatories, unprecedented computing power, and new experimental facilities such as underground accelerator laboratories and radioactive ion beam facilities will contribute to these efforts. We look forward to hearing about these and other developments in the fourth conference of the Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics series (NPA4) which is to be held in Gran Sasso, Italy in 2009. The financial support of the hosting institution Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, of the Free State of Saxony and of the European Physical Society has been essential in ensuring the success of the conference. We thank the Publisher and the staff of it Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics for the fruitful collaboration in preparing this issue. The conference website is located at http://www.fzd.de/npa3 Cover image of Dresden by C. Preußel, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf Conference photograph

  8. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  9. The Spanish contribution to the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, J. A.; CTA Consortium

    2015-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build the next generation ground- based Very High Energy gamma-ray instrument. It will serve as an open observatory to a wide astrophysics community and will provide a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. To achieve such goals, it will offer full-sky coverage (with Northern and Southern hemisphere sites), an improvement in sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, an enlarged span in energy (from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV), and enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1100 members from 28 countries all over the world. The Spanish High Energy Astrophysics community is deeply committed to CTA, with more than 70 scientists and technicians from 9 research groups currently involved in building prototypes for several CTA subsystems. This participation covers a wide list of items, both hardware- and software-related. The former includes telescope-level (camera electronics and mechanics and telescope undercarriage) and observatory- level (array optical calibration and atmospheric monitoring) elements. And the latter includes the design of the data pipelines and the scheduling for observational proposals. In this report, the status of the CTA project and the contribution of the Spanish community will be presented.

  10. AXAF: The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, Charles J.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Neal, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    X-rays are produced by violent, energetic, and explosive phenomena in the universe. The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is an orbiting observatory designed to view these X-rays. The National Academy of Sciences Survey Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics has recommended AXAF as the #1 priority among all major new astronomy programs. The scientific importance of AXAF was also highlighted by the Academy's Survey Committee on Physics. Why has AXAF earned such enthusiastic support, not only among astronomers, but also broadly within the nation's scientific community?

  11. Highlights of the NASA Particle Astrophysics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William Vernon

    2014-10-01

    The NASA Particle Astrophysics Program covers Origin of the Elements, Nearest Sources of Cosmic Rays, How Cosmic Particle Accelerators Work, The Nature of Dark Matter, and Neutrino Astrophysics. Progress in each of these topics has come from sophisticated instrumentation flown on long duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica over the past two decades. New opportunities including Super Pressure Balloons (SPB) and International Space Station (ISS) platforms are emerging for the next major step. Stable altitudes and long durations enabled by SPB flights ensure ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) missions that can open doors to new science opportunities. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) has been operating on the ISS since May 2011. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) and Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiments are being developed for launch to the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) in 2014. And, the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) is planned for launch to the ISS JEM-EF after 2017. Collectively, these four complementary ISS missions covering a large portion of the cosmic ray energy spectrum serve as a cosmic ray observatory.

  12. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  13. Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.

  14. Lecture Notes and Essays in Astrophysics I. I Astrophysics Symposium of the GEA-RSEF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulla, Ana; Manteiga, Minia

    2004-12-01

    This volume entittled "Lecture Notes and Essays in Astrophysics" is the first of a series containing the invited reviews and lectures presented during the biannual meetings of the Astrophysics Group of the spanish RSEF ("Real Sociedad Española de Física"). In particular, it includes the conferences and reviews presented during the meeting held at Madrid (Spain) on July 2003 during the First Centennial of the Spanish RSEF. The book is aimed to offer the specialized public, and particularly the astrophysics postgraduate students, selected comprehensive reviews on hot topics lectured by relevant speakers on the subject ("Lecture Notes"). The issue is complemented by a set of chapters on more specific topics ("Essays"). The turn of century has been rich with new discoveries, from the detections of extrasolar planets to the discovery of the the farthest galaxies ever seen or the detection of acceleration in the expansion of the Universe. Spain is leaving her imprint in the telescope making revolution and is promoting the construction of a 10.4 metre telescope in the ``Roque de Los Muchachos" observatory, in the Island of La Palma, Spain. This book provides an interesting insight on selected topics of modern Astrophysics as developped by Spanish astronomers.

  15. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) science instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. C.; Cumings, N. P.; Winkler, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    AXAF is to be equipped with a high performance X-ray telescope for the conduction of detailed astrophysics research. The observatory is to be serviced by the Space Station or the Shuttle, depending on capabilities during the AXAF operational period. The AXAF is to utilize the wavelength band from 1.2 A to 120 A. Attention is given to the AXAF science team, the AXAF observatory characteristics, the AXAF science instrument definition program, the Advanced Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the High Resolution Camera (HRC), the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS), the X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), the transmission gratings, and the program schedule.

  16. India-Based Neutrino Observatory:. Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indumathi, D.

    We briefly review neutrino properties, with emphasis on neutrino oscillations. We then present a status report on the proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We focus on the physics studies possible with an iron calorimeter detector (ICAL) and the logistics of constructing this detector at INO. Such a detector would study atmospheric neutrinos in the first phase with the possibility of acting as a far-end detector of a future neutrino factory or beta beam. This talk was given at the Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CosPA) conference at Taipei, in Nov 2006.

  17. Calibration of the AXAF Observatory: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; ODell, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will soon begin its exploration of the x-ray universe, providing unprecedented angular and spectral resolution. Also unprecedented is the ambitious goal of calibrating the AXAF observatory to an accuracy of a few percent. Toward this end, AXAF science and engineering teams undertook an extensive calibration program at component, subsystem, and system levels. This paper is an overview of the system-level calibration activities, conducted over the past year at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF).

  18. ``Astrophysique sur Mesure'', E-learning in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, Benoît; Delsanti, Audrey; Guillaume, Damien; Balança, Christian; Balkowski, Chantal

    2011-06-01

    ``Astrophysique sur Mesure'' (astrophysics made-to-measure) is a set of e-learning programmes started 4 years ago at the Paris Observatory. In order to deliver attractive and efficient programmes, we have added many multimedia tools to usual lectures: animations, Java applets. The programmes are presented on two different platforms. The first one offers the content of all the lectures in free access. A second platform with restricted access is provided to registered students taking part in the e-learning program and benefiting from the help of tutors. The development of these programs helps to increase the sphere of influence of astronomy taught at the Paris Observatory, hence to increase the presence of astronomy in various degree courses. Instead of teaching classical astronomy lectures to a happy few, we can bring astronomy and astrophysics to a wider audience.

  19. The International X-ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    White, Nicholas E.; Parmar, Arvind; Kunieda, Hideyo; Nandra, Kirpal; Ohashi, Takaya; Bookbinder, Jay

    2010-07-15

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a joint ESA-JAXA-NASA effort to address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics: What happens close to a black hole? How did supermassive black holes grow? How does large scale structure form? What is the connection between these processes? To address these questions IXO will employ optics with 3 sq m collecting area and 5 arc sec angular resolution--20 times more collecting area at 1 keV than any previous X-ray observatory. Focal plane instruments will deliver a 100-fold increase in effective area for high-resolution spectroscopy, deep spectral imaging over a wide field of view, unprecedented polarimetric sensitivity, microsecond spectroscopic timing, and high count rate capability. The mission is being planned for launch in 2021 to an L2 orbit, with a five-year lifetime and consumables for 10 years.

  20. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  1. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  2. Astrophysics: An Integrative Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutsche, Graham D.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a one semester course in introductory stellar astrophysics at the advanced undergraduate level. The course aims to integrate all previously learned physics by applying it to the study of stars. After a brief introductory section on basic astronomical measurements, the main topics covered are stellar atmospheres, stellar structure, and…

  3. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  4. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    PubMed

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject. PMID:27116247

  5. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

  6. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  7. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), fully developed in orbit in a star field with Earth. In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the renmants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-ray such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. The Observatory has three major parts: (1) the x-ray telescope, whose mirrors will focus x-rays from celestial objects; (2) the science instruments that record the x-rays so that x-ray images can be produced and analyzed; and (3) the spacecraft, which provides the environment necessary for the telescope and the instruments to work. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW).

  8. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a computer rendering of the fully developed Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), in orbit in a star field. In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the renmants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. The Observatory has three major parts: (1) the x-ray telescope, whose mirrors will focus x-rays from celestial objects; (2) the science instruments that record the x-rays so that x-ray images can be produced and analyzed; and (3) the spacecraft, which provides the environment necessary for the telescope and the instruments to work. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW).

  9. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Computer Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This is a computer rendering of the fully developed Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the renmants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-ray such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. The Observatory has three major parts: (1) the x-ray telescope, whose mirrors will focus x-rays from celestial objects; (2) the science instruments that record the x-rays so that x-ray images can be produced and analyzed; and (3) the spacecraft, which provides the environment necessary for the telescope and the instruments to work. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW).

  10. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  11. A new paradigm for space astrophysics mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Atkinson, Charles; Breckinridge, Jim; Conti, Alberto; Feinberg, Lee; Lillie, Charles; MacEwen, Howard; Polidan, Ronald; Postman, Marc; Matthews, Gary; Smith, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost-constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship "mission after next" appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation's science ambitions requires a new paradigm of system design, development and manufacture. This paper explores the nature of the current paradigm and proposes a series of steps to guide the entire community to a sustainable future.

  12. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Van Speybroeck, Leon P.; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2000-07-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the x-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched early in the morning of 1999, July 23 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Shuttle launch was only the first step in placing the observatory in orbit. After release from the cargo bay, the Inertial Upper Stage performed two firings, and separated from the observatory as planned. Finally, after five firings of Chandra's own Integral Propulsion System--the last of which took place 15 days after launch--the observatory was placed in its highly elliptical orbit of approximately 140,000 km apogee and approximately 10,000 km perigee. After activation, the first x-rays focused by the telescope were observed on 1999, August 12. Beginning with these initial observations one could see that the telescope had survived the launch environment and was operating as expected. The month following the opening of the sun-shade door was spent adjusting the focus for each set of instrument configurations, determining the optical axis, calibrating the star camera, establishing the relative response functions, determining energy scales, and taking a series of `publicity' images. Each observation proved to be far more revealing than was expected. Finally, and despite an initial surprise and setback due to the discovery that the Chandra x-ray telescope was far more efficient for concentrating low-energy protons that had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Together with other space observations, most notably the recently activated XMM-Newton, it is clear that we are entering a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  13. Assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph shows TRW technicians preparing the assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) for an official unveiling at TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. The CXO is formerly known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), which was renamed in honor of the late Indian-American Astronomer, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1999. The CXO will help astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. X-ray astronomy can only be done from space because Earth's atmosphere blocks x-rays from reaching the surface. The Observatory provides images that are 50 times more detailed than previous x-ray missions. At more than 45 feet in length and weighing more than 5 tons, it will be one of the largest objects ever placed in Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor and assembled and tested the observatory for NASA. The CXO program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Observatory was launched on July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW)

  14. Assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows a TRW technician inspecting the completely assembled Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) in the Thermal Vacuum Chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. The CXO is formerly known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), which was renamed in honor of the late Indian-American Astronomer, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1999. The CXO will help astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes and other exotic celestial objects. X-ray astronomy can only be done from space because Earth's atmosphere blocks x-rays from reaching the surface. The Observatory provides images that are 50 times more detailed than previous x-ray missions. At more than 45 feet in length and weighing more than 5 tons, it will be one of the largest objects ever placed in Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor and assembled and tested the observatory for NASA. The CXO program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Observatory was launched on July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW)

  15. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, the third of NASA's four Great Observatories and its flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, was launched by NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray sources were observed on August 12, 1999. The brightest of these sources named Leon X-1 in honor of Chandra's Telescope Scientist who played the leading role in establishing the key to Chandra's great advance in angular resolution. Over the past years, the Observatory's ability to provide sub-arc second X-ray images and high resolution spectra has established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes ranging over more than 10 orders of magnitude. The longevity of Chandra also provides a long observing baseline enabling temporal studies over time-scales of years. I will discuss how the Observatory works, the current operational status, and scientific highlights covering a variety of objects from stars with nearby planets that impact the stellar activity to the deepest Chandra surveys.

  16. New Master Program of Astrophysics and Specialization Courses for Matriculates of the Yerevan State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissian, Ara K.

    2007-08-01

    The new Master program of Astrophysics had been established for the graduated students of the Department of Astrophysics, Yerevan State University (YSU). The titles of courses and their contents were renewed and reedited based on European Universities' recent achievements. Especially, the new visions of principles, programs, as well as data-bases of Virtual Observatories are now discussing for implementation at the Department of Astrophysics, YSU. In addition to this innovative program, together with the Byurakan Observatory administration and YSU Department of Astrophysics, as well as with invited from BAO professors-teachers we now preparing the popularized fashionable courses for the pre-specialization of so called “matriculates” of YSU (graduated pupils of schools, who will choose specialty in any brunch of natural sciences). The same program with several changes and adaptation will be prepared to represent the public groups or individuals as an educational material for life-long education.

  17. NASA Astrophysics Funds Strategic Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Ganel, Opher; Pham, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The COR and PCOS Program Offices (POs) reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), serving as the NASA Astrophysics Division's implementation arm for matters relating to the two programs. One aspect of the PO's activities is managing the COR and PCOS Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, helping mature technologies to enable and enhance future astrophysics missions. For example, the SAT program is expected to fund key technology developments needed to close gaps identified by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) planned to study several large mission concept studies in preparation for the 2020 Decadal Survey.The POs are guided by the National Research Council's "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" Decadal Survey report, NASA's Astrophysics Implementation Plan, and the visionary Astrophysics Roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." Strategic goals include dark energy, gravitational waves, and X-ray observatories. Future missions pursuing these goals include, e.g., US participation in ESA's Euclid, Athena, and L3 missions; Inflation probe; and a large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) telescope.To date, 65 COR and 71 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 15 COR and 22 PCOS projects were funded. Notable successes include maturation of a new far-IR detector, later adopted by the SOFIA HAWC instrument; maturation of the H4RG near-IR detector, adopted by WFIRST; development of an antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometer, a technology deployed by BICEP2/BICEP3/Keck to measure polarization in the CMB signal; advanced UV reflective coatings implemented on the optics of GOLD and ICON, two heliophysics Explorers; and finally, the REXIS instrument on OSIRIS-REx is incorporating CCDs with directly deposited optical blocking filters developed by another SAT-funded project.We discuss our technology development process, with community input and strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and

  18. A Review of Astrophysics Experiments on Intense Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Arnett, D.; Drake, R.P.; Takabe, H.

    1999-03-03

    Astrophysics traditionally has been the domain of large astronomical observatories and theorists' computers, the former producing images from deep space, and the latter constructing intricate models to explain the observations. A component often missing has been the ability to quantitatively test the theories and models in an experimental setting where the initial and final states are well characterized. In a new development, intense lasers are being used to recreate aspects of astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory, allowing the creation of experimental testbeds where theory and modeling can be quantitatively compared with data. We summarize here several areas of astrophysics: supernovae, supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, and giant planets. In each of these areas, experiments are under development at intense laser facilities to test and refine our understanding of these phenomena.

  19. INTERMAGNET and magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic observatory is a specially designed ground-based facility that supports time-series measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field. Observatory data record a superposition of time-dependent signals related to a fantastic diversity of physical processes in the Earth’s core, mantle, lithosphere, ocean, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and, even, the Sun and solar wind.

  20. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  1. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  2. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  3. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  4. Strasbourg's "Academy" observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The observing post located on the roof of Strasbourg's 19th-century "Academy" is generally considered as the second astronomical observatory of the city: a transitional facility between the (unproductive) turret lantern at the top of the Hospital Gate and the German (Wilhelminian) Observatory. The current paper reviews recent findings from archives (blueprints, inventories, correspondence, decrees and other documents) shedding some light on this observatory of which virtually nothing was known to this day. While being, thanks to Chrétien Kramp (1760-1826), an effective attempt to establish an actual observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation, the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. A meridian instrument with a Cauchoix objective doublet was however recovered by the German observatory and is still existing.

  5. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  6. Astrophysical terms in Armenian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghikian, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    There are quite a few astrophysical textbooks (to say nothing about monographs) in Armenian, which are, however out of date and miss all the modern terms concerning space sciences. Many terms have been earlier adopted from English and, especially, from Russian. On the other hand, teachers and lecturers in Armenia need scientific terms in Armenian adequately reproducing either their means when translating from other languages or (why not) creating new ones. In short, a permanently updated astrophysical glossary is needed to serve as explanation of such terms. I am not going here to present the ready-made glossary (which should be a task for a joint efforts of many professionals) but instead just would like to describe some ambiguous examples with comments where possible coming from my long-year teaching, lecturing and professional experience. A probable connection between "iron" in Armenian as concerned to its origin is also discussed.

  7. Nuclear Astrophysics with LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonuclear reactions which power the stars and synthesize the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained during the 'solar' phase of LUNA are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and of the Sun is discussed. We then describe the current LUNA program mainly devoted to the study of the nucleosynthesis of the light elements in AGB stars and Classical Novae. Finally, the future of LUNA towards the study of helium and carbon burning with a new 3.5 MV accelerator is outlined.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics at DRAGON

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, U.

    2014-05-02

    The DRAGON recoil separator is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance. Over the last years, the DRAGON collaboration has measured several reactions using both radioactive and high-intensity stable beams. For example, the 160(a, g) cross section was recently measured. The reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the 12C(a, g) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In this measurement, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. In addition, results from other recent measurements will be presented.

  9. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  10. Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Based mainly on the results of two experiments, KamiokaNDE and Super-KamiokaNDE, the birth of neutrino astrophysics will be described. At the end, the result of the third generation Kamioka experiment, KamLAND, will be discussed together with the future possibilities.Organiser(s): Daniel Treille / EP DivisionNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs. Please note unusual day.

  11. Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-07

    Based mainly on the results of two experiments, KamiokaNDE and Super-KamiokaNDE, the birth of neutrino astrophysics will be described. At the end, the result of the third generation Kamioka experiment, KamLAND, will be discussed together with the future possibilities.Organiser(s): Daniel Treille / EP DivisionNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs. Please note unusual day.

  12. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  13. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  14. The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer was proposed in 1986 for NASA's Explorer Concept Study Program by an international collaboration of 25 scientists from nine institutions. The one-year feasibility study began in June 1988. The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer would obtain high resolution observations of gamma-ray lines, E/Delta E about 1000, at a sensitivity of about 0.000003 ph/sq cm s, in order to study fundamental problems in astrophysics such as nucleosynthesis, supernovae, neutron star and black-hole physics, and particle acceleration and interactions. The instrument would operate from 15 keV to 10 Mev and use a heavily shielded array of nine cooled Ge spectrometers in a very low background configuration. Its 10 deg FWHM field of view would contain a versatile coded mask system which would provide two-dimensional imaging with 4 deg resolution, one-dimensional imaging with 2 deg resolution, and efficiendt measurements of diffuse emission. An unshielded Ge spectrometer would obtain wide-field measurements of transient gamma-ray sources. The earliest possible mission would begin in 1995.

  15. Effective Field Theory in Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei

    2001-04-01

    I will discuss some basic ideas of effective field theory and its application to two nucleon systems. The theory allows a perturbative treatment of strongly interacting, bound state problems such that the calculations can be systematically improved and reliable error estimation performed. Also, the field theory formalism naturally allows manifest incorporation of symmetry properties such as gauge symmetry and Lorentz symmetry. Emphasis will be placed on some high precision calculations to low energy astrophysical problems: neutron radiative capture onto proton which is relevant to big-bang nucleosynthesis; neutrino deuteron inelastic scattering employed in the solar neutrino detection by Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and the proton-proton solar fusion process which is an important process to fuel the sun. The last two classes of processes share the same two-body operator which is proposed to be measured at ORLAND and could serve to calibrate SNO and the solar fusion rate.

  16. The Penllergare Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    This rather picturesque and historically important Victorian observatory was built by the wealthy John Dillwyn Llewelyn near to his mansion, some four miles north-west of Swansea, Wales. He had many scientific interests, in addition to astronomy, and was a notable pioneer of photography in Wales. Together with his eldest daughter, Thereza, (who married the grandson of the fifth Astronomer Royal, Nevil Maskelyne), he took some early photographs of the Moon from this site. This paper describes the construction of the observatory, and some of those primarily involved with it. Despite its having undergone restoration work in 1982, the state of the observatory is again the cause for much concern.

  17. The Science of Gravitational Waves with Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2013-01-01

    After decades of effort, direct detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources is on the horizon. Aside from teaching us about gravity itself, gravitational waves hold immense promise as a tool for general astrophysics. In this talk I will provide an overview of the science enabled by a space-based gravitational wave observatory sensitive in the milli-Hertz frequency band including the nature and evolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies, the demographics of stellar remnant compact objects in the Milky Way, and the behavior of gravity in the strong-field regime. I will also summarize the current status of efforts in the US and Europe to implement a space-based gravitational wave observatory.

  18. Atomic Data in X-Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, N. S.

    2000-01-01

    With the launches of the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) and the X-ray Multimirror Mission (XMM) and the upcoming launch of the Japanese mission ASTRO-E, high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of cosmic sources has begun. Early, deep observations of three stellar coronal sources will provide not only invaluable calibration data, but will also give us benchmarks for the atomic data under collisional equilibrium conditions. Analysis of the Chandra X-ray Observatory data, and data from other telescopes taken simultaneously, for these stars is ongoing as part of the Emission Line Project. Goals of the Emission Line Project are: (1) to determine and verify accurate and robust diagnostics and (2) to identify and prioritize issues in fundamental spectroscopy which will require further theoretical and/or laboratory work. The Astrophysical Plasma Emission Database will be described in some detail, as it is introducing standardization and flexibility into X-ray spectral modeling. Spectral models of X-ray astrophysical plasmas can be generally classified as dominated by either collisional ionization or by X-ray photoionization. While the atomic data needs for spectral models under these two types of ionization are significantly different, there axe overlapping data needs, as I will describe. Early results from the Emission Line Project benchmarks are providing an invaluable starting place, but continuing work to improve the accuracy and completeness of atomic data is needed. Additionally, we consider the possibility that some sources will require that both collisional ionization and photoionization be taken into account, or that time-dependent ionization be considered. Thus plasma spectral models of general use need to be computed over a wide range of physical conditions.

  19. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  20. Astrophysics from the moon.

    PubMed

    Burke, B F

    1990-12-01

    The surface of the moon would be an excellent location for astronomical telescopes, and, if a lunar base were to be established, the construction and maintenance of instruments would become feasible. The prospects are reviewed, with particular attention given to large optical aperturesynthesis instruments analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Typical parameters for a particular system are presented. PMID:17754981

  1. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... repository Reports Country statistics Map gallery Standards Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Monitoring health for the SDGs ... relevant web pages on the theme. Monitoring the health goal: indicators of overall progress Mortality and global ...

  2. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  3. Structure Formation in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Part I. Physical Processes and Numerical Methods Common to Structure Formations in Astrophysics: 1. The physics of turbulence E. Levêque; 2. The numerical simulation of turbulence W. Schmidt; 3. Numerical methods for radiation magnetohydrodynamics in astrophysics R. Klein and J. Stone; 4. The role of jets in the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies R. Banerjee, R. Pudritz and R. Ouyed; 5. Advanced numerical methods in astrophysical fluid dynamics A. Hujeirat and F. Heitsch; Part II. Structure and Star Formation in the Primordial Universe: 6. New frontiers in cosmology and galaxy formation challenges for the future R. Ellis and J. Silk; 7. Galaxy formation physics T. Abel, G. Bryan and R. Teyssier; 8. First stars formation, evolution, feedback effects V. Bromm, A. Ferrara and A. Heger; Part III. Contemporary Star and Brown Dwarf Formation: a) Cloud Formation and Fragmentation: 9. Diffuse interstellar medium and the formation of molecular clouds P. Hennebelle, M. Mac Low and E. Vazquez-Semadeni; 10. The formation of distributed and clustered stars in molecular clouds T. Megeath, Z. -Y. Li and A. Nordlund; b) Core Fragmentation and Star Formation: 11. The formation and evolution of prestellar cores P. André, S. Basu and S. Inutsuka; 12. Models for the formation of massive stars; Part IV. Protoplanetary Disks and Planet Formation M. Krumholz and I. Bonnell: 13. Observational properties of disks and young stellar objects G. Duchêne, F. Ménard, J. Muzzerolle and S. Mohanty; 14. Structure and dynamics of protoplanetary disks C. Dullemond, R. Durisen and J. Papaloizou; 15. Planet formation and evolution theory and observation Y. Alibert, I. Baraffe, W. Benz, G. Laughlin and S. Udry; 16. Planet formation assembling the puzzle G. Wurm and T. Guillot; Part V. Summary: 17. Open issues in small- and large-scale structure formation R. Klessen and M. Mac Low; 18. Final word E. Salpeter.

  4. Structure Formation in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Gilles

    2011-02-01

    Part I. Physical Processes and Numerical Methods Common to Structure Formations in Astrophysics: 1. The physics of turbulence E. Levêque; 2. The numerical simulation of turbulence W. Schmidt; 3. Numerical methods for radiation magnetohydrodynamics in astrophysics R. Klein and J. Stone; 4. The role of jets in the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies R. Banerjee, R. Pudritz and R. Ouyed; 5. Advanced numerical methods in astrophysical fluid dynamics A. Hujeirat and F. Heitsch; Part II. Structure and Star Formation in the Primordial Universe: 6. New frontiers in cosmology and galaxy formation challenges for the future R. Ellis and J. Silk; 7. Galaxy formation physics T. Abel, G. Bryan and R. Teyssier; 8. First stars formation, evolution, feedback effects V. Bromm, A. Ferrara and A. Heger; Part III. Contemporary Star and Brown Dwarf Formation: a) Cloud Formation and Fragmentation: 9. Diffuse interstellar medium and the formation of molecular clouds P. Hennebelle, M. Mac Low and E. Vazquez-Semadeni; 10. The formation of distributed and clustered stars in molecular clouds T. Megeath, Z. -Y. Li and A. Nordlund; b) Core Fragmentation and Star Formation: 11. The formation and evolution of prestellar cores P. André, S. Basu and S. Inutsuka; 12. Models for the formation of massive stars; Part IV. Protoplanetary Disks and Planet Formation M. Krumholz and I. Bonnell: 13. Observational properties of disks and young stellar objects G. Duchêne, F. Ménard, J. Muzzerolle and S. Mohanty; 14. Structure and dynamics of protoplanetary disks C. Dullemond, R. Durisen and J. Papaloizou; 15. Planet formation and evolution theory and observation Y. Alibert, I. Baraffe, W. Benz, G. Laughlin and S. Udry; 16. Planet formation assembling the puzzle G. Wurm and T. Guillot; Part V. Summary: 17. Open issues in small- and large-scale structure formation R. Klessen and M. Mac Low; 18. Final word E. Salpeter.

  5. Contributions of the NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory performed its first observations over a decade ago. Chandra's spectacular images and detailed spectra of astrophysical systems ranging from solar system objects to distant galaxies and galaxy clusters have provided information on such diverse topics as the properties of planetary and cometary atmospheres, stellar formation and demise, black hole-galaxy-cluster interactions, and properties of dark matter and dark energy. This presentation highlights some discoveries made with Chandra and briefly discusses future prospects.

  6. Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

  7. Nuclear and High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Fridolin

    2003-10-01

    There has never been a more exciting time in the overlapping areas of nuclear physics, particle physics and relativistic astrophysics than today. Orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Chandra X-ray satellite, and the X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM) have extended our vision tremendously, allowing us to see vistas with an unprecedented clarity and angular resolution that previously were only imagined, enabling astrophysicists for the first time ever to perform detailed studies of large samples of galactic and extragalactic objects. On the Earth, radio telescopes (e.g., Arecibo, Green Bank, Parkes, VLA) and instruments using adaptive optics and other revolutionary techniques have exceeded previous expectations of what can be accomplished from the ground. The gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA VIRGO, and Geo-600 are opening up a window for the detection of gravitational waves emitted from compact stellar objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Together with new experimental forefront facilities like ISAC, ORLAND and RIA, these detectors provide direct, quantitative physical insight into nucleosynthesis, supernova dynamics, accreting compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, and pairproduction in high energy sources which reinforce the urgent need for a strong and continuous feedback from nuclear and particle theory and theoretical astrophysics. In my lectures, I shall concentrate on three selected topics, which range from the behavior of superdense stellar matter, to general relativistic stellar models, to strange quark stars and possible signals of quark matter in neutron stars.

  8. Perspectives in astrophysical databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, Marco; de Angelis, Alessandro; Roberto, Vito

    2004-07-01

    Astrophysics has become a domain extremely rich of scientific data. Data mining tools are needed for information extraction from such large data sets. This asks for an approach to data management emphasizing the efficiency and simplicity of data access; efficiency is obtained using multidimensional access methods and simplicity is achieved by properly handling metadata. Moreover, clustering and classification techniques on large data sets pose additional requirements in terms of computation and memory scalability and interpretability of results. In this study we review some possible solutions.

  9. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M; Porter, John L.

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  10. The International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, A.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-Ray Observatory, a joint NASA-ESA-JAXA effort, is a next generation X-ray telescope that will answer many fundamental questions in contemporary astrophysics such as how do supermassive black holes influence galaxy evolution and how do galaxy clusters evolve (and how does this constrain dark energy and dark matter)? As a powerful astronomical observatory, IXO will also address questions ranging from the neutron star equation of state to the distribution and dynamical state of intergalactic material. X-ray spectroscopy, polarimetry, and timing studies provided by IXO's instruments will give detailed measures of abundances, temperatures, densities, magnetic fields and gravitational potentials. These measurements will be complementary to the next generation of observatories such as ALMA, JWST, and future ground-based optical-NIR telescopes. This mission will be ready for launch in the 2020-2021 timeframe and will launch on an Atlas V or Ariane V launch vehicle to L2. It employs a deployable optical bench to achieve the 20 meter focal length and a suite of five instruments. This talk will describe the motivating science for this mission as well as the spacecraft, instruments and optics

  11. The International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Randall; Ixo Team

    2009-09-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO), a joint ESA-JAXA-NASA effort, will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics: What happens close to a black hole? How did supermassive black holes grow? How does large scale structure form? What is the connection between these processes? To address these questions IXO will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin for several hundred active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN during their peak activity, search for super-massive black holes out to redshift z = 10, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, find the missing baryons in the cosmic web using background quasars, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. IXO will employ optics with 3 sq m collecting area and 5 arc sec angular resolution - 20 times more collecting area at 1 keV than any previous X-ray observatory. Focal plane instruments will deliver a 100-fold increase in effective area for high-resolution spectroscopy, deep spectral imaging over a wide field of view, deep polarimetric sensitivity, microsecond spectroscopic timing, and high count rate capability. The mission is being planned for launch in 2021 to an L2 orbit, with a five-year lifetime and consumables for 10 years. Previous experience assures us that unexpected discoveries will abound - a key feature of great observatories.

  12. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This illustration is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 and its experiments. It shows the focal plane instruments (at the right) plus the associated electronics for operating the telescope as it transmitted its observations to the ground. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, is located near the front of the telescope. Four separate astronomical instruments are located at the focus of this telescope and they could be interchanged for different types of observations as the observatory pointed at interesting areas of the Sky. Two of these instruments produced images; a High Resolution Imaging Detector and an Imaging Proportional Counter. The other two instruments, the Solid State Spectrometer and the Crystal Spectrometer, measured the spectra of x-ray objects. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, continuously viewed space independently to study a wider band of x-ray wavelengths and to examine the rapid time variations in the sources. The HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  13. Ten Years of the Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Magakian, T. Yu.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Erastova, L. K.; Hovhannisyan, L. R.; Sargsyan, L. A.; Sinamyan, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) was created 10 years ago, in 2005, when after the accomplishment of the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) we had enough resources to run a VO project and contribute in the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA, www.ivoa.net). ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects include Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on DFBS. Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS, www.icsu-wds.org/) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it due to DFBS and ArVO projects.

  14. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  15. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  16. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.; Holdridge, David V.; Norris, J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  17. The Role of Project Science in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, has an outstanding record of scientific and technical success. This success results from the efforts of a team comprising NASA, its contractors, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the instrument groups, and other elements of the scientific community, including thousands of scientists who utilize this powerful facility for astrophysical research. We discuss the role of NASA Project Science in the formulation, development, calibration, and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In addition to representing the scientific community within the Project, Project Science performed what we term "science systems engineering". This activity encompasses translation of science requirements into technical requirements and assessment of the scientific impact of programmatic and technical trades. We briefly describe several examples of science systems engineering conducted by Chandra Project Science.

  18. Frontier Research in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    We want to join about 90 colleagues from the whole world involved in various topics of modern Astrophysics and Particle Physics in order to discuss the most recent experimental and theoretical results for an advance in the comprehension of the Physics governing our Universe. For reaching the aim of the workshop the idea is to use ground- and space-based experimental developments, theoretical developments AND the coming out science results which have already resulted OR WILL result into high impact science papers. The following items will be reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Clusters of Galaxies. Physics of the Diffuse Cosmic Sources. Physics of Cosmic Rays. Physics of Discrete Cosmic Sources. Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies, Gamma-Ray Bursts. Galactic Sources: Star Formation, Pre-Main-Sequence and Main-Sequence Stars, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources, Nucleosynthesis. Future Physics and Astrophysics: Ongoing and Planned Ground- and Space-based Experiments. The workshop will include few 40-minute general review talks to introduce the current problems, and typically 20-minute talks discussing new experimental and theoretical results. A series of 15-minute talks will discuss the ongoing and planned ground- and space-based experiments. The cadence of the workshop will be biennial. The participation will be only by invitation. Editors: Franco Giovannelli and Lola Sabau-Graziati

  19. The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility. Observing the Universe in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, V.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced X ray Astronophysics Facility (AXAF) program is presented. Beginning with a brief introduction to X ray astrophysics, the AXAF observatory is described including the onboard instrumentation and system capabilities. Possible X ray sources suitable for AXAF observation are identified and defined.

  20. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  1. NASA'S Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Why are space observatories important? The answer concerns twinkling stars in the night sky. To reach telescopes on Earth, light from distant objects has to penetrate Earth's atmosphere. Although the sky may look clear, the gases that make up our atmosphere cause problems for astronomers. These gases absorb the majority of radiation emanating from celestial bodies so that it never reaches the astronomer's telescope. Radiation that does make it to the surface is distorted by pockets of warm and cool air, causing the twinkling effect. In spite of advanced computer enhancement, the images finally seen by astronomers are incomplete. NASA, in conjunction with other countries' space agencies, commercial companies, and the international community, has built observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find the answers to numerous questions about the universe. With the capabilities the Space Shuttle provides, scientist now have the means for deploying these observatories from the Shuttle's cargo bay directly into orbit.

  2. Everyday astronomy @ Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parello, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Catering to a broad range of audiences, including many non-English speaking visitors, Sydney Observatory offers everything from school programmes to public sessions, day care activities to night observing, personal interactions to web-based outreach. With a history of nearly 150 years of watching the heavens, Sydney Observatory is now engaged in sharing the wonder with everybody in traditional and innovative ways. Along with time-honoured tours of the sky through two main telescopes, as well as a small planetarium, Sydney Observatory also boasts a 3D theatre, and offers programmes 363 days a year - rain or shine, day and night. Additionally, our website neversleeps, with a blog, YouTube videos, and night sky watching podcasts. And for good measure, a sprinkling of special events such as the incomparable Festival of the Stars, for which most of northern Sydney turns out their lights. Sydney Observatory is the oldest working observatory in Australia, and we're thrilled to be looking forward to our 150th Anniversary next year in anticipation of the International Year of Astronomy immediately thereafter.

  3. Recognition of compact astrophysical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogelman, H. (Editor); Rothschild, R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics and the Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics at the Univ. of Md. collaberated on a graduate level course with this title. This publication is an edited version of notes used as the course text. Topics include stellar evolution, pulsars, binary stars, X-ray signatures, gamma ray sources, and temporal analysis of X-ray data.

  4. Learning Astrophysics through Mobile Gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Becciani, U.; Krokos, M.; Bandieramonte, M.; Petta, C.; Pistagna, C.; Riggi, S.; Sciacca, E.; Vitello, F.

    2013-10-01

    SpaceMission is a mobile application (iOS) offering hands-on experience of astrophysical concepts using scientific simulations. The application is based on VisIVO which is a suite of software tools for visual discovery through 3D views generated from astrophysical datasets.

  5. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold`s numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold`s-number MHD dynamos.

  6. NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop 2006 Introductory Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Hashima

    2006-01-01

    NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop 2006, is the fourth in a series of workshops held at four year intervals, to assess the laboratory needs of NASA's astrophysics missions - past, current and future. Investigators who need laboratory data to interpret their observations from space missions, theorists and modelers, experimentalists who produce the data, and scientists who compile databases have an opportunity to exchange ideas and understand each other's needs and limitations. The multi-wavelength character of these workshops allows cross-fertilization of ideas, raises awareness in the scientific community of the rapid advances in other fields, and the challenges it faces in prioritizing its laboratory needs in a tight budget environment. Currently, we are in the golden age of Space Astronomy, with three of NASA s Great Observatories, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), in operation and providing astronomers and opportunity to perform synergistic observations. In addition, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), XMM-Newton, HETE-2, Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), INTEGRAL and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), are operating in an extended phase, while Swift and Suzaku are in their prime phase of operations. The wealth of data from these missions is stretching the Laboratory Astrophysics program to its limits. Missions in the future, which also need such data include the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), Constellation-X (Con-X), Herschel, and Planck. The interpretation of spectroscopic data from these missions requires knowledge of atomic and molecular parameters such as transition probabilities, f-values, oscillator strengths, excitation cross sections, collision strengths, which have either to be measured in the laboratory by simulating space plasma and interactions therein, or by theoretical calculations and modeling. Once the laboratory

  7. Enabling Remote and Automated Operations at The Red Buttes Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Tyler G.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David; Yeigh, Rex R.

    2016-01-01

    The Red Buttes Observatory (RBO) is a 60 centimeter Cassegrain telescope located ten miles south of Laramie, Wyoming. The size and proximity of the telescope comfortably make the site ideal for remote and automated observations. This task required development of confidence in control systems for the dome, telescope, and camera. Python and WinSCP script routines were created for the management of science images and weather. These scripts control the observatory via the ASCOM standard libraries and allow autonomous operation after initiation.The automation tasks were completed primarily to rejuvenate an aging and underutilized observatory with hopes to contribute to an international exoplanet hunting team with other interests in potentially hazardous asteroid detection. RBO is owned and operated solely by the University of Wyoming. The updates and proprietor status have encouraged the development of an undergraduate astronomical methods course including hands-on experience with a research telescope, a rarity in bachelor programs for astrophysics.

  8. World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission: state of art 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Gomez De Castro, Ana; Shustov, Boris M.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 300 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. The observatory includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy and long slit low-resolution spectroscopy with the WUVS instrument; moreover UV imaging will be available with cameras. WSO-UV is a Russian led mission that will be operating in high Earth orbit (geosynchronous with inclination 51.^o6) for five+five years grating access to the UV range to the world-wide astronomical community in the post-Hubble era. Spain is a major partner to the project. Updated information of the WSO-UV project is provided periodically in the COSPAR meetings. Henceforth, this review provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last COSPAR Assembly.

  9. Pulkovo Observatory and its Former Branches in the Crimea and Nikolaev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. V.; Abalakin, V. K.; Pinigin, G. I.; Rostopchina, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    The Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo was founded in 1839 for ``providing permanent and, as far as possible, the most perfect observations aimed at the prosperity of Astronomy and necessary for geographic undertakings of the Russian Empire and for ends of the Practical Astronomy as well''. The first director of the Pulkovo was the prominent astronomer F.G.W. Struve (1793--1864). The Observatory was designed by the well-known architect Alexander Brüllow. The three-dome Pulkovo style was propagated over the world. Widely-used methods of astrometric observations along with famous fundamental star catalogs were developed in Pulkovo. The Observatory has kept the leading position in Russia up to date, conducting research in all major areas of astronomy -- astrophysics, solar physics, radio astronomy, astrometry, celestial mechanics, etc. In 1908, the south branch of Pulkovo Observatory in Simeiz (Crimea) was organized, where both systematic observations in search of new comets and minor planets, photometric and spectroscopic observations of stars and galaxies were started. These observations yielded fundamental results concerning rotation of stars, structure of galaxies, the role of magnetic field in interstellar medium. In 1945 Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of USSR Academy of Science (now Scientific Research Institute ``Crimean Astrophysical Observatory'', Ukraine) was founded on the base of the Simeiz department. Now it is a leading astronomical institution in Ukraine. Areas of research at CrAO are solar physics, chemical composition and activity of stars and their surroundings, extragalactic studies, geo-dynamics, small bodies in the Solar System and in the near-Earth space, instrumentation for ground-based and space astronomy. In 1912, Nikolaev branch of Pulkovo Observatory was organized on the basis of the oldest in Russia Naval Observatory in Nikolaev, which was founded in 1821 by Admiral A. Greig, chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Regular

  10. Relativistic astrophysics explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, P.

    2004-01-01

    The great success of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has shown that X-ray timing is an excellent tool for the study of strong gravitational fields and the measurement of fundamental physical properties of black holes and neutron stars. Here, we describe a next-generation X-ray timing mission, the Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer (RAE), designed to fit within the envelope of a medium-sized mission. The instruments will be a narrow-field X-ray detector array with an area of 6 m 2 equal to 10 times that of RXTE and a wide-field X-ray monitor. We describe the science made possible with this mission, the design of the instruments, and results on prototype large-area X-ray detectors.

  11. The Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, P.

    The great success of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has shown that X-ray timing is an excellent tool for the study of strong gravitational fields and the measurement of fundamental physical properties of black holes and neutron stars. Here, we describe a next-generation X-ray timing mission, the Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer (RAE), designed to fit within the envelope of a medium-sized mission. The instruments will be a narrow-field X-ray detector array with an area of 60,000 cm2 equal to ten times that of RXTE and a wide-field X-ray monitor. We describe the science made possible with this mission, the design of the instruments, and results on prototype large-area X-ray detectors.

  12. Theoretical Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-08-07

    Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

  13. Astrophysics with MILAGRO

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes how data from a new type of air shower detector, MILAGRO can shed light on a variety of interesting problems in astrophysics. MILAGRO has the capability to make observations of VHE/UHE emission from the recently discovered TeV gamma-ray source Markarian 421, an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). An observation of the attenuation of this signal in the range of 1--20 TeV can be used to make the first measurement of the intergalactic infrared radiation. We will also describe how MILAGRO can improve the existing limits on the density of Primordial Black Holes (PBH) by three orders of magnitude. Finally, we will discuss how this instrument can be used to measure the diffuse galactic emission of gamma-rays which must come from the disk.

  14. Black-hole astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  15. Astrophysics with MILAGRO

    SciTech Connect

    The MILAGRO Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes how data from a new type of air shower detector, MILAGRO can shed light on a variety of interesting problems in astrophysics. MILAGRO has the capability to make observations of VHE/UHE emission from the recently discovered TeV gamma-ray source Markarian 421, an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). An observation of the attenuation of this signal in the range of 1--20 TeV can be used to make the first measurement of the intergalactic infrared radiation. We will also describe how MILAGRO can improve the existing limits on the density of Primordial Black Holes (PBH) by three orders of magnitude. Finally, we will discuss how this instrument can be used to measure the diffuse galactic emission of gamma-rays which must come from the disk.

  16. Astrophysics. A primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundt, Wolfgang

    For a quantitative understanding of the physics of the universe - from the solar system through the Milky Way to clusters of galaxies all the way to cosmology - these edited lecture notes are perhaps among the most concise and also among the most critical ones: Astrophysics has not yet stood the redundancy test of laboratory physics, hence should be aware of early interpretations. Special chapters are devoted to magnetic and radiation processes, supernovae, disks, black-hole candidacy, bipolar flows, cosmic rays, gamma-ray bursts, image distortions, and special sources. At the same time, planet earth is viewed as the arena for life, with plants and animals having evolved to homo sapiens during cosmic time. This text is unique in covering the basic qualitative and quantitative tools, formulae as well as numbers, needed for the precise interpretation of frontline phenomena. The author compares mainstream interpretations with new and even controversial ones he wishes to emphasize.

  17. Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermilab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Theoretical Astrophysics Group works on a broad range of topics ranging from string theory to data analysis in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The group is motivated by the belief that a deep understanding of fundamental physics is necessary to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the universe. During the three years 2001-2003 of our previous NASA grant, over 120 papers were written; ten of our postdocs went on to faculty positions; and we hosted or organized many workshops and conferences. Kolb and collaborators focused on the early universe, in particular and models and ramifications of the theory of inflation. They also studied models with extra dimensions, new types of dark matter, and the second order effects of super-horizon perturbations. S tebbins, Frieman, Hui, and Dodelson worked on phenomenological cosmology, extracting cosmological constraints from surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also worked on theoretical topics such as weak lensing, reionization, and dark energy. This work has proved important to a number of experimental groups [including those at Fermilab] planning future observations. In general, the work of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group has served as a catalyst for experimental projects at Fennilab. An example of this is the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Fennilab is now a member of SNAP, and much of the work done here is by people formerly working on the accelerator. We have created an environment where many of these people made transition from physics to astronomy. We also worked on many other topics related to NASA s focus: cosmic rays, dark matter, the Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect, the galaxy distribution in the universe, and the Lyman alpha forest. The group organized and hosted a number of conferences and workshop over the years covered by the grant. Among them were:

  18. Photoneutron reactions in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Varlamov, V. V. Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.; Stopani, K. A.

    2014-12-15

    Among key problems in nuclear astrophysics, that of obtaining deeper insight into the mechanism of synthesis of chemical elements is of paramount importance. The majority of heavy elements existing in nature are produced in stars via radiative neutron capture in so-called s- and r processes, which are, respectively, slow and fast, in relation to competing β{sup −}-decay processes. At the same time, we know 35 neutron-deficient so-called bypassed p-nuclei that lie between {sup 74}Se and {sup 196}Hg and which cannot originate from the aforementioned s- and r-processes. Their production is possible in (γ, n), (γ, p), or (γ, α) photonuclear reactions. In view of this, data on photoneutron reactions play an important role in predicting and describing processes leading to the production of p-nuclei. Interest in determining cross sections for photoneutron reactions in the threshold energy region, which is of particular importance for astrophysics, has grown substantially in recent years. The use of modern sources of quasimonoenergetic photons obtained in processes of inverse Compton laser-radiation scattering on relativistic electronsmakes it possible to reveal rather interesting special features of respective cross sections, manifestations of pygmy E1 and M1 resonances, or the production of nuclei in isomeric states, on one hand, and to revisit the problem of systematic discrepancies between data on reaction cross sections from experiments of different types, on the other hand. Data obtained on the basis of our new experimental-theoretical approach to evaluating cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions are invoked in considering these problems.

  19. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  20. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  1. Nuclear physics experiments for the astrophysical p process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, A.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Hasper, J.; Hennig, A.; Netterdon, L.; Zilges, A.

    2011-04-01

    We studied the two astrophysically interesting reactions 141PrPm and 92MoTc with the activation method and with the in-beam method, respectively. The 141PrPm experiment was performed at the cyclotron of the ‘Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)’ in Braunschweig, Germany, and the reaction was studied within and just above the so-called Gamow window. In this proceedings, we present the experimental details of this measurement. The proton-capture reaction on the neutron-magic nucleus 92Mo was studied at energies relevant for the astrophysical p process. The reaction was investigated by the in-beam technique using the γ-ray detector array HORUS (High efficient Observatory for γ-Ray Unique Spectroscopy) at the TANDEM ion accelerator at the University of Cologne. The preliminary experimental results are compared to data stemming from other measurements.

  2. The physics and theory of astrophysical neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The origin of astrophysical neutrinos remains a mystery. Absence of detection of EeV neutrinos questions, among other properties, the mass composition and the pion production efficiency of highest energy sources in the Universe. Growing statistics from the IceCube Observatory at TeV-PeV energies starts to reveal important features of the sources, including their energy spectrum, spacial distribution, emission rates, and Galactic/extragalactic origin. At sub-TeV, tensions exist between the fluxes of neutrinos and isotropic diffusive gamma-ray background, challenging some of the existing astrophysical and dark matter scenarios. In light of these observational constraints and implications, I will review a wide range of potential neutrino sources, focusing on their neutrino production mechanism and multi-messenger signatures.

  3. Comprehensive x-ray spectral code for high energy astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Mauche, C W

    2000-08-18

    The aim of this project has been to develop a spectral analysis tool with a level of quality and completeness commensurate to that expected in data from the current generation of X-ray observatories. The code is called LXSS (Livermore X-Ray Spectral Synthesizer). X-ray-emitting astrophysical plasmas are rarely, if ever, in LTE, so they have adopted the detailed level accounting approach, in which rates for processes that populate or depopulate atomic energy levels are treated explicitly. This entails the generation of a large quantity of atomic data, most of which is calculated using ''in-house'' computer codes. Calculations are benchmarked against laboratory data, and spectral models have been used to provide first-time interpretations of astrophysical X-ray spectra. The design of a versatile graphical user interface that allows access to and manipulation of the atomic database comprises the second major part of the project.

  4. National Virtual Observatory Efforts at SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Deponte, J.; Evans, I.; Harris, M.; Lowe, S.; McDowell, J. C.; Noble, M. S.

    The National Virtual Observatory (NVO) project is an effort to federate astronomical resources, to provide seamless access to heterogeneous data at various centers throughout the world, and make them appear to the user as a homogeneous set. The NVO will reduce the user's need to obtain, recall and manage details such as passwords, band coverage, instrument specificity and access methodologies for each archive site in order to get and analyze data. The project will employ Grid technology and distributed computing techniques to manage enormous data volumes and processing needs. At the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), we are developing a small scale prototype implementation of the NVO paradigm. This demonstration will illustrate the directions being pursued toward this goal by allowing a user to request data from various resources, display the returned data, and interactively perform analysis on that data.

  5. Science with the constellation-X observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Valinia, Azita; White, Nicholas; Tananbaum, Harvey

    1999-04-27

    The Constellation X-ray Mission is a high throughput X-ray facility emphasizing observations at high spectral resolution (E/{delta}E{approx}300-3000), and broad energy bandpass (0.25-40 keV). Constellation-X will provide a factor of nearly 100 increase in sensitivity over current high resolution X-ray spectroscopy missions. It is the X-ray astronomy equivalent of large ground-based optical telescopes such as the Keck Observatory and the ESO Very Large Telescope. When observations commence toward the end of next decade, Constellation-X will address many fundamental astrophysics questions such as: the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies; constraining the baryon content of the Universe; determining the spin and mass of supermassive black holes in AGN; and probing strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes.

  6. Observatories in earth orbit and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present volume on observations in earth orbit and beyond discusses current and future missions, launch vehicles, the relative merits of various observatories, and long-term future issues. Attention is given to the Granat automatic spacecraft, the prospects of the Hipparcos mission, EUV and FUV astronomy from Voyagers 1 and 2, and the X-ray Timing Explorer. Topics addressed include the SAX mission for X-ray astronomy, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Ulysses mission in the high-latitude heliosphere, and science operations for future space astrophysics missions. Also discussed are science observations with the IUE using the one-gyro mode, new methods of determining spacecraft attitude, cryogenic testing of optics for ISOCAM, and the stellar X-ray polarimeter for the Spectrum-X-Gamma mission.

  7. Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  8. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  9. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  10. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  11. Arecibo Observatory for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartus, P.; Isidro, G. M.; La Rosa, C.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe new materials available at the Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, explains some basic terms used in radio astronomy, and lists frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. Our interest is in enabling…

  12. NASA Awards Chandra X-Ray Observatory Follow-On Contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    NASA has awarded a contract to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., to provide science and operational support for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, one of the world's most powerful tools to better understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The contract will have a period of performance from August 31, 2003, through July 31, 2010, with an estimated value of 373 million. It is a follow-on contract to the existing contract with Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory that has provided science and operations support to the Observatory since its launch in July 1999. At launch the intended mission life was five years. As a result of Chandra's success, NASA extended the mission from five to 10 years. The value of the original contract was 289 million. The follow-on contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory will continue through the 10-year mission. The contract type is cost reimbursement with no fee. The contract covers mission operations and data analysis, which includes the observatory operations, science data processing and the general and guaranteed time observer (astronomer) support. The observatory operations tasks include monitoring the health and status of the observatory and developing and up linking the observation sequences during Chandra's communication coverage periods. The science data processing tasks include the competitive selection, planning, and coordination of science observations with the general observers and processing and delivery of the resulting scientific data. There are approximately 200 to 250 observing proposals selected annually out of about 800 submitted, with a total amount of observing time of about 20 million seconds. Chandra has exceeded expectations of scientists, giving them unique insight into phenomena light years away, such as exotic celestial objects, matter falling into black holes, and stellar explosions. X-ray astronomy can only be performed from space because Earth's atmosphere

  13. The Virtual Solar Observatory: New Data, Big Data and Better Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Alisdair R.

    2014-06-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is entering its second decade of serving data to the solar physics community. It continues to provide 'homogenous access to heterogeneous data' at ever increasing volumes, thanks primarily to the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In 2013, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, one of the primary VSO sites for SDO data distribution served over 90TB in user requests alone. Despite SDOs dominance in terms of data volume, we continue to make available new data sets, and update and improve access to current ones especially via the IDL interface to the VSO. Here we detail new data sets, give updates on new querying capabilities and preview what lies ahead for VSO.

  14. Atomic processes for astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badnell, N. R.; Del Zanna, G.; Fernández-Menchero, L.; Giunta, A. S.; Liang, G. Y.; Mason, H. E.; Storey, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this review we summarize the recent calculations and improvements of atomic data that we have carried out for the analysis of astrophysical spectroscopy within the atomic processes for astrophysical plasmas network. We briefly discuss the various methods used for the calculations, and highlight several issues that we have uncovered during such extensive work. We discuss the completeness and accuracy of the cross sections for ionic excitation by electron impact for the main isoelectronic sequences, which we have obtained with large-scale calculations. Given its astrophysical importance, we emphasize the work on iron. Some examples on the significant improvement that has been achieved over previous calculations are provided.

  15. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  16. Particle Astrophysics Using Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, E. S.

    Cosmic rays, energetic particles coming from outer space, bring us information about the physical processes that accelerate particles to relativistic energies, about the effects of those particles in driving dynamical processes in our Galaxy, and about the distribution of matter and fields in interstellar space. Cosmic rays were discovered in the early twentieth century using a balloon-borne electroscope. Balloons are currently being used for answering fundamental questions about the cosmos: (1) Is the Universe symmetric, and if so where is the antimatter? (2) What is the dark matter? (3) How do cosmic rays get their enormous energies? (4) Can the entire energy spectrum of cosmic rays result from a single acceleration mechanism? (5) Are supernovae really the sources of cosmic rays? (6) What is the history of cosmic rays in the Galaxy? (7) What is the origin of the "knee" in the cosmic ray energy spectrum? etc. The status of results from past balloon-borne measurements and expected results from ongoing and planned future balloon-borne particle astrophysics experiments will be reviewed.

  17. Nuclear and particle astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-10-31

    We discuss the physics of matter that is relevant to the structure of compact stars. This includes nuclear, neutron star matter and quark matter and phase transitions between them. Many aspects of neutron star structure and its dependance on a number of physical assumptions about nuclear matter properties and hyperon couplings are investigated. We also discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neuron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general of theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Indeed the prompt explosion, from which a constraint had been thought to follow, is now believed not to be mechanism by which most, if any stars, explode. In any case the nuclear equation of state is but one of a multitude on uncertain factors, and possibly one of the least important. The rapid rotation of pulsars is also discussed. It is shown that for periods below a certain limit it becomes increasingly difficult to reconcile them with neutron stars. Strange stars are possible if strange matter is the absolute ground state. We discuss such stars and their compatibility with observation. 112 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. High Energy Astrophysics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Ormes, Jonathan F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The nature of gravity and its relationship to the other three forces and to quantum theory is one of the major challenges facing us as we begin the new century. In order to make progress we must challenge the current theories by observing the effects of gravity under the most extreme conditions possible. Black holes represent one extreme, where the laws of physics as we understand them break down. The Universe as whole is another extreme, where its evolution and fate is dominated by the gravitational influence of dark matter and the nature of the Cosmological constant. The early universe represents a third extreme, where it is thought that gravity may somehow be unified with the other forces. NASA's "Cosmic Journeys" program is part of a NASA/NSF/DoE tri-agency initiative designed to observe the extremes of gravity throughout the universe. This program will probe the nature of black holes, ultimately obtaining a direct image of the event horizon. It will investigate the large scale structure of the Universe to constrain the location and nature of dark matter and the nature of the cosmological constant. Finally it will search for and study the highest energy processes, that approach those found in the early universe. I will outline the High Energy Astrophysics part of this program.

  19. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  20. Relativistic jets in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derishev, E. V.; Zheleznyakov, V. V.; Koryagin, S. A.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.

    The properties of the plasma state of matter are determined by the motion and the electromagnetic emission of the non-bound electrically charged particles --- electrons, positrons, protons and ions. It is not easy to create plasma in a laboratory. However this state is typical for the cosmic conditions --- at the stars and in the interstellar space. The properties of the laboratory as well as the space plasma are investigated at the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The research is focused on the mechanisms of generation and propagation of the electromagnetic radiation --- from the radio waves to the gamma-rays --- in the planetary and stellar atmospheres and at the other astrophysical objects. The extreme physical conditions for a plasma are realized near the compact objects like black holes, neutron stars and collapsing nuclei of the massive stars. The plasma could be strongly non-equlibrium and can produce strong electromagnetic fields. Its bulk motion as well as the chaotic motion of the constituting particles can be relativistic, i. e. the motion can achieve velocities close to the speed of light. The relativistic plasma is frequently observed in the form of jets.

  1. Numerical Relativity and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the Universe many powerful events are driven by strong gravitational effects that require general relativity to fully describe them. These include compact binary mergers, black hole accretion, and stellar collapse, where velocities can approach the speed of light and extreme gravitational fields (ΦNewt/c2≃1) mediate the interactions. Many of these processes trigger emission across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact binaries further source strong gravitational wave emission that could directly be detected in the near future. This feat will open up a gravitational wave window into our Universe and revolutionize our understanding of it. Describing these phenomena requires general relativity, and—where dynamical effects strongly modify gravitational fields—the full Einstein equations coupled to matter sources. Numerical relativity is a field within general relativity concerned with studying such scenarios that cannot be accurately modeled via perturbative or analytical calculations. In this review, we examine results obtained within this discipline, with a focus on its impact in astrophysics.

  2. Neutron reactions in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifarth, R.; Lederer, C.; Käppeler, F.

    2014-05-01

    The quest for the origin of matter in the Universe had been the subject of philosophical and theological debates over the history of mankind, but quantitative answers could be found only by the scientific achievements of the last century. A first important step on this way was the development of spectral analysis by Kirchhoff and Bunsen in the middle of the 19th century, which provided first insight in the chemical composition of the sun and the stars. The energy source of the stars and the related processes of nucleosynthesis, however, could be revealed only with the discoveries of nuclear physics. A final break-through came eventually with the compilation of elemental and isotopic abundances in the solar system, which reflect the various nucleosynthetic processes in detail. This review focuses on the mass region above iron, where the formation of the elements is dominated by neutron capture, mainly in the slow (s) and rapid (r) processes. Following a brief historic account and a sketch of the relevant astrophysical models, emphasis is put on the nuclear physics input, where status and perspectives of experimental approaches are presented in some detail, complemented by the indispensable role of theory.

  3. Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility Delivery Delayed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-12-01

    TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA, has notified NASA that it will be unable to deliver the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, FL, on June 1, 1998, as required by contract, because it has experienced delays in assembly and testing of the facility. TRW is NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. NASA and contractor officials met at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, this week to discuss the issue. While no new delivery date was agreed upon, the agency has directed TRW to develop a plan of action that would show how the contractor can minimize impact to the June 1 delivery. Although a delay in delivery could delay the launch, currently scheduled for August 1998 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-93 mission, and could result in additional program costs, the exact impact is not yet known. "The delay in delivery of the observatory is unfortunate," said Fred Wojtalik, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center observatory projects office manager in Huntsville, AL. "However, our first priority is to launch a world-class observatory which has been thoroughly tested and meets all requirements. We will work closely with TRW to ensure that happens." The delay is primarily due to TRW's difficulty in configuring and programming its Integrated Spacecraft Automated Test System to test the observatory before it is delivered to NASA. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility is expected to play a vital role in answering fundamental questions about the universe, including its age and size, and will probe the nature and amounts of so-called "dark matter," providing unique insight into one of nature's great puzzles. The observatory also will allow scientists to see and measure the details of hot gas clouds in clusters of galaxies; observe X-rays generated when stars are torn apart by the incredibly strong gravity around massive black holes in the centers of galaxies; and provide images that will help understand how exploding stars

  4. Radiative capture reactions in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Carl R.; Davids, Barry

    2015-08-07

    Here, the radiative capture reactions of greatest importance in nuclear astrophysics are identified and placed in their stellar contexts. Recent experimental efforts to estimate their thermally averaged rates are surveyed.

  5. NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

  6. Synchrotron Radiation from Outer Space and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The universe provides numerous extremely interesting astrophysical sources of synchrotron X radiation. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and other X-ray missions provide powerful probes of these and other cosmic X-ray sources. Chandra is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which also includes the Hubble Space telescope, the Spitzer Infrared Telescope Facility, and the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides the best angular resolution (sub-arcsecond) of any previous, current, or planned (for the foreseeable near future) space-based X-ray instrumentation. We present here a brief overview of the technical capability of this X-Ray observatory and some of the remarkable discoveries involving cosmic synchrotron sources.

  7. Neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in many aspects of astrophysics and cosmology. Since they control the electron fraction, or equivalently neutron-to-proton ratio, neutrino properties impact yields of r-process nucleosynthesis. Similarly the weak decoupling temperature in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis epoch is exponentially dependent on the neutron-to-proton ratio. In these conference proceedings, I briefly summarize some of the recent work exploring the role of neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology.

  8. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, J. C.; Lara, L. M.; Quilis, V.; Gorgas, J.

    2013-05-01

    "Highlights of Astronomy and Astrophysics VII" contains the Proceedings of the biannual meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society held in Valencia from July 9 to 13, 2012. Over 300 astronomer, both national and international researchers, attended to the conference covering a wide variety of astrophysical topics: Galaxies and Cosmology, The Milky Way and Its Components, Planetary Sciences, Solar Physics, Instrumentation and Computation, and Teaching and Outreach of Astronomy.

  9. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  10. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  11. On-orbit assembly and servicing of future space observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, C. F.

    2006-06-01

    NASA's experience servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, including the installation of optical elements to compensate for a mirror manufacturing error; replacement of failed avionics and worn-out batteries, gyros, thermal insulation and solar arrays; upgrades to the data handling subsystem; installation of far more capable instruments; and retrofitting the NICMOS experiment with a mechanical cryocooler has clearly demonstrated the advantages of on-orbit servicing. This effort has produced a unique astronomical observatory that is orders of magnitude more capable than when it was launched and can be operated for several times its original design life. The in-space operations capabilities that are developed for NASA's Exploration Program will make it possible to assemble and service spacecraft in space and to service them in cis-lunar and L2 orbits. Future space observatories should be designed to utilize these capabilities. This paper discusses the application of the lessons learned from HST and our plans for servicing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Observatory with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and the Space Station Freedom Customer Servicing Facility to future space observatories, such as SAFIR and LifeFinder that are designed to operate in heliocentric orbits. It addresses the use of human and robotic in-space capabilities that would be required for on-orbit assembly and servicing for future space observatories, and describes some of our design concepts for these activities.

  12. High Altitude Observatory YBJ and ARGO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; ARGO Collaboration

    A 5800 m2 RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) full coverage air shower array is under construction in the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory, Tibet of China, by the ChinaItaly ARGO Collaboration. YBJ is a large flat grassland with an area 10 × 70 km2 at 4300m altitude, about 90 north west from Lhasa. Its nearby power station, asphalt road to Lhasa, passing railway (will be constructed during the coming 5 years), optical fiber link to the INTERNET, rare snow and other favourable weather conditions are well suitable for setting an Astrophysical Observatory here. The installation of a large area carpet-like detector in this peculiar site will allow one to perform an all-sky and high duty cycle study of high energy gamma rays from 100GeV to 50 TeV as well as accurate measurements on UHE cosmic rays. To insure the stable and uniform working condition of RPCs, a 104 M2 carpet hall was constructed, the RPC installation have be started in it since last November. The natural distribution and daily variation of temperature in the hall, the data concerning the performances of the installed RPCs, have been measured, the results are presented. ce

  13. Lunar Observatories: Why, Where, and When?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, D. Paul, Jr.; Durst, Steve; Chen, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    The value of Moon-based astronomical instruments has been repeatedly supported by several major studies and conferences, such as the "Astrophysics from the Moon" meeting held in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1990 (Mumma and Smith, 1990). A comprehensive review of the advantages of lunar observatories was published in the same year by Burns et al. (1990). However, the decade since then has seen a number of major developments bearing on the topic of lunar observatories, including the following. Two space astronomy programs have been outstandingly successful since 1990: the Cosmic Background Explorer ((COBE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These instruments have shown for the first time the structure of the universe in the first stages of its creation, i.e., the "Big Bang." One result of these discoveries has been to focus new space astronomy programs on fundamental problems such as shape of the universe, evolution of galaxies, and the nature of "dark" matter. Since these questions involve the very earliest stages of the history of the universe, to study them requires observation of extremely distant objects. Because of the expansion of the universe, all radiation from such objects is greatly redshifted, into the infrared region of the spectrum. For this reason, the Next Generation Space Telescope, the successor to HST, will be an infrared telescope.

  14. Calibration of X-Ray Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; L'Dell, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate calibration of x-ray observatories has proved an elusive goal. Inaccuracies and inconsistencies amongst on-ground measurements, differences between on-ground and in-space performance, in-space performance changes, and the absence of cosmic calibration standards whose physics we truly understand have precluded absolute calibration better than several percent and relative spectral calibration better than a few percent. The philosophy "the model is the calibration" relies upon a complete high-fidelity model of performance and an accurate verification and calibration of this model. As high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy begins to play a more important role in astrophysics, additional issues in accurately calibrating at high spectral resolution become more evident. Here we review the challenges of accurately calibrating the absolute and relative response of x-ray observatories. On-ground x-ray testing by itself is unlikely to achieve a high-accuracy calibration of in-space performance, especially when the performance changes with time. Nonetheless, it remains an essential tool in verifying functionality and in characterizing and verifying the performance model. In the absence of verified cosmic calibration sources, we also discuss the notion of an artificial, in-space x-ray calibration standard. 6th

  15. Molonglo Observatory: Building the Cross and MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    When Bernard Mills left the GSIRO in 1960 to establish a radio astronomy group in the School of Physics, University of Sydney, he had not only invented the principle of cross-type radio telescopes but proved their great efficiency at surveying the positions, intensity and structure of radio sources. He had ambitious plans for a second generation Cross - a radio telescope with arms one mile long. This paper describes the circumstances of Mills' appointment as Professor of Astrophysics and the recruitment of an international Department that achieved his vision with the Molonglo Cross: The construction involved interaction with many colleagues - engineers in other university departments and government agencies, and with the contracting firms. Formal links were set up with the Electrical Engineering Department through The Radio Astronomy Centre in the University of Sydney and then with Arecibo Observatory through the Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Center. When the Molonglo Cross completed its main survey in 1978 after eleven years, it was switched off and the EW arm was then converted to the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope. Many of the staff involved with the MOST are now challenged by SKAMP, testing systems for the Square Kilometre Array with cylindrical geometry in the Molonglo Prototype. These two later developments out of the original Cross telescope are described briefly.

  16. Minicourses in Astrophysics, Modular Approach, Vol. I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Chicago.

    This is the first volume of a two-volume minicourse in astrophysics. It contains chapters on the following topics: planetary atmospheres; X-ray astronomy; radio astrophysics; molecular astrophysics; and gamma-ray astrophysics. Each chapter gives much technical discussion, mathematical treatment, diagrams, and examples. References are included with…

  17. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  18. Solar astrophysical fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2014-08-01

    The accurate determination of the solar photospheric radius has been an important problem in astronomy for many centuries. From the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft during the transit of Venus in 2012, we obtained a solar radius of 696,156±145 kilometres. This value is consistent with recent measurements carried out atmosphere. This observation leads us to propose a change of the canonical value obtained by Arthur Auwers in 1891. An accurate value for total solar irradiance (TSI) is crucial for the Sun-Earth connection, and represents another solar astrophysical fundamental parameter. Based on measurements collected from different space instruments over the past 35 years, the absolute value of the TSI, representative of a quiet Sun, has gradually decreased from 1,371W.m-2 in 1978 to around 1,362W.m-2 in 2013, mainly due to the radiometers calibration differences. Based on the PICARD data and in agreement with Total Irradiance Monitor measurements, we predicted the TSI input at the top of the Earth's atmosphere at a distance of one astronomical unit (149,597,870 kilometres) from the Sun to be 1,362±2.4W.m-2, which may be proposed as a reference value. To conclude, from the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft, we obtained a solar photospheric equator-to-pole radius difference value of 5.9±0.5 kilometres. This value is consistent with measurements made by different space instruments, and can be given as a reference value.

  19. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  20. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  1. Megalithic observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gj.

    2006-05-01

    In 2001, on the footpath of a mountain peak, near the village of Kokino, archeologist Jovica Stankovski discovered an archeological site from The Bronze Age. The site occupies a large area and is scaled in two levels. Several stone seats (thrones) are dominant in this site and they are pointing towards the east horizon. The high concentration of the movable archeological material found on the upper platform probably indicates its use in a function containing still unknown cult activities. Due to precise measurements and a detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the site performed in the past three years by Gjore Cenev, physicist from the Planetarium in Skopje, it was shown that the site has characteristics of a sacred site, but also of a Megalithic Observatory. The markers found in this observatory point on the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. It can be seen that on both sides of the solstice markers, that there are markers for establishing Moon's positions. The markers are crafted in such a way that for example on days when special rites were performed (harvest rites for example) the Sun filled a narrow space of the marker and special ray lighted the man sitting on only one of the thrones, which of course had a special meaning. According to the positions of the markers that are used for Sun marking, especially on the solstice days, it was calculated that this observatory dates from 1800 B.C.

  2. Sierra Remote Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, Fred; Morgan, G. E.; Barnes, F. S., III; Goldman, D. S.; Helm, M. R.; Mortfield, P.; Quattrocchi, K. B.; Van Vleet, L.

    2009-05-01

    We report the founding of a new facility for astrophotography and small-telescope science. Sierra Remote Observatories are eight small observatories at 4610' altitude in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The sky brightness during New Moon typically rates 3 on the Bortle scale. Typical seeing is 1.2", with a one-sigma range between 1.0" and 1.6", measured during 2007 June-September. All eight observatories are operated by remote control over the Internet, from as far away as Toronto and South Carolina. The telescopes range in aperture from 106 mm to 16 inches. Color images have so far been published in several magazines (Astronomy, Practical Astronomer, and Sky & Telescope) and on NASA's Astronomy Picture of the Day website. Science programs include time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables including the discovery of a 3.22-hour periodicity in the light curve of the nova-like V378 Pegasi, the serendipitous discovery of a previously undesignated spherical bubble in Cygnus, the discovery of three asteroids, and monitoring of Comet Lulin.

  3. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  4. Lessons from the development and operation of the Chandra x-ray observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Genuine teamwork was a key ingredient of the success of the Chandra x-ray observatory mission. Examples are the science center personnel working as part of the instrument principal investigators (IPI) teams during pre-launch development, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) supporting NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by directly working with the prime contractor, TRW (now Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems), and TRW acceptance of outside scientists performing the data reduction and analysis for qualification of the aspect camera. An end-to-end thread was defined early on, based on the MSFC/SAO operation of the Einstein observatory x-ray telescope, and covered the cycle from solicitation and peer review of observation proposals through scheduling to data processing and delivery. An open science working group chaired by MSFC included instrument principal investigators and interdisciplinary scientists spanning diverse astrophysical and instrumental expertise.

  5. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2010-03-01

    We present results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that has the potential to increase the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a Tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  6. Enhancing the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Dean; Danner, Rolf; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-09-01

    We present preliminary results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that increases the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  7. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that increases the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a Tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  8. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that has the potential to increase the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a Tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  9. The First 50 Years of Konkoly Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Lajos G.; Vargha, Magda; Zsoldos, Endre

    The second half of the 19th century experienced a revolution in astronomy. It coincided with a new start of professional astronomy in Hungary through the work of Miklós Konkoly Thege (1842-1916) who is considered as a pioneer of current astrophysical activity in our country. He played an outstanding role in organizing scientific life and institutions, too. He started observations in his newly founded Observatory at Ógyalla in 1871. Sunspots were regularly observed in the observatory from 1872. In 1874 Konkoly began regular spectroscopic observations of comets and emphasized the importance of parallel laboratory works. An important field of Konkoly's astronomical activity was the observation of surface patterns of planets, particularly that of Jupiter and Mars. Spectroscopic observations of stars were also a significant part of the activity of Ógyalla Observatory. In the last period of the Konkoly era (starting in 1899) stellar photometry became the main field of research. At the end of WW I the institute was moved to Budapest Ógyalla and started a new life based on a completely new infrastructure: “... all era are followed by a new one, with its new tasks, in which the scope of activity changes correspondingly, in which enthusiasm is mostly manifested. It was different in the forties when our nation found itself following the word of the founder of our Academy, it was different in the fifties and sixties when we have to defend our nation against foreign aggression, and it became different since the sixties when, our existence being guarantied, we also have to make an effort, beside strengthening it, to get as distinguished a position among the civilized nations as possible.”

  10. Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) on Orbit Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an on-orbit animation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), in its entirety, at the orbital processing facility at the Johnson Space Center. In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  12. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  13. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  14. Exotic nuclei in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2012-07-01

    Recently the academic community has marked several anniversaries connected with discoveries that played a significant role in the development of astrophysical investigations. The year 2009 was proclaimed by the United Nations the International Year of Astronomy. This was associated with the 400th anniversary of Galileo Galilei's discovery of the optical telescope, which marked the beginning of regular research in the field of astronomy. An important contribution to not only the development of physics of the microcosm, but also to the understanding of processes occurring in the Universe, was the discovery of the atomic nucleus made by E. Rutherford 100 years ago. Since then the investigations in the fields of physics of particles and atomic nuclei have helped to understand many processes in the microcosm. Exactly 80 years ago, K. Yanski used a radio-telescope in order to receive the radiation from cosmic objects for the first time, and at the present time this research area of physics is the most efficient method for studying the properties of the Universe. Finally, the April 12, 1961 (50 years ago) launching of the first sputnik into space with a human being onboard, the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, marked the beginning of exploration of the Universe with the direct participation of man. All these achievements considerably extended our ideas about the Universe. This work is an attempt to present some problems on the evolution of the Universe: the nucleosynthesis and cosmochronology from the standpoint of physics of particles and nuclei, in particular with the use of the latest results, obtained by means of radioactive nuclear beams. The comparison is made between the processes taking place in the Universe and the mechanisms of formation and decay of nuclei, as well as of their interaction at different energies. Examples are given to show the capabilities of nuclear-physics methods for studying cosmic objects and properties of the Universe. The results of

  15. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  16. Walter Baade : a life in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    Although less well known outside the field than Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade (1893-1960) was arguably the most influential observational astronomer of the twentieth century. Written by a fellow astronomer deeply familiar with Baade and his work, this is the first biography of this major figure in American astronomy. In it, Donald Osterbrock suggests that Baade's greatest contribution to astrophysics was not, as is often contended, his revision of Hubble's distance and age scales for the universe. Rather, it was his discovery of two distinct stellar populations: old and young stars. This discovery opened wide the previously marginal fields of stellar and galactic evolution. Baade was born, educated, and gained his early research experience in Germany. He came to the United States in 1931 as a staff member of Mount Wilson Observatory, which housed the world's largest telescope. There, he pioneered research on supernovae. With the 100-inch telescope, he studied globular clusters and the structure of the Milky Way, every step leading him closer to the population concept he discovered during the wartime years, when the skies of southern California were briefly darkened. After his great discovery, Baade continued his research with the new 200-inch telescope at Palomar. Always respected and well liked, he became even more famous among astronomers as they shifted their research to the fields he had opened. Publicity-shy and seemingly unconcerned with publication, however, Baade's celebrity remained largely within the field.

  17. The Astrophysics Data System Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Demleitner, M.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    1999-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System is a central part of the Distributed Digital Library for Astronomy. It provides access to most of the astronomical literature, as well as links to many different on-line information sources. The ADS Abstract Service provides a search interface to over 1.5 million references. The ADS Article Service provides access to the full journal articles for all major and most smaller journals, most of them back to volume 1. Links to on-line catalogs, electronic articles, astronomical object information and other data allow the user to quickly find on-line information. A reference and citation database provides information about article citations. We are currently working on greatly expanding the reference/citations database by including reference lists from the journals and by OCRing scanned reference lists. Between reference lists from the publishers and OCRd reference lists we have recently added almost 1 million reference-citation pairs to the database. OCRing of the abstracts from scanned journal article allowed us to include over 20,000 abstracts to the searchable database. Both these efforts will continue to add more data to our database. In the near future we will scan microfilms of publications from astronomical observatories, produced by a preservation project at the Harvard Library. This will provide unrestricted access to a large part of the 19th century astronomical literature.

  18. Distributed Observatory Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, M. A.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    A collection of tools for collaboratively managing a coastal ocean observatory have been developed and used in a multi-institutional, interdisciplinary field experiment. The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network program created these tools to support the Adaptive Sampling and Prediction (ASAP) field experiment that occurred in Monterey Bay in the summer of 2006. ASAP involved the day-to-day participation of a large group of researchers located across North America. The goal of these investigators was to adapt an array of observational assets to optimize data collection and analysis. Achieving the goal required continual interaction, but the long duration of the observatory made sustained co-location of researchers difficult. The ASAP team needed a remote collaboration tool, the capability to add non-standard, interdisciplinary data sets to the overall data collection, and the ability to retrieve standardized data sets from the collection. Over the course of several months and "virtual experiments," the Ocean Observatory Portal (COOP) collaboration tool was created, along with tools for centralizing, cataloging, and converting data sets into common formats, and tools for generating automated plots of the common format data. Accumulating the data in a central location and converting the data to common formats allowed any team member to manipulate any data set quickly, without having to rely heavily on the expertise of data generators to read the data. The common data collection allowed for the development of a wide range of comparison plots and allowed team members to assimilate new data sources into derived outputs such as ocean models quickly. In addition to the standardized outputs, team members were able to produce their own specialized products and link to these through the collaborative portal, which made the experimental process more interdisciplinary and interactive. COOP was used to manage the ASAP vehicle program from its start in July 2006. New summaries were

  19. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  20. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  1. The PS1 Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Nick; Morgan, J.; Pier, E.; Chambers, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) will use gigapixel cameras on multi-aperture telescopes to survey the sky in the visible and near-infrared bands. The first surveys will begin in 2008 using a single telescope system (PS1) has been deployed on Haleakala, Maui. This facility is currently undergoing commissioning tests. The PS1 telescope is a 1.8-m f/4 Richey-Chretien design that employs three 50 cm diameter correcting lens. The optical system produces a 3 degree diameter field of view at the focal plane. Images will be recorded on a 1.4 gigapixel CCD camera (described in an accompanying poster presentation). The survey programs will be conducted using g, r, i, and z filters which closely approximate the band-pass and response of those used in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These filters will be supplemented with a y band filter further to the infrared of z and a wide w filter for solar system observations. The images from the PS1 camera are supplemented by an Imaging Sky Probe that will provide co-pointed photometric calibration images of each target field. An all-sky camera at the observatory monitors sky conditions and transparency. The operation of the PS1 telescope is supported by the Observatory, Telescope, and Instrument Software (OTIS) system. The OTIS software interfaces the telescope control software provided by the vendor and the CCD camera computer systems. OTIS also records and archives environmental metadata from the dome and the observatory weather station.

  2. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  3. NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven

    2016-04-01

    NASA formulates and implements a national research program for understanding the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system and how these phenomena impact life and society. This research provides theory, data, and modeling development services to national and international space weather efforts utilizing a coordinated and complementary fleet of spacecraft, called the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. This presentation will focus on NASA's role in space weather research and the contributions the agency continues to provide to the science of space weather, leveraging inter-agency and international collaborations for the benefit of society.

  4. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web

  5. Strasbourg Observatory Archives Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    2002-12-01

    Official talks in France and Germany after World War I were generally of hatred and revenge. Strasbourg Observatory had just changed nationality (from Prussian to French) for the first time (this would happen again at the outbreak of WWII and after the conflict). Documents show that astronomers did not share the general attitude. For example the inventory book started in German was continued in French after 1918. It is moving to see those different handwritings in two different languages on the same pages -- making of that book a unique document in various respects, but also reminding us that the native language of the region was in fact Alsacian.

  6. Acquirement of the observatory code of Langkawi National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loon, Chin Wei; Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Ahmad, Nazhatulshima; Shukor, Muhammad Shamim; Tahar, Muhammad Redzuan

    2015-04-01

    Observatory code was assigned by The International Astronomical Union (IAU) Minor Planet Center (MPC) for a permanent observatory that intended to do astrometric CCD-observing program of minor planet or comets in solar system. The purpose of acquiring an observatory code is to document specific details about a particular observation site and the types of instruments used within the observatory. In addition, many astronomical centers and stations worldwide will know there is an active observatory at the particular location and international cooperation program in astronomy observation is possible. The Langkawi National Observatory has initiated an observation program to monitor minor planet, specifically those Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that may bring potentially hazardous to the Earth. In order to fulfil the requirement that stated by MPC for undertaking astrometric CCD-observing program, an observatory code was required. The instruments and methods that applied to obtain the observatory code will be discussed. The Langkawi National Observatory is now coded as O43 and listed in the MPC system, the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of major planets.

  7. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2004-11-11

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we will review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  8. The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Steven N.

    2002-10-01

    The scope of modern astrophysics is the entire cosmos and everything in it. As and substantial as its subject, The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics provides advanced undergraduates or graduate-level students with a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Avoiding axiomatic presentations, the author combines extensive qualitative discussions with analytical treatments so that students develop physical intuition the combination of observations and theoretical "horse sense" that is necessary for research in the field. The text is particularly distinguished by its deep and broad coverage, showing the way apparently different parts of astrophysics are intimately connected. Emphasizing the physical basis of the astrophysical phenomena along with the interpretation of data, Shore covers: The physical processes common to all cosmic bodies gravitation, thermal physics, and the gas laws. Special topics include statistical mechanics of stellar systems, rate equations, and General Relativity

  9. Overview of instrumentation and data analysis methods including calibration, instrumentation, and image formation and reconstruction Radiative transfer and physical processes in stellar and planetary atmospheres. Special topics include spectral classification and techniques for treating scattering Stellar structure and evolution, energy sources, and nucleosynthesis The interstellar medium with a general introduction to radiative and hydrodynamical processes The Milky Way as a galaxy, emphasizing the connection between locally observed phenomena and broader properties of extragalactic systems, active galaxies, and clusters of galaxies Cosmology and structure formation STEVEN N. SHORE is Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Indiana University South Bend. He is a scientific editor of the Astrophysical Journal and a visiting professor at Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, University of Pisa, University of Notre Dame, and Arizona State University. He is

  10. The composition and evolution of dust in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwick-Kemper, Francisca

    2003-03-01

    Dust is produced in the circumstellar environments of evolved stars and then ejected by a stellar wind into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Here, it may reside for a long time (> 10^9 years) before it ends up in a molecular cloud where star formation takes place. When a star is formed, in many cases a dusty disk remains from which a planetary system may form as well. Both within the ISM and in the winds from cool stars, about half of the matter heavier than helium is contained within solid particles. Therefore, dust is an important tracer of the physical conditions in astrophysical environments. By measuring the composition of the dust grains we can study the formation and processing of the material, and thus derive a record of the physical circumstances. As we understand better the physics of dust in our own Galaxy, we will be better able to use infrared studies of other galaxies to learn about their history and use this knowledge to interpret dusty systems at high redshift. I will work on the formation and evolution of dust in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. From previous studies performed with IRAS, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have learned that the composition of interstellar dust is very different from that of circumstellar dust. I plan to pursue a vigorous observational program which uses the unique capabilities of SIRTF to quantitatively investigate the life cycle of dust in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. I propose to determine the composition of the dust in various astrophysical environments using the spectroscopy modes offered on SIRTF, in order to study the formation and processing of the identified dust species. For this purpose the spectrographic data will be compared to optical constants of astrophysically relevant minerals, derived from laboratory measurements.

  11. Matching data and models in the Virtual Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panter, Ben

    The MOPED (Massively Optimized Parameter Estimation and Data Compression) algorithm has been used to determine the star formation histories of over 300 000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3. In order to investigate the results from this immense number of galaxies they have been placed in the MyMPASDSS database hosted by the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO). This has enabled us to query simultaneously the MOPED, SDSS and Millennium databases and derive key results without reverting to lengthy file searches on a traditional workstation.

  12. The Athena X-ray Observatory: observing luminous extragalactic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.; Jonker, Peter G

    2014-08-01

    The ESA Athena X-ray observatory will combine exceptionally high throughout with high spectral-energy resolution. Athena will revolutionize many aspects of high-energy astrophysics. Here we concentrate on the subject of time-domain astronomy. Many of the most powerful transient sources, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruptions events, are bright X-ray sources. Athena will be designed to have a fast-response capability, permitting efficient observations of many transients. We will summarize the proposed capability of the mission and illustrate science programs to study transients ranging from the most distant GRBs to nuclear activity in nearby galaxies.

  13. Gotha - the instruments of the observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    transit instrument to the meridian circle. Looking to the newer equipment we recognize a general trend: The English instrument makers did no longer play an important role after the beginning of the 19th century and in contrast the German instrument makers becoming prominent. In the 19th century the Gotha observatory acquired new instruments: A theodolit made by Reichenbach, Utzschneider & Liebherr, München [DM 67757 a, b]; a heliometer made by Fraunhofer, München, 1817 / in the 1850s: new mounting made by Ausfeld; a 3-ft meridian circle made by Ertel, ``Utzschneider & Fraunhofer'', München, 1826/30 [DM 67744 a, b]. For the new observatory in the town (after 1857)3: a 162-cm equatorial refractor made by Repsold, Hamburg, 1860 [Gotha]; a 90-cm transit instrument made by C. Bamberg, Berlin, 1912 [Jena]. The only astrophysical equipment of the Gotha observatory was a Zöllner photometer made by Ausfeld, Gotha. Nothing for spectroscopy and photography could be found; this can not be only a problem of too less money. The astronomers were very much interested in astrometric topics, and for this purpose they got also new expensive clocks like Tiede and Riefler. In 1934 German astronomers had no success in preventing the closing of Gotha observatory. Most of the instruments went to the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

  14. Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, Carla

    2005-10-12

    Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Heavy elements in astrophysical nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bao-Hua; Niu, Zhong-Ming

    With the many successes of covariant density functional theory (CDFT) as seen in the previous chapters, there has been growing interest over the last years to examine directly their applicability in astrophysical nucleosynthesis simulations. This chapter thus concentrates on the very recent applications of CDFT in astrophysics nucleosynthesis, ranging from the calculations of nuclear physics inputs -- masses and beta-decay half-lives -- for rapid-neutron (r-) and rapid-proton (rp-) capture processes, to the nucleosynthesis studies that employed these inputs and to nuclear cosmochronology. The concepts of nucleosynthesis process and formulas on beta-decays are sketched briefly.

  16. Planetary rings and astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latter, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Disks are ubiquitous in astrophysics and participate in some of its most important processes. Of special interest is their role in star, planet and moon formation, the growth of supermassive black holes, and the launching of jets. Although astrophysical disks can be up to ten orders of magnitude larger than planetary rings and differ hugely in composition, all disks share to some extent the same basic dynamics and many physical phenomena. This review explores these areas of overlap. Topics covered include disk formation, accretion, collisions, instabilities, and satellite-disk interactions.

  17. Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Program is an endeavor to understand the origin and fate of the universe, to understand the birth and evolution of the large variety of objects in the universe, from the most benign to the most violent, and to probe the fundamental laws of physics by examining their behavior under extreme physical conditions. These goals are pursued by means of observations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and through theoretical interpretation of radiations and fields associated with astrophysical systems. Astrophysics orbital flight programs are structured under one of two operational objectives: (1) the establishment of long duration Great Observatories for viewing the universe in four major wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio/infrared/submillimeter, visible/ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray), and (2) obtaining crucial bridging and supporting measurements via missions with directed objectives of intermediate or small scope conducted within the Explorer and Spacelab programs. Under (1) in this context, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is one of NASA's four Great Observatories. The other three are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) for the X-ray band, and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for infrared wavelengths. GRO's specific mission is to study the sources and astrophysical processes that produce the highest energy electromagnetic radiation from the cosmos. The fundamental physical processes that are known to produce gamma radiation in the universe include nuclear reactions, electron bremsstrahlung, matter-antimatter annihilation, elementary particle production and decay, Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation. GRO will address a variety of questions relevant to understanding the universe, such as: the formation of the elements; the structure and dynamics of the Galaxy; the nature of pulsars; the existence

  18. CCD Photometry from a Small Observatory in a Large City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, J.

    2006-05-01

    Since 2000, Farm Cove Observatory in Auckland New Zealand has contributed observational data to several international collaborative teams. During this time, the author has supplied 1339 hours of data to the Center for Backyard Astrophysics, directly contributed to the co-discovery of the extra-solar planet, OGLE-2005-BLG-071 and has discovered three new eclipsing binary stars. The observational data from FCO has now been used in a number of peer-reviewed scientific publications. This paper describes the observatory equipment, the software used, and provides details on the observations carried out for the international collaborative teams. The paper demonstrates what can be achieved using a small telescope in a large city.

  19. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidouche, M.; Young, E.; Marcum, P.; Krabbe, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present one of the new generations of observatories, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This is an airborne observatory consisting of a 2.7-m telescope mounted on a modified Boeing B747-SP airplane. Flying at an up to 45,000 ft (14 km) altitude, SOFIA will observe above more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmospheric water vapor allowing observations in the normally obscured far-infrared. We outline the observatory capabilities and goals. The first-generation science instruments flying on board SOFIA and their main astronomical goals are also presented.

  20. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  21. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  1. The astrophysics program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Three broad themes characterize the goals of the Astrophysics Division at NASA. These are obtaining an understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe, the fundamental laws of physics, and the birth and evolutionary cycle of galaxies, stars, planets and life. These goals are pursued through contemporaneous observations across the electromagnetic spectrum with high sensitivity and resolution. The strategy to accomplish these goals is fourfold: the establishment of long term space based observatories implemented through the Great Observatories program; attainment of crucial bridging and supporting measurements visa missions of intermediate and small scope conducted within the Explorer, Spacelab, and Space Station Attached Payload Programs; enhancement of scientific access to results of space based research activities through an integrated data system; and development and maintenance of the scientific/technical base for space astrophysics programs through the research and analysis and suborbital programs. The near term activities supporting the first two objectives are discussed.

  2. The UCI COSMOS Astronomy & Astrophysics Program for Talented High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Kuzio de Naray, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COSMOS program is a month-long, residential, summer program for talented high school students held at four University of California campuses (Davis, Irvine, Santa Cruz, and San Diego). Since the program's inception in 2000, we have offered the Astronomy & Astrophysics Cluster in the UCI COSMOS program. Our high school students take classes and laboratories in astronomy & astrophysics and complete a research project in small groups under the supervision of faculty and teaching assistants. Students take data for their research projects with telescopes at the UCI Observatory or use data that we already have obtained at other observatories in the course of our research. In this poster, we discuss the curriculum, the research projects, highlighting one of the newest labs we developed involving measuring dark matter with galaxy rotation curves, and discuss many of the lessons we have learn working with these talented students over the past 10 years.

  3. Condensation Processes in Astrophysical Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Astrophysical systems present an intriguing set of challenges for laboratory chemists. Chemistry occurs in regions considered an excellent vacuum by laboratory standards and at temperatures that would vaporize laboratory equipment. Outflows around Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars have timescales ranging from seconds to weeks depending on the distance of the region of interest from the star and, on the way significant changes in the state variables are defined. The atmospheres in normal stars may only change significantly on several billion-year timescales. Most laboratory experiments carried out to understand astrophysical processes are not done at conditions that perfectly match the natural suite of state variables or timescales appropriate for natural conditions. Experimenters must make use of simple analog experiments that place limits on the behavior of natural systems, often extrapolating to lower-pressure and/or higher-temperature environments. Nevertheless, we argue that well-conceived experiments will often provide insights into astrophysical processes that are impossible to obtain through models or observations. This is especially true for complex chemical phenomena such as the formation and metamorphism of refractory grains under a range of astrophysical conditions. Data obtained in our laboratory has been surprising in numerous ways, ranging from the composition of the condensates to the thermal evolution of their spectral properties. None of this information could have been predicted from first principals and would not have been credible even if it had.

  4. The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, C. B.; Flanagan, K.; Brookhart, M.; Clark, M.; Cooper, C. M.; Désangles, V.; Egedal, J.; Endrizzi, D.; Khalzov, I. V.; Li, H.; Miesch, M.; Milhone, J.; Nornberg, M.; Olson, J.; Peterson, E.; Roesler, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Schmitz, O.; Siller, R.; Spitkovsky, A.; Stemo, A.; Wallace, J.; Weisberg, D.; Zweibel, E.

    2015-10-01

    > provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.

  5. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  6. Astronomy & Astrophysics: an international journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertout, C.

    2011-07-01

    After a brief historical introduction, we review the scope, editorial process, and production organization of A&A, one of the leading journals worldwide dedicated to publishing the results of astrophysical research. We then briefly discuss the economic model of the Journal and some current issues in scientific publishing.

  7. Astrophysical Bounds on Particle Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffelt, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ever since NEWTON proposed that the Moon on its orbit follows the same laws of motion as an apple falling from a tree, the heavens have been a favorite laboratory for testing the fundamental laws of physics, notably Newton's and EINSTEIN's theories of gravity. More recently, astrophysics and cosmology have become crucial testing grounds for the microcosm of elementary particles. This area of scie...

  8. Astronomy and Astrophysics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The growth in astronomy and astrophysics (A&A) in India has been mostly since the country achieved independence in 1947. The present work is carried out in a few select research institutes and in some university departments. The Astronomical Society of India has around 300 working A&A scientists as members, with another 50-60 graduate students....

  9. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  10. Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools

    2011-12-14

    This software package provides tools for astrophysical experiments which record data in the form of individual time streams from discrete detectors. TOAST provides tools from meta-data manipulation and job set up, I/O operation, telescope pointing reconstruction, and map-making. It also provides tools for constructing simulated observations.

  11. Symposium on Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at a symposium titled Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics are set forth. The abstracts emphasize photometric, spectroscopic, polarization, and theoretical results on a broad range of current topics in infrared astrophysics.

  12. Introducing Astrophysics Research to High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Lawrence, Michael; Charney, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    Presents an analysis of an astrophysics institute designed for high school students. Investigates how students respond cognitively in an active science-learning environment in which they serve as apprentices to university astrophysics professors. (Author/CCM)

  13. International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soonthornthum, B.; Kunjaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    The International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics, an annual astronomy and astrophysics competition for high school students, is described. Examples of problems and solutions from the competition are also given. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Observatory ends scientific investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-3), which was instrumental in the discovery of the first suspected black hole, wound up its scientific investigation at the end of 1980. Spacecraft science operations were terminated after 8½ years of operation. Named Copernicus, OAO-3 performed consistently beyond design specifications and 7½ years beyond project requirements. Its performance profile, according to the NASA-Goddard engineers and scientists, was ‘astonishing.’While formal scientific investigations were ended December 31, a series of engineering tests are still being made until February 15. At that time, all contact with the spacecraft will end. Project engineers are uncertain whether Copernicus will orient itself permanently toward the sun, begin a permanent orbital tumbling action, or a variation of both.

  15. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  16. Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Human impact on the environment has produced measurable changes in the geological record since the late 1700s. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 today may cause the global climate to depart for its natural behavior for many millenia. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory goals are to help collect measurements of atmospheric CO2, answering questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 buildup varies annually, the roles of the oceans and land ecosystems in absorbing CO2, the roles of North American and Eurasian sinks and how these carbon sinks respond to climate change. The present carbon cycle, CO2 variability, and climate uncertainties due atmospheric CO2 uncertainties are highlighted in this presentation.

  17. The virtual observatory registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Greene, G.; Le Sidaner, P.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-11-01

    In the Virtual Observatory (VO), the Registry provides the mechanism with which users and applications discover and select resources-typically, data and services-that are relevant for a particular scientific problem. Even though the VO adopted technologies in particular from the bibliographic community where available, building the Registry system involved a major standardisation effort, involving about a dozen interdependent standard texts. This paper discusses the server-side aspects of the standards and their application, as regards the functional components (registries), the resource records in both format and content, the exchange of resource records between registries (harvesting), as well as the creation and management of the identifiers used in the system based on the notion of authorities. Registry record authors, registry operators or even advanced users thus receive a big picture serving as a guideline through the body of relevant standard texts. To complete this picture, we also mention common usage patterns and open issues as appropriate.

  18. Global geodetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Claude; Pearlman, Mike; Sarti, Pierguido

    2015-01-01

    Global geodetic observatories (GGO) play an increasingly important role both for scientific and societal applications, in particular for the maintenance and evolution of the reference frame and those applications that rely on the reference frame for their viability. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG), through the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), is fully involved in coordinating the development of these systems and ensuring their quality, perenniality and accessibility. This paper reviews the current role, basic concepts, and some of the critical issues associated with the GGOs, and advocates for their expansion to enhance co-location with other observing techniques (gravity, meteorology, etc). The historical perspective starts with the MERIT campaign, followed by the creation of international services (IERS, IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS, etc). It provides a basic definition of observing systems and observatories and the build up of the international networks and the role of co-locations in geodesy and geosciences and multi-technique processing and data products. This paper gives special attention to the critical topic of local surveys and tie vectors among co-located systems in sites; the agreement of space geodetic solutions and the tie vectors now place one of the most significant limitations on the quality of integrated data products, most notably the ITRF. This topic focuses on survey techniques, extrapolation to instrument reference points, computation techniques, systematic biases, and alignment of the individual technique reference frames into ITRF. The paper also discusses the design, layout and implementation of network infrastructure, including the role of GGOS and the benefit that would be achieved with better standardization and international governance.

  19. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, E. W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in Jan. 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical Cl-37 and Ga-71 experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  20. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  1. Radiative Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    In this chapter we review a new and rapidly growing area of research in high-energy plasma astrophysics—radiative magnetic reconnection, defined here as a regime of reconnection where radiation reaction has an important influence on the reconnection dynamics, energetics, and/or nonthermal particle acceleration. This influence be may be manifested via a variety of radiative effects that are critical in many high-energy astrophysical applications. The most notable radiative effects in astrophysical reconnection include radiation-reaction limits on particle acceleration, radiative cooling, radiative resistivity, braking of reconnection outflows by radiation drag, radiation pressure, viscosity, and even pair creation at highest energy densities. The self-consistent inclusion of these effects into magnetic reconnection theory and modeling sometimes calls for serious modifications to our overall theoretical approach to the problem. In addition, prompt reconnection-powered radiation often represents our only observational diagnostic tool available for studying remote astrophysical systems; this underscores the importance of developing predictive modeling capabilities to connect the underlying physical conditions in a reconnecting system to observable radiative signatures. This chapter presents an overview of our recent theoretical progress in developing basic physical understanding of radiative magnetic reconnection, with a special emphasis on astrophysically most important radiation mechanisms like synchrotron, curvature, and inverse-Compton. The chapter also offers a broad review of key high-energy astrophysical applications of radiative reconnection, illustrated by multiple examples such as: pulsar wind nebulae, pulsar magnetospheres, black-hole accretion-disk coronae and hot accretion flows in X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei and their relativistic jets, magnetospheres of magnetars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, this chapter discusses the most critical

  2. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. S.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Scott, J. P.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K.; Guidry, M. W.; Hard, C. C.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics is a platform-independent, online suite of computer codes developed by the ORNL Nuclear Data Project that makes a rapid connection between laboratory nuclear physics results and astrophysical models. It enables users to evaluate cross sections, process them into thermonuclear reaction rates, and parameterize (with a few percent accuracy) these rates that vary by up to 30 orders of magnitude over the temperatures of interest. Users can then properly format these rates for input into astrophysical computer simulations, create and manipulate libraries of rates, as well as run and visualize sample post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. For example, we have developed animated nuclide charts that show how predicted abundances (represented by a user-defined color scale) change in time. With this unique suite, users can within a very short time quantify the astrophysical impact of a newly measured or calculated cross section, or a newly created customized reaction rate library, and then document and share their results with the scientific community. The suite has a straightforward interface with a "Windows Wizard" motif whereby users progress through complicated calculations in a step-by-step fashion. Users can upload their own files for processing and save their work on our server, as well as work with files that other users wish to share. These tools are currently being used to investigate novae and X-ray bursts. The suite is available through nucastrodata.org, a website that also hyperlinks available nuclear data sets relevant for nuclear astrophysics research. New features are continually being added to this software, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Low Energy Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Data Programs. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  3. Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalization of astrophysics. (German Title: Karl Schwarzschild und die Professionalisierung der Astrophysik)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Professionalization is characteristic for physics and astronomy since 1830, and forms the basis for their rapid evolution in the 20th century. Karl Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy are presented: the introduction of course lectures in a repeating cycle, a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, simulations and suggestions for astronomy at high schools and for the training of high school teachers, an interest in international organisation, and the initiative and planning of a southern observatory.

  4. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  5. Astrophysics with Laboratory X-ray and EUV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the spectral resolution of x-ray observatories have necessitated increasing accuracies in the spectral models used in the analysis of astrophysical data. In response, we have been carrying out laboratory measurements to assess the fidelity of the atomic data used in the models and to calibrate specific spectral diagnostics. The goal is to meet the current need for spectroscopic models to be able to predict line intensities on the order of a few percent for the strongest transitions and to represent line positions with spectroscopic accuracy. Our spectroscopy measurements are performed in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray regimes and are mostly carried out at the electron beam ion trap facility at Livermore, which produces the relevant ions in a density and temperature environment similar to those of astrophysical plasmas. Examples discussed in this talk fall into four categories. (1) The identification of lines seen in astrophysical spectra but missing in the models; (2) the establishment of benchmark wavelengths for K-shell transitions in M-shell ions and for L-shell transitions in L-shell ions needed for the interpretation of absorption line features; (3) the calibration of the line emission of key spectroscopic diagnostics, such as the L-shell lines of Fe XVII; (4) the disentanglement of line excitation processes, especially those associated with charge exchange, that produce x-ray emission from comets, planets, and the interstellar medium. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program under Contracts NNG14WF24I and NNG13WF99I.

  6. An Overview of the Performance and Scientific Results from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Brinkman, B.; Canizares, C.; Garmire, G.; Murray, S.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched on 1999 July 23 by the space shuttle Columbia. After satellite systems activation, the first X-rays focused by the telescope were observed on 1999 August 12. Beginning with the initial observation it was clear that the telescope had survived the launch environment and was operating as expected. Despite an initial surprise due to the discovery that the telescope was far more efficient for concentrating CCD-damaging low-energy protons than had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Together with other space observatories, most notably XMM-Newton, it is clear that we have entered a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  7. Teaching undergraduate astrophysics with PIRATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, M. S.; Kolb, U.; Minocha, S.; Braithwaite, N.

    2014-12-01

    PIRATE is a 0.43m semi-autonomous research and teaching observatory owned by The Open University, UK. Since 2010, it has been reserved for several months of each year for teaching astronomy in the OU's undergraduate programme. As students in these courses operate PIRATE remotely rather than travelling to the observatory itself, we chose to investigate whether effective learning was adversely affected by the absence of a more traditional `hands on' experience. We discuss student perspectives on the technologies employed (i.e., remote and virtual investigations), the impact these had on perceived course outcomes, and consider implications for future teaching and outreach.

  8. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper: Summary of Laboratory Astrophysics Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop (NASA LAW) met at NASA Ames Research Center from 1-3 May 2002 to assess the role that laboratory astrophysics plays in the optimization of NASA missions, both at the science conception level and at the science return level. Space missions provide understanding of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planetary systems. In all of these areas the interpretation of results from NASA's space missions relies crucially upon data obtained from the laboratory. We stress that Laboratory Astrophysics is important not only in the interpretation of data, but also in the design and planning of future missions. We recognize a symbiosis between missions to explore the universe and the underlying basic data needed to interpret the data from those missions. In the following we provide a summary of the consensus results from our Workshop, starting with general programmatic findings and followed by a list of more specific scientific areas that need attention. We stress that this is a 'living document' and that these lists are subject to change as new missions or new areas of research rise to the fore.

  10. Business practice: The rise of American astrophysics, 1859--1919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbett, Catherine Elaine

    This dissertation takes seriously the production of astrophysical data by examining observatory practices through the lens of business models. The post- Civil War American industrial and commercial landscape experienced large-scale reorganization and expansion; alongside that transformation, astrophysics became a discipline unto itself, and practitioners developed a professional identity. During this time the Harvard College Observatory (HCO), in particular, came into the business of catalogue production and the staff and management adopted many of the industrial and commercial processes that became standards of American business, such as forms of mass production and modern management. The projects astrophysicists chose, and those that came to define astrophysics as distinct from the "old" astronomy of celestial mechanics and astrometry, required substantially more funding for expensive instruments than other observational astronomy projects. These constraints consolidated the discipline in the hands of fewer, established professionals at institutions usually affiliated with universities or the government. The HCO, though it adopted industrial organizational models, was not a for-profit business, and the match between business practices and knowledge production was sometimes uneasy. The dissertation is concerned with this match between business models and scientific enterprise, and is motivated by three general questions. First, what compelled people to invest in an undertaking for which the benefit was in recognition rather than in dividends? Second, what did employees think they were working toward, in terms of products of their labor and in terms of pay--- both symbolic and financial? And third, what were the products of this scientific production; what were the criteria for success? These were active, though not explicit, concerns in the lives of donors, observatory employees and upper management. The HCO's fourth director, Edward Pickering, would come to court

  11. Astrophysical Applications of Fractional Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander A.

    The paradigm of fractional calculus occupies an important place for the macroscopic description of subdiffusion. Its advance in theoretical astrophysics is expected to be very attractive too. In this report we discuss a recent development of the idea to some astrophysical problems. One of them is connected with a random migration of bright points associated with magnetic fields at the solar photosphere. The transport of the bright points has subdiffusive features that require the fractional generalization of the Leighton's model. Another problem is related to the angular distribution of radio beams, being propagated through a medium with random inhomogeneities. The peculiarity of this medium is that radio beams are trapped because of random wave localization. This idea can be useful for the diagnostics of interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media.

  12. Astrophysical processes on the Sun

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been a series of major solar space missions, namely Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and in the past 5 years, STEREO, Hinode and SDO, studying various aspects of the Sun and providing images and spectroscopic data with amazing temporal, spatial and spectral resolution. Over the same period, the type and nature of numerical models in solar physics have been completely revolutionized as a result of widespread accessibility to parallel computers. These unprecedented advances on both observational and theoretical fronts have led to significant improvements in our understanding of many aspects of the Sun's behaviour and furthered our knowledge of plasma physics processes that govern solar and other astrophysical phenomena. In this Theme Issue, the current perspectives on the main astrophysical processes that shape our Sun are reviewed. In this Introduction, they are discussed briefly to help set the scene. PMID:22665891

  13. Using the Virtual Observatory: multi-instrument, multi-wavelength study of high-energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrière, S.; Goosmann, R. W.; Bot, C.; Bonnarel, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a tutorial explaining the use of Virtual Observatory tools in high energy astrophysics. Most of the tools used in this paper were developed at the Strasbourg astronomical Data Center and we show how they can be applied to conduct a multi-instrument, multi-wavelength analysis of sources detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The analysis involves queries of different data catalogs, selection and cross-correlation techniques on multi-waveband images, and the construction of high energy color-color plots and multi-wavelength spectra. The tutorial is publicly available on the website of the European Virtual Observatory project.

  14. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Viewed from above in the Vertical Processing Facility, the Chandra X-ray Observatory is seen with one of its solar panel arrays attached, at right. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  15. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    TRW technicians in the Vertical Processing Facility check the fitting of the solar panel array being attached to the Chandra X- ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  16. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vertical Processing Facility, TRW workers continue checking the deployment of the solar panel array (right) after attaching it to the Chandra X-ray Observatory (left). Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  17. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vertical Processing Facility, a TRW technician checks the attachment of the solar panel array (out of sight to the right) to the Chandra X-ray Observatory, at left. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  18. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vertical Processing Facility, the Chandra X-ray Observatory is observed after deployment of the solar panel array (near the bottom and to the right). Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE GEOMETRY OF ASTROPHYSICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2010-08-01

    Faraday rotation measurements have provided an invaluable technique for probing the properties of astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Unfortunately, typical observations provide information only about the density-weighted average of the magnetic field component parallel to the line of sight. As a result, the magnetic field geometry along the line of sight, and in many cases even the location of the rotating material, is poorly constrained. Frequently, interpretations of Faraday rotation observations are dependent upon underlying models of the magnetic field being probed (e.g., uniform, turbulent, equipartition). However, we show that at sufficiently low frequencies, specifically below roughly 13(RM/1 rad m{sup -2}){sup 1/4}(B/1 G){sup 1/2} MHz, the character of Faraday rotation changes, entering what we term the 'super-adiabatic regime' in which the rotation measure (RM) is proportional to the integrated absolute value of the line-of-sight component of the field. As a consequence, comparing RMs at high frequencies with those in this new regime provides direct information about the geometry of the magnetic field along the line of sight. Furthermore, the frequency defining the transition to this new regime, {nu}{sub SA}, depends directly upon the local electron density and magnetic field strength where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the line of sight, allowing the unambiguous distinction between Faraday rotation within and in front of the emission region. Typical values of {nu}{sub SA} range from 10 kHz (below the ionospheric cutoff, but above the heliospheric cutoff) to 10 GHz, depending upon the details of the Faraday rotating environment. In particular, for resolved active galactic nuclei, including the black holes at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*) and M81, {nu}{sub SA} ranges from roughly 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and thus can be probed via existing and up-coming ground-based radio observatories.

  20. Klimovskaya: A new geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya geomagnetic observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate geomagnetic activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian Geomagnetic Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the geomagnetic field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.

  1. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the first Space Weather Mission in NASA's Living With a Star Program. SDO's main goal is to understand, driving towards a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity's technological systems. The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on understanding the entire Sun, from the nuclear reactions at the core to the development and loss of magnetic loops in the corona. SDO's three science investigations (HMI, AIA, and EVE) will determine how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. SDO will return full-disk Dopplergrams, full-disk vector magnetograms, full-disk images at nine EIUV wavelengths, and EUV spectral irradiances, all taken at a rapid cadence. This means you can 'observe the database' to study events, but we can also move forward in producing quantitative models of what the Sun is doing today. SDO is scheduled to launch in 2008 on an Atlas V rocket from the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite will fly in a 28 degree inclined geosynchronous orbit about the longitude of New Mexico, where a dedicated Ka-band ground station will receive the 150 Mbps data flow. How SDO data will transform the study of the Sun and its affect on Space Weather studies will be discussed.

  2. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  3. Optical Quantum Entanglement in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J.; Peimbert, A.; Echevarría, J.

    2009-10-01

    The theories of quantum entanglement between two distant particles, which clearly confirm the non-local nature of Quantum Mechanics, are applied to naturally produced particles in astrophysical objects. We study the production and reception of the cases of optical quantum entanglement most feasible to be observed: the two-photon spontaneous transition of the hydrogen 2 ^{2}S_{1/2} metastable level, which is known to be one of the components of the continuous spectra of ionized regions. We obtain the two-photon emission rate for four astrophysical objects: the Orion Nebula, two nearby planetary nebulae IC 2149 and NGC 7293, and the solar corona. The production of entangled pairs per second is 5.80×10^48, 9.39×10^45, 9.77×10^44, and 1.46×10^16 respectively. The distribution of the propagation directions of both emitted photons does not vanish at any angle; therefore it is possible to observe the entangled pair at an angles θ ≈ 0°. Because the number of two-photon coincidences goes as the fourth power of the ratio between the detector size and the distance from the astrophysical object, coincidences are scarce; for its detection we require receivers much larger than those currently available.

  4. NASA Announces 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    WASHINGTON -- NASA has selected fellows in three areas of astronomy and astrophysics for its Einstein, Hubble, and Sagan Fellowships. The recipients of this year's post-doctoral fellowships will conduct independent research at institutions around the country. "The new fellows are among the best and brightest young astronomers in the world," said Jon Morse, director of the Astrophysics Division in NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "They already have contributed significantly to studies of how the universe works, the origin of our cosmos and whether we are alone in the cosmos. The fellowships will serve as a springboard for scientific leadership in the years to come, and as an inspiration for the next generation of students and early career researchers." Each fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years. The fellows may pursue their research at any host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2009. "I cannot tell you how much I am looking forward to spending the next few years conducting research in the U.S., thanks to the fellowships," said Karin Oberg, a graduate student in Leiden, The Netherlands. Oberg will study the evolution of water and ices during star formation when she starts her fellowship at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Cosmic Heavyweights in Free-for-all Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space A diverse group of 32 young scientists will work on a wide variety of projects, such as understanding supernova hydrodynamics, radio transients, neutron stars, galaxy clusters and the intercluster medium, supermassive black holes, their mergers and the associated gravitational waves, dark energy, dark matter and the reionization process. Other research topics include

  5. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  6. Development of Mykolaiv Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhaev, A.; Protsyuk, Yu.

    Results obtained in 2010-2013 on the development of astronomical databases and web services are presented. Mykolaiv Virtual Observatory (MVO) is a part of the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory (UkrVO). At present, MVO consists of three major databases containing data on: astrometric catalogues, photographic plates, CCD observations. The databases facilitate the process of data mining and provide easy access to the textual and graphic information on the results of observations and their reduction obtained during the whole history of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory (NAO).

  7. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  8. The Structure and Dynamics of the Coronal Part of the 06.11.1979 Flare by Ground Spectral Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ograpishvili, N. B.; Maghradze, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of observational data obtained in the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory in the form of spectrograms and filter images of formations, related to the limb flare of November, 6th, 1979, is presented. The flare loops system, a late stage development of bright flare loops and post-flare coronal loops received in Hα and coronal lines, were studied. Physical parameters of observable structures, as well as their sizes and interposition were defined. Doppler speeds at different heights are measured. The primary direction of movement of a matter in flare loops upwards from below is revealed.

  9. Jitter Suppression Via Reaction Wheel Passive Isolation for the NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, Karl J.; Schauwecker, Chris J.

    1998-01-01

    Text: Third in the series of NASA great observatories, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is scheduled for launch from the Space Shuttle in September 1998. Following in the path of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, this telescope will image light at x-ray wavelengths, facilitating the detailed study of such phenomena as supernovae and quasars. The AXAF program is sponsored by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Due to exacting requirements on the performance of the AXAF optical system, it is necessary to reduce the transmission of reaction wheel jitter disturbances to the observatory. This reduction is accomplished via use of a passive mechanical isolation system which acts as an interface between the reaction wheels and the spacecraft central structure.

  10. Cryogenics on the stratospheric terahertz observatory (STO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G.; Young, A.; Dominguez, R.; Duffy, B.; Kulesa, C.; Walker, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO) is a NASA funded, Long Duration Balloon experiment designed to address a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium. STO surveys a section of the Galactic plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line at 1.9 THz and the important star formation tracer at 1.46 THz, at ∼1 arc minute angular resolution, sufficient to spatially resolve atomic, ionic, and molecular clouds at 10 kpc. The STO instrument package uses a liquid helium cryostat to maintain the THz receiver at < 9 K and to cool the low noise amplifiers to < 20 K. The first STO mission (STO-1) flew in January of 2012 and the second mission (STO-2) is planned for December 2015. For the STO-2 flight a cryocooler will be added to extend the mission lifetime. This paper discusses the integration of the STO instrument into an existing cryostat and the cryogenic aspects of the launch and operation of the STO balloon mission in the challenging Antarctic environment.

  11. SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James C., IV; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory (aka SIM Lite), a micro-arcsecond astrometry space mission, has been developed in response to NASA's indefinite deferral of the SIM PlanetQuest mission. The SIM Lite mission, while significantly more affordable than the SIM PlanetQuest mission concept, still addresses the full breadth of SIM science envisioned by two previous National Research Council (NRC) Astrophysics Decadal Surveys at the most stringent 'Goal' level of astrometric measurement performance envisioned in those surveys. Over the past two years, the project has completed the conceptual design of the SIM Lite mission using only the completed SIM technology; published a 250 page book describing the science and mission design (available at the SIM website: http://sim.jpl.nasa.gov); been subject to an independent cost and technical readiness assessment by the Aerospace Corporation; and submitted a number of information responses to the NRC Astro2010 Decadal Survey. The project also conducted an exoplanet-finding capability double blind study that clearly demonstrated the ability of the mission to survey 60 to 100 nearby sun-like dwarf stars for terrestrial, habitable zone planets in complex planetary systems. Additionally, the project has continued Engineering Risk Reduction activities by building brassboard (form, fit and function to flight) version of key instrument elements and subjecting them to flight qualification environmental and performance testing. This paper summarizes the progress over the last two years and the current state of the SIM Lite project.

  12. An introduction to the Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowsik, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2002-03-01

    Situated in the high-altitude cold desert of Changthang Ladakh bordering Himachal Pradesh and Tibet, Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle (32o46m46sN, 78o57'51''E; 4500 m above msl), provides excellent opportunities for developing astronomical facilities at a variety of frequencies. In addition, it provides environment and logistics for a range of scientific experiments which be nefit from its unique location. Indian Institute of Astrophysics has built this observatory around a modest 2-m aperture optical/infrared telescope. A 0.5 m telescope will soon be added. A large facility (6.5-8.5 m class infrared/optical telescope) is under consid eration. A 2-m telescope of new advanced technology design has been installed at the observatory in what probably is a record in the speed of execution. The site development, fabrication and installation of the telescope has been accomplished in just about 3 years. The telescope saw its first light on the night of September 26/27 2000 and has been operating with a CCD imager. A larger CCD imager, a faint object spectrograph camera, and a JHK imager are under fabrication. A 1-5 micron imager spectrograph is planned as the next generation instrument. The telescope will be remotely operable from the Centre for Research and Education in Science & Technology of IIA at Hosakote near Bangalore over the next few months. All the necessary infrastructure including 20 kw/h power through generators, 1 Mbps dedicated satellite communication link (to be upgarded to 2 Mbps and a 128 kbps redundant link to be established), liquid nitrogen plant, etc. have been already developed. The Government of Jammu & Kashmir has transferred over 600 acres of land to the observatory. The infrastructure developed for the observatory is already being used for other scientific experiments by national and international institutions. The experiments include determination of atmospheric opcaity at mm wavelengths, geodynamic and seismological experiments, aerosol

  13. Selection of astrophysical/astronomical/solar sites at the Argentina East Andes range taking into account atmospheric components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, R. D.; García, B.; Micheletti, M. I.; Salum, G.; Freire, M.; Maya, J.; Mancilla, A.; Crinó, E.; Mandat, D.; Pech, M.; Bulik, T.

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we analyze sites in the Argentinian high Andes mountains as possible places for astrophysical/astronomical/solar observatories. They are located at: San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) and El Leoncito/CASLEO region: sites 1 and 2. We consider the following atmospheric components that affect, in different and specific wavelength ranges, the detection of photons of astronomical/astrophysical/solar origin: ozone, microscopic particles, precipitable water and clouds. We also determined the atmospheric radiative transmittance in a day near the summer solstice at noon, in order to confirm the clearness of the sky in the proposed sites at SAC and El Leoncito. Consequently, all the collected and analyzed data in the present work, indicate that the proposed sites are very promising to host astrophysical/astronomical/solar observatories. Some atmospheric components, like aerosols, play a significant role in the attenuation of light (Cherencov and/or fluorescence) detected in cosmic rays (particles or gamma photons) astrophysical observatories, while others, like ozone have to be considered in astronomical/solar light detection.

  14. Laboratory spectroscopy and space astrophysics: A tribute to Joe Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckrone, David S.

    2013-07-01

    Beginning with the launch of the Copernicus Satellite in 1973, and continuing with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), and the state-of-the-art spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (GHRS, FOS, STIS and COS), astrophysics experienced dramatic advancements in capabilities to study the composition and physical properties of planets, comets, stars, nebulae, the interstellar medium, galaxies, quasars and the intergalactic medium at visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. It became clear almost immediately that the available atomic data needed to calibrate and quantitatively analyze these superb spectroscopic observations, obtained at great cost from space observatories, was not up to that task. Over the past 3+ decades, Joe Reader and his collaborators at NIST have provided, essentially "on demand", laboratory observations and analyses of extraordinary quality to help astrophysicists extract the maximum possible physical understanding of objects in the cosmos from their space observations. This talk is one scientist's grateful retrospective about these invaluable collaborations.

  15. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  16. IYA Resources From The Harvard Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinfeld, Erika L.; Dussault, M. E.; Gould, R. R.; Steel, S. J.; Schneps, M. H.; Grainger, C. A.; Griswold, A.

    2008-05-01

    From museum exhibitions to professional development videos, the Science Education Department at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has a long tradition of producing high quality education resources for students, teachers, and the public. This poster highlights new resources available to astronomers of all ages and backgrounds during the International Year of Astronomy. The MicroObservatory online telescope center will allow anyone with an email address to recapture the observations of Galileo on their own personal computers. The Beyond the Solar System professional development project follows in the footsteps of "A Private Universe" and "Minds of Our Own," providing new resources developed with the latest in scientific and educational research. And, in 2009, we will open a new traveling museum exhibition about black holes, featuring innovative new technologies, visualizations, and components designed with input from youth centers across the country. Learn more about these projects as the CfA continues to open the universe to new observers.

  17. History of the Marseille Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prévot, Marie-Louise; Caplan, James

    The Marseille Observatory was founded in 1702 by the Jesuit order. It was located near the Vieux Port until the 1860s, when it was taken over as an annex to the Paris Observatory, directed by Le Verrier, and moved to its present location on the Plateau Longchamp. It again became independent in 1873. For information on the early history of the observatory we are largely indebted to F.X. von Zach, who spent several years in Marseille, and who was a good friend of J. Thulis, director from 1801 to 1810. Some aspects of the foundation and early history of the observatory, and of the lives of some of the astronomers who worked there, are presented and illustrated. Our collection of old instruments and documents are described.

  18. Haystack Observatory Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, Chris; Corey, Brian; Niell, Arthur; Cappallo, Roger; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Technology development at MIT Haystack Observatory were focused on four areas in 2012: VGOS developments at GGAO; Digital backend developments and workshop; RFI compatibility at VLBI stations; Mark 6 VLBI data system development.

  19. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  20. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  1. Recent Observations of Venus' OI and O2 Emission from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, C. L.; Chanover, N. J.; Slanger, T. G.

    2011-10-01

    Past observations of the Venusian night glow features O(1S -1 D) at 5577.3 Å (atomic oxygen green line) and O2 (a - X) 0 - 0 at 1.27 μm were found to be temporally and spatially variable. We report on the analysis of recent observations of these two features, obtained using optical and infrared spectrographs on the 3.5-meter Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) in December 2010.

  2. Sofia Observatory Performance and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Miller, Walter; Dunham, Edward; McLean, Ian; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric; Bida, Tom; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean; Collins, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Killebrew, Jana; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi; Marcum, Pamela; Meyer, Allan; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Savage, Maureen; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration (SCAI) flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument configuration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. SCAI activities included in-flight partial Science Instrument commissioning prior to the use of the instruments as measuring engines. This paper reports on the data collected during the SCAI flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  3. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the mirrors of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being assembled in the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  4. The exoplanet microlensing survey by the proposed WFIRST Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Richard; Kruk, Jeffery; Anderson, Jay; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Bennett, David P.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Cheng, Ed; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Kane, Stephen; Lunine, Jonathan; Sumi, Takahiro; Tanner, Angelle; Traub, Wesley

    2011-10-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons report released by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey Board in 2010 listed the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as the highest-priority large space mission for the coming decade. This observatory will provide wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopy at near infrared wavelengths. The scientific goals are to obtain a statistical census of exoplanets using gravitational microlensing, measure the expansion history of and the growth of structure in the Universe by multiple methods, and perform other astronomical surveys to be selected through a guest observer program. A Science Definition Team has been established to assist NASA in the development of a Design Reference Mission that accomplishes this diverse array of science programs with a single observatory. In this paper we present the current WFIRST payload concept and the expected capabilities for planet detection. The observatory, with science goals that are complimentary to the Kepler exoplanet transit mission, is designed to complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from habitable Earth-mass planets to free floating planets, including analogs to all of the planets in our Solar System except Mercury. The exoplanet microlensing survey will observe for 500 days spanning 5 years. This long temporal baseline will enable the determination of the masses for most detected exoplanets down to 0.1 Earth masses.

  5. The Exoplanet Microlensing Survey by the Proposed WFIRST Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard; Kruk, Jeffrey; Anderson, Jay; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Bennett, David P.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Cheng, Ed; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Kane, Stephen; Lunine, Jonathan; Sumi, Takahiro; Tanner, Angelle; Traub, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons report released by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey Board in 2010 listed the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as the highest-priority large space mission for the . coming decade. This observatory will provide wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopy at near infrared wavelengths. The scientific goals are to obtain a statistical census of exoplanets using gravitational microlensing. measure the expansion history of and the growth of structure in the Universe by multiple methods, and perform other astronomical surveys to be selected through a guest observer program. A Science Definition Team has been established to assist NASA in the development of a Design Reference Mission that accomplishes this diverse array of science programs with a single observatory. In this paper we present the current WFIRST payload concept and the expected capabilities for planet detection. The observatory. with science goals that are complimentary to the Kepler exoplanet transit mission, is designed to complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from habitable Earth-mass planets to free floating planets, including analogs to all of the planets in our Solar System except Mercury. The exoplanet microlensing survey will observe for 500 days spanning 5 years. This long temporal baseline will enable the determination of the masses for most detected exoplanets down to 0.1 Earth masses.

  6. George Ellery Hale's Early Solar Research at Chicago, Kenwood, Harvard, and Yerkes Observatories, 1882-1904

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1999-05-01

    Growing up in Chicago, George Ellery Hale, later the prime spirit in founding the AAS, was a precocious boy scientist. He was deeply interested in spectroscopy and astrophysics from an early age. His wealthy parents encouraged Hale's aspirations with magazines, books, and instruments, and he acquired his first telescope when he was 14. He knew as mentors classical astronomers S. W. Burnham and George W. Hough, but he preferred astrophysics and designed his own Kenwood Physical Obseervatory around a grating in a Rowland circle mounting, fed by a heliostat, both built for him by instrument-maker John A. Brashear. For his undergraduate thesis at MIT, Hale invented and (at Harvard College Observatory) demonstrated the spectroheliograph. With it, and a high-quality 12-in refractor at his later Kenwood Astrophysical Observatory (at the same site, the Hale family home, 4 miles from the present Hilton Hotel where the SPD, HAD and AAS are meeting) Hale did excellent solar research, especially on promineneces, flocculi, and the near-ultraviolet spectrum of the chromosphere. As a teen-ager and a young adult Hale traveled widely, and met several important piuoneer solar physicists, including Charles A. Young, Jules Janssen, Samuel P. Langley, and Henry Rowland. Hale designed Yerkes Observatory for solar and stellar research, and headed the solar work himself. One of his aims always was to compare other stars with the sun. Hale's telescopes, instruments, methods, and resulting papers will be described and illustrated by numerous slides.

  7. Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences: reincarnation of a 50 year old State Observatory of Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Ram

    2006-03-01

    The fifty year old State Observatory, well known as U.P. State Observatory till the formation of Uttaranchal in November 2000, was reincarnated on March 22, 2004 as Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences with acronym ARIES, an autonomous institute, under the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. The growth of academic and technical activities and new mandate of the Institute are briefly described. In early 60's, the Institute was one of the 12 centres established by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA, all over the globe but the only centre in India for imaging artificial earth satellites. Commensurating with its observing capabilities, the Institute started a number of front-line research programmes during the last decade, e.g., optical follow up observations of GRB afterglows, radio and space borne astronomical resources, intra-night optical variability in active galactic nuclei as well as gravitational microlensing and milli-magnitude variations in the rapidly oscillating peculiar A type stars. As a part of atmospheric studies, characterisation of aerosol at an altitude of about 2 km is going on since 2002. ARIES has plans for establishing modern observing facilities equipped with latest backend instruments in the area of both astrophysics and atmospheric science. Formation of ARIES, therefore augurs well for the overall development of astrophysics and atmospheric science in India.

  8. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

    2010-07-15

    This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

  9. AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.

  10. Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.

  11. Astrophysics on the lab bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-05-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a type II supernova explosion. In another experiment, students roll marbles up and down a double ramp in an attempt to get a marble to enter a tube halfway up the slope, which illustrates quantum tunnelling in stellar cores. The experiments are reasonably low cost to either purchase or manufacture.

  12. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  13. Astrophysics and Cosmology: International Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Most large projects in astrophysics and cosmology are international. This raises many challenges including: • Aligning the sequence of: proposal, planning, selection, funding, construction, deployment, operation, data mining in different countries • Managing to minimize cost growth through reconciling different practices • Communicating at all levels to ensure a successful outcome • Stabilizing long term career opportunities. There has been considerable progress in confronting these challenges. Lessons learned from past collaborations are influencing current facilities but much remains to be done if we are to optimize the scientific and public return on the expenditure of financial and human resources.

  14. High-energy spectroscopic astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, Manuel; Walter, Roland

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  15. Astrophysical constraints on dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chiu Man; Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2016-02-01

    Dark energy (i.e., a cosmological constant) leads, in the Newtonian approximation, to a repulsive force which grows linearly with distance and which can have astrophysical consequences. For example, the dark energy force overcomes the gravitational attraction from an isolated object (e.g., dwarf galaxy) of mass 107M⊙ at a distance of 23 kpc. Observable velocities of bound satellites (rotation curves) could be significantly affected, and therefore used to measure or constrain the dark energy density. Here, isolated means that the gravitational effect of large nearby galaxies (specifically, of their dark matter halos) is negligible; examples of isolated dwarf galaxies include Antlia or DDO 190.

  16. Astrophysics and Cosmology: International Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Most large projects in astrophysics and cosmology are international. This raises many challenges including: --Aligning the sequence of: proposal, planning, selection, funding, construction, deployment, operation, data mining in different countries --Managing to minimize cost growth through reconciling different practices --Communicating at all levels to ensure a successful outcome --Stabilizing long term career opportunities. There has been considerable progress in confronting these challenges. Lessons learned from past collaborations are influencing current facilities but much remains to be done if we are to optimize the scientific and public return on the expenditure of financial and human resources.

  17. MOCHA/ISAIA: Building Blocks for Interoperability in a Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. Y.; Hanisch, R. J.; McGlynn, T. A.; Plante, R. L.; Shaya, E. J.

    2000-12-01

    Some basic building blocks must be put in place before we can realize the vision of a National or Global Virtual Observatory. MOCHA is a project that is building a prototype interoperability infrastructure for a Virtual Observatory. ISAIA is an effort that defines the astrophysics query profile to enables searches to networked astrophysics resources that have very different data structures. Both projects are funded by the NASA Applied Information Systems Research Program. We shall describe a joint demonstration by these two projects that involves four data centers: the Astronomical Data Center (ADC), the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), the Astronomical Digital Image Library (ADIL), the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI); and the University of Maryland. We shall show how a positional query for astrophysical data in a region of arbitrary geometrical boundary can be carried out using these basic components. We shall also describe a scheme by which user software can be deployed to a data center to extend its services, and how the system will return to the researcher only the desired scientific results. This capability is very important for multispectral studies using the large all-sky surveys that reside in distributed data archives.

  18. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  19. Building a Successful Teachers' Workshop in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, T. A.; Thornton, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the Teachers' Workshop in Astronomy & Astrophysics, a 2-day long summer workshop we designed to aid K-12 grade teachers in incorporating astronomy and astrophysics into their curricula. These workshops are part of a faculty-led outreach program entitled Outreach in Astronomy & Astrophysics with the UCI Observatory, funded by an NSF FOCUS grant to the University of California, Irvine. Approximately 20 teachers from the Compton, Newport/Mesa and Santa Ana Unified School Districts attend each workshop. Our teachers realize that astronomy captures the imagination of their students, and thus lessons in astronomy can very effectively convey a number of challenging math and science concepts. Our workshop is designed to give teachers the content and instruction needed to achieve that goal. Because only a small fraction of teachers have taken a college astronomy course, an important component of the workshop is lectures on: (1) the motion of objects in the night sky, moon phases and the seasons, (2) the solar system, (3) the physics of light, and (4) interesting applications such as searching for planets around other stars and charting the expansion history of the Universe. The second important component of the workshop is the kit of material each teacher receives, which includes a introductory astronomy textbook, planetarium software, and the ASP's "Universe at Your Fingertips" and "More Universe at Your Fingertips", etc.. The latter two books give teachers many examples of creative hands-on activities and experiments they can do with their classes and instruction on how to build a coherent curriculum for their particular grade level. We also introduce teachers to Contemporary Laboratory Exercises in Astronomy (CLEA), a suite of computer lab exercises that can be used effectively in high school physics classes. For more information, see http://www.physics.uci.edu/%7Eobservat/#e&o. Funding provided by NSF grant EHR-0227202 (PI: Ronald Stern).

  20. High-Energy Astrophysics: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics is the study of objects and phenomena in space with energy densities much greater than that found in normal stars and galaxies. These include black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, hypernovae and gamma-ray bursts. A history and an overview of high-energy astrophysics will be presented, including a description of the objects that are observed. Observing techniques, space-borne missions in high-energy astrophysics and some recent discoveries will also be described. Several entirely new types of astronomy are being employed in high-energy astrophysics. These will be briefly described, along with some NASA missions currently under development.

  1. High Energy Astrophysics Research and Programmatic Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  2. High Energy Astrophysics Research and Programmatic Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  3. Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1991-01-01

    The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

  4. The next century astrophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Paul N.

    1992-01-01

    The Astrophysics Division within the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) has defined a set of flagship and intermediate missions that are presently under study for possible launch during the next 20 years. These missions and tentative schedules, referred to as the Astrotech 21 Mission Set, are summarized. The missions are in three groups corresponding to the cognizant science branch within the Astrophysics Division. Phase C/D refers to the pre-launch construction and delivery of the spacecraft, and the Operations Phase refers to the period when the mission is active in space. Approximately 1.5 years before the start of Phase C/D, a non-advocate review (NAR) is held to ensure that the mission/system concept and the requisite technology are at an appropriate stage of readiness for full scale development to begin. Therefore, technology development is frozen (usually) as of the date of a successful NAR. An overview of the technology advances required for each of the three wavelength groups is provided in the following paragraphs, along with a brief description of the individual missions.

  5. Libstatmech and applications to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tianhong

    In this work an introduction to Libstatmech is presented and applications especially to astrophysics are discussed. Libstatmech is a C toolkit for computing the statistical mechanics of fermions and bosons, written on top of libxml and gsl (GNU Scientific Library). Calculations of Thomas-Fermi Screening model and Bose-Einstein Condensate based on libstatmech demonstrate the expected results. For astrophysics application, a simple Type Ia Supernovae model is established to run the network calculation with weak reactions, in which libstatmech contributes to compute the electron chemical potential and allows the weak reverse rates to be calculated from detailed balance. Starting with pure 12C and T9=1.8, we find that at high initial density (rho~ 9x 109 g/cm3) there are relatively large abundances of neutron-rich iron-group isotopes (e.g. 66Ni, 50Ti, 48Ca) produced during the explosion, and Y e can drop to ~0.4, which indicates that the rare, high density Type Ia supernovae may help to explain the 48Ca and 50Ti effect in FUN CAIs.

  6. Analytic studies in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzochero, Pierre

    Five studies are presented in nuclear astrophysics, which deal with different stages of stellar evolution and which use analytic techniques as opposed to numerical ones. Two problems are described in neutrino astrophysics: the solar-neutrino puzzle is analyzed in the framework of the MSW mechanism for the enhancement of neutrino oscillations in matter; and the cooling of neutron stars is studied by calculating the neutrino emissivity from strangeness condensation. Radiative transfer is then examined as applied to SN1987A: its early spectrum and bolometric corrections are calculated by developing an analytic model which can describe both the extended nature of the envelope and the non-LTE state of the radiation field in the scattering-dominated early atmosphere; and a model-independent relation is derived between mass and kinetic energy for the hydrogen envelope of SN1987A, using only direct observations of its luminosity and photospheric velocity. Finally, an analytic approach is presented to relate the softness of the EOS of dense nuclear matter in the core of a supernova, the hydrostatic structure of such core and the initial strength of the shock wave.

  7. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  8. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed in the Overview of Year 1988 include the following: Supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud; Galaxies; Ground based observations of celestial x ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; Pulsating variables; Galactic structure; Binary star phenomena; The provision of photometric standards; Nebulae and interstellar matter; Stellar astrophysics; Astrometry; Solar system studies; Visitors programs; Publications; and General matters.

  9. Recent astrophysical applications of the Trojan Horse Method to nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.; Fu, C.; Tribble, R.; Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Goldberg, V.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.

    2008-05-21

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is an unique indirect technique allowing to measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the recent applications of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming to the extraction of the bare astrophysical S{sub b}(E) for some two-body processes are discussed.

  10. An Overview of the Performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Bautz, M.; Cameron, R. A.; Dewey, D.; Drake, J. J.; Grant, C. E.; Marshall, H. L.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which includes the recently launched Spitzer Infrared Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for observations in the visible, and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) which, after providing years of useful data has reentered the atmosphere. All these facilities provide, or provided, scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to peer-reviewed proposals for their use. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the result of the efforts of many academic, commercial, and government organizations primarily in the United States but also in Europe. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST - formerly TRW) served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the Observatory; and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support and is responsible for ground operations including the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). Telescope and instrument teams at SAO, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), the Space Research Institute of the Netherlands (SRON), the Max-Planck Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), and the University of Kiel support also provide technical support to the Chandra Project. We present here a detailed description of the hardware, its on-orbit performance, and a brief overview of some of the remarkable discoveries that illustrate that performance.

  11. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - GATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polińska, M.; Kamiński, K.; Dimitrov, W.; Fagas, M.; Borczyk, W.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Baranowski, R.; Bartczak, P.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Global Astronomical Telescope System is a project managed by the Astronomical Observatory Institute of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland) and it is primarily intended for stellar medium/high resolution spectroscopy. The system will be operating as a global network of robotic telescopes. The GATS consists of two telescopes: PST 1 in Poland (near Poznań) and PST 2 in the USA (Arizona). The GATS project is also intended to cooperate with the BRITE satellites and supplement their photometry with spectroscopic observations.

  12. Databases of publications and observations as a part of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyapnikov, A.; Bondar', N.; Gorbunov, M.

    We describe the main principles of formation of databases (DBs) with information about astronomical objects and their physical characteristics derived from observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and published in the ``Izvestiya of the CrAO'' and elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on the DBs missing from the most complete global library of catalogs and data tables, VizieR (supported by the Center of Astronomical Data, Strasbourg). We specially consider the problem of forming a digital archive of observational data obtained at the CrAO as an interactive DB related to database objects and publications. We present examples of all our DBs as elements integrated into the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory. We illustrate the work with the CrAO DBs using tools of the International Virtual Observatory: Aladin, VOPlot, VOSpec, in conjunction with the VizieR and Simbad DBs.

  13. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.; Buscher, David F.; Chang, Mark J.; Cobb, Michael L.; Haniff, Chris A.; Horton, Richard F.; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Klinglesmith, Dan; Loos, Gary; Nemzek, Robert J.

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) is a project with the goal of building a state of the art observatory on Magdalena Ridge west of Socorro New Mexico. This observatory will be sited above 3700 meters and will consist of a 10-element 400-meter baseline optical/infrared imaging interferometer and a separate 2.4-meter telescope with fast response capability. The MRO consortium members include New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology University of Puerto Rico Mew Mexico Highlands University New Mexico State University and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The University of Cambridge is a joint participant in the current design phase of the interferometer and expects to join the consortium. We will present an overview of the optical interferometer and single telescope designs and review their instrumentation and science programs

  14. Visits to La Plata Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, A.

    1985-03-01

    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  15. Technology progress of Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yongheng; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Yanxia

    2002-12-01

    The project of Virtual Observatory (VO) is the result of breakthroughs in telescope, detector, computer and Internet technologies. The combination with the new information technology is the major characteristic of the VO development. Extensible markup language (XML) and Grid as two trends of information technology will be adopted widely in the VO. The VO architecture is based upon the standard layered architecture of Grid. In the paper, technologies related in each layer of the VO architecture are introduced. The global Virtual Observatory provides new chances for Chinese astronomy. Using the abundant resources in the Internet and chances provided by open-source software, Chinese astronomers should cooperate with national IT experts and push the Virtual Observatory projects of China as soon as possible.

  16. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Multiply Charged Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department has been dedicated to the study of atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. Our program focuses on the charge transfer (electron capture) of multiply charged ions and neutrals important in astrophysics. The electron transfer reactions with atoms and molecules is crucial to the ionization condition of neutral rich photoionized plasmas. With the successful deployment of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory by NASA high resolution VUV and X-ray emission spectra fiom various astrophysical objects have been collected. These spectra will be analyzed to determine the source of the emission and the chemical and physical environment of the source. The proper interpretation of these spectra will require complete knowledge of all the atomic processes in these plasmas. In a neutral rich environment, charge transfer can be the dominant process. The rate coefficients need to be known accurately. We have also extended our charge transfer measurements to KeV region with a pulsed ion beam. The inclusion of this facility into our current program provides flexibility in extending the measurement to higher energies (KeV) if needed. This flexibility enables us to address issues of immediate interest to the astrophysical community as new observations are made by high resolution space based observatories.

  17. Calin Popovici (1910-1977): The Founder of Modern Astrophysics in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, A.; Maris, G.

    2007-03-01

    Connected to the development of astrophysics at the world level, animated by the wish to create a Romanian school of astrophysics and getting understanding and support from the director of the Observatory, the academician Gheorghe Demetrescu, Prof. Calin Popovici laid the basis of the new sector of solar researches, whose coordinator he became in 1955. After the launch of the first artificial satellite on 4 October 1957, Prof. C. Popovici, anticipating the importance of space research in the future, organized at Bucharest Observatory one of the first artificial satellites tracking station in Europe. Later, the group of artificial satellites was set up, whose research focused especially on two new research fields: cosmic triangulation and the study of high atmosphere by means of artificial satellites. It was also at the initiative of Prof. Popovici that in 1962 the second pavilion (after the solar one) was built and was endowed with the new Cassegrain telescope (50/750 cm) equipped with a high precision photoelectric photometer. Thus, the new research sector dedicated to variable stars study was set up. Due to his high professionalism, abnegation and passion for astronomy, Prof. C. Popovici managed to overcome some political difficulties, and his dream of creating a section of astrophysics had come true. Prof. C. Popovici had also an exceptional merit in the scientific training of his collaborators. His vast activity carried out throughout the years in the service of astronomy, education and culture was rewarded with the distinction of academician granted post-mortem.

  18. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by CSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Denis; Ouellet, Alain; Dupuis, Jean; Chicoine, Ruth-Ann

    2014-07-01

    and in other areas, by initiating concept and pre-mission studies and enabling technology developments. These reflect the following scientific priorities identified: dark energy and the accelerating universe, addressed by large survey missions; high-energy astrophysics, which includes UV and X-ray missions; and the understanding of star formation and proto-planetary systems and to begin characterizing exoplanets, mainly by infra-red space observatories.

  19. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

  20. Flexible, Mastery-Oriented Astrophysics Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilik, Michael, II

    1981-01-01

    Describes the implementation and impact of a two-semester mastery-oriented astrophysics sequence for upper-level physics/astrophysics majors designed to handle flexibly a wide range of student backgrounds. A Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) format was used fostering frequent student-instructor interaction and role-modeling behavior in…

  1. Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weck, Phillippe F. (Editor); Kwong, Victor H. S. (Editor); Salama, Farid (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers presented at the 2006 NASA Workshop on Laboratory Astrophysics held in the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from February 14 to 16, 2006. This workshop brings together producers and users of laboratory astrophysics data so that they can understand each other's needs and limitations in the context of the needs for NASA's missions. The last NASA-sponsored workshop was held in 2002 at Ames Research Center. Recent related meetings include the Topical Session at the AAS meeting and the European workshop at Pillnitz, Germany, both of which were held in June 2005. The former showcased the importance of laboratory astrophysics to the community at large, while the European workshop highlighted a multi-laboratory approach to providing the needed data. The 2006 NASA Workshop on Laboratory Astrophysics, sponsored by the NASA Astrophysics Division, focused on the current status of the field and its relevance to NASA. This workshop attracted 105 participants and 82 papers of which 19 were invited. A White Paper identifying the key issues in laboratory astrophysics during the break-out sessions was prepared by the Scientific Organizing Committee, and has been forwarded to the Universe Working Group (UWG) at NASA Headquarters. This White Paper, which represented the collective inputs and opinions from experts and stakeholders in the field of astrophysics, should serve as the working document for the future development of NASA's R&A program in laboratory astrophysics.

  2. Astrophysics at the Highest Energy Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I discuss recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. I also discuss the connections between these topics.

  3. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect path to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. This is done by measuring the quasi free cross section of a suitable three body process. The basic features of the THM will be presented together with some applications to demonstrate its practical use.

  4. Overview of NASA Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Wilton T.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Perez, Mario R.; Hudgins, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) are responsible for facilitating and coordinating community input into the development and execution of NASAs three astrophysics science themes: Cosmic Origins (COPAG), Exoplanet Exploration (ExoPAG), and Physics of the Cosmos (PhysPAG). The PAGs provide a community-based, interdisciplinary forum for analyses that support and inform planning and prioritization of activities within the Astrophysics Division programs. Operations and structure of the PAGs are described in their Terms of Reference (TOR), which can be found on the three science theme Program Office web pages. The Astrophysics PAGs report their input and findings to NASA through the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, of which all the PAG Chairs are members. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the ongoing activities of NASAs Astrophysics PAGs in the context of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the Astrophysics Division. NASA Headquarters representatives for the COPAG, ExoPAG, and PhysPAG will all be present and available to answer questions about the programmatic role of the Astrophysics PAGs.

  5. Overview of NASA Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael R.; Hudgins, D. M.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) are responsible for facilitating and coordinating community input into the developmentand execution of NASAs three astrophysics science themes: Cosmic Origins (COPAG), Exoplanet Exploration (ExoPAG), and Physics of the Cosmos (PhysPAG). The PAGs provide a community-based, interdisciplinary forum for analyses that support and inform planning and prioritization of activities within the Astrophysics Division programs. Operations and structure of the PAGs are described in the Terms of Reference (TOR) which can be found on the three science theme Program Office web pages. The Astrophysics PAGs report their input and findings to NASA through the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, of which all the PAG Chairs are members. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the ongoing activities of NASAs Astrophysics PAGs in the context of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the Astrophysics Division. NASA Headquarters representatives for the COPAG, ExoPAG, and PhysPAG will all be present and available to answer questions about the programmatic role of the Astrophysics PAGs.

  6. Tools for Coordinated Planning Between Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Fishman, Mark; Grella, Vince; Kerbel, Uri; Maks, Lori; Misra, Dharitri; Pell, Vince; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wavebands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only one single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not due to scientific restrictions, but due to operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are conducted by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all the constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among the observatory staff at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming, error-prone, and the outcome of the requests is not certain until the very end. To increase observatory operations efficiency, such manpower intensive processes need to undergo re-engineering. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype effort called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of the VOLT project is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the scheduling probability of all observations.

  7. Atoms and molecules in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Lepp, S.

    1993-05-01

    In 1987 supernova was observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The supernova, the explosion of a massive star following core collapse, releases a expanding cloud of gas called the ejecta. Because this supernova occured so close to our own galaxy it was the first chance to get high resolution spectra from a supernova ejecta. There have been a few molecular species (CO and SiO) and many more atomic species observed in the ejecta of Supernova 1987a. The ejecta represents an evolving laboratory for atomic and molecular physics. This paper will review models of the ejecta of Supernova 1987a and some other astrophysical objects with a particular emphasis on the atomic and molecular processes involved.

  8. Astrophysically Interesting Resonances; Another Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Roby; Jenkins, David

    2008-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, A. Campbell, S. Colosimo, S. Reeve Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods T. Davinson University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu A. Hurst J.A. Becker Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; G.C. Ball M. Djongolov G. Hackman A.C. Morton, C. Pearson, S.J. Williams TRIUMF; A.A. Phillips, M. Schumaker, University of Guelph H.Boston, A. Grint, D. Oxley, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; We describe a prototype experiment to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with charged particles, inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics. The particles are detected with the Bambino detector modified to a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab.

  9. Axions in astrophysics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.

    1984-07-01

    Axion models often have a spontaneously broken exact discrete symmetry. In that case, they have discretely degenerate vacua and hence domain walls. The properties of the domain walls, the cosmological catastrophe they produce and the ways in which this catastrophe may be avoided are explained. Cosmology and astrophysics provide arguments that imply the axion decay constant should lie in the range 10/sup 8/ GeV less than or equal to f/sub a/ less than or equal to 10/sup 12/ GeV. Reasons are given why axions are an excellent candidate to constitute the dark matter of galactic halos. Using the coupling of the axions to the electromagnetic field, detectors are described to look for axions floating about in the halo of our galaxy and for axions emitted by the sun. (LEW)

  10. Reaction models in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We present different reaction models commonly used in nuclear astrophysics, in particular for the nucleosynthesis of light elements. Pioneering works were performed within the potential model, where the internal structure of the colliding nuclei is completely ignored. Significant advances in microscopic cluster models provided the first microscopic description of the 3He(α,&gamma)7 Be reaction more than thirty years ago. In this approach, the calculations are based on an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, but the cluster approximation should be made to simplify the calculations. Nowadays, modern microscopic calculations are able to go beyond the cluster approximation, and aim at finding exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. We discuss recent examples on the d+d reactions at low energies.

  11. Transfer reactions in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardayan, D. W.

    2016-08-01

    To a high degree many aspects of the large-scale behavior of objects in the Universe are governed by the underlying nuclear physics. In fact the shell structure of nuclear physics is directly imprinted into the chemical abundances of the elements. The tranquility of the night sky is a direct result of the relatively slow rate of nuclear reactions that control and determines a star’s fate. Understanding the nuclear structure and reaction rates between nuclei is vital to understanding our Universe. Nuclear-transfer reactions make accessible a wealth of knowledge from which we can extract much of the required nuclear physics information. A review of transfer reactions for nuclear astrophysics is presented with an emphasis on the experimental challenges and opportunities for future development.

  12. Hard X-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past hard X-ray and lower energy satellite instruments are reviewed and it is shown that observation above 20 keV and up to hundreds of keV can provide much valuable information on the astrophysics of cosmic sources. To calculate possible sensitivities of future arrays, the efficiencies of a one-atmosphere inch gas counter (the HEAO-1 A-2 xenon filled HED3) and a 3 mm phoswich scintillator (the HEAO-1 A-4 Na1 LED1) were compared. Above 15 keV, the scintillator was more efficient. In a similar comparison, the sensitivity of germanium detectors did not differ much from that of the scintillators, except at high energies where the sensitivity would remain flat and not rise with loss of efficiency. Questions to be addressed concerning the physics of active galaxies and the diffuse radiation background, black holes, radio pulsars, X-ray pulsars, and galactic clusters are examined.

  13. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at LUNA

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, Matthias

    2008-01-24

    Nuclear cross sections play a key role in understanding stellar evolution and elemental synthesis. Also in the field of astroparticle physics precise knowledge on thermonuclear cross sections is needed to extract the particle properties from the experimental data. While it is desirable to directly measure the relevant cross sections in the energy range of interest for the specific stellar environment this proves to be difficult, if not impossible, due to the effect of the Coulomb barrier, which causes an exponential drop of the cross sections at stellar energies. Consequently direct measurements are hampered by low counting rates and background caused by cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity. In addition background induced by the beam or the target itself can disturb the measurements.In this contribution I will discuss some of the reactions studied by LUNA in the past years to illustrate important aspects underground nuclear astrophysics.

  14. Overview of the Astrophysics Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, John C.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    The Astrophysics Division of NASA has built a geographically- and logically-distributed heterogeneous information system for the dissemination and coordinated multispectral analysis of data from astrophysics missions. The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a truly distributed system in which the data and the required processing are physically distributed. To accommodate the anticipated growth and changes in both requirements and technology, the ADS employs a server/client architecture which allows services and data to be added or replaced without having to change the basic architecture or interfaces. Current datasets accessible through the system include all the tabular astronomical data available at each of six existing astrophysics data centers. Additional data nodes, at both NASA data centers and academic institutions, will be added shortly. The future evolution of the system will be driven in large part by user services mounted both by the ADS project itself and by members of the astrophysics community.

  15. Overview of the Astrophysics Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, John C.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    The Astrophysics Division of NASA has built a geographically and logically distributed heterogeneous information system for the dissemination and coordinated multispectral analysis of data from astrophysics missions. The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a truly distributed system in which the data and the required processing are physically distributed. To accommodate the anticipated growth and changes in both requirements and technology, the ADS employs a server/client architecture which allows services and data to be added or replaced without having to change the basic architecture or interfaces. Current datasets accessible through the system include all the tabular astronomical data available at each of six existing astrophysics data centers. Additional data nodes, at both NASA data centers and academic institutions, will be added shortly. The future evolution of the system will be driven in large part by user services mounted both by the ADS project itself and by members of the astrophysics community.

  16. Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.

  17. Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems

  18. Exoplanetary Characterisation Observatory (EChO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2013-04-01

    The science of extrasolar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 800-plus planets being detected, and over 2000 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are? The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest range possible and is currently being studied by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The mission is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope at L2, hosting a suit of spectrographs providing continuous spectral coverage from 0.5 to 16 microns. Such a broad and simultaneous wavelength coverage allows the unique insight into the atmospheric make up of these foreign worlds and allows us to study their planetary and atmospheric compositions and evolutions.

  19. Preliminary results of the Cerenkov EAS flashes the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vladimirsky, B. M.; Zyskin, Y. I.; Nesphor, Y. I.; Stepanain, A. A.; Fomin, V. P.; Shitov, V. G.

    1985-01-01

    The facility designed for the study of angular resolution of light in the extensive air showers EAS flashes is described. The threshold energy of the facility is about 3 x 10 to the 12h power eV. The data on the angular distribution of light in a flash and the ratio of the flux in the UV and visual region as a function of the distance to the axis of a shower are given. Obtained results are compared to the published computations.

  20. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a set of long-term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept and a similar retrieval approach. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good-quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal-to-noise ratio of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ˜ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column density (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products (SAO OMI v3.0.2 and BIRA OMI v14) with our OMPS product using 1 year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product are 23 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 28 % between OMI BIRA and OMPS SAO for eight selected regions.

  1. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Vasilkov, A.; Seftor, C.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on-board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a consistent set of long term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal to noise ratio (SNR) of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ~ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column densities (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products with our OMPS product using one year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product are 21 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 38 % between OMI BIRA and OMPS SAO for eight selected regions.

  2. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's minicomputer vs. the laser. [computer predictions for laser tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherniack, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems encountered in replacing a CDC 6400, that was used for supplying a network of laser tracking stations with predictions, by an 8K Data General 1200 minicomputer with a teletype for I/O. Before the replacement, the predictions were expensive to compute and to transmit, and were clumsy logistically. The achieved improvements are described, along with every step it took to accomplish them, and the incurred costs.

  3. The Information Resources in Arcetri Astrophysics Observatory: Between Metadata and Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, Roberto; Gasperini, Antonella

    It is becoming apparent that libraries are going to play a key role in the new W3C's (World Wide Web Consortium) paradigm for the semantic web. For this reason, the Arcetri library is investigating methods for publishing different kinds of electronic documents on the net and a way of enriching them with semantic metadata. For the first phase, we are focusing on the library catalogue; and, in a second phase, we will consider bibliographies, preprints, technical reports, web pages, archives of astronomical data, and photographic and historical archives.

  4. The FOSTER Project: Flying Teachers On NASA's Airborne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Gillespie, C.; Devore, E.; Morrow, C.

    1993-12-01

    An educational outreach pilot project is underway at NASA Ames Research Center. The FOSTER (Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment) project goal is to provide an educationally enriching experience for elementary and high school science teachers. The project consists of a summer workshop where the selected teachers receive insight into contemporary astrophysics, curriculum supplement materials and an orientation to their upcoming science flight. During the academic year they return to NASA/Ames when they are introduced to and fly with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory investigators as the team conducts its observing program. It is anticipated that the first-hand experience of the scientific process (its excitement, hardships, challenges, discoveries, teamwork, social relevance and educational value) will provide an enriching experience that the teachers can take back into their classrooms and use to help with their teaching.

  5. LIGO - The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex; Althouse, William E.; Drever, Ronald W. P.; Gursel, Yekta; Kawamura, Seiji; Raab, Frederick J.; Shoemaker, David; Sievers, Lisa; Spero, Robert E.; Thorne, Kip S.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Project is to detect and study astrophysical gravitational waves and use data from them for research in physics and astronomy. LIGO will support studies concerning the nature and nonlinear dynamics for gravity, the structures of black holes, and the equation of state of nuclear matter. It will also measure the masses, birth rates, collisions, and distributions of black holes and neutron stars in the universe and probe the cores of supernovae and the very early universe. The technology for LIGO has been developed during the past 20 years. Construction will begin in 1992, and under the present schedule, LIGO's gravitational-wave searches will begin in 1998.

  6. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

  7. ISS images for Observatory protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

  8. Planetary research at Lowell Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific goals include a better determination of the basic physical characteristics of cometary nuclei, a more complete understanding of the complex processes in the comae, a survey of abundances and gas/dust ratios in a large number of comets, and measurement of primordial (12)C/(13)C and (14)N/(15)N ratios. The program also includes the observation of Pluto-Charon mutual eclipses to derive dimensions. Reduction and analysis of extensive narrowband photometry of Comet Halley from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Perth Observatory, Lowell Observatory, and Mauna Kea Observatory were completed. It was shown that the 7.4-day periodicity in the activity of Comet Halley was present from late February through at least early June 1986, but there is no conclusive evidence of periodic variability in the preperihelion data. Greatly improved NH scalelengths and lifetimes were derived from the Halley data which lead to the conclusion that the abundance of NH in comets is much higher than previously believed. Simultaneous optical and thermal infrared observations were obtained of Comet P/Temple 2 using the MKO 2.2 m telescope and the NASA IRTF. Preliminary analysis of these observations shows that the comet's nucleus is highly elongated, very dark, and quite red.

  9. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, S.; Landi, E.; Zhang, J.; Lin, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields are arguably the most important observables required for advances in our understanding of the processes responsible for coronal heating, coronal dynamics and the generation of space weather that affects communications, GPS systems, space flight, and power transmission. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed ground-based suite of instruments designed for routine study of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their environment, and to understand the formation of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their relation to other forms of solar activity. This new facility will be operated by the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) with partners at the University of Michigan, the University of Hawaii and George Mason University in support of the solar and heliospheric community. It will replace the current NCAR Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu). COSMO will enhance the value of existing and new observatories on the ground and in space by providing unique and crucial observations of the global coronal and chromospheric magnetic field and its evolution. The design and current status of the COSMO will be reviewed.

  10. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  11. The Virtual Observatory in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    In the past several years, the Virtual Observatory has progressed from concept to implementation. There is now a well-established International Virtual Observatory Alliance {http://ivoa.net/} with formal processes for the development and promotion of technical standards. The national VO projects have developed science applications layered on the core technologies, and these applications are providing new research opportunities for the astronomy community. The VO projects are also actively engaging the community through technical training programs such as the EuroVO Workshop (June 2005), AstroGrid Workshop (July 2005), and the US National Virtual Observatory Summer School (September 2005). As the research community begins to adopt VO tools and technology and rely on VO services, the VO projects need to prepare for something akin to routine observatory operations. System integration and testing, revision tracking, version/platform support, documentation, resource allocation, service reliability, metadata curation, and user support all need to be taken seriously in an environment/system that is inherently distributed, uncentralized, and undergoing continuing enhancements to the infrastructure.

  12. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  13. Athena: ESA's X-ray observatory to study the Hot and Energetic Universe in the late 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcons, X.

    2016-06-01

    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is the X-ray observatory mission selected by ESA to address the Hot and Energetic Universe theme, due for launch in 2028. In this presentation, on behalf of the Athena Science Study Team (ASST), I will provide an overview of the Athena science objectives, developed thanks to the support of a large community and describe the Athena mission concept and its instruments. I will also report on a number of on-going study activities, including those aiming at placing Athena in the broad astrophysical context of the late 2020s.

  14. Tools for Coordinating Planning Between Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Maks, L.; Fishman, M.; Grella, V.; Kerbel, U.; Misra, D.; Pell, V.

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wave bands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only a single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not by scientific restrictions, but by operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are initiated by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among staffs at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming and error-prone, and the outcome of requests is not certain until the very end. To increase multi-observatory operations efficiency, such resource intensive processes need to be re-engineered. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of VOLT is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the probability of scheduling all observations.

  15. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  16. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most poweful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components relatedto x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  17. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  18. Status of the VERITAS Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, J.; Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K. L.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.

    2008-12-24

    VERITAS, an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) system for gammma-ray astronomy in the GeV-TeV range, has recently completed its first season of observations with a full array of four telescopes. A number of astrophysical gamma-ray sources have been detected, both galactic and extragalactic, including sources previously unknown at TeV energies. We describe the status of the array and some highlight results, and assess the technical performance, sensitivity and shower reconstruction capabilities.

  19. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Girart, J. M.; Hernanz, M.; Jordi, C.

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future. Link: http://www.springer.com/west/home?SGWID=4-102-22-173725709-0&changeHeader=true

  20. Breakthrough capability for the NASA astrophysics explorer program: reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garvin, James B.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2012-09-01

    We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to ~13X increased photometric sensitivity and ~160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun- Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has strong applicability to SMD Planetary Science community-proposed missions. SEP is a stated flight demonstration priority for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This new mission architecture for astrophysics Explorers enables an attractive realization of joint goals for OCT and SMD with wide applicability across SMD science disciplines.

  1. Breakthrough Capability for the NASA Astrophysics Explorer Program: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Joseph P.; Garvin, James B.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Stephen R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to 13X increased photometric sensitivity and 160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun- Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has strong applicability to SMD Planetary Science community-proposed missions. SEP is a stated flight demonstration priority for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This new mission architecture for astrophysics Explorers enables an attractive realization of joint goals for OCT and SMD with wide applicability across SMD science disciplines.

  2. Workshop Proceedings: Optical Systems Technology for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayon, Juan A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A technology development program, Astrotech 21, is being proposed by NASA to enable the launching of the next generation of space astrophysical observatories during the years 1995-2015. Astrotech 21 is being planned and will ultimately be implemented jointly by the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications and the Space Directorate of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. A summary of the Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop is presented. The goal of the workshop was to identify areas of development within advanced optical systems that require technology advances in order to meet the science goals of the Astrotech 21 mission set, and to recommend a coherent development program to achieve the required capabilities.

  3. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  4. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  5. Studying Nuclear Astrophysics at NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R; Bernstein, L; Brune, C

    2009-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility's primary goal is to generate fusion energy. But the starlike conditions that it creates will also enable NIF scientists to study astrophysically important nuclear reactions. When scientists at the stadium-sized National Ignition Facility attempt to initiate fusion next year, 192 powerful lasers will direct 1.2 MJ of light energy toward a two-mm-diameter pellet of deuterium ({sup 2}H, or D) and tritium ({sup 3}H, or T). Some of that material will be gaseous, but most will be in a frozen shell. The idea is to initiate 'inertial confinement fusion', in which the two hydrogen isotopes fuse to produce helium-4, a neutron, and 17.6 MeV of energy. The light energy will be delivered to the inside walls of a hohlraum, a heavy-metal, centimeter-sized cylinder that houses the pellet. The container's heated walls will produce x rays that impinge on the pellet and ablate its outer surface. The exiting particles push inward on the pellet and compresses the DT fuel. Ultimately a hot spot develops at the pellet's center, where fusion produces {sup 4}He nuclei that have sufficient energy to propagate outward, trigger successive reactions, and finally react the frozen shell. Ignition should last several tens of picoseconds and generate more than 10 MJ of energy and roughly 10{sup 19} neutrons. The temperature will exceed 10{sup 8} K and fuel will be compressed to a density of several hundred g/cm{sup 3}, both considerably greater than at the center of the Sun. The figure shows a cutaway view of NIF. The extreme conditions that will be produced there simulate those in nuclear weapons and inside stars. For that reason, the facility is an important part of the US stockpile stewardship program, designed to assess the nation's aging nuclear stockpile without doing nuclear tests. In this Quick Study we consider a third application of NIF - using the extraordinary conditions it will produce to perform experiments in basic science. We will focus on

  6. The SAFARI imaging spectrometer for the SPICA space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, Peter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Swinyard, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Nielsen, Hans; Olofsson, Göran; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Isaak, Kate; Goicoechea, Javier R.

    2012-09-01

    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment where instruments are limited only by the cosmic background itself. A consortium of European and Canadian institutes has been established to design and implement the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument SAFARI, an imaging spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment provided by the SPICA observatory. SAFARI’s large instantaneous field of view combined with the extremely sensitive Transition Edge Sensing detectors will allow astronomers to very efficiently map large areas of the sky in the far infrared - in a square degree survey of a 1000 hours many thousands of faint sources will be detected, and a very large fraction of these sources will be fully spectroscopically characterised by the instrument. Efficiently obtaining such a large number of complete spectra is essential to address several fundamental questions in current astrophysics: how do galaxies form and evolve over cosmic time?, what is the true nature of our own Milky Way?, and why and where do planets like those in our own solar system come into being?

  7. Antenna Deployment for a Pathfinder Lunar Radio Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, Robert J.; Minetto, F. A.; Lazio, T. W.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Burns, J. O.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    A first step in the development of a large radio observatory on the moon for cosmological or other astrophysical and planetary goals is to deploy a few antennas as a pathfinder mission. In this presentation, we describe a mechanism being developed to deploy such antennas from a small craft, such as a Google Lunar X-prize lander. The antenna concept is to deposit antennas and leads on a polyimide film, such as Kapton, and to unroll the film on the lunar surface. The deployment technique utilized is to launch an anchor which pulls a double line from a reel at the spacecraft. Subsequently, the anchor is set by catching on the surface or collecting sufficient regolith. A motor then pulls in one end of the line, pulling the film off of its roller onto the lunar surface. Detection of a low frequency cutoff of the galactic radio background or of solar radio bursts by such a system would determine the maximum lunar ionospheric density at the time of measurement. The current design and testing, including videos of the deployment, will be presented. These activities are funded in part by the NASA Lunar Science Institute as an activity of the Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR) consortium. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Antenna Deployment for a Pathfinder Lunar Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, Robert J.; Minetto, F. A.; Lazio, T. W.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Burns, J. O.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K. W.

    2012-05-01

    A first step in the development of a large radio observatory on the moon for cosmological or other astrophysical and planetary goals is to deploy a few antennas as a pathfinder mission. In this presentation, we describe a mechanism being developed to deploy such antennas from a small craft, such as a Google Lunar X-prize lander. The antenna concept is to deposit antennas and leads on a polyimide film, such as Kapton, and to unroll the film on the lunar surface. The deployment technique utilized is to launch an anchor which pulls a double line from a reel at the spacecraft. Subsequently, the anchor is set by catching on the surface or collecting sufficient regolith. A motor then pulls in one end of the line, pulling the film off of its roller onto the lunar surface. Detection of a low frequency cutoff of the galactic radio background or of solar radio bursts by such a system would determine the maximum lunar ionospheric density at the time of measurement. The current design and testing, including videos of the deployment, will be presented. These activities are funded in part by the NASA Lunar Science Institute as an activity of the Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR) consortium. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  10. Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop, convened May 1-3, 2002 at NASA's Ames Research Center. Sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS), this programmatic workshop is held periodically by NASA to discuss the current state of knowledge in the interdisciplinary field of laboratory astrophysics and to identify the science priorities (needs) in support of NASA's space missions. An important goal of the Workshop is to provide input to OSS in the form of a white paper for incorporation in its strategic planning. This report comprises a record of the complete proceedings of the Workshop and the Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper drafted at the Workshop.

  11. Scaling Extreme Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2007-11-01

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  12. Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael S.; Schatz, Hendrik; Timmes, Frank X.; Wiescher, Michael; Greife, Uwe

    2006-07-12

    The Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group has been established to develop and promote the nuclear astrophysics research anticipated at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). RIA is a proposed next-generation nuclear science facility in the U.S. that will enable significant progress in studies of core collapse supernovae, thermonuclear supernovae, X-ray bursts, novae, and other astrophysical sites. Many of the topics addressed by the Working Group are relevant for the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the planned GSI-Fair facility, and other advanced radioactive beam facilities.

  13. Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Schatz, Hendrik; Timmes, Frank X.; Wiescher, Michael; Greife, Uwe

    2006-07-01

    The Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group has been established to develop and promote the nuclear astrophysics research anticipated at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). RIA is a proposed next-generation nuclear science facility in the U.S. that will enable significant progress in studies of core collapse supernovae, thermonuclear supernovae, X-ray bursts, novae, and other astrophysical sites. Many of the topics addressed by the Working Group are relevant for the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the planned GSI-Fair facility, and other advanced radioactive beam facilities.

  14. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment copy form; photos beginning with

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    TRW workers in the Vertical Processing Facility check equipment after deployment of the solar panel array above them, attached to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  15. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  16. The Establishment of an Astrophysics Course in the Philippines through the IAU TAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebre, C. P.

    2003-05-01

    The Japanese Government through its Cultural Grant-aid Program, donated a 45-cm telescope to the Government of the Philippines. It was installed at the PAGASA Astronomical Observatory in May 2000. Its installation had made the officials of PAGASA realize the need to establish an undergraduate astrophysics course in the country. The course will be more economical and practical, compared to training courses and fellowships requested from abroad. It was planned to be established in cooperation with the IAU-TAD and the National Institute of Physics of the University of the Philippines. The activity is discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Search for Coincidences in Time and Arrival Direction of Auger Data with Astrophysical Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-06-01

    The data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for coincidences between the arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays and the positions in the sky of astrophysical transients. Special attention is directed towards gamma ray observations recorded by NASA's Swift mission, which have an angular resolution similar to that of the Auger surface detectors. In particular, we check our data for evidence of a signal associated with the giant flare that came from the soft gamma repeater 1806-20 on December 27, 2004.

  18. Feeding an astrophysical database via distributed computing resources: The case of BaSTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffoni, G.; Sciacca, E.; Pietrinferni, A.; Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; Cassisi, S.; Pasian, F.; Pelusi, D.; Vuerli, C.

    2015-06-01

    Stellar evolution model databases, spanning a wide ranges of masses and initial chemical compositions, are nowadays a major tool to study Galactic and extragalactic stellar populations. The Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones (BaSTI) database is a VO-compliant theoretical astrophysical catalogue that collects fundamental datasets involving stars formation and evolution. The creation of this database implies a large number of stellar evolutionary computations that are extremely demanding in term of computing power. Here we discuss the efforts devoted to create and update the database using Distributed Computing Infrastructures and a Science Gateway and its future developments within the framework of the Italian Virtual Observatory project.

  19. Quantum gravity at astrophysical distances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Weyer, H.

    2004-12-01

    Assuming that quantum Einstein gravity (QEG) is the correct theory of gravity on all length scales, we use analytical results from nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) equations as well as experimental input in order to characterize the special RG trajectory of QEG which is realized in Nature and to determine its parameters. On this trajectory, we identify a regime of scales where gravitational physics is well described by classical general relativity. Strong renormalization effects occur at both larger and smaller momentum scales. The latter lead to a growth of Newton's constant at large distances. We argue that this effect becomes visible at the scale of galaxies and could provide a solution to the astrophysical missing mass problem which does not require any dark matter. We show that an extremely weak power law running of Newton's constant leads to flat galaxy rotation curves similar to those observed in Nature. Furthermore, a possible resolution of the cosmological constant problem is proposed by noting that all RG trajectories admitting a long classical regime automatically give rise to a small cosmological constant.

  20. Two LANL laboratory astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, Thomas P.

    2014-01-24

    Two laboratory experiments are described that have been built at Los Alamos (LANL) to gain access to a wide range of fundamental plasma physics issues germane to astro, space, and fusion plasmas. The overarching theme is magnetized plasma dynamics which includes significant currents, MHD forces and instabilities, magnetic field creation and annihilation, sheared flows and shocks. The Relaxation Scaling Experiment (RSX) creates current sheets and flux ropes that exhibit fully 3D dynamics, and can kink, bounce, merge and reconnect, shred, and reform in complicated ways. Recent movies from a large data set describe the 3D magnetic structure of a driven and dissipative single flux rope that spontaneously self-saturates a kink instability. Examples of a coherent shear flow dynamo driven by colliding flux ropes will also be shown. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) uses Field reversed configuration (FRC) experimental hardware that forms and ejects FRCs at 150km/sec. This is sufficient to drive a collision less magnetized shock when stagnated into a mirror stopping field region with Alfven Mach number MA=3 so that super critical shocks can be studied. We are building a plasmoid accelerator to drive Mach numbers MA >> 3 to access solar wind and more exotic astrophysical regimes. Unique features of this experiment include access to parallel, oblique and perpendicular shocks, shock region much larger than ion gyro radii and ion inertial length, room for turbulence, and large magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers.

  1. Recoil Separators for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, J. C.

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen and helium capture reactions are important in many astrophysical environments. Measurements in inverse kinematics using recoil separators have demonstrated a particularly sensitive technique for studying low-yield capture reactions.(M. S. Smith, C. E. Rolfs, and C. A. Barnes, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A306) (1991) 233. This approach allows a low background rate to be achieved with a high detection efficiency (about 50%) for the particles of interest using a device with only modest acceptance. Recoil separators using a variety of ion-optic configurations have been installed at numerous accelerator facilities in the past decade and have been used to measure, for example, alpha capture reactions using stable beams(D. Rogalla et al.), Eur. Phys. J. 6 (1999) 471. and proton capture reactions using radioactive ion beams.(S. Bishop et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 162501. Measurements in inverse kinematics are the only viable means for studying reactions on short-lived nuclei that are crucial for understanding stellar explosions, and a recoil separator optimized for the measurement of capture reactions with radioactive ion beams figures prominently into the design of the low energy experimental area at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). The operational requirements for such a device will be outlined, and recoil separator designs and characteristics will be presented.

  2. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, C. J.; Fryer, C. L.; Hungerford, A. L.; Hakel, P.; Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generated with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.

  3. NASA Astrophysics Educator Ambassador Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Educator Ambassador (EA) Program began in 2001 as part of the GLAST (now Fermi) EPO effort at Sonoma State University. The program currently supports 15 EAs, sponsored by either Fermi (10), Swift (3), XMM-Newton (1) or NuSTAR (1). This group of master educators work with mission scientists and EPO personnel to develop curricula and train teachers; they also do workshops for students and outreach events with the general public. Every other year since 2002 the EAs assemble for a week of training at SSU. Each training has had a different focus. Additionally, time is given for the EAs to share ideas from their own workshops. In the dozen years of the program, the total number of teachers attending EA-run workshops is over 60,000, and EA workshops have received outstanding positive reviews from participants according to surveys conducted by our external evaluator, WestEd. This poster gives an overview of the program and its nationwide impact.

  4. Mass-23 nuclei in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, P. R.; Amos, K.; Canton, L.; Karataglidis, S.; Svenne, J. P.; van der Kniff, D.

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mass-23 nuclei by radiative capture is of great interest in astrophysics. A topical problem associated with these isobars is the so-called 22Na puzzle of ONe white dwarf novae, where the abundance of 22Na observed is not as is predicted by current stellar models, indicating there is more to learn about how the distribution of elements in the universe occurred. Another concerns unexplained variations in elements abundance on the surface of aging red giant stars. One method for theoretically studying nuclear scattering is the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) formalism. Studies to date have used a simple collective-rotor prescription to model the target states which couple to projectile nucleons. While, in general, the target states considered all belong to the ground state rotor band, for some systems it is necessary to include coupling to states outside of this band. Herein we discuss an extension of MCAS to allow coupling of different strengths between such states and the ground state band. This consideration is essential when studying the scattering of neutrons from 22Ne, a necessary step in studying the mass-23 nuclei mentioned above.

  5. NASA's Research Programs in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, H.

    2006-08-01

    The motivation for this paper is to present to the scientific community the current status of research in Astrophysics being funded by NASA in support of its strategic objectives, in order to foster a dialog with the international space science community. Research investigations selected by NASA via a peer review process, are conducted at universities, NASA centers, other U.S. Government institutions, and private institutions. Non U.S. participation is permitted. The research program is an incubator for new ideas. A major component is technology development in the area of astronomical detectors; instruments flown on rockets, balloons and other suborbital platforms; supporting technology such as development of gratings, mirror coatings, mission concepts; laboratory experiments to produce atomic and molecular data to support spectroscopic observations from space missions; study if ice and dust in a space environment to understand planet formation. There is also a data analysis program which is complemented by a robust theory program. The poster paper will give an overview and present specific examples of research in each of the areas listed above. Areas of international collaboration will be highlighted.

  6. Miklós Konkoly Thege (1842-1916). 100 Years of Observational Astronomy and Astrophysics - A collection of papers on the history of Observational Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Hearnshaw, J. B.

    2001-10-01

    This book results from presentations and discussions by a group of astronomers and historians during a three-day workshop held at Tihany (Hungary), on 13-15 August 1999. This meeting - the second forum dedicated to the rise of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century - coincided with the centenary of Hungary's national observatory. The basic principle of this series of meetings is to reflect on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. The series focuses on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working, that has in turn formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today. Hence the evocation of the scientific spirit of the era under consideration is attempted. Such a leading key person undoubtedly was Miklós Konkoly Thege. A superb instrumentalist and observer, Konkoly became the founding father of Hungarian astronomy through the establishment of his private observatory that later became the Royal Hungarian Ógyalla Observatory, the precursor of the modern Konkoly Observatory. The workshop was organized at the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Konkoly Observatory. The book outlines five major themes. The first part describes the birth of observational astrophysics in Hungary and focuses on historical aspects of 19th century Hungarian astronomy from three different viewpoints: the historical narrative based on historical facts, the perspective as seen by an expert in historical instrumentation, and a discussion of the socio-political consequences of nineteenth-century developments for our present times. The second part analyses the birth of observational astrophysics in countries with which Konkoly and his collaborators had close contacts: Japan, South Africa and France. The third part of the book discusses the establishment of the discipline of photometry worldwide. An important aspect of 19th

  7. Reorganization and Reconfiguration of the Information Management System of Istanbul University Observatory taking the Padova - Asiago Observatory Information Management System as a Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulsecen, S.; Saygac, A. T.; Passuello, R.; Rigoni, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the need for a more powerful Information management System (IMS) to be used as a useful aid for astronomers. The main purpose of IMS in astronomical places like observatories and astronomy departments is described and two models are presented: one to be reorganized and reconfigurated (Istanbul University,Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences -ASS- IMS) and one to be taken as a good model for the previous (University of Padova, Asiago astrophysical Observatory IMS). Particular attention is given to the implementation of the new IMS of ASS to be done carefully. In order to take success in this, the need for current and future cooperation and support in mentioned.

  8. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Progress Report and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 13 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory's ability to provide high resolution X-ray images and spectra have established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the hot, high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes spanning more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the X-ray brightest, Sco X-1, to the faintest sources in the Chandra Deep Field South survey. Thanks to its continuing operational life, the Chandra mission now also provides a long observing baseline which, in and of itself, is opening new research opportunities. Observations in the past few years alone have deepened our understanding of the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, the details of black hole accretion, the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the details of supernovae and their progenitors, the interiors of neutron stars, the evolution of massive stars, and the high-energy environment of protoplanetary nebulae and the interaction of an exo-planet with its star. Here we update the technical status, highlight some of the scientific results, and very briefly discuss future prospects. We fully expect that the Observatory will continue to provide outstanding scientific results for many years to come.

  9. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: Lessons Learned in Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, G. A.; Joseph, G. W.; Behrens, H. W.; Asato, D. I.; Carlson, R. A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was the second of NASA's Great Observatories. At 17 1/2 tons. it was the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown at the time of its launch on April 5, 1991 aboard the Space Shuttle. During initial, on-orbit priming of the spacecraft's monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system, a severe waterhammer transient was experienced. At that time, anomalous telemetry readings were received from on-board propulsion system instrumentation. This led to ground analyses and laboratory investigations as to the root cause of the waterhammer, potential damage to system integrity and functionality, and risks for switching from the primary (A-side) propulsion system to the redundant (B-side) system. The switchover to B-side was ultimately performed successfully and the spacecraft completed its basic and extended missions in this configuration. Nine years later, following a critical control gyroscope failure, Compton was safely deorbited and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on June 4, 2000. Additional risk assessments concerning viability of A- and B-sides were necessary to provide confidence in attitude and delta-V authority and reliability to manage the precisely controlled reentry. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the propulsion system used on the spacecraft and provides "lessons learned" from the system engineering investigations into the propellant loading procedures, the initial priming anomaly, mission operations, and the commanded re-entry following the gyro failure.

  10. Virtual Observatory - India : Information Support For Remote Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alladi, Vagiswari; Birdie, Christina; Bawdekar, Nirupama; Kembhavi, Ajit; Sheshadri, Geetha

    A Virtual Observatory (VO) seeks to provide a single virtual platform which will provide astronomers easy access to large astronomical data over many different wavelengths. The data are gathered from space-based missions and from ground-based telescopes. VO related projects are being started in India also, and Virtual Observatory-India is the brain child of IUCAA as a collaboration between astronomers and software developers in the country. Specific programs are being developed, and mirror sites of databases are being created. They have received funding from the government. Astronomical Libraries in India will play a major role in this project in the form of Virtual Information Support. The Virtual Information Support (VIS) will serve as a tool for meeting the information needs of the astronomical community in the country, from anywhere at anytime. It will be a major source of support to provide seamless access to the resources held in the astronomy libraries, including the online interactive services. FORSA (Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy & Astrophysics) is an informal cohesive group of astronomy libraries in India, which will be the force behind this Virtual Library to share resources and services. The major VIS initiative in 2002 will be the design and implementation of a web site - with features such as newsletter, an integrated library database of all the libraries of the FORSA members, and an online interactive form to facilitate the interlibrary exchange.

  11. Preserving Observatory Publications: Microfilming, Scanning...What's Next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Donna J.

    Since 1996, the John G. Wolbach Library & Information Resource Center at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics has participated in a preservation project, funded by the U. S. National Endowment for the Humanities and carried out at Harvard University's Weissman Preservation Center, to preserve the history of science. More than 2,000 volumes of Wolbach Library's 3,000 volume collection of historical observatory publications from around the world have already been preserved on microfilm. A follow-up project to convert the collection to digital format was begun in the year 2000. Meanwhile, Harvard University unveiled its Digital Repository Service (DRS) offering state-of-the-art storage and retrieval of digital collections. DRS goes further than our previous projects by offering full-text searching, page turning capability, color plates, strict metadata requirements, persistent links using universal resource names, reformatting as necessary, and perpetual storage. Harvard also offers the service and guidance of preservation experts from its state-of-the-art Imaging Service and Preservation Department. In anticipation of the LISA IV meeting in Prague, Wolbach Library issued a challenge to Harvard, ``Show us what you can do with a brittle volume from the Observatory Publication collection.'' Harvard accepted. The result is included in this paper and links are provided to allow the reader closer scrutiny of the final product.

  12. Space-time coordinated metadata for the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.

    2007-08-01

    Space-time coordinate metadata are at the very core of understanding astronomical data and information. This aspect of data description requires very careful consideration. The design needs to be sufficiently general that it can adequately represent the many coordinate systems and conventions that are in use in the community. On the other hand the most basic requirement is that the space-time metadata for queries, for resource descriptions, and for data be complete and self-consistent. It is important to keep in mind that space, time, redshift, and spectrum are strongly intertwined coordinates: time has little meaning without knowing the location, and vice-versa; redshift and spectral data require position and velocity for correct interpretation. The design of the metadata structure has been completed at this time and will support most, if not all, coordinate systems and transformations between them for the Virtual Observatory, either immediately or through extensions. This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.

  13. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  14. Latest news from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Muñoz, A.; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory is an air shower detector designed to study very-high-energy gamma rays (∼ 100 GeV to ∼ 100 TeV). It is located in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, Mexico, at an elevation of 4100 m. HAWC started operations since August 2013 with 111 tanks and in April of 2015 the 300 tanks array was completed. HAWC's unique capabilities, with a field of view of ∼ 2 sr and a high duty cycle of 5%, allow it to survey 2/3 of the sky every day. These features makes HAWC an excellent instrument for searching new TeV sources and for the detection of transient events, like gamma-ray bursts. Moreover, HAWC provides almost continuous monitoring of already known sources with variable gamma-ray fluxes in most of the northern and part of the southern sky. These observations will bring new information about the acceleration processes that take place in astrophysical environments. In this contribution, some of the latest scientific results of the observatory will be presented.

  15. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  16. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  17. International ultraviolet explorer observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Observatory Operations contract, NAS5-28787. The report summarizes the activities of the IUE Observatory over the 13-month period from November 1985 through November 1986 and is arranged in sections according to the functions specified in the Statement of Work (SOW) of the contract. In order to preserve numerical correspondence between the technical SOW elements specified by the contract and the sections of this report, project management activities (SOW element 0.0.) are reported here in Section 7, following the reports of technical SOW elements 1.0 through 6.0. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible; statistical compilations, reports, and more lengthy supplementary material are contained in the Appendices.

  18. The Role of the Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, I.

    2005-12-01

    Observatories are the engine room of astronomical outreach. They provide the tools that allow research discoveries to be made in addition to employing many of the research astronomers and public information officers (PIOs). Where accessible, they provide a natural venue for public visits and centres of excellence. They engage in a wide variety of outreach activities in their own right with varying degrees of success, often linked to funding. In all of this, the enthusiasm and high calibre activities of individuals can never be overestimated. We review the above and report the results from a 'health of stock' survey conducted of a large sample of mainly ground-based observatories refl ecting their overall activities and experiences.

  19. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  20. Ny-Alesund Geodetic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the 20-m telescope at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, operated by the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), took part in 163 out of 168 scheduled sessions of the IVS program. Since spring, all data was transferred by network, and the receiver monitoring computer was replaced by a bus-coupler. In autumn, the NMA received building permission for a new observatory from the Governor of Svalbard. The bidding process and first construction work for the infrastructure will start in 2013.