Science.gov

Sample records for abatement cost curves

  1. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  2. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  3. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  4. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  5. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  6. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  7. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  8. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  9. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  10. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  11. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy.

  12. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  13. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  14. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  15. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  16. Least-cost groundwater pollution abatement: The case of irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.D.

    1992-12-01

    This case study treats nitrate leaching stochastically with a bio-physical simulation linked to a chance constrained programming. Consequences of stochastic leaching on policy effectiveness and producer cost are drawn. A cost abatement frontier shows considerable leaching reduction at relatively little cost.

  17. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  18. Alternative methods of marginal abatement cost estimation: Non- parametric distance functions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Molburg, J.; Prince, R.

    1996-12-31

    This project implements a economic methodology to measure the marginal abatement costs of pollution by measuring the lost revenue implied by an incremental reduction in pollution. It utilizes observed performance, or `best practice`, of facilities to infer the marginal abatement cost. The initial stage of the project is to use data from an earlier published study on productivity trends and pollution in electric utilities to test this approach and to provide insights on its implementation to issues of cost-benefit analysis studies needed by the Department of Energy. The basis for this marginal abatement cost estimation is a relationship between the outputs and the inputs of a firm or plant. Given a fixed set of input resources, including quasi-fixed inputs like plant and equipment and variable inputs like labor and fuel, a firm is able to produce a mix of outputs. This paper uses this theoretical view of the joint production process to implement a methodology and obtain empirical estimates of marginal abatement costs. These estimates are compared to engineering estimates.

  19. Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases 2005-2050 with abatement potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena

    2017-02-01

    This study uses the GAINS model framework to estimate current and future emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), their abatement potentials, and costs for twenty source sectors and 162 countries and regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. Global F-gas (HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) emissions are estimated at 0.7 Pg CO2 eq. in 2005 with an expected increase to 3.7 Pg CO2 eq. in 2050 if application of control technology remains at the current level. There are extensive opportunities to reduce emissions using existing technology and alternative substances with low global warming potential. Estimates show that it would be technically feasible to reduce cumulative F-gas emissions from 81 to 11 Pg CO2 eq. between 2018 and 2050. A reduction in cumulative emissions to 23 Pg CO2 eq. is estimated to be possible at a marginal abatement cost below 10 EUR t-1 CO2 eq. We also find that future F-gas abatement is expected to become relatively more costly for developing than developed countries due to differences in the sector contribution to emissions and abatement potentials.

  20. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS.

  1. Learning/cost-improvement curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Review guide is an aid to manager or engineer who must determine production costs for components, systems, or services. Methods are described by which manufacturers may use historical data, task characteristics, and current cost data to estimate unit prices as function of number of units to be produced.

  2. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  3. Cost Curves and How They Relate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, J. Wilson; Tohemy, Soumaya M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Web site that contains Microsoft Excel workbooks that draft consistent short-run and long-run cost curves and the text describing them. Details a common error in representing the curves. Reports that the Web site also presents revenues and profits for a price taker and a price maker. (JEH)

  4. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  5. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr).

  6. The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalälven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources.

  7. Abatement Cost of GHG Emissions for Wood-Based Electricity and Ethanol at Production and Consumption Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ−1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km−1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e−1 and $30 Mg CO2e−1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation. PMID:24937461

  8. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  9. Guidelines for application of learning/cost improvement curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The differences between the terms learning curve and improvement curve are noted, as well as the differences between the Wright system and the Crawford system. Learning curve computational techniques were reviewed along with a method to arrive at a composite learning curve for a system given detail curves either by the functional techniques classification or simply categorized by subsystem. Techniques are discussed for determination of the theoretical first unit (TFU) cost using several of the currently accepted methods. Sometimes TFU cost is referred to as simply number one cost. A tabular presentation of the various learning curve slope values is given. A discussion of the various trends in the application of learning/improvement curves and an outlook for the future are presented.

  10. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  11. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  12. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  13. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  14. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  15. Characterization of Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx that Incorporate Control Measures, Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Fuel Switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted when fossil fuels are combusted. In the atmosphere, NOx reacts with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce tropospheric ozone, a component of photochemical smog. In most parts of the country, strategies for reducing ozone gene...

  16. Can sustainable hospitals help bend the health care cost curve?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Susan; Sadler, Blair; Little, Kevin; Franz, Calvin; Orris, Peter

    2012-11-01

    As policymakers seek to rein in the nation's escalating health care costs, one area deserving attention is the health system's costly environmental footprint. This study examines data from selected hospitals that have implemented programs to reduce energy use and waste and achieve operating room supply efficiencies. After standardizing metrics across the hospitals studied and generalizing results to hospitals nationwide, the analysis finds that savings achievable through these interventions could exceed $5.4 billion over five years and $15 billion over 10 years. Given the return on investment, the authors rec­ommend that all hospitals adopt such programs and, in cases where capital investments could be financially burdensome, that public funds be used to provide loans or grants, particularly to safety-net hospitals.

  17. Development of synthetic flood damage curve by explicit costs analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Mario; Molinari, Daniela; Dottori, Francesco; Scorzini, Annarita

    2015-04-01

    Damage modelling is a key component in flood risk assessments. A conventional approach for estimating direct flood damages is the use of depth-damage functions. However, at present, there are few studies that describe in detail the parameters involved in the models and the hypotheses used for the development of these functions based on synthetic approaches and/or actual flood damage data. In this work a synthetic approach was adopted for the development of a damage model for residential buildings. The approach follows the loss assessment procedure usually applied by the insurance loss adjusters. Required information consisted of all those variables that are necessary to define hazard characteristics at building location, compute the exposure value of the building and the replacement costs of its components. In detail, the model requires four input tables. The hazard module includes the variables describing the features of the flood event at building location (e.g. water depth outside the building, water depth inside the basement, maximum velocity of the flood, duration of the event, contaminant and sediment load). The exposure module includes both extensive variables (e.g. foot print area, number of floors) and "vulnerability" variables, where the latter affect damage estimation in two different ways: by changing the replacement value/unit prices of the building and its components (e.g. the finishing level, building type) or by modifying the function(s) describing damage mechanisms (e.g. building structure, plant distribution). The replacement values table and the unit-price table include respectively the replacement value of the building and the unitary replacement costs of the different building components (e.g. doors and pavement replacement per square meter). The final output of the model is represented by different sets of damage functions describing all the building components (e.g. plasters, plants), depending on hazard, exposure and vulnerability

  18. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  19. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting

  20. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  1. On the shape of the hospital industry long run average cost curve.

    PubMed

    Finkler, S A

    1979-01-01

    Empirical studies of the hospital industry have produced conflicting results with respect to the shape of the industry's long run average cost (LRAC) curve. Some of the studies have found a classical U-shaped curve. Others have produced results indicating that the LRAC curve is much closer to being L-shaped. Some theoretical support exists for both sets of findings. While classical theory predicts that the LRAC curve will be U-shaped, Alchian has presented theoretical arguments explaining why such curves would be L-shaped. This paper reconciles the results of these studies. The basis for the reconciliation is recognition of the failure of individual hospitals to produce all their individual product lines at efficient volumes. Such inefficient production is feasible and perhaps common, given the incentive structure which exists under current cost reimbursement systems. The implication of this paper is that large hospitals may have a greater potential for scale economies than has previously been recognized.

  2. Historical cost curves for hydrogen masers and cesium beam frequency and timing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, D. S.; Moore, R. C.

    1985-02-01

    Historical cost curves were developed for hydrogen masers and cesium beam standards used for frequency and timing calibration in the Deep Space Network. These curves may be used to calculate the cost of future hydrogen masers or cesium beam standards in either future or current dollars. The cesium beam standards are decreasing in cost by about 2.3% per year since 1966, and hydrogen masers are decreasing by about 0.8% per year since 1978 relative to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration inflation index.

  3. Historical Cost Curves for Hydrogen Masers and Cesium Beam Frequency and Timing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Moore, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Historical cost curves were developed for hydrogen masers and cesium beam standards used for frequency and timing calibration in the Deep Space Network. These curves may be used to calculate the cost of future hydrogen masers or cesium beam standards in either future or current dollars. The cesium beam standards are decreasing in cost by about 2.3% per year since 1966, and hydrogen masers are decreasing by about 0.8% per year since 1978 relative to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration inflation index.

  4. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    PubMed

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals.

  5. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  6. Groundwater pollution abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.; Holm, L.W.; Saunders, D.L.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described for for pollution abatement in groundwaters, comprising the steps of: drilling a series of wells into an aquifer, ahead of an advancing front of water which contains one or more contaminants. The wells are disposed along a line approximately parallel to the advancing front; and introducing, through the wells and into the aquifer, a particulate adsorbent material which can adsorb at least one contaminant.

  7. Bending the health cost curve: the promise and peril of the Independent Payment Advisory Board.

    PubMed

    Marciarille, Ann Marie; DeLong, J Bradford

    2012-01-01

    Underlying today's and the future's health-care reform debate is a consensus that America's health-care financing system is in a slow-moving but deep crisis: care appears substandard in comparison with other advanced industrial countries, and relative costs are exploding beyond all reasonable measures. The Obama Administration's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to grapple with both of these problems. One of ACA's key instrumentalities is the Independent Payment Advisory Board-the IPAB, designed to discover and authorize ways to reduce the rate of growth of Medicare and other categories of health spending. The IPAB is a peril. Expert boards to perform regulatory tasks in the interest of efficiency and social goals always run a high risk of being captured by the industry they are supposed to regulate. Even should it succeed at its task of reducing the rate of growth of Medicare spending, who is to say that the reductions will not come at a heavy cost in reduced quantity and effectiveness of medical care? But the IPAB also has promise. The need for a better process than our current specialist-driven one to assign value to the medical services provided by Medicare is great. The bellwether status of Medicare payment systems means that commercial insurance consumers and payors would also benefit mightily from bringing more coherent, technocratic, and cost-effectiveness oriented logic to this process. And the current system of relative Medicare reimbursement rates is, in the judgment of many, currently well out of whack. We quail when we consider the magnitude of the tasks the IPAB faces--even its initial task. Nevertheless, we remain optimistic that this administrative agency will manage to bend the long-run healthcare cost curve and moderate future price increases.

  8. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  9. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  10. Environmental costs and renewable energy: re-visiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    PubMed

    López-Menéndez, Ana Jesús; Pérez, Rigoberto; Moreno, Blanca

    2014-12-01

    The environmental costs of economic development have received increasing attention during the last years. According to the World Energy Outlook (2013) sustainable energy policies should be promoted in order to spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context, particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Within this framework, the European Union aims to achieve the "20-20-20" targets, including a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, a raise in the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. Furthermore, the EU "Energy Roadmap 2050" has been recently adopted as a basis for developing a long-term European energy framework, fighting against climate change through the implementation of energy efficiency measures and the reduction of emissions. This paper focuses on the European context and attempts to explain the impact of economic growth on CO2 emissions through the estimation of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) using panel data. Moreover, since energy seems to be at the heart of the environmental problem it should also form the core of the solution, and therefore we provide some extensions of the EKC by including renewable energy sources as explanatory variables in the proposed models. Our data sets are referred to the 27 countries of the European Union during the period 1996-2010. With this information, our empirical results provide some interesting evidence about the significant impacts of renewable energies on CO2 emissions, suggesting the existence of an extended EKC.

  11. Approximating pollution abatement costs via alternative specifications of a multi-output production technology: a case of the US electric utility industry.

    PubMed

    Vardanyan, Michael; Noh, Dong-Woon

    2006-07-01

    Using a panel of observations from the US electric utility industry, we analyze the output set frontiers that are produced by modeling the technology with different functional forms. Our specifications rely on a series of mapping regimes, based on the paths in which the outputs are scaled toward the frontier, and their outcomes are assessed against the general axiomatic framework of the production model. We demonstrate that different parameterization methodologies produce different empirical analogues of the output set and, as a consequence, can generate rather different estimates of the shadow prices of socially undesirable outputs, or 'bads,' as well. We benchmark our results by assessing the shadow price estimates, often interpreted as the opportunity cost of pollution reduction, against the market prices of pollution permits. The outcomes of our analysis suggest that the estimate of the output set boundary varies with the choice of a parameterization technique, which provides a possible explanation for the sizeable differences between the shadow prices of bads reported in the literature. We also demonstrate that among a variety of existing parametric methodologies no single technique is superior to all others.

  12. A variation reduction allocation model for quality improvement to minimize investment and quality costs by considering suppliers’ learning curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Jauhari, WA; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    Quality improvement must be performed in a company to maintain its product competitiveness in the market. The goal of such improvement is to increase the customer satisfaction and the profitability of the company. In current practice, a company needs several suppliers to provide the components in assembly process of a final product. Hence quality improvement of the final product must involve the suppliers. In this paper, an optimization model to allocate the variance reduction is developed. Variation reduction is an important term in quality improvement for both manufacturer and suppliers. To improve suppliers’ components quality, the manufacturer must invest an amount of their financial resources in learning process of the suppliers. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consists of investment cost, and quality costs for both internal and external quality costs. The Learning curve will determine how the employee of the suppliers will respond to the learning processes in reducing the variance of the component.

  13. Shifting the bell curve: the benefits and costs of raising student achievement.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Stuart S

    2009-02-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total social costs by a ratio of 28. Fiscal benefits to the federal government would exceed costs to the federal treasury by a ratio of 93. Social benefits would exceed costs to each state treasury by a ratio no lower than 286, and fiscal benefits would exceed costs to each state treasury by a ratio no lower than 5, for all but two state treasuries. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the findings are robust to a 5-fold change in the underlying parameters.

  14. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  15. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Max; Smith, Sarah J.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  16. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its cost competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by usi...

  17. Shifting the Bell Curve: The Benefits and Costs of Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total…

  18. Abatement of Marine Coatings Containing Heavy Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    in the abatement of heavy metal containing marine coatings. Funding for this...shipyards to be proactive in the area of heavy metal coating systems abatement as current regulations were not "user friendly" in shipboard applications.

  19. The Impact of Learning Curve Model Selection and Criteria for Cost Estimation Accuracy in the DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Department of the Army. Department of the Air Force. (2007). Air Force cost estimating handbook. Washington, DC: Author. Everest, J. D. (1988). Measuring ...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = The Impact of Learning Curve Model Selection and Criteria for Cost ...póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 453 - Panel 21. Methods for Improving Cost Estimates for Defense Acquisition Projects Thursday, May 5, 2016 3:30 p.m

  20. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  1. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  2. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  3. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  4. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  5. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  6. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  7. Cost curves for the navigation between families of low energy Fast Periodic Transfer Orbits in the Earth-Moon planar circular restricted Three Body Problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuzzi, J. P.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    Using characteristic curves of low energy fast periodic transfer orbits in the Earth-Moon planar circular restricted three body problem we constructed cost curves that enable the study of maneuvers between them. In an appropiate surface of section the numerical diagrams show regions where transfer maneuvers involve lower costs and that would allow determine family members which make the propelent minimum for these maneuvers. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  8. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-11-02

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  9. A learning curve approach to projecting cost and performance for photovoltaic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, George D.; Tiedje, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    The current cost of electricity generated by PV power is still extremely high with respect to power supplied by the utility grid, and there remain questions as to whether PV power can ever be competitive with electricity generated by fossil fuels. An objective approach to this important question was given in a previous paper by the authors which introduced analytical tools to define and project the technical/economic status of PV power from 1988 through the year 2010. In this paper, we apply these same tools to update the conclusions of our earlier study in the context of recent announcements by Amoco/Enron-Solarex of projected sales of PV power at rates significantly less than the US utility average.

  10. Learning curve approach to projecting cost and performance for photovoltaic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, George D.; Tiedje, Thomas

    1997-10-01

    The current cost of electricity generated by PV power is still extremely high with respect to power supplied by the utility grid, and there remain questions as to whether PV power can ever be competitive with electricity generated by fossil fuels. An objective approach to this important question was given in a previous paper by the authors which introduced analytical tools to define and project the technical/economic status of PV power from 1988 through the year 2010. In this paper, we apply these same tools to update the conclusions of our earlier study in the context of recent announcements by Amoco/Enron-Solar of projected sales of PV power at rates significantly less than the U.S. utility average.

  11. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-10-27

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  12. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  13. Do "Consumer-Directed" health plans bend the cost curve over time?

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia M; Eisenberg, Matthew D; Mehrotra, Ateev; Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    "Consumer-Directed" Health Plans (CDHPs), those with high deductibles and personal medical accounts, are intended to reduce health care spending through greater patient cost exposure. Prior research agrees that in the first year, CDHPs reduce spending. There is little research and in it results are mixed regarding the impact of CDHPs over the longer term. We add to this literature with an intent-to-treat, difference-in-differences analysis of health care spending over up to three years post CDHP offer among 13 million person-years of data from 54 large US firms, half of which offered CDHPs. To strengthen the identification, we balance observables over time within firm, by developing weights through a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression. We find that spending is reduced for those in firms offering CDHPs in all three years post offer relative to firms continuing to offer lower-deductible plans. The reductions are driven by spending decreases in outpatient care and pharmaceuticals, with no evidence of increases in emergency department or inpatient care over the three-year window.

  14. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  15. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  16. High-resolution DNA melt-curve analysis for cost-effective mass screening of pairwise species interactions.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James K; Didham, Raphael K; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; van Bysterveldt, Katherine A; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-09-01

    Ecological studies of pairwise interactions are constrained by the methods available for rapid species identification of the interacting organisms. The resolution of data required to characterize species interaction networks at multiple spatio-temporal scales can be intensive, and therefore laborious and costly to collect. We explore the utility of high-resolution DNA melt-curve analysis (HRM) as a rapid species identification method. An approach was developed to identify organisms at the pairwise interaction level, with particular application to cryptic species interactions that are traditionally difficult to study. Here, we selected a challenging application; to identify the presence/absence of pathogenic fungi (Sporothrix inflata, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum and Ophiostoma galeiforme) transported by bark beetle vectors (Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda). The technique was able to distinguish between different species of DNA within a single, pooled sample. In test applications, HRM was effective in the mass screening and identification of pathogenic fungal species carried by many individual bark beetle vectors (n = 455 beetles screened) across large geographic scales. For two of the fungal species, there was no difference in the frequency of association with either of their vectors, but for the third fungal species there was a shift in vector-pathogen associations across locations. This technique allows rapid, mass screening and characterization of species interactions at a fraction of the time and cost of traditional methods. It is anticipated that this method can be readily applied to explore other cryptic species interactions, or other studies requiring rapid generation of large data sets and/or high-throughput efficiency.

  17. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated for... measures for decision-making. (b) In abating traffic noise impacts, a highway agency shall give...

  18. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated...

  19. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated...

  20. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  1. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  2. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  3. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  4. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  5. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  6. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  7. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  8. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  9. Interaction of pollution abatement with world dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The world dynamics model of Jay W. Forrester was modified to account for pollution abatement. In the modified model, it is assumed that as pollution increases, efforts are made to control pollution. There is a competition between food supply, material standard of living, and pollution abatement for capital, and time is required for diversion of capital toward pollution abatement. Inclusion of pollution abatement in the model drastically alters the response of the world system for the case in which depletion of natural resources is not considered. Instead of undergoing a pollution catastrophe, all system levels move more or less smoothly toward an equilibrium. A FORTRAN program listing of the modified world dynamics model is included.

  10. A $70/tCO2 greenhouse gas mitigation backstop for China’s industrial and electric power sectors: insights from a comprehensive CCS cost curve

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Li, Xiaochun; Wei, Ning

    2012-08-27

    As one of the world's fastest growing economies with abundant coal reserves, China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have doubled in the last decade and are expected to continue growing for the foreseeable future. While the Central Government has been promoting development and growth of cleaner and more efficient energy systems, efforts to reduce carbon emissions from the heavily coal-based economy may require continued and increased development and deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies. This paper presents the first detailed, national-scale assessment of CCS potential across the diverse geographic, geologic, and industrial landscape of China, through the lens of an integrated CCS cost curve. It summarizes the development of a cost curve representing the full chain of components necessary for the capture and geologic storage of CO2 from China's power generation and industrial sectors. Individual component cost estimates are described, along with the optimized source-sink matching of over 1,600 large stationary CO2 sources and 2300 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity within 90 major deep geologic onshore sedimentary sub-basins, to develop a cost curve incorporating CO2 capture, compression, transport, and storage. Results suggest that CCS can provide an important greenhouse gas mitigation option for most regions and industrial sectors in China, able to store more than 80% of emissions from these large CO2 sources (2900 million tons of CO2 annually) at costs less than $70/tCO2 for perhaps a century or more.

  11. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny; Keyser, David; Gagnon, Pieter; Aznar, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  12. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H. H.; Farrar, M. E.; Fink, S. D.

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  13. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a timely... based on the following hierarchy: (1) Elimination or substitution of the hazards where feasible...

  14. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a timely... based on the following hierarchy: (1) Elimination or substitution of the hazards where feasible...

  15. SOAP-V: Introducing a method to empower medical students to be change agents in bending the cost curve.

    PubMed

    Moser, Eileen M; Huang, Grace C; Packer, Clifford D; Glod, Susan; Smith, Cynthia D; Alguire, Patrick C; Fazio, Sara B

    2016-03-01

    Medical students must learn how to practice high-value, cost-conscious care. By modifying the traditional SOAP (Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan) presentation to include a discussion of value (SOAP-V), we developed a cognitive forcing function designed to promote discussion of high-value, cost-conscious care during patient delivery. The SOAP-V model prompts the student to consider (1) the evidence that supports a test or treatment, (2) the patient's preferences and values, and (3) the financial cost of a test or treatment compared to alternatives. Students report their findings to their teams during patient care rounds. This tool has been successfully used at 3 medical schools. Preliminary results find that students who have been trained in SOAP-V feel more empowered to address the economic healthcare crisis, are more comfortable in initiating discussions about value, and are more likely to consider potential costs to the healthcare system.

  16. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds...

  17. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  18. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  20. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  1. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  2. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  3. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny; Keyser, David; Gagnon, Pieter; Aznar, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy City Energy Profile tool. The analysis develops a national estimate of the carbon abatement potential of realizable city actions in six specific policy areas encompassing the most commonly implemented city actions. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a 'moderate abatement scenario' by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a 'high abatement scenario' by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city's control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. In the context of U.S. climate commitments under the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21), the estimated national abatement potential of the city actions analyzed in this report equates to about 15%-35% of the remaining carbon abatement necessary to achieve the U.S. COP21 target. Additional city actions outside the scope of this report, such as community choice aggregation (city-level purchasing of renewable energy), zero energy districts, and multi-level governance

  4. Relative toxicity of decamethrin, chlorphoxim and temephos (abate) to simulium larvae.

    PubMed

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C

    1981-09-01

    Tolerance levels Simulium larvae (S. ornatum and S. equinum) to chlorphoxim and decamethrin, relative to those with Abate, were determined in rapid through-flow laboratory test vessels; a 1-hour exposure followed by 24-hour mortality observations being the standard of comparison of the three chemicals. In addition, a further comparison between chlorphoxim and Abate was made on the basis of a 15-minute exposure in a miniature simulated stream, with the same mortality criteria. On the basis of LC95/1-hour data the results showed that decamethrin was approximately 4 times as lethal as chlorphoxim, and approximately 20 times more than Abate. On the basis of a 15-minute exposure, chlorphoxim was found to be even more toxic than Abate--approximately 10 times more--than with the 1-hour exposure--viz 5 times more. Concentration/mortality curves indicate that with both the organophosphorus larvicides there is a critical zone where mortality increases sharply with increase in concentration of toxinant. With decamethrin, there is a more uniform rate of increase in mortality with increasing concentration, these differences being illustrated by comparison at both LC50 and LC95 levels. These findings are discussed firstly, in relation to other laboratory test methods in use, and secondly with reference to the scarcity of comparable laboratory data for Simulium damnosum in the Onchosceriasis Control Programme (OCP) in the Volta River basin area of West Africa.

  5. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  6. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Anderson, E.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 {times} 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 {times} 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  7. Monitoring techniques for odour abatement assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raul; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Lebrero, R; Wang, Xinguang; Suffet, I H Mel; Stuetz, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Odorous emissions from sewers and wastewater treatment plants are a complex mixture of volatile chemicals that can cause annoyance to local populations, resulting in complaints to wastewater operators. Due to the variability in hedonic tone and chemical character of odorous emissions, no analytical technique can be applied universally for the assessment of odour abatement performance. Recent developments in analytical methodologies, specifically gas chromatography, odour assessment approaches (odour wheels, the odour profile method and dynamic olfactometry), and more recently combined gas chromatography-sensory analysis, have contributed to improvements in our ability to assesses odorous emissions in terms of odorant concentration and composition. This review collates existing knowledge with the aim of providing new insight into the effectiveness of sensorial and characterisation approaches to improve our understanding of the fate of odorous emissions during odour abatement. While research in non-specific sensor array (e-nose) technology has resulted in progress in the field of continuous odour monitoring, more successful long term case-studies are still needed to overcome the early overoptimistic performance expectations. Knowledge gaps still remain with regards to the decomposition of thermally unstable volatile compounds (especially sulfur compounds), the inability to predict synergistic, antagonistic, or additive interactions among odorants in combined chemical/sensorial analysis techniques, and the long term stability of chemical sensors due to sensor drift, aging, temperature/relative humidity effects, and temporal variations. Future odour abatement monitoring will require the identification of key odorants to facilitate improved process selection, design and management.

  8. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs.

  9. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  10. Changing healthcare capital-to-labor ratios: evidence and implications for bending the cost curve in Canada and beyond.

    PubMed

    Nauenberg, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare capital-to-labor ratios are examined for the 10 provincial single-payer health care plans across Canada. The data show an increasing trend-particularly during the period 1997-2009 during which the ratio as much as doubled from 3 to 6 %. Multivariate analyses indicate that every percentage point uptick in the rate of increase in this ratio is associated with an uptick in the rate of increase of real per capita provincial government healthcare expenditures by approximately $31 ([Formula: see text] 0.01). While the magnitude of this relationship is not large, it is still substantial enough to warrant notice: every percentage point decrease in the upward trend of the capital-to-labor ratio might be associated with a one percentage point decrease in the upward trend of per capita government healthcare expenditures. An uptick since 1997 in the rate of increase in per capita prescription drug expenditures is also associated with a decline in the trend of increasing per capita healthcare costs. While there has been some recent evidence of a slowing in the rate of health care expenditure increase, it is still unclear whether this reflects just a pause, after which the rate of increase will return to its baseline level, or a long-term shift; therefore, it is important to continue to explore various policy avenues to affect the rate of change going forward.

  11. Abating climate change. What will be done and the consequences for investors

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, A.; Mellquist, N.; Shah, S.; Winton, B.

    2008-01-15

    This report is meant for institutional investors. Sections discuss: the science of climate change; global emissions - abatement scenario; coal - the world's dominant fuel for electric generation; CO{sub 2} transport and storage; nuclear energy - the new green solution; renewable energy - harnessing the power of water, wind and sun; regulation; increasing energy efficiency - the lowest cost option; enhancing the efficiency of electric applications; enhancing the efficiency of transportation; macroeconomic implications; and investment implications.

  12. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  13. 23 CFR Table 1 to Part 772 - Noise Abatement Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noise Abatement Criteria 1 Table 1 to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE Pt. 772, Table 1 Table 1 to Part...

  14. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes. (a) General rule....

  15. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes. (a) General rule....

  16. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

  17. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  18. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... partial withdrawals after a reduction or waiver of complete withdrawal liability under a plan amendment... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.10 Plan rules for abatement....

  19. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall order cessation of...

  20. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-07

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited.

  1. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  2. On the cost of approximating and recognizing a noise perturbed straight line or a quadratic curve segment in the plane. [central processing units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. B.; Yalabik, N.

    1975-01-01

    Approximation of noisy data in the plane by straight lines or elliptic or single-branch hyperbolic curve segments arises in pattern recognition, data compaction, and other problems. The efficient search for and approximation of data by such curves were examined. Recursive least-squares linear curve-fitting was used, and ellipses and hyperbolas are parameterized as quadratic functions in x and y. The error minimized by the algorithm is interpreted, and central processing unit (CPU) times for estimating parameters for fitting straight lines and quadratic curves were determined and compared. CPU time for data search was also determined for the case of straight line fitting. Quadratic curve fitting is shown to require about six times as much CPU time as does straight line fitting, and curves relating CPU time and fitting error were determined for straight line fitting. Results are derived on early sequential determination of whether or not the underlying curve is a straight line.

  3. Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

  4. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  5. A Comparison of Lead Abatement Technologies at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeziorowski, Luz Y.; Calla, Joanne

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Lewis participated in a pilot test of Lead Specifications. The Specifications were sponsored by the Center to Protect Worker's Rights (CPWR). Entitled "Model Specifications for the Protection of Worker's from Lead on Steel Structures", one aspect of this endeavor was to test and compare several lead abatement technologies. The project overview, objectives, team, and requirements as well as abatement methods and materials are outlined.

  6. Economic Effects of Noise Abatement Regulations on the Helicopter Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    are estimated. The effects an consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight...helicopter by subsystem. This thesis proposes that if noise abatement regulations are iqposed on the helicopter industry without due consideration for future...abatement regu- lations on Sikorsky’s s-7S helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. kn appendix compares two

  7. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  8. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  9. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Erin N; Robinson, Allen L; Cohon, Jared L

    2017-03-18

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from $160M to $1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  10. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  11. Waste treatment and optimal degree of pollution abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Hernandez, O.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.; Livingston, A.G.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental impacts of industrial production processes are usually estimated by considering the emissions leaving the process. These emissions are often reduced using abatement processes, such as wastewater treatment technologies, in the belief that reducing emissions will reduce the environmental impact. Typical legislation focuses on reducing discharge levels, without considering the impact on the environment of the additional inputs required by the abatement process to achieve this reduction. This leads to the possibility that some waste streams may be over treated. In other words, industry might be devoting increased resources to reducing discharges and at the same time be worsening the environment. This paper presents a framework for the analysis of wastewater treatment technologies from an economic and environmental point of view. The work examines trade-offs in abatement processes between higher inputs (energy consumption and raw material) and lower discharge quantities (pollutant flow). As a result, an optimal degree of pollution abatement (ODPA), at which environmental impact is minimized, is identified. This value could act as a guideline to legislators who are setting discharge limits and to chemical engineers with waste discharge responsibilities. Case studies on two different abatement technologies, steam stripping and pervaporation, are presented to illustrate this framework.

  12. The abatement strategies assessment model—ASAM: Applications to reductions of sulphur dioxide emissions across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ApSimon, H. M.; Warren, R. F.; Wilson, J. J. N.

    In May 1991 the 34 nations of the UN ECE region agreed that strategies for the abatement of SO 2 and NO x should be designed in the most cost-effective way, and that the concept of critical loads should serve as a guideline to formulate these strategies where science has provided the necessary information. The ASAM model has been developed in this context, as a computer tool to aid in guiding policy through investigation of the effectiveness of potential abatement strategies in Europe. In evaluating the environmental consequences, it takes into account the geographical distribution of emissions and the patterns of atmospheric transport and deposition; with the introduction of costs of reducing the different emissions, it provides a stepwise optimized approach to attaining specified target loads or critical loads for deposition across Europe, subject to flexible constraints in different countries. This paper describes the ASAM model, and work undertaken to establish the robustness of the model with regard to the assumptions made and uncertainties in the data used; and explores a range of scenarios currently being addressed.

  13. Lead abatement training for supervisors and contractors. Instructors guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This training program is designed to be a 32 hour training course, and is intended for individuals supervising residential lead abatement projects. The course is designed to meet the requirements of 40 CFR Part 745-Lead. Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied Facilities, a federal regulation under section 402 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). Topics covered in the course include; the history of lead; health effects; legal and insurance consideration; regulations overview; inspection and risk assessment; report interpretation; development and implementation of occupant protection plans; paint hazard recognition and materials identification; XRF testing/sampling and abatement methods.

  14. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  15. R&D portfolio analysis of low carbon energy technologies to reduce climate change mitigation costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdybel, Rose M.

    In this dissertation we analyze the effects of low carbon energy technology R&D portfolios on the cost of climate change mitigation. We use the results to create the analytical foundation for a decision support system aimed at effectively communicating the effects of uncertainty to decision makers. Specifically, we focus on three main areas. The first is generating a correlated probability distribution around detailed energy price forecasts. The second is showing how the availability of advanced energy technologies and combinations of them affect the marginal abatement cost curve. The third is creating the analytic foundation for a decision support system (DSS) by using an integrated assessment model to analyze the effects of combinations of low carbon energy technologies on CO2 concentration stabilization costs and then combining the results with probabilistic data from expert elicitations to analyze R&D portfolios. The third part also involves creating a multivariate regression model to represent the relationship between variables for additional analysis.

  16. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  17. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  18. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful conditions. Where a Notice of an Unsafe or Unhealthful Working Condition has been issued, abatement shall...

  19. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  20. 23 CFR Table 1 to Part 772 - Noise Abatement Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to serve its intended purpose. B 3 67 70 Exterior Residential. C 3 67 70 Exterior Active sport areas... Abatement Criteria Activitycategory Activity Leq(h) Criteria 2 L10(h) Evaluationlocation Activity...(h) or L10(h) (but not both) may be used on a project. 2 The Leq(h) and L10(h) Activity...

  1. Compressor station noise-abatement: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bianucci, J.A.; Bush, R.C.; Dooher, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the noise abatement measures incorporated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company into the design of its Brannan Island Compressor Station. This two unit reciprocating compressor station is located within 100 feet of a state park and 600 feet of a camp site. Operating noise level data is presented and compared to design expectations.

  2. 29 CFR 4208.4 - Conditions for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4208.4 Conditions for abatement. (a... partial withdrawal (other than delinquent payments) for plan years beginning after the second consecutive... with respect to that partial withdrawal (other than delinquent payments) for plan years beginning...

  3. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... are considering promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of... take birds or other wildlife to mitigate damage or other problems, including risks to human health...

  4. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR... representative acting on behalf of the plan sponsor, shall sign and submit the request. (c) Where to file....

  5. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR... representative acting on behalf of the plan sponsor, shall sign and submit the request. (c) Where to file....

  6. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  7. Learning curves in health care.

    PubMed

    Waldman, J Deane; Yourstone, Steven A; Smith, Howard L

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the uses of learning curve theory in medicine. Though effective application of learning curve theory in health care can result in higher quality and lower cost, it is seldom methodically applied in clinical practice. Fundamental changes are necessary in the corporate culture of medicine in order to capitalize maximally on the benefits of learning.

  8. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  9. The sales learning curve.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  10. Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH₄, N₂O, and CO₂) abatement: state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified.

  11. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  12. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  13. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  14. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  15. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease.

  16. The difficulties of abating smoke in late Victorian York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    Historical railway documents and council minutes for the city of York reveal an active interest in abating smoke. As early as the mid-nineteenth century the public became less willing to accept pollution as a necessary part of economic progress. The Sanitary Committee of the council, while diligent in the latter part of the century, seemed unable to use the Public Health Act (1875) effectively. It undertook studies of smoke control devices and their use, but could not identify a workable method of smoke control. Industry, under continual pressure from the Town Clerk's office usually took steps to control smoke emissions. However the improvements in air quality, even when control procedures were adopted by many of the city's major factories, seem disappointing. Weak laws and limited technology hampered a very clear enthusiasm to abate smoke.

  17. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  18. A least-cost optimisation model of CO{sub 2} capture applied to major UK power plants within the EU-ETS framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, A.G.; Kasim, A.S.

    2008-02-15

    Concerns about the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and the effectiveness of carbon abatement policies loom large in discussions on climate change mitigation. Several writers address the issue from various perspectives. This paper attempts to add relative realism to discussions on CO{sub 2} capture costs and the deployment of carbon capture technology in the UK by using publicly available company data on the long term capacity expansion and CO{sub 2} capture investment programmes of selected power plants in the UK. With an estimated 8 billion plan to install a generation capacity of GW and capture capability of 44 Mt CO{sub 2}/year, it is imperative to optimise this huge potential investment. A least-cost optimisation model was formulated and solved with the LP algorithm available in GAMS. The model was then applied to address a number of issues, including the choice of an optimal carbon abatement policy within the EU-ETS framework. The major findings of the study include (a) the long term total cost curve of CO{sub 2} capture has three phases rising, plateau, rising; (b) alternative capture technologies do not have permanent relative cost advantages or disadvantages; (c) Government incentives encourage carbon capture and the avoidance of emission penalty charges; and (d) the goals of EU-ETS are more effectively realised with deeper cuts in the EUA ratios than merely hiking the emission penalty, as proposed in EU-ETS Phase II.

  19. Uncertainty of air pollution cost estimates: to what extent does it matter?

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2005-01-15

    How large is the social cost penalty if one makes the wrong choice because of uncertainties in the estimates of the costs and benefits of environmental policy measures? For discrete choices there is no general rule other than the recommendation to always carefully compare costs and benefits when introducing policies for environmental protection. For continuous choices (e.g., the ceiling for the total emissions of a pollutant by an entire sector or region), it is instructive to look at the cost penalty as a function of the error in the incremental damage cost estimate. Using abatement cost curves for NOx, SO2, dioxins, and CO2, this paper evaluates the cost penalty for errors in the following: national emission ceilings for NOx and SO2 in each of 12 countries of Europe, an emission ceiling for dioxins in the UK, and limits for the emission of CO2 in Europe. The cost penalty turns out to be remarkably insensitive to errors. An error by a factor of 3 due to uncertainties in the damage estimates for NOx and SO2 increases the total social cost by at most 20% and in most cases much less. For dioxins, the total social cost is increased by at most 10%. For CO2, several different possible cost curves are examined: for some the sensitivity to uncertainties is greater than for the other pollutants, but even here the penalty is less than 30% and in most cases much less if the true damage costs are twice as high as the ones estimated. The paper also quantifies the benefit of improving the accuracy of damage cost estimates by further research.

  20. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  1. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  2. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  3. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes

  4. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-20

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  5. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  6. Ultrafast real-time PCR with integrated melting curve analysis and duplex capacities using a low-cost polymer lab-on-a-chip system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gransee, Rainer; Schneider, Tristan; Elyorgun, Deniz; Strobach, Xenia; Schunck, Tobias; Gatscha, Theresia; Winkler, Christian; Höth, Julian

    2015-05-01

    Nucleic amplification using quantitative polymeric chain reaction (qPCR) has become the gold standard of molecular testing. These systems offer both amplification and simultaneous fluorescence detection. An ultrafast microfluidic module (allowing 30 PCR cycles in 6 minutes) based on the oscillating fluid plug concept was previously developed [1,2] allowing the amplification of native genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. This abstract presents the actual status of the advanced system. The upgraded system generates high quality qPCR amplification plots and additional sensitive melting point analysis comparable to data obtained from commercial real-time cyclers. These features provide the user with all information needed to analyze PCR products. The system uses light emitting diodes (LED) for illumination and a low cost Charge-coupled Device (CCD) camera for optical detection. Image data processing allows the automated process control of the overall system components. The system enables the performance of rapid and robust nucleic acid amplifications together with the integration of real time measurement technology. This allows the amplification and simultaneous quantification of the targeted pathogens. The integration of duplex amplification performance allows the incorporation of the necessary controls into the device to validate the PCR performance. This demonstrator can be run either as fully autonomously working device or as OEM part of a sample-to-answer platform.

  7. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, John Timothy

    will worsen if carbon prices increase. Ultimately, a unified policy offers greater carbon reduction at a lower cost, which would increase popular acceptance of such policies. In the third chapter of this dissertation, my coauthors and I examine the issue of demand for carbon reductions. Recent large-scale field experiments have shown that peer information nudges can have significant effects on behavior, inducing people to reduce their production of negative externalities. Related work in psychology demonstrates that inducing feelings of personal culpability by showing people information about their peers can induce pro-social behavior. This study uses a contingent valuation experiment and a parallel lab experiment to further explore patterns of responses that have been suggested in the emerging literature on norm-based environmental interventions The field-level finding of asymmetric responses between those whose environmental or group impacts are above or below the norm is found to be robust across decision settings. However, substantial heterogeneity in responses to peer information is observed across a number of demographic and other respondent-specific dimensions not able to be explored in large scale field experiments, raising questions about the universality of peer-information effects and the design of such programs.

  8. [MINNI, the national integrated modelling system for assessing the impacts of atmospheric pollution and the effectiveness of the emissions abatement strategies].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the best emissions abatement strategy is very difficult due to the complexity of the processes that determine the impact of atmospheric pollutants and to the connection with climate change issues. Atmospheric pollution models can provide policy makers with a tool for assessing the effectiveness of abatement measures and their associated costs. The MINNI integrated model has been developed to link policy and atmospheric science and to assess the costs of the measures. The results have been carefully verified in order to identify uncertainties and the models are continuously updated to represent the state of the art in atmospheric science. The fine spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations provide a strong basis for assessing impacts on environment and health.

  9. Supply curves of conserved energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, A. K.

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes.

  10. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  11. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  12. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    PubMed

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity.

  13. Introduction to the biological monitoring and abatement program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a long-term biological monitoring program and the Environmental Management special issue titled Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management. The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, or BMAP, was implemented to assess biological impairment downstream of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, beginning in 1985. Several of the unique aspects of the program include its long-term consistent sampling, a focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific facility abatement and remedial actions, and the use of quantitative sampling protocols using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper describes the need and importance of long-term watershed-based biological monitoring strategies, in particular for addressing long-term stewardship goals at DOE sites, and provides a summary of the BMAP's objectives, spatial and temporal extent, and overall focus. The primary components of the biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee are introduced, as are the additional 9 papers in this Environmental Management special issue.

  14. Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  20. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement...

  1. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period. 53.4961-1 Section 53.4961-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period. 53.4961-1 Section 53.4961-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction...

  3. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  4. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  5. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  6. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  9. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  10. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4208.9 Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions....

  11. Plasma Source Development for Effective Dissociation and Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds for the Reduction of Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Leonard J.

    2001-10-01

    Perfluorinated gas compounds (PFCs) are widely used in the semiconductor industry for etching process and for cleaning of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems. However, most of these compounds have very high infrared adsorbance strengths and long life times (i.e. several times greater than carbon dioxide). Thus their emissions can strongly contribute to global warming if left unabated. To reduce PFC emissions, the industry has adopted high power density, sub-atmospheric plasma sources to completely dissociate F-bearing compounds at the point of use or to completely convert PFC emissions within the post process exhaust stream. Many electrodeless plasma sources have been applied including microwave, conventional inductive, and ferrite-based inductive plasma devices. As a general scaling rule, most all of these devices provide effective electric field strengths on the order 1-10 V/cm and power densities of 0.1-10 W/cm3 into electronegative discharges at pressures ranging from 0.1-100 Torr. To explore one contemporary example, we examine the properties a ferrite-based, inductively-coupled plasma source as applied to typical processes used in CVD chamber clean and PFC-based etching processes. Along with the operational properties of this device, we examine mass spectroscopy measurements of residual gases from the source when used to (1) fully dissociate high flows of pure NF3 and mixtures of C3F8/O2 and (2) abate moderate flows of CF4, C2F6 and SF6 in combination with O2 or H2O vapor. Also, we review select plasma engineering topics related to these PFC abatement approaches whose study would greatly advance the performance and cost effectiveness of plasma abatement technology within the industry.

  12. Introducing nonpoint source transferable quotas in nitrogen trading: The effects of transaction costs and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuru; Ye, Weili; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Transaction costs and uncertainty are considered to be significant obstacles in the emissions trading market, especially for including nonpoint source in water quality trading. This study develops a nonlinear programming model to simulate how uncertainty and transaction costs affect the performance of point/nonpoint source (PS/NPS) water quality trading in the Lake Tai watershed, China. The results demonstrate that PS/NPS water quality trading is a highly cost-effective instrument for emissions abatement in the Lake Tai watershed, which can save 89.33% on pollution abatement costs compared to trading only between nonpoint sources. However, uncertainty can significantly reduce the cost-effectiveness by reducing trading volume. In addition, transaction costs from bargaining and decision making raise total pollution abatement costs directly and cause the offset system to deviate from the optimal state. While proper investment in monitoring and measuring of nonpoint emissions can decrease uncertainty and save on the total abatement costs. Finally, we show that the dispersed ownership of China's farmland will bring high uncertainty and transaction costs into the PS/NPS offset system, even if the pollution abatement cost is lower than for point sources.

  13. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  14. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  15. A Finnish-Soviet acid rain game: Noncooperative equilibria, cost efficiency, and sulfur agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvonen, O. ); Kaitala, V. ); Pohjola, M. )

    1993-01-01

    This study analyzes cost effectiveness in environmental cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union. It is assumed that the aim of both countries is to attain a given target deposition level at minimum possible sulfur abatement costs. Cost-effective cooperation is compared to noncooperative equilibrium and to the agreement on sulfur emissions between these two countries. It is shown that the agreement is not cost-effective, implies higher abatement costs than under noncooperation, and is strategically unstable. However, the cost differences and the incentives to cheat are small. The computations reveal that the main source of potential cooperation benefits is not asymmetrical emission transportation or differences in abatement costs but rather different target deposition levels for Finland and the Soviet Union. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  17. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  18. A sensitivity analysis of process design parameters, commodity prices and robustness on the economics of odour abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies.

  19. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  20. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  1. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY.... Any changes in an abatement plan will require the preparation of a new plan in accordance with...

  2. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  3. Long-term abatement potential and current policy trajectories in Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; McFarland, James; Octaviano, Claudia; van Ruijven, Bas; Beach, Robert; Daenzer, Kathryn; Herreras Martínez, Sara; Lucena, André F. P.; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Loboguerrero Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Mundra, Anupriya; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the role of Latin American and Latin American countries in meeting global abatement goals, based on the scenarios developed through the CLIMACAP-LAMP modeling study.

  4. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  5. Prospects for non-thermal atmospheric plasmas for pollution abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, R.

    2001-09-01

    For approximately the past ten years, atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas have been increasingly promoted as a technology for a number of applications in the area of pollution abatement. In such plasmas, the electrons have a significantly higher temperature compared to the ions, atoms and molecules. This paper provides an overview of both the technologies involved and the diverse potential application areas. A general description of these atmospheric plasmas and the basic principles involved in the destruction or removal of gaseous phase pollutants, based on the nature of the processes taking place within these plasmas, are given. A number of examples of the different plasma technologies are described. The technologies described are pulsed corona, microwave and dielectric barrier plasmas. Their suitability and use in various application areas are also discussed including incinerator off gas treatment, industrial process off gas treatment and diesel exhaust aftertreatment. The use of modelling of the physical and chemical processes involved to predict system performance and as a tool for sizing systems to meet customer requirements is also discussed.

  6. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-05

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence.

  7. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  8. Abatement of methane emissions from landfills -- The German way

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, G.; Kalb, H.

    1996-09-01

    landfills are a major source of methane. Methane is generated by biological decomposition of native organic matter under anaerobic conditions. In Germany one quarter to one third of the total methane emissions into the air originate from municipal solid waste landfills. These emissions amount to 1.2--1.9 million metric tons annually. Environmental policy aiming to abate methane emissions focuses on waste management. In Germany the most effective policy instrument for this task is the Third Administrative Provision to the waste framework law. This Provision is known as the Technical Directive on Municipal Waste (TA Siedlungsabfall). It came into operation in 1993 and requires that from the year 2005 on all waste disposed in landfills must be inert. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the waste is limited to 1--3%. This limit requires a pretreatment of municipal waste, and among the currently available technology options only an incineration is able to fulfill the stipulated criteria. A recent study by the Fraunhofer-Institute for Systems and Innovation Research for the German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) quantified the effects of the established policy instruments on methane emissions. The results of this study are presented in this paper. It shows that methane emissions from landfills will be cut by two thirds in the forthcoming 10 years. By 2015 methane emissions from that source will have decreased to 20% of the present level, and this trend will still continue.

  9. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  10. COST ESTIMATES OF USING THREE LEAD-BASED PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES ON RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated blood lead levels in children of the US due to exposure to flaking lead-based paint continues to be an important health concern. Approximately 57M housing units, which represent 75% of all privately owned and occupied housing built before 1980 in the US are contaminated ...

  11. Mast cells are required for phototolerance induction and scratching abatement.

    PubMed

    Schweintzger, Nina A; Bambach, Isabella; Reginato, Eleonora; Mayer, Gerlinde; Limón-Flores, Alberto Y; Ullrich, Stephen E; Byrne, Scott N; Wolf, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Dermal mast cells protect the skin from inflammatory effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are required for UV-induced immune suppression. We sought to determine a potential mechanistic role of mast cells in reducing the sensitivity to UV radiation (i.e. phototolerance induction) through photohardening. We administered single UV exposures as well as a chronic UV irradiation regime to mast cell-deficient Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice and their controls. The chronic irradiation protocol was similar to that given for prophylaxis in certain photodermatoses in humans. Compared to controls, UV-exposed Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice were more susceptible to epidermal hyperplasia and dermal oedema which was linked to blood vessel dilation. Unexpectedly, Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice exhibited an excessive scratching behaviour following broadband UVB plus UVA or solar simulated UV irradiation at doses far below their minimal skin-swelling dose. Protection from this UV-induced scratching phenotype was dependent on mast cells, as engraftment of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells abated it entirely. Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice were entirely resistant to phototolerance induction by photohardening treatment. Compared to controls, these mice also showed reduced numbers of regulatory T cells and neutrophils in the skin 24 h after UV irradiation. While it is well known that mast cell-deficient mice are resistant to UV-induced immune suppression, we have discovered that they are prone to develop photo-itch and are more susceptible to UV-induced epidermal hyperplasia and skin oedema.

  12. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  13. Is H2S a suitable process indicator for odour abatement performance of sewer odours?

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Wang, X; Le, N M; Kenny, S; Bustamante, H; Stuetz, R M

    2014-01-01

    Odour abatement units are typically designed and maintained on H(2)S concentrations, but operational failures are reported in terms of overall odour removal, suggesting a wide range of malodorous compounds emitted from sewers that may not be efficiently removed by existing odour abatement processes. Towards providing greater insight into this issue, several activated carbon filters and biofilters treating odorous emissions from sewer systems in Sydney (Australia) were monitored by collecting and analysing gas samples before and after treatment. The monitoring studies were conducted by both olfactometric measurements and gas-chromatography-based chemical analysis. Single H(2)S assessment often failed to indicate the odour abatement performance for treatment systems in the abatement units studied, particularly when the incoming H(2)S concentrations were in the sub-ppm range (i.e. below H(2)S odour threshold). Chemical analysis indicated that some non-H(2)S odorous compounds were not removed efficiently during odour treatment. Additionally, when odour eliminations were correlated with the removal of individual compounds (Pearson's correlations) it was observed that the correlation (with a coefficient of 0.79) was best when the overall removal of all the measured odorous compounds that exceeded their odour threshold values was used for the analysis. These findings may help to further advance the design and operation of odour abatement processes to address the treatment of sewer odour emissions.

  14. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  15. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  16. Noise Abatement and Internal Vibrational Absorption in Potential Structural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Comparison of the Loss Factor-Temperature Curves for Nitinol , Incramute I and Cobalt- Iron Alloys measured at a...materials in specific military systems. Novel damping materials such as Nitinol (Ni-Ti) and copper-aluminum-nickel alloys which appear to derive their...Incramute are in the condition supplied by commercial vendors. The results for Nitinol displayed in Figure 1 have been optimized (2) through - a 15

  17. Noise Abatement and Internal Vibrational Absorption in Potential Structural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Factor-Temperature Curves for Nitinol , Incramute I and Cobalt- Iron Alloys measured at a stress of 2000 psi in the Frequence Range from 150 to 250 Hertz...tion of these materials in specific military systems. Novel damping materials such as Nitinol (Ni-Ti) and copper-aluminum-nickel alloys which appear to...condition supplied by commercial vendors. The results for Nitinol displayed in Figure 1 have been optimized (2) by applying a 15% reduction in thickness

  18. Forest Tree Growth as a Bioindicator of Pollution Abatement Systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-14

    U-0Al C 0LIGNAPLTCGICIS P TT IY BLCSUG-EC FS1/ FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYS--ETC(I 𔃾- oa2 JAN 62 J M SKELLY. L W...947! FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS AT THE RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT Accession For FINAL REPORT Dr. John M...test potential bioindicator systems. x The study objectives of this research were: i’l) To determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible

  19. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  20. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  1. The Skipping Rope Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmark, Arne; Essen, Hanno

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium of a flexible inextensible string, or chain, in the centrifugal force field of a rotating reference frame is investigated. It is assumed that the end points are fixed on the rotation axis. The shape of the curve, the skipping rope curve or "troposkien", is given by the Jacobi elliptic function sn. (Contains 3 figures.)

  2. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  3. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  4. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  5. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  6. CURVES: curve evolution for vessel segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lorigo, L M; Faugeras, O D; Grimson, W E; Keriven, R; Kikinis, R; Nabavi, A; Westin, C F

    2001-09-01

    The vasculature is of utmost importance in neurosurgery. Direct visualization of images acquired with current imaging modalities, however, cannot provide a spatial representation of small vessels. These vessels, and their branches which show considerable variations, are most important in planning and performing neurosurgical procedures. In planning they provide information on where the lesion draws its blood supply and where it drains. During surgery the vessels serve as landmarks and guidelines to the lesion. The more minute the information is, the more precise the navigation and localization of computer guided procedures. Beyond neurosurgery and neurological study, vascular information is also crucial in cardiovascular surgery, diagnosis, and research. This paper addresses the problem of automatic segmentation of complicated curvilinear structures in three-dimensional imagery, with the primary application of segmenting vasculature in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images. The method presented is based on recent curve and surface evolution work in the computer vision community which models the object boundary as a manifold that evolves iteratively to minimize an energy criterion. This energy criterion is based both on intensity values in the image and on local smoothness properties of the object boundary, which is the vessel wall in this application. In particular, the method handles curves evolving in 3D, in contrast with previous work that has dealt with curves in 2D and surfaces in 3D. Results are presented on cerebral and aortic MRA data as well as lung computed tomography (CT) data.

  7. Noise Abatement and Internal Vibrational Absorption in Potential Structural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Phase Diagram Showing Locus of Curve for T0( FCC / BCC ) where FCC and BCC Phases of Same Composition Have Equal Free Energies (9 ,HT) 7 4. Calculated...900°C (1173°K). Figure 3 shows that at this temperature the alloy was still in the stable fee field but just about to enter the two phase fcc + bcc field...treatment the sample enters the region where the bcc -6- T°K 1500 - 1000 - f r LIQUID x FCC BCC 1770°K T I FCC / BCC 1265°K. 45.7%Co BCC

  8. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.

    1996-06-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  9. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  10. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  11. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  12. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  13. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO POLLUTION ABATEMENT: A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Responses to Pollution Abatement: A Framework for Measurement and Assessment for Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the 16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. ...

  14. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... rule. Two State highway agencies and a university commented that quiet pavements should be allowed as a... agencies and the pavement industries, there are still too many unknowns that currently prohibit the use of pavement as a noise abatement measure. One national organization commented that while they recognize...

  15. 18 CFR 808.17 - Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders. 808.17 Section 808.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... subpart. If a proceeding before a court becomes necessary, the penalty amount determined in...

  16. 18 CFR 808.17 - Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders. 808.17 Section 808.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... subpart. If a proceeding before a court becomes necessary, the penalty amount determined in...

  17. 18 CFR 808.17 - Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders. 808.17 Section 808.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... subpart. If a proceeding before a court becomes necessary, the penalty amount determined in...

  18. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  19. Mechanics of Curved Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marcelo A.; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2011-03-01

    Despite an almost two thousand year history, origami, the art of folding paper, remains a challenge both artistically and scientifically. Traditionally, origami is practiced by folding along straight creases. A whole new set of shapes can be explored, however, if, instead of straight creases, one folds along arbitrary curves. We present a mechanical model for curved fold origami in which the energy of a plastically-deformed crease is balanced by the bending energy of developable regions on either side of the crease. Though geometry requires that a sheet buckle when folded along a closed curve, its shape depends on the elasticity of the sheet. NSF DMR-0846582.

  20. Noise abatement technology options for conventional turboprop airplanes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, W.J.; Wilby, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    The practical application of noise control technology to new and derivative conventional turboprop airplanes likely to come into service in the 1980's has been analyzed with a view to determining noise control cost/benefits. The analysis identifies feasible noise control methods, applies them to four study airplanes, and presents the noise reductions in terms of the equivalent perceived noise level at takeoff, sideline and approach locations, and the effect on the area within selected EPNL contours. Noise reductions of up to 8.3 dB for takeoff and 10.7 dB for approach are calculated for the study airplanes but, for most cases, the changes are less than 5 dB. Weight and cost increases associated with the noise control treatments are determined under the assumption there they are no changes to airplane performance or fuel consumption.

  1. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  2. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services.

  3. Highly curved microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  4. The Solutions Data Base Component of the Water Pollution Abatement Subsystem (WPAS) of the Pollution Abatement Management System. (PAMS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    the art in reuse sys- tem technology. In 1976, the Air Force introduced a computer program called CASCADE to help its personnel identify the most cost...effective network for collecting, treating, and reusing wastewater produced at Air Force bases. 1 1 These reuse networks conserve fresh water and...occur at Army installations, such as tracked vehicle washing, which have no counterparts on Air Force bases.) This modified water reuse model will be the

  5. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  6. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  7. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.

  8. Managing Information On Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taulbee, Zoe A.

    1990-01-01

    Cost Management Model, CMM, software tool for planning, tracking, and reporting costs and information related to costs. Capable of estimating costs, comparing estimated to actual costs, performing "what-if" analyses on estimates of costs, and providing mechanism to maintain data on costs in format oriented to management. Number of supportive cost methods built in: escalation rates, production-learning curves, activity/event schedules, unit production schedules, set of spread distributions, tables of rates and factors defined by user, and full arithmetic capability. Import/export capability possible with 20/20 Spreadsheet available on Data General equipment. Program requires AOS/VS operating system available on Data General MV series computers. Written mainly in FORTRAN 77 but uses SGU (Screen Generation Utility).

  9. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  10. Dynamics of curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero, Carlos

    2009-08-15

    Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces are studied by means of stochastic partial differential equations. These are derived as counterparts of linear planar equations on a curved geometry after a reparametrization invariance principle has been applied. We examine differences and similarities with the classical planar equations. Some characteristic features are the loss of correlation through time and a particular behavior of the average fluctuations. Dependence on the metric is also explored. The diffusive model that propagates correlations ballistically in the planar situation is particularly interesting, as this propagation becomes nonuniversal in the new regime.

  11. Cost-effective means of reducing ammonia emissions from UK agriculture using the NARSES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J.; Ryan, M.; Anthony, S. G.; Brewer, A.; Laws, J.; Aller, M. F.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    To comply with International agreements to improve air quality, signatory states need to reduce emissions of ammonia (NH 3). Since the majority of NH 3 emissions come from agriculture, measures may need to be implemented by the farming industry. Member states of the EU will, by 2010, require large pig and poultry production units to reduce NH 3 emissions to comply with the integrated pollution prevention and control directive (IPPC). The NARSES model uses a mass-flow method to estimate NH 3 emission from UK agriculture and to identify the most cost-effective means of reducing NH 3 emissions. Model runs were carried out to assess the likely impact of the IPPC Directive on UK NH 3 emissions and the sensitivity of model output to input data on the costs and abatement efficiencies of proposed abatement measures. The impact of the IPPC Directive is likely to be small, offering a reduction of c. 8700 t, 3.5% of total UK agricultural NH 3 emissions. Even large (30%) changes in our estimates of cost or changes of 10% in our estimates of abatement efficiency will make little difference to the ranking of abatement techniques according to cost-effectiveness. The most cost-effective reductions may be achieved by replacing urea fertilizer with ammonium nitrate, immediate incorporation of manures and slurries to tillage land by discs, storing all FYM and poultry manures before spreading to land and applying slurries to grassland by trailing shoe.

  12. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  13. BTX abatement using Chilean natural zeolite: the role of Brønsted acid sites.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, S; Valdés, H; Manero, M-H; Zaror, C A

    2012-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities, air quality is not only affected by conventional unpleasant odour compounds; toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also found. In this study, the adsorptive capacity of Chilean natural zeolite toward VOC removal was evaluated. Moreover, the influence of zeolite chemical surface properties on VOC elimination was also investigated. Three modified zeolite samples were prepared from a natural Chilean zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz). Natural and modified zeolite samples were characterised by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analyses and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Chemical modifications of natural zeolite showed the important role of Brønsted acid sites on the abatement of VOCs. The presence of humidity has a negative effect on zeolite adsorption capacity. Natural zeolites could be an interesting option for benzene, toluene and xylene vapour emission abatement.

  14. Performance of a narrow buffer strip in abating agricultural pollutants in the shallow subsurface water flux.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Bigon, Elisa; Zanin, Giuseppe; Fava, Luca

    2004-09-01

    The performance of a narrow buffer strip in abating dissolved P, electrical conductivity and herbicides (terbuthylazine, alachlor, nicosulfuron, pendimethalin, linuron) in subsurface water coming from cropland was tested in an experiment carried out on the low plains of the Veneto Region (NE Italy). The experiment lasted from December 1997 to June 1999, monitoring subsurface water quality entering and exiting a buffer composed of a grass strip (5 m wide) and 1 m wide row of trees. Dissolved phosphorus concentrations were reduced by almost 100% passing through the buffer and in most cases exiting water satisfied the limit for avoiding eutrophication. A positive effect was also detected on ECW (reduced by 20%), while pH was not significantly altered. Herbicide concentration abatement varied between 60 and 90%, depending on the chemical and the time elapsed since application.

  15. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  16. Advanced oxidation processes coupled with electrocoagulation for the exhaustive abatement of Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Durante, Christian; Cuscov, Marco; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Sandonà, Giancarlo; Gennaro, Armando

    2011-02-01

    Using Cr-EDTA as a model system, a two-step method has been investigated for the abatement of persistent chromium complexes in water. The treatment consists of an oxidative decomposition of the organic ligands by means of ozonization or electrochemical oxidation at a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, followed by removal of the metal via electrochemical coagulation. In the designed synthetic waste, EDTA has been used both as a chelating agent and as a mimic of the organic content of a typical wastewater provided by a purification leather plant. A crucial point evaluated is the influence of the oxidative pretreatment on the chemical modification of the synthetic waste and hence on the electrocoagulation efficacy. Because of the great stability of Cr complexes, such as Cr-EDTA, the classical coagulation methods, based on ligand exchange between Cr(III) and Fe(II) or Fe(III), are ineffective toward Cr abatement in the presence of organic substances. On the contrary, when advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as ozonization or electrooxidation at a BDD anode are applied in series with electrocoagulation (EC), complete abatement of the recalcitrant Cr fraction can be achieved. ECs have been carried out by using Fe sacrificial anodes, with alternating polarization and complete Cr abatement (over 99%) has been obtained with modest charge consumption. It has been found that Cr(III) is first oxidized to Cr(VI) in the AOP preceding EC. Then, during EC, Cr(VI) is mainly reduced back to Cr(III) by electrogenerated Fe(II). Thus, Cr is mainly eliminated as Cr(III). However, a small fraction of Cr(VI) goes with the precipitate as confirmed by XPS analysis of the sludge.

  17. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  18. Evaluation of Vacuum Blasting and Heat Guns as Methods for Abating Lead- Based Paint on Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    profile measured on metal and wood after cleaning. 20 5 USING VACUUM ABRASIVE TO REMOVE LEAD- BASED PAINT Abrasive Cleaning Units The results of vacuum...Laboratories Evaluation of Vacuum Blasting and Heat Guns as Methods for Abating Lead- based Paint on Buildings by Jan W. Gooch Susan A. Drozdz The U.S. Army...exterior surfaces painted with lead- based paint. To minimize potential health problems resulting from exposure to lead- based paint, the Army is

  19. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  20. Multimedia-based decision support system for hazards recognition and abatement

    DOEpatents

    Czachowski, John B.; Zoldak, John T.

    1998-01-01

    A system for monitoring a site includes a portable data collection module used in the field to collect site specific data, and a processor module located at a central location. The data collection module displays choices of categories of findings, and then specific findings within each category. A selected specific finding is then displayed in report form with a citation to the specific code or statutory requirement, as well as a recommended course of action and an abatement date.

  1. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGES

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; ...

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  2. Graphing Polar Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  3. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  4. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  5. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  6. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  7. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  8. A Cost Function Based on Learning Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COSTS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS), (*LEARNING, THEORY), PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INVENTORY CONTROL, DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING, CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS, LEARNING CURVES, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION , MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING, THESES.

  9. A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that

  10. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  11. Trishear for curved faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

  12. Atlas of fatigue curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This Atlas was developed to serve engineers who are looking for fatigue data on a particular metal or alloy. Having these curves compiled in a single book will also facilitate the computerization of the involved data. It is pointed out that plans are under way to make the data in this book available in ASCII files for analysis by computer programs. S-N curves which typify effects of major variables are considered along with low-carbon steels, medium-carbon steels, alloy steels, HSLA steels, high-strength alloy steels, heat-resisting steels, stainless steels, maraging steels, cast irons, and heat-resisting alloys. Attention is also given to aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, molybdenum, tin alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium, steel castings, closed-die forgings, powder metallurgy parts, composites, effects of surface treatments, and test results for component parts.

  13. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  14. Quantization on Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frønsdal, Christian; Kontsevich, Maxim

    2007-02-01

    Deformation quantization on varieties with singularities offers perspectives that are not found on manifolds. The Harrison component of Hochschild cohomology, vanishing on smooth manifolds, reflects information about singularities. The Harrison 2-cochains are symmetric and are interpreted in terms of abelian *-products. This paper begins a study of abelian quantization on plane curves over mathbb{C}, being algebraic varieties of the form {mathbb{C}}^2/R, where R is a polynomial in two variables; that is, abelian deformations of the coordinate algebra mathbb{C}[x,y]/(R). To understand the connection between the singularities of a variety and cohomology we determine the algebraic Hochschild (co)homology and its Barr Gerstenhaber Schack decomposition. Homology is the same for all plane curves mathbb{C}[x,y]/R, but the cohomology depends on the local algebra of the singularity of R at the origin. The Appendix, by Maxim Kontsevich, explains in modern mathematical language a way to calculate Hochschild and Harrison cohomology groups for algebras of functions on singular planar curves etc. based on Koszul resolutions.

  15. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation.

  16. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, Robert W.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive.

  17. Comparison of methylisoborneol and geosmin abatement in surface water by conventional ozonation and an electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weikun; Qu, Qiangyong; von Gunten, Urs; Chen, Chao; Yu, Gang; Wang, Yujue

    2017-01-01

    In this study methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin abatement in a surface water by conventional ozonation and the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was compared. Batch tests with addition of ozone (O3) stock solutions and semi-batch tests with continuous O2/O3 gas sparging (simulating real ozone contactors) were conducted to investigate O3 decomposition, •OH production, MIB and geosmin abatement, and bromate formation during the two processes. Results show that with specific ozone doses typically used in routine drinking water treatment (0.5-1.0 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), conventional ozonation could not adequately abate MIB and geosmin in a surface water. While increasing the specific ozone doses (1.0-2.5 mg O3/mg DOC) could enhance MIB and geosmin abatement by conventional ozonation, this approach resulted in significant bromate formation. By installing a carbon-based cathode to electrochemically produce H2O2 from cathodic oxygen reduction, conventional ozonation can be conveniently upgraded to an E-peroxone process. The electro-generated H2O2 considerably enhanced the kinetics and to a lesser extent the yields of hydroxyl radical (•OH) from O3 decomposition. Consequently, during the E-peroxone process, abatement of MIB and geosmin occurred at much higher rates than during conventional ozonation. In addition, for a given specific ozone dose, the MIB and geosmin abatement efficiencies increased moderately in the E-peroxone (by ∼8-9% and ∼10-25% in the batch and semi-batch tests, respectively) with significantly lower bromate formation compared to conventional ozonation. These results suggest that the E-peroxone process may serve as an attractive backup of conventional ozonation processes during accidental spills or seasonal events such as algal blooms when high ozone doses are required to enhance MIB and geosmin abatement.

  18. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  19. Rotation Curves of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnajs, Agris J.

    One can obtain a fairly good understanding of the relation between axially symmetric mass distributions and the rotation curves they produce without resorting to calculations. However it does require a break with tradition. The first step consists of replacing quantities such as surface density, volume density, and circular velocity with the mass in a ring, mass in a spherical shell, and the square of the circular velocity, or more precisely with 2 pi G r mu(r), 4 pi G r^2 rho(r), and Vc^2 (r). These three quantities all have the same dimensions, and are related to each other by scale-free linear operators. The second step consists of introducing ln(r) as the coordinate. On the log scale the scale-free operators becomes the more familiar convolution operations. Convolutions are easily handled by Fourier techniques and a surface density can be converted into a rotation curve or volume density in a small fraction of a second. A simple plot of 2 pi G r mu(r) as a function of ln(r) reveals the relative contributions of different radii to Vc^2(r). Such a plot also constitutes a sanity test for the fitting of various laws to photometric data. There are numerous examples in the literature of excellent fits to the tails that lack data or are poor fits around the maximum of 2 pi G r mu(r). I will discuss some exact relations between the above three quantities as well as some empirical observations such as the near equality of the maxima of 2 pi G r mu(r) and Vc^2 (r) curves for flat mass distributions.

  20. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  1. Magnetism in curved geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-09-01

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. These recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  2. Magnetism in curved geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-08-17

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. Finally, these recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  3. Magnetism in curved geometries

    DOE PAGES

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; ...

    2016-08-17

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya-like interaction. Asmore » a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. Finally, these recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.« less

  4. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  5. Complementary Curves of Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-16

    provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid...curves of descent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Naval Academy,Physics Department,Annapolis,MD,21402-1363 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  6. Curved cap corrugated sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a structure for a strong, lightweight corrugated sheet. The sheet is planar or curved and includes a plurality of corrugation segments, each segment being comprised of a generally U-shaped corrugation with a part-cylindrical crown and cap strip, and straight side walls and with secondary corrugations oriented at right angles to said side walls. The cap strip is bonded to the crown and the longitudinal edge of said cap strip extends beyond edge at the intersection between said crown and said side walls. The high strength relative to weight of the structure makes it desirable for use in aircraft or spacecraft.

  7. Transforming Curves into Curves with the Same Shape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Curves are considered to have the same shape when they are related by a similarity transformation of a certain kind. This paper extends earlier work on parallel curves to curves with the same shape. Some examples are given more or less explicitly. A generalization is used to show that the theory is ordinal and to show how the theory may be applied…

  8. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  9. Airborne exposure and soil levels associated with lead abatement of a steel tank.

    PubMed

    Lange, John H

    2002-02-01

    This study reports on airborne exposure levels and soil concentrations of lead in regard to abatement of a steel structure (water tank). The tank was de-leaded by abrasive sand blasting. The ball of the tank had a lead surface level that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definition of lead-based paint (LBP) (0.5% lead), but paint on stem and base was below this criterion. Personal and area airborne samples were collected during different activities of lead abatement of the tank. Summary results suggest during abrasive blasting of ball and stem/base personal exposure levels, as reported with arithmetic and geometric means, exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (50 microg/m3). Highest personal exposure (occupational exposure) was associated with blasting of ball. Distribution of airborne and soil samples suggest non-normality and is best represented by a logarithmic form. Geometric standard deviations for air and soil lead support a non-normal distribution. Outlying values were found for personal and area air samples. Exposure levels associated with blasting stem/base section of tank support OSHA's policy requiring air monitoring of work at levels below the criterion established by EPA in identifying LBP. Area samples were statistically lower than personal samples associated with blasting ball and stem/base of tank. Exposure data suggest that workers performing abatement on steel structures have elevated lead exposure from surface lead. Respirator protection requirements are discussed. Soil lead concentration was suggested to decrease as distance increased from tank. Soil lead is suggested to be a result of deposition from LBP on tank surface. Minimal efforts were required to reduce average lead soil levels below EPA's upper acceptable criterion (1200 ppm Pb).

  10. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

    2000-09-15

    The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

  11. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    M. Lumia; C. Gentile; K. Creek; R. Sandoval

    2003-11-06

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal.

  12. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder.

  13. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Dust Abatement Products for Expedient Helipads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    generated by an electric fan motor and transmitted through a 3-in. polyvinyl chloride pipe with a rectangular aperture 4.5 in. wide and 0.5 in. tall...will be used to update the USMC Dust Abatement Handbook (PCN 50011240000). DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...palliatives investigated in this study. TerraLOC® TerraLOC ® is a polyvinyl alcohol solution made by MonoSol, LLC. TerraLOC® is water soluble and

  14. The Characteristic Curves of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Arnold; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2016-09-01

    In 1960, E. H. Brown defined a set of characteristic curves (also known as ideal curves) of pure fluids, along which some thermodynamic properties match those of an ideal gas. These curves are used for testing the extrapolation behaviour of equations of state. This work is revisited, and an elegant representation of the first-order characteristic curves as level curves of a master function is proposed. It is shown that Brown's postulate—that these curves are unique and dome-shaped in a double-logarithmic p, T representation—may fail for fluids exhibiting a density anomaly. A careful study of the Amagat curve (Joule inversion curve) generated from the IAPWS-95 reference equation of state for water reveals the existence of an additional branch.

  15. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  16. Multiple CubicBezier Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Horn, Douglas

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is described for generating smooth curves of first-order continuity. The algorithm is composed of several cubic Bezier curves joined together at the user defined control points. Introduced is a tension control parameter which can be set thus providing additional flexibility in the design of free-form curves. (KR)

  17. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  18. Quantum relative Lorenz curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad

    2017-01-01

    The theory of majorization and its variants, including thermomajorization, have been found to play a central role in the formulation of many physical resource theories, ranging from entanglement theory to quantum thermodynamics. Here we formulate the framework of quantum relative Lorenz curves, and show how it is able to unify majorization, thermomajorization, and their noncommutative analogs. In doing so, we define the family of Hilbert α divergences and show how it relates with other divergences used in quantum information theory. We then apply these tools to the problem of deciding the existence of a suitable transformation from an initial pair of quantum states to a final one, focusing in particular on applications to the resource theory of athermality, a precursor of quantum thermodynamics.

  19. Multipulse phase resetting curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbation. We demonstrate this effect in the Stuart-Landau model and in various higher dimensional neuronal models. This deviation from the superposition principle needs to be taken into account in studies of networks of pulse-coupled oscillators. Further, this deviation could be used in the verification of oscillator models via a dual-pulse excitation.

  20. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  1. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies.

  2. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  4. Two-liquid phase partitioning biotrickling filters for methane abatement: exploring the potential of hydrophobic methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Hernández, Laura; Pérez, Rebeca; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-15

    The potential of two-liquid phase biotrickling filters (BTFs) to overcome mass transfer limitations derived from the poor aqueous solubility of CH4 has been scarcely investigated to date. In this context, the abatement of diluted methane emissions in two-liquid phase BTFs was evaluated using two different inocula: a type II methanotrophs culture in BTF 1 and a hydrophobic microbial consortium capable of growing inside silicone oil in BTF 2. Both BTFs supported stable elimination capacities above 45 g m(-3) h(-1) regardless of the inoculum, whereas no improvement derived from the presence of hydrophobic microorganisms compared to the type II metanotrophs culture was observed. Interestingly, the addition of silicone oil mediated a reduced metabolites concentration in the recycling aqueous phase, thus decreasing the needs for mineral medium renewal. Moreover, a 78% similarity was recorded between the microbial communities enriched in both BTFs at the end of the experimental period in spite of the differences in the initial inoculum structure. The results obtained confirmed the superior performance of two-liquid phase BTFs for CH4 abatement compared with conventional biotrickling filters.

  5. Automated reasoning about cubic curves.

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, R.; McCune, W.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Manitoba

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the n-ary morphisms defined on projective algebraic curves satisfy some strong local-to-global equational rules of derivation not satisfied in general by universal algebras. For example, every rationally defined group law on a cubic curve must be commutative. Here we extract from the geometry of curves a first order property (gL) satisfied by all morphisms defined on these curves such that the equational consequences known for projective curves can be derived automatically from a set of six rules (stated within the first-order logic with equality). First, the rule (gL) is implemented in the theorem-proving program Otter. Then we use Otter to automatically prove some incidence theorems on projective curves without any further reference to the underlying geometry or topology of the curves.

  6. Effects of Altosid and Abate-4E on deformities and survival in southern leopard frogs under semi-natural conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental wetlands were sprayed with Abate-4E (a.i. temephos) and Altosid (a.i. methoprene) through the summer following label directions. In late August and early Septemeber metamorphing tadpoles were captured and examined for deformities. Tadpoles captured from ponds sprayed with Altosid had a 15% deformity rate mostly involving total or partially missing hind limbs. Tadpoles from control ponds had a 5% rate of deformities. The difference was statistically significant. The relative abundance of tadpoles from ponds sprayed with Abate-4E was significantly lower than those from Altosid-sprayed or control wetlands.

  7. Birational maps that send biquadratic curves to biquadratic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John A. G.; Jogia, Danesh

    2015-02-01

    Recently, many papers have begun to consider so-called non-Quispel-Roberts-Thompson (QRT) birational maps of the plane. Compared to the QRT family of maps which preserve each biquadratic curve in a fibration of the plane, non-QRT maps send a biquadratic curve to another biquadratic curve belonging to the same fibration or to a biquadratic curve from a different fibration of the plane. In this communication, we give the general form of a birational map derived from a difference equation that sends a biquadratic curve to another. The necessary and sufficient condition for such a map to exist is that the discriminants of the two biquadratic curves are the same (and hence so are the j-invariants). The result allows existing examples in the literature to be better understood and allows some statements to be made concerning their generality.

  8. Reduction of operations and maintenance costs at geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Stevens, C.G.; Rard, J.A.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1997-12-31

    To reduce chemical costs at geothermal power plants, we are investigating: (a) improved chemical processes associated with H{sub 2}S abatement techniques, and (b) the use of cross dispersive infrared spectrometry to monitor accurately, reliably, and continuously H{sub 2}S emissions from cooling towers. The latter is a new type of infrared optical technology developed by LLNL for non-proliferation verification. Initial work is focused at The Geysers in cooperation with Pacific Gas and Electric. Methods for deploying the spectrometer on-site at The Geysers are being developed. Chemical analysis of solutions involved in H{sub 2}S abatement technologies is continuing to isolate the chemical forms of sulfur produced.

  9. Langevin Equation on Fractal Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Seema; Gangal, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze random motion of a particle on a fractal curve, using Langevin approach. This involves defining a new velocity in terms of mass of the fractal curve, as defined in recent work. The geometry of the fractal curve, plays an important role in this analysis. A Langevin equation with a particular model of noise is proposed and solved using techniques of the Fα-Calculus.

  10. Reflection of curved shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  11. Shape Preserving Interpolation by Curves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    curves Given data 1i E R2 , i = 0,..., N, we consider a curve r : [a, b] -- R2 satisfying r(ti) = Ii , i = 0,..., N, (3.1) for values a = to < tj...tN = b. For a closed curve the situation is extended periodically so that Ii +N =10, ti+N =ti, i E Z, r(t+b-a) =r(t), tc R. 3.1 Desirable properties...para- meterisation). When all vi = 0, r will reduce to the usual C2 cubic spline interpolant. As vi --+ oc, the curve is ’pulled tight’ at Ii and as

  12. 29 CFR 4206.8 - Reduction of credit for abatement or other reduction of prior partial withdrawal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prior partial withdrawal liability. 4206.8 Section 4206.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ADJUSTMENT OF LIABILITY FOR A WITHDRAWAL SUBSEQUENT TO A PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL § 4206.8 Reduction of credit for abatement...

  13. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor.

  14. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  15. Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.

    PubMed

    Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

    2004-12-01

    A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction.

  16. Apparatus and practices for electrical noise and shock hazard abatement in pulsed power environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hilderbrand, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Electronic data acquisition, control and diagnostic hardware are an integral part of an electromagnetic launcher system. The design, purchase, installation and maintenance of electrical and electronic hardware requires a substantial financial investment worth protecting from the adverse affects of electrical interference. Electromagnetic and electrostatic shielding, in addition to proper grounding, can extend the useful hardware's life, can improve the signal to noise ratio, and can reduce the threat of electrical shock. The apparatus and practices employed in effective grounding and shielding are both a science to the instrumentation engineer and an art to the experienced technician. This paper discusses the concepts of signal shielding, single point star grounding, maintenance of the ground with the Ground Monitor system (GMS) and the minimum recommended practices which have proven effective in electrical noise and shock hazard abatement.

  17. RECOVERY OF FISH COMMUNITIES IN A WARMWATER STREAM FOLLOWING POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The long-term recovery process for fish communities in a warm water stream in East Tennessee was studied using quantitative measurements over 20 years. The stream receives effluents from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, but since 1985 these effluents have been greatly reduced, eliminated, or diluted as part of a substantial long-term pollution abatement program. The resulting changes in water quantity and quality led to a recovery of the fish communities, evidenced by significant changes in species richness, abundance (density and biomass), and community composition (e.g., number of fish species sensitive to stress). The fish community changes occurred over a spatial gradient (downstream from the headwater release zone nearest the DOE facility) and temporally, at multiple sampling locations in the stream. Changes in measured parameters were associated with specific remedial actions and the intervening steps within the recovery process are discussed with regard to changes in treatment processes.

  18. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation.

  19. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument application to a solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch.

  20. Did policies to abate atmospheric emissions from traffic have a positive effect in London?

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Fuller, Gary W

    2016-11-01

    A large number of policy initiatives are being taken at the European level, across the United Kingdom and in London to improve air quality and reduce population exposure to harmful pollutants from traffic emissions. Trends in roadside increments of nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), black carbon (CBLK) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were examined at 65 London monitoring sites for two periods of time: 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Between 2005 and 2009 there was an overall increase in NO2 reflecting the growing evidence of real world emissions from diesel vehicles. Conversely, NO2 decreased by 10%·year(-1) from 2010 onwards along with PM2.5 (-28%·year(-1)) and black carbon (-11%·year(-1)). Downwards trends in air pollutants were not fully explained by changes in traffic counts therefore traffic exhaust emission abatement policies were proved to be successful in some locations. PM10 concentrations showed no significant overall change suggesting an increase in coarse particles which offset the decrease in tailpipe emissions; this was especially the case on roads in outer London where an increase in the number of Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) was seen. The majority of roads with increasing NOX experienced an increase in buses and coaches. Changes in CO2 from 2010 onwards did not match the downward predictions from reduced traffic flows and improved fleet efficiency. CO2 increased along with increasing HGVs and buses. Polices to manage air pollution provided differential benefits across London's road network. To investigate this, k-means clustering technique was applied to group roads which behaved similarly in terms of trends to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to mitigate traffic emissions. This is the first time that London's roadside monitoring sites have been considered as a population rather than summarized as a mean behaviour only, allowing greater insight into the differential changes in air pollution abatement policies.

  1. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  2. Accelerating Around an Unbanked Curve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    FEB 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Accelerating Around an Unbanked Curve 5a. CONTRACT...December 2004 issue of TPT presented a problem concerning how a car should acceler-ate around an unbanked curve of constant radius r starting from rest...Accelerating Around an Unbanked Curve Carl E. Mungan, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 100 THE PHYSICS TEACHER ◆ Vol. 44, February 2006 The shapes

  3. Curved conveyor section guide assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Truszczinski, H.

    1981-02-03

    A guide assembly for a curved conveyor section of a scraperchain conveyor guides the scraper assembly from a first straight conveyor portion round the curved conveyor section to a second straight conveyor portion. This guiding is accomplished by a pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels. A further pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels are provided to guide the drive chain of a plough round the curved conveyor section. This enables the plough to be driven to and fro along the first straight conveyor portion by a drive station attached to the second straight conveyor portion adjacent to the guide assembly.

  4. Optimal reliability-based planning of experiments for POD curves

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, J.D.; Faber, M.H.; Kroon, I.B.

    1995-12-31

    Optimal planning of crack detection tests is considered. The tests are used to update the information on the reliability of inspection techniques modeled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability-based test plans can be obtained using First Order Reliability Methods in combination with life-cycle cost-optimal inspection and maintenance planning. The methodology is based on preposterior analyses from Bayesian decisions theory. An illustrative example is shown.

  5. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, J. B. R.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  6. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  7. Efficiency of final cleaning for lead-based paint abatement in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Willeke, Klaus; Menrath, William; Friedman, Warren

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of procedures used for the final indoor cleaning after active lead-based paint abatement were evaluated in a 830 ft3 test chamber. Dry and wet scraping and dry machine sanding were applied to wooden doors obtained from lead-hazard control sites. The airborne particle concentration and size distribution were monitored using a real-time particle size spectrometer. Particulates were also collected on filters and analyzed for total dust and lead. The resulting airborne lead mass was determined for each cleaning procedure, and the potential floor lead loading resulting from the dust settling was calculated. Wipe samples were collected to measure the actual floor lead loading. The effectiveness of final cleaning was evaluated first for dry abatement methods. Various cleaning work practices were tested by applying wet and dry debris sweeping as well as no sweeping in combinations with wet and dry removal of plastic sheeting. Considerable resuspension of leaded particles was detected during dry sweeping: the airborne lead mass increase ranged between 65 and 220 percent. However, this increase did not exceed 22 percent when wet sweeping was applied. Minimal or no resuspension was found when the plastic was folded with leaded debris inside (no sweeping was performed prior to the sheeting removal). During folding activity, the "clean" (uncovered) floor surface may be significantly contaminated with leaded dust from workers' shoes and cleaning tools. The first HEPA vacuuming resulted in a 15- to 20-fold decrease of the airborne lead mass; however, it was not sufficient to reduce the floor lead loading to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) clearance level of 40 microg/ft2, as determined by wipe sampling. Wet mopping following the first HEPA vacuuming was proven to be effective to reduce the lead loading significantly below 40 microg/ft2. The second HEPA vacuuming resulted in further reduction of the airborne lead mass concentration. The

  8. Toxic Substances: Information on Costs and Financial Aid to Schools To Control Asbestos. Fact Sheet for the Honorable John J. La Falce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Information on the costs of and financial aid available to schools for asbestos abatement is provided in this report. Data are based on interviews with officials from 15 school districts in 5 states--Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Section 1 provides background on the use of asbestos in buildings, health problems, federal…

  9. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  10. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  11. The effect of oil spills on workers involved in containment and abatement: the role of the occupational health nurse.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta; Burns, Candace M

    2011-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the most recent manmade disaster to challenge occupational health nurses caring for a unique worker population. The effects of oil spills on wildlife, marine life, and the ecosystem are well studied and documented, but the effects on workers who contain and abate such disasters are not. These workers can suffer from a multitude of illnesses and injuries, such as ataxia, migraines, and various lung diseases, which can be a challenge for occupational health nurses.

  12. Research on design multi-points performance curves of pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Li, H.; Xu, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    The centrifugal pump's performance curves are the most important chart to reveal relevance of different performance parameters. They can show pump's function comprehensively and graphically. However these curves can't be predicted and designed precisely, duo to the complicated flow inside the impeller and the incomplete way to design pump. The complete shape of performance curves can be gained only after test. With the development of industry, many applications need the pump operating well at different flow conditions. It means the pump's performance curves should pass some specific points. This is a problem to the designer who still uses the traditional way to design pumps. In this paper, the Design of experiments was applied to arrange a plan of experiments. Because the theory equations of performance curves contain many geometry factors of impeller, changing these factors have different influence on the shape of curves, the relationship between geometry factors and the performance under different operation points been attained after using variance analysis to deal with experiment data. The relevant regression models and graphs were drawn to help understand these relationships. Depending on the predicted values of geometry factors pump's impeller was redesigned, and the pump's performance been simulated for saving time and cost. Test shows that the shape of performance curves satisfy design objective, this example can be taken as a reference of pump's specific designs.

  13. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Comparison of selected physicochemical characteristics of commercial phytases relevant to their application in phosphate pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Boyce, A; Walsh, G

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme phytase catalyses the dephosphorylation of phytic acid and it's salts, phytates. Supplementation of monogastric animal feed with microbial-derived phytase increases the bioavailability of phytic acid bound phosphate. This facilitates a reduction in the addition of inorganic phosphate to the feed and reduces phosphorus excretion. To achieve maximum efficacy in terms of phosphate pollution abatement, supplemental phytases added to animal feed must survive thermal processing of the feed, resist inactivation by the proteolytic enzymes encountered in the animal's digestive tract and display high activity at physiological temperature and pH. A series of in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the relative suitability of four major commercial phytase products for use in animal feed. The enzymes assessed lost between 14% and 72% of their original activities after heating to 80 degrees C for 5 minutes. After exposure to simulated upper digestive tract conditions, the phytases assessed retained between 0 and 28% of their original activities. The commercial phytases displayed between 98% and 67% of their maximum activities at 39 degrees C and all phytases assessed had an optimum pH between pH 4 and pH 5. None of the phytases assessed satisfied all of the criteria of an ideal phytase for use in animal feed.

  16. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  17. Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1977-01-01

    Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds Using Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Bong; Park, S.; Park, Y.; Youn, S.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma source with a cylindrical cavity has been proposed to abate the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This plasma source was designed to generate microwave plasma with the cylindrical shape and to be easily installed in existing exhaust line. The microwave frequency is 2.45 GHz and the operating pressure range is 0.1 Torr to 0.3 Torr. The plasma characteristic of the cylindrical microwave plasma source was measured using the optical spectrometer, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of CF4 and CHF3 were measured by a quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) with the various operation conditions. The effect of the addition of the oxygen gas were tested and also the correlation between the plasma parameters and the DRE are presented in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  19. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  20. Toxicity of abate® 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diets mixed to contain 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6.0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate® 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41 °C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18°C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma Cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

  1. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Calza, P; Gionco, C; Giletta, M; Kalaboka, M; Sakkas, V A; Albanis, T; Paganini, M C

    2017-02-05

    In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV-vis and visible light. Commercial TiO2 P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO2 P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO2 P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  2. Abatement of toluene from gas streams via ferro-electric packed bed dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenjun; Li, Jian; Li, Jie; Jin, Yuquan

    2009-10-30

    Destruction of gaseous toluene via ferro-electric packed bed dielectric barrier discharge plasma in a coaxial cylindrical reactor was carried out at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The difference among three kinds of reactors was compared in terms of specific energy density (SED), energy yield (EY), toluene decomposition. In order to optimize the geometry of the reactor, the removal efficiency of toluene was compared for various inner electrode diameters. In addition, qualitative analysis on by-products and particular discussion on toluene abatement mechanisms were also presented. It has been found that ferro-electric packed bed DBD reactor could effectively decompose toluene. Toluene removal efficiency enhanced with increasing SED. With respect to toluene conversion, 1.62 mm electrode appeared to be superior to 1.06 mm electrodes. BaTiO3 reactor had the highest toluene removal efficiency among the reactors. For NaNO2 reactor, the highest EY could reach 17.0 mg/kWh to a certain extent.

  3. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  4. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  5. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton toxicity, inhibition and biodegradability assessment of intermediates.

    PubMed

    González, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-07-31

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200mgL(-1) sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)/COD) and toxicity by Microtox and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H(2)O(2) were carried out. The initial amount of Fe(2+) and pH of the solution were set at 10mgL(-1) and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25+/-0.8 degrees C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H(2)O(2) dose over 300mgL(-1). Biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H(2)O(2) dose over 300mgL(-1) showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity.

  6. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  7. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  8. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: feasibility of abatement strategies.

    PubMed

    Carew, Richard

    2010-08-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH(3)) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH(3) emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH(3) emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Québec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH(3) emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods.

  9. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  10. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  11. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K. S.

    2011-11-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution, a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam, which is a non-polluted, shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island. The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution, and one site in the outside-harbor area, which was relatively clean. In addition, sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control. Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites, placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam. Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-, 3-, and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics. The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods, while it took three and eight weeks, respectively, for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control. These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  12. Single Silver Adatoms on Nanostructured Manganese Oxide Surfaces: Boosting Oxygen Activation for Benzene Abatement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaxin; Huang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Meijuan; Ma, Zhen; Chen, Jianmin; Tang, Xingfu

    2017-02-21

    The involvement of a great amount of active oxygen species is a crucial requirement for catalytic oxidation of benzene, because complete mineralization of one benzene molecule needs 15 oxygen atoms. Here, we disperse single silver adatoms on nanostructured hollandite manganese oxide (HMO) surfaces by using a thermal diffusion method. The single-atom silver catalyst (Ag1/HMO) shows high catalytic activity in benzene oxidation, and 100% conversion is achieved at 220 °C at a high space velocity of 23 000 h(-1). The Mars-van Krevelen mechanism is valid in our case as the reaction orders for both benzene and O2 approach one, according to reaction kinetics data. Data from H2 temperature-programmed reduction and O core-level X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) reveal that Ag1/HMO possesses a great amount of active surface lattice oxygen available for benzene oxidation. Valence-band XPS and density functional theoretical calculations demonstrate that the single Ag adatoms have the upshifted 4d orbitals, thus facilitating the activation of gaseous oxygen. Therefore, the excellent activation abilities of Ag1/HMO toward both surface lattice oxygen and gaseous oxygen account for its high catalytic activity in benzene oxidation. This work may assist with the rational design of efficient metal-oxide catalysts for the abatement of volatile organic compounds such as benzene.

  13. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  14. a Graphical Optimization of Take-Off Noise Abatement Procedures for Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgia, L.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a numerical approach to the simulation of noise contours generated during aircraft operations. Common features of many existing noise-contour programs make these procedures unsuitable for on-line piloted-simulator use. In fact, they usually require large computational tools and exhibit complex structure, so that they generally run quite slowly. The method proposed here is an attempt to overcome some of the above drawbacks. It works for arbitrarily complex take-off and landing paths, and reveals the influence of several quantitites on the shape and size of the contours. Besides, the calculations are simple enough to be implemented on a handheld programmable calculator. The method runs fast, and quickly provides contour shape, evaluates area and analyzes main characteristics of the end. The method has been used to optimize noise abatement procedures for subsonic aircraft; for every take-off procedure the model can generate an isofootprint on the ground which helps the operator to choose the best take-off solution.

  15. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  16. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Shoemaker, B. A.; Hinzman, R. L.

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  18. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  19. Cost Analysis of Environmental Control Systems applicable to Geothermal Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    1982-08-01

    This report provides an engineering performance and cost correlations from which user could estimate costs of mitigating principal emissions from geothermal power systems. Hydrogen sulfide abatement describes four processes; Iron catalyst, Stretford, EIC, and Dow oxygenation process. Wastewater treatments include: Chemical precipitation, Evaporation ponds, Injection without pretreatment, and Injection with pretreatment. Process and cost estimates are given for Best Case, Most Probable Case, and Worst Case 50 MWe power plant. The cases may be confusing since the worst case has the lowest resource temperature, but the highest loads to mitigate. (DJE 2005)

  20. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with κ-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  1. Phase nucleation in curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo; García, Nicolás; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Lorenzana, José; Daniel, Vega

    Nucleation and growth is the dominant relaxation mechanism driving first-order phase transitions. In two-dimensional flat systems, nucleation has been applied to a wide range of problems in physics, chemistry and biology. Here we study nucleation and growth of two-dimensional phases lying on curved surfaces and show that curvature modifies both critical sizes of nuclei and paths towards the equilibrium phase. In curved space, nucleation and growth becomes inherently inhomogeneous and critical nuclei form faster on regions of positive Gaussian curvature. Substrates of varying shape display complex energy landscapes with several geometry-induced local minima, where initially propagating nuclei become stabilized and trapped by the underlying curvature (Gómez, L. R. et al. Phase nucleation in curved space. Nat. Commun. 6:6856 doi: 10.1038/ncomms7856 (2015).).

  2. Curve Fit Technique for a Smooth Curve Using Gaussian Sections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    curve-fitting. Furthermore, the algorithm that does the fitting is simple enough to be used on a programmable calculator . 8 -I.F , A X i 4. Y-14 .4. - -* F.J OR;r IF 17 r*~~ , ac ~J ’a vt. . S ~ :.. *~All, a-4k .16’.- a1 1, t

  3. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  4. Harmonic Measure of Critical Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Bettelheim, E.; Rushkin, I.; Gruzberg, I.A.; Wiegmann, P.

    2005-10-21

    Fractal geometry of critical curves appearing in 2D critical systems is characterized by their harmonic measure. For systems described by conformal field theories with central charge c{<=}1, scaling exponents of the harmonic measure have been computed by Duplantier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1363 (2000)] by relating the problem to boundary two-dimensional gravity. We present a simple argument connecting the harmonic measure of critical curves to operators obtained by fusion of primary fields and compute characteristics of the fractal geometry by means of regular methods of conformal field theory. The method is not limited to theories with c{<=}1.

  5. Active particles on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael

    Active systems have proved to be very sensitive to the geometry of their environment. This is often achieved by spending significant time at the boundary, probing its shape by gliding along it. I will discuss coarse graining the microscopic dynamics of self-propelled particles on a general curved surface to predict the way the density profile on the surface depends on its geometry. Beyond confined active particles, this formalism is a natural starting point to study objects that cannot leave the boundary at all, such as cells crawling on a curved substrate, animals running on uneven ground, or active colloids trapped at an interface.

  6. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  7. NEXT Performance Curve Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Performance curves of the NEXT thruster are highly important in determining the thruster's ability in performing towards mission-specific goals. New performance curves are proposed and examined here. The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is used to verify variations in mission solutions based on both available thruster curves and the new curves generated. Furthermore, variations in BOL and EOL curves are also examined. Mission design results shown here validate the use of EMTG and the new performance curves.

  8. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  9. Supply Curves for Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2008-11-01

    Energy supply curves attempt to estimate the relationship between the cost of an energy resource and the amount of energy available at or below that cost. In general, an energy supply curve is a series of step functions with each step representing a particular group or category of energy resource. The length of the step indicates how much of that resource is deployable or accessible at a given cost. Energy supply curves have been generated for a number of renewable energy sources including biomass fuels and geothermal, as well as conservation technologies. Generating a supply curve for solar photovoltaics (PV) has particular challenges due to the nature of the resource. The United States has a massive solar resource base -- many orders of magnitude greater than the total consumption of energy. In this report, we examine several possible methods for generating PV supply curves based exclusively on rooftop deployment.

  10. Curved VPH gratings for novel spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Dunlap, Bart H.

    2014-07-01

    The introduction of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings into astronomy over a decade ago opened new possibilities for instrument designers. In this paper we describe an extension of VPH grating technology that will have applications in astronomy and beyond: curved VPH gratings. These devices can disperse light while simultaneously correcting aberrations. We have designed and manufactured two different kinds of convex VPH grating prototypes for use in off-axis reflecting spectrographs. One type functions in transmission and the other in reflection, enabling Offnerstyle spectrographs with the high-efficiency and low-cost advantages of VPH gratings. We will discuss the design process and the tools required for modelling these gratings along with the recording layout and process steps required to fabricate them. We will present performance data for the first convex VPH grating produced for an astronomical spectrograph.

  11. Interpolation and Polynomial Curve Fitting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2014-01-01

    Two points determine a line. Three noncollinear points determine a quadratic function. Four points that do not lie on a lower-degree polynomial curve determine a cubic function. In general, n + 1 points uniquely determine a polynomial of degree n, presuming that they do not fall onto a polynomial of lower degree. The process of finding such a…

  12. Variability among polysulphone calibration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, G. R.; Borra, M.; Colosimo, A.; Colucci, M.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.; Sisto, R.

    2006-09-01

    Within an epidemiological study regarding the correlation between skin pathologies and personal ultraviolet (UV) exposure due to solar radiation, 14 field campaigns using polysulphone (PS) dosemeters were carried out at three different Italian sites (urban, semi-rural and rural) in every season of the year. A polysulphone calibration curve for each field experiment was obtained by measuring the ambient UV dose under almost clear sky conditions and the corresponding change in the PS film absorbance, prior and post exposure. Ambient UV doses were measured by well-calibrated broad-band radiometers and by electronic dosemeters. The dose-response relation was represented by the typical best fit to a third-degree polynomial and it was parameterized by a coefficient multiplying a cubic polynomial function. It was observed that the fit curves differed from each other in the coefficient only. It was assessed that the multiplying coefficient was affected by the solar UV spectrum at the Earth's surface whilst the polynomial factor depended on the photoinduced reaction of the polysulphone film. The mismatch between the polysulphone spectral curve and the CIE erythemal action spectrum was responsible for the variability among polysulphone calibration curves. The variability of the coefficient was related to the total ozone amount and the solar zenith angle. A mathematical explanation of such a parameterization was also discussed.

  13. Breakpoint chlorination curves of greywater.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Gual, M

    2007-08-01

    A study on chlorination of raw greywater with hypochlorite is reported in this paper. Samples were chlorinated in a variety of conditions, and residual chlorine (Cl2) was measured spectrophotometrically. For each sample, the chlorination curve (chlorine residuals versus chlorine dose) was obtained. Curves showed the typical hump-and-dip profile attributable to the formation and destruction of chloramines. It was observed that, after reactions with strong reductants and chloramines-forming compounds, the remaining organic matter exerted a certain demand of chlorine. The evolution of chlorination curves with addition of ammonia and dodecylbencene sulfonate sodium salt and with dilution of the greywater sample were studied. In addition, chlorination curves at several contact times have been obtained, resulting in slower chlorine decay in the hump zone than in the dip zone. In addition, the decay of coliforms in chlorinated samples was also investigated. It was found that, for a chlorination dosage corresponding to the maximum of the hump zone (average 8.9 mg Cl2/ L), samples were negative in coliforms after 10 to 30 minutes of contact time. After-growth was not observed within 3 days after chlorination. Implications in chlorination treatments of raw greywater can be derived from these results.

  14. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  15. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  16. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  17. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system.

  18. NO{sub x}-abatement potential of lean-premixed GT combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Sattelmayer, T.; Polifke, W.; Winkler, D.; Doebbeling, K.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the structure of perfectly premixed flames on NO{sub x} formation is investigated theoretically. Since a network of reaction kinetics modules and model flames is used for this purpose, the results obtained are independent of specific burner geometries. Calculations are presented for a mixture temperature of 630 K, an adiabatic flame temperature of 1840 K, and 1 and 15 bars combustor pressure. In particular, the following effects are studied separately from each other: molecular diffusion of temperature and species, flame strain, local quench in highly strained flames and subsequent reignition, turbulent diffusion (no preferential diffusion), and small scale mixing (stirring) in the flame front. Either no relevant influence or an increase in NO{sub x} burners is to avoid excessive turbulent stirring in the flame front. Turbulent flames that exhibit locally and instantaneously near laminar structures (flamelets) appear to be optimal. Using the same methodology, the scope of the investigation is extended to lean-lean staging, since a higher NO{sub x}-abatement potential can be expected in principle. As long as the chemical reactions of the second stage take place in the boundary between the fresh mixture of the second stage and the combustion products from upstream, no advantage can be expected from lean-lean staging. Only if the preliminary burner exhibits much poorer mixing than the second stage can lean-lean staging be beneficial. In contrast, if full mixing between the two stages prior to afterburning can be achieved (lean-mix-lean technique), the combustor outlet temperature can in principle be increased somewhat without NO penalty.

  19. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  20. Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paula; Roth, Isabelle; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2015-06-16

    Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell volume is restored rapidly by ion influx but at the expense of elevated intracellular sodium and chloride levels that persist long after challenge. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of molecular crowding on the effects of hypertonicity, the effects of ionic imbalance on cellular trafficking dynamics in living cells are largely unexplored. By tracking distinct fluorescently labeled endosome/vesicle populations by live-cell imaging, we show that vesicle motility is reduced dramatically in a variety of cell types at the onset of hypertonic challenge. Live-cell imaging of actin and tubulin revealed similar arrested microfilament motility upon challenge. Vesicle motility recovered long after cell volume, a process that required functional regulatory volume increase and was accelerated by a return of extracellular osmolality to isosmotic levels. This delay suggests that, although volume-induced molecular crowding contributes to trafficking defects, it alone cannot explain the observed effects. Using fluorescent indicators and FRET-based probes, we found that intracellular ATP abundance and mitochondrial potential were reduced by hypertonicity and recovered after longer periods of time. Similar to the effects of osmotic challenge, isovolumetric elevation of intracellular chloride concentration by ionophores transiently decreased ATP production by mitochondria and abated microfilament and vesicle motility. These data illustrate how perturbed ionic balance, in addition to molecular crowding, affects membrane trafficking.

  1. Randomized Trial of a Delirium Abatement Program for Post-acute Skilled Nursing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Bergmann, Margaret A.; Kiely, Dan K.; Orav, E John; Jones, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a Delirium Abatement Program (DAP) can shorten the duration of delirium among new admissions to post-acute care (PAC). Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Eight skilled nursing facilities specializing in PAC within a single metropolitan region. Participants Four hundred fifty-seven participants with delirium at PAC admission. Intervention The DAP consisted of four steps: 1) assessment for delirium within 5 days of PAC admission, 2) assessment and correction of common reversible causes of delirium, 3) prevention of complications of delirium, and 4) restoration of function. Measurements Eligible patients were screened by trained researchers. Those with Confusion Assessment Method defined delirium were eligible for participation via proxy consent. Two weeks and one month after enrollment, regardless of location, participants were re-assessed for delirium by researchers blind to intervention status. Results Nurses at DAP sites detected delirium in 41% of participants vs. 12% in usual care (UC) sites (p<.001) and completed DAP documentation in most delirium-detected participants. However, the DAP intervention had no impact on delirium persistence based on two measurements at 2 weeks (DAP 68% vs. UC 66%) and 1 month (DAP 60% vs. UC 51%), adjusted p values ≥ 0.20. Adjusting for baseline differences between DAP and UC participants and restricting analysis to delirium-detected DAP participants did not alter the results. Conclusion Detection of delirium improved at the DAP sites, however, the DAP had no impact on the persistence of delirium. This effectiveness trial demonstrated that a nurse-led DAP intervention was not effective in typical PAC facilities. PMID:20487083

  2. Have Racial Disparities In Ambulatory Care Sensitive Admissions Abated Over Time?

    PubMed Central

    Mukamel, Dana B.; Ladd, Heather; Li, Yue; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in access to care and access to high quality care have been persistent over many decades. They have been documented in all areas of health care, including ambulatory care. Policy initiatives have been implemented to address disparities and close the gaps in care that minorities face. Less is known about the effectiveness of these polices. Objectives To evaluate whether disparities in quality of ambulatory care have abated during the 2000 decade by answering two questions: 1) Were there differences in ambulatory care sensitive hospital admissions rates by race? 2) Have these differences been declining over time? Research design Multivariable linear regressions with fixed county effects and robust standard errors of longitudinal panel data. Subjects 4,032,322 discharges in 172 counties in 6 states during 2003–2009. Measures Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, by county and race calculated from the HCUP data set. Results In 2003 the overall PQI admission rates were higher for African-Americans (around 16.5/1000) than for Whites (around 15/1000). By 2009, the overall and the chronic PQI admission rates declined significantly (p< 0.01) for Whites. They either did not decline or increased for African-Americans. Acute PQI rates declined significantly for Whites and remained stable for African-Americans. Conclusions Policies addressing persisting racial disparities in quality of ambulatory care for African-Americans should focus on the chronic PQIs. Additionally, efforts should be made to improve data quality for race and ethnicity information on hospital discharge data to enable informed policy evaluation and planning. PMID:26421373

  3. Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Odor Indicator Abatement by Biofilm Communities in Swine Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Bruns, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste odors arising from products of anaerobic microbial metabolism create community relations problems for livestock producers. We investigated a novel approach to swine waste odor reduction: the addition of FeCl3, a commonly used coagulant in municipal wastewater treatment, to stimulate degradation of odorous compounds by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) FeCl3 is an effective source of redox-active ferric iron (Fe3+) for dissimilatory reduction by bacteria indigenous to swine manure, and (ii) dissimilatory iron reduction results in significant degradation of odorous compounds within 7 days. Our results demonstrated that Fe3+ from FeCl3 was reduced biologically as well as chemically in laboratory microcosms prepared with prefiltered swine manure slurry and limestone gravel, which provided pH buffering and a substrate for microbial biofilm development. Addition of a 1-g liter−1 equivalent concentration of Fe3+ from FeCl3, but not from presynthesized ferrihydrite, caused initial, rapid solids flocculation, chemical Fe3+ reduction, and Eh increase, followed by a 2-day lag period. Between 2 and 6 days of incubation, increases in Fe2+ concentrations were accompanied by significant reductions in concentrations of volatile fatty acids used as odor indicators. Increases in Fe2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 days did not occur in FeCl3-treated microcosms that were sterilized by gamma irradiation or amended with NaN3, a respiratory inhibitor. DNA sequences obtained from rRNA gene amplicons of bacterial communities in FeCl3-treated microcosms were closely related to Desulfitobacterium spp., which are known representatives of DIRB. Use of iron respiration to abate wastewater odors warrants further investigation. PMID:16151075

  4. Non-thermal plasma techniques for abatement of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1995-12-04

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in atmospheric-pressure air streams. Either electrical discharge or electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. Each of these methods can be implemented in many ways. There are many types of electrical discharge reactors, the variants depending on the electrode configuration and electrical power supply (pulsed, AC or DC). Two of the more extensively investigated types of discharge reactors are based on the pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge. Recently, compact low-energy (<200 keV) electron accelerators have been developed to meet the requirements of industrial applications such as crosslinking of polymer materials, curing of solvent-free coatings, and drying of printing inks. Special materials have also been developed to make the window thin and rugged. Some of these compact electron beam sources are already commercially available and could be utilized for many pollution control applications. In this paper we will present a comparative assessment of various nonthermal plasma reactors. The thrust of our work has been two-fold: (1) to understand the scalability of various non-thermal plasma reactors by focusing on the energy efficiency of the electron and chemical kinetics, and (2) to identify the byproducts to ensure that the effluent gases from the processor are either benign or much easier and less expensive to dispose of compared to the original pollutants. We will present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor and various types of electrical discharge reactors. We have used these reactors to study the removal of NO{sub x} and a wide variety of VOCS. We have studied the effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry.

  5. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  6. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  7. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  8. Comparison of Two Algebraic Methods for Curve/curve Intersection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demontaudouin, Y.; Tiller, W.

    1985-01-01

    Most geometric modeling systems use either polynomial or rational functions to represent geometry. In such systems most computational problems can be formulated as systems of polynomials in one or more variables. Classical elimination theory can be used to solve such systems. Here Cayley's method of elimination is summarized and it is shown how it can best be used to solve the curve/curve intersection problem. Cayley's method was found to be a more straightforward approach. Furthermore, it is computationally simpler, since the elements of the Cayley matrix are one variable instead of two variable polynomials. Researchers implemented and tested both methods and found Cayley's to be more efficient. Six pairs of curves, representing mixtures of lines, circles, and cubic arcs were used. Several examples had multiple intersection points. For all six cases Cayley's required less CPU time than the other method. The average time ratio of method 1 to method 2 was 3.13:1, the least difference was 2.33:1, and the most dramatic was 6.25:1. Both of the above methods can be extended to solve the surface/surface intersection problem.

  9. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  10. K2 Mission Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeffrey C.; morris, robert; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Caldwell, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    The K2 mission is now generating light curves for its ecliptic-field campaigns. Producing good photometry for K2 is more challenging than for Kepler’s prime mission because periodic thruster firings are used to compensate for the loss of two reaction wheels. These firings, referred to as "roll tweaks", result in spacecraft rotation along the barrel axis and high corresponding image motion. The resulting motion-dominated systematic errors are dramatically different than the focus-dominated systematic errors experienced during the prime mission. They also make it challenging to properly identify and remove flux from background objects present in the optimal apertures. We summarize these challenges and describe the resulting modifications to the Kepler pipeline for the processing of K2 data. The quality of the K2 mission light curves is characterized.

  11. Infinite swapping in curved spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  12. Infinite swapping in curved spaces.

    PubMed

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo

    2014-01-07

    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  13. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  14. Accelerating Around an Unbanked Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2006-02-01

    The December 2004 issue of TPT presented a problem concerning how a car should accelerate around an unbanked curve of constant radius r starting from rest if it is to avoid skidding. Interestingly enough, two solutions were proffered by readers.2 The purpose of this note is to compare and contrast the two approaches. Further experimental investigation of various turning strategies using a remote-controlled car and overhead video analysis could make for an interesting student project.

  15. Relationship between lead levels on painted surfaces and percent lead in the particles aerosolized during lead abatement.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyoo T; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Menrath, William; Succop, Paul; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2002-08-01

    Quantifying airborne lead on lead abatement work sites is critical in assessing worker lead exposures. Airborne lead levels depend on both the concentration of aerosolized particles and the percent lead in those particles. The lead level on the painted surface being abated may affect the percent lead in aerosolized particles. Experiments were performed in the University of Cincinnati Environmental Test Chamber (volume approximately 24.3 m3) using wood doors painted with lead-based paint. Three methods were used for paint removal: dry scraping, wet scraping, and dry machine sanding. Particles aerosolized during lead abatement activities were collected on filters using the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Samplers (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) mounted in the workers' breathing zone. The filters were subsequently analyzed for percent lead in the particles. A portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument (NITON-700, NITON Inc., Bedford, MA) was used to measure surface lead levels of the doors. The accuracy of the XRF instrument was verified by testing standard reference materials prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and by Princeton Gamma Tech Inc. It was also verified by relating XRF results from painted door surfaces to laboratory lead analysis data obtained from paint chip samples taken from the same painted surfaces (r2 = 0.81, p < 0.001). A highly significant relationship (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.001) was found between the XRF readings and the percent lead in the particles aerosolized during dry scraping. No significant relationship was found for wet scraping (r2 = 0.09, p = 0.56) or dry machine sanding (r2 = 0.002, p = 0.92). The relationship between surface lead levels and percent lead in particles was found to be dependent on the paint removal method. This variation was attributed to the difference in water absorption property of the paint layers and the different particle aerosolization mechanisms inherent in each paint removal method.

  16. Effects of temephos (Abate? 4E) on fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax and Uca minax) on a Delaware salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; McGowan, P.C.; Murphy, D.R.; Lowe, T.P.; Sparling, D.W.; Meredith, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    The non-target effects of temephos (as Abate 4E, 44.6% active ingredient) on fiddler crabs were examined on the salt marsh at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), near Dover, DE. Six 170 x 170 m plots were established; 3 were sprayed on 4 occasions at a rate of 1.5 fl oz/acre (0.054 kg active ingredient/ha) and 3 were controls. On each plot, marsh fiddler crab (Uca pugnax) populations were monitored by repeatedly counting the number of burrow holes in 2 counting areas marked out along tidal guts. One half of each counting area was covered with bird netting to evaluate sublethal toxic effects, which, if present, could result in increased susceptibility to bird predation. A statistically significant linear association was established between the number of holes and the number of crabs. No significant differences were found in the numbers of holes (or crabs) in the sprayed vs. control plots and in the covered vs. uncovered sections. However, survival of juvenile crabs in in situ bioassays was significantly reduced (16% lower) by the spraying. Median acetylcholinesterase activity in claw muscle of red-jointed fiddler crabs (U. minax) collected 2 days after an operational spray with Abate 4E was significantly reduced (28% lower) compared to unsprayed crabs. In view of the toxicity to juvenile crabs and the cholinesterase inhibition, we recommend continued monitoring and research for non-target impacts of Abate 4E on fiddler crabs to establish whether the reported level of cholinesterase inhibition results in acute or chronic toxicity.

  17. Optical analysis of miniature lenses with curved imaging surfaces.

    PubMed

    Reshidko, Dmitry; Sasian, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Miniature cameras for consumer electronics and mobile phones have been, and continue to be, in fast development. The system level requirements, such as manufacturing cost, packaging, and sensor characteristics, impose unique challenges for optical designers. In this paper, we discuss the potential optical benefits of having a curved image surface rather than a flat one. We show that curved sensor technology allows for optically faster lens solutions. We discuss trade-offs of several relevant characteristics, such as packaging, chief ray angle, image quality, and tolerance sensitivity. A comparison of a benchmark flat field lens, and an evaluation design imaging on a curved surface and working at f/1.6, provides useful specific insights. For a given image quality, departing from a flat imaging surface does not allow significantly reducing the total length of a lens.

  18. Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003), 10.1063/1.1624057] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.062145]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.

  19. Group benefit and protection of pediatric research subjects: Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger and the Lead Abatement Study.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    The Maryland Court of Appeals in Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute was sharply critical of the lead abatement study conducted by this Institute, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University. Grimes ruled that investigators might, given the facts of the case, have a special relationship with subjects, thereby creating a duty of care that could, if breached, give rise to an action in negligence. This ruling has implications for pediatric research practices and long-standing disputes among informed people of good will about what pediatric studies should be permitted.

  20. Ending F-22A Production: Costs and Industrial Base Implications of Alternative Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    33 Airframe Contractors Target Price Curve and Propulsion Costs...each scenario. The third column con- tains flyaway unit costs, which are the sum of the target price curve (TPC),4 propulsion, and other elements of...Support Producibility PSS Program Support Sustaining RUP retained unit percentage SPaRE Sustainment Program for the Raptor Engine TPC target price curve

  1. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  2. Elliptic Curve Cryptography on Smart Cards Without Coprocessors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-20

    ELLIPTIC CURVE CRYPTOGRAPHY ON SMART CARDS WITHOUT COPROCESSORS Adam D. Woodbury Electrical and Computer Engineering Department adw@ece.wpi.edu...christof@ece.wpi.edu Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA 01609 USA The Fourth Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (CARDIS 2000...cost microprocessors with reasonable performance. We focus in this paper on the Intel 8051 family of microcontrollers popular in smart cards and other

  3. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  4. Compression of contour data through exploiting curve-to-curve dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalabik, N.; Cooper, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    An approach to exploiting curve-to-curve dependencies in order to achieve high data compression is presented. One of the approaches to date of along curve compression through use of cubic spline approximation is taken and extended by investigating the additional compressibility achievable through curve-to-curve structure exploitation. One of the models under investigation is reported on.

  5. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  6. The challenge of highly curved monolithic imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwert, Olaf; Delabre, Bernard

    2010-07-01

    In a recent optical design study of CODEX - a visible spectrograph planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) - it was determined that a significant simplification of the optical design - accompanied by an improvement of the image quality - could be achieved through the application of large format (90mm square) concave spherically curved detectors with a low radius of curvature (500 to 250mm). Current assemblies of image sensors and optics rely on the optics to project a corrected image onto a flat detector. While scientific large-size CCDs (49mm square) have been produced unintentionally with a spherical radius of convex curvature of around 5m, in the past most efforts have concentrated onto flattening the light-sensitive detector silicon area as best as possible for both scientific state-of-the-art systems, as well as commercial low-cost consumer products. In some cases curved focal planes are mosaicked out of individual flat detectors, but a standard method to derive individual spherically curved large size detectors has not been demonstrated. This paper summarizes important developments in the area of curved detectors in the past and their different technical approaches mostly linked to specific thinning processes. ESO's specifications for an ongoing feasibility study are presented. First results of the latter are described with a link to theoretical and practical examinations of currently available technology to implement curved CCD and CMOS detectors for scientific applications.

  7. Sound propagation over curved barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Kearns, James A.; Hsieh, H.-A.

    1986-01-01

    Wide barriers with curved tops are studied with emphasis placed on circumstances whereby the local radius of curvature R of the barrier is continuous along the surface and is large compared to a wavelength. Results analogous to those given by Hayek et al. (1978) are reviewed and extended to cases where the radius of curvature and the surface impedance may vary with position. Circumstances not easily interpreted within the framework of the model proposed by Keller (1956) and Hayek et al. are also considered.

  8. Sound propagation over curved barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Kearns, James A.; Hsieh, H.-A.

    Wide barriers with curved tops are studied with emphasis placed on circumstances whereby the local radius of curvature R of the barrier is continuous along the surface and is large compared to a wavelength. Results analogous to those given by Hayek et al. (1978) are reviewed and extended to cases where the radius of curvature and the surface impedance may vary with position. Circumstances not easily interpreted within the framework of the model proposed by Keller (1956) and Hayek et al. are also considered.

  9. Dirac's aether in curved spacetime.

    PubMed

    Oliveira; Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Proca's equations for two types of fields in a Dirac's aether with electric conductivity sigma are solved exactly. The Proca electromagnetic fields are assumed with cylindrical symmetry. The background is a static, curved spacetime whose spatial section is homogeneous and has the topology of either the three-sphere S 3 or the projective three-space P 3. Simple relations between the range of Proca field lambda, the Universe radius R, the limit of photon rest mass mgamma and the conductivity sigma are written down.

  10. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  11. Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: restructuring the policy and research agendas.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin

    2006-06-01

    This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community over the past 15-20 years, the research that has since been undertaken has failed to identify appropriate mitigation measures, and has done little to advance understanding of why contamination persists. Moreover, the strategies used to educate operators about the impacts of acute mercury exposure, and the technologies implemented to prevent further pollution, have been marginally effective at best. The mercury pollution problem will not be resolved until governments and donor agencies commit to carrying out research aimed at improving understanding of the dynamics of small scale gold mining communities. Acquisition of this knowledge is the key to designing and implementing appropriate support and abatement measures.

  12. Optimizing the performance of catalytic traps for hydrocarbon abatement during the cold-start of a gasoline engine.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, B; Navlani-García, M; García, T; Navarro, M V; Lozano-Castelló, D; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2014-08-30

    A key target to reduce current hydrocarbon emissions from vehicular exhaust is to improve their abatement under cold-start conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of factorial analysis to design a highly efficient catalytic trap. The impact of the synthesis conditions on the preparation of copper-loaded ZSM-5 is clearly revealed by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM and TEM. A high concentration of copper nitrate precursor in the synthesis improves the removal of hydrocarbons, providing both strong adsorption sites for hydrocarbon retention at low temperature and copper oxide nanoparticles for full hydrocarbon catalytic combustion at high temperature. The use of copper acetate precursor leads to a more homogeneous dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles also providing enough catalytic sites for the total oxidation of hydrocarbons released from the adsorption sites, although lower copper loadings are achieved. Thus, synthesis conditions leading to high copper loadings jointly with highly dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles would result in an exceptional catalytic trap able to reach superior hydrocarbon abatement under highly demanding operational conditions.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  14. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  15. Process modeling of an advanced NH₃ abatement and recycling technology in the ammonia-based CO₂ capture process.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Tade, Moses; Feron, Paul; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Shujuan

    2014-06-17

    An advanced NH3 abatement and recycling process that makes great use of the waste heat in flue gas was proposed to solve the problems of ammonia slip, NH3 makeup, and flue gas cooling in the ammonia-based CO2 capture process. The rigorous rate-based model, RateFrac in Aspen Plus, was thermodynamically and kinetically validated by experimental data from open literature and CSIRO pilot trials at Munmorah Power Station, Australia, respectively. After a thorough sensitivity analysis and process improvement, the NH3 recycling efficiency reached as high as 99.87%, and the NH3 exhaust concentration was only 15.4 ppmv. Most importantly, the energy consumption of the NH3 abatement and recycling system was only 59.34 kJ/kg CO2 of electricity. The evaluation of mass balance and temperature steady shows that this NH3 recovery process was technically effective and feasible. This process therefore is a promising prospect toward industrial application.

  16. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  17. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-02-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  18. Wrinkling Crystallography on Curved Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro; Brojan, Miha; Terwagne, Denis; Lagrange, Romain

    2014-03-01

    We present results on an experimental analysis of the morphology of wrinkling patterns on curved surfaces. Our experimental hemispherical samples are fabricated using rapid prototyping and consist of a thin-stiff shell adhered to a soft-thick substrate, both made out of silicone-based rubbers. Pressurizing an inner spherical air cavity enables compression of the samples, thereby morphing the outer thin shell from its initially smooth configuration into a wrinkled state. A variety of patterns with different morphologies can be observed depending on the combination of the sample's geometric and material properties. We focus our attention on the specific pattern mode of hexagonal-like dimples, which we characterize by analyzing their surface profile using a digital 3D scanner. Through digital image processing, we skeletonize these patterns by identifying both the location of the ridges and determining the positions of the dimples. We give emphasis to the effect of curvature on the morphology and topology of these wrinkled patterns and focus on the tiling of the wrinkling units and their statistics of defects. Our results are contrasted with other crystalline planar and curved systems.

  19. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  20. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  2. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  3. Heat-stress abatement during the dry period: does cooling improve transition into lactation?

    PubMed

    do Amaral, B C; Connor, E E; Tao, S; Hayen, J; Bubolz, J; Dahl, G E

    2009-12-01

    /d) compared with CL cows. Relative to CL cows, hepatic mRNA expression of SOCS-2 and IGFBP-5 was downregulated in HT cows. Expression of ACADVL was upregulated in CL cows at d +2 but downregulated at d +20 relative to HT cows. Concentrations of C16:0 and cis C18:1 were greater in the milk and liver of CL cows compared with HT cows, which reflects greater lipid mobilization. These results suggest that heat-stress abatement in the dry period improves subsequent lactation, possibly via suppression of plasma prolactin surge around calving, SOCS-2 expression, and regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism.

  4. The Aggregate Demand Curve: A Reply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Responds to claims about the instructional value of the downward-sloping aggregate demand curve in teaching principles of macroeconomics. Examines the effects of interest-rates and the role of money on demand curves. Concludes by arguing against the use of downward-sloping aggregate demand curves in textbooks. (RKM)

  5. Cubic spline functions for curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    FORTRAN cubic spline routine mathematically fits curve through given ordered set of points so that fitted curve nearly approximates curve generated by passing infinite thin spline through set of points. Generalized formulation includes trigonometric, hyperbolic, and damped cubic spline fits of third order.

  6. Curved film cooling admission tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Papell, S. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Effective film cooling to protect a wall surface from a hot fluid which impinges on or flows along the surface is provided. A film of cooling fluid having increased area is provided by changing the direction of a stream of cooling fluid through an angle of from 135 deg. to 165 deg. before injecting it through the wall into the hot flowing gas. The 1, cooling fluid is injected from an orifice through a wall into a hot flowing gas at an angle to form a cooling fluid film. Cooling fluid is supplied to the orifice from a cooling fluid source via a turbulence control passageway having a curved portion between two straight portions. The angle through which the direction of the cooling fluid is turned results in less mixing of the cooling fluid with the hot gas, thereby substantially increasing the length of the film in a downstream direction.

  7. Laser-induced magnetization curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayoshi, Shintaro; Sato, Masahiro; Oka, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    We propose an all optical ultrafast method to highly magnetize general quantum magnets using a circularly polarized terahertz laser. The key idea is to utilize a circularly polarized laser and its chirping. Through this method, one can obtain magnetization curves of a broad class of quantum magnets as a function of time even without any static magnetic field. We numerically demonstrate the laser-induced magnetization process in realistic quantum spin models and find a condition for the realization. The onset of magnetization can be described by a many-body version of Landau-Zener mechanism. In a particular model, we show that a plateau state with topological properties can be realized dynamically.

  8. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  9. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results.

  10. Caloric curve of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results.

  11. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  12. Guidelines for using the Delphi Technique to develop habitat suitability index curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (SI) curves are one method of presenting species habitat suitability criteria. The curves are often used with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and are necessary components of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) (Armour et al. 1984). Bovee (1986) described three categories of SI curves or habitat suitability criteria based on the procedures and data used to develop the criteria. Category I curves are based on professional judgment, with 1ittle or no empirical data. Both Category II (utilization criteria) and Category III (preference criteria) curves have as their source data collected at locations where target species are observed or collected. Having Category II and Category III curves for all species of concern would be ideal. In reality, no SI curves are available for many species, and SI curves that require intensive field sampling often cannot be developed under prevailing constraints on time and costs. One alternative under these circumstances is the development and interim use of SI curves based on expert opinion. The Delphi technique (Pill 1971; Delbecq et al. 1975; Linstone and Turoff 1975) is one method used for combining the knowledge and opinions of a group of experts. The purpose of this report is to describe how the Delphi technique may be used to develop expert-opinion-based SI curves.

  13. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  14. Abatement of CF{sub 4} and CHF{sub 3} byproducts using low-pressure plasmas generated by annular-shaped electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Min; Lee, Jae O. K.; Hoon Song, Young; Yoo, Hoon A.

    2012-03-15

    Three different driving schemes are tested for a plasma reactor designed to abate the greenhouse gases emitted by the semiconductor industry. The reactor and electrodes all have a concentric annular shape, which allows them to be easily connected to pre-existing pipelines without any disturbance to the exhaust stream. The destruction and removal efficiencies are measured for CF{sub 4} by varying the O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} ratio and pressure. The influences of adding O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to the byproducts of the CHF{sub 3} abatement process are investigated by analyzing the spectra resulting from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. Based on the experimental results we suggest an appropriate combination of driving scheme and reactant gas species for efficient and economical abatement of a mixture of CHF{sub 3} and CF{sub 4}. Then, the optimal flow rate of the reactant gas is presented. Finally, the reduction rates for global warming emissions are estimated to demonstrate the feasibility of using our device for abatement of greenhouse gases emitted by the semiconductor industry.

  15. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  16. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  17. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the... as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is...

  18. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  19. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  20. Dust Abatement Methods for Lines-of-Communication and Base Camps in Temperate Climates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    solution contained 38 percent calcium chloride by weight. This deliquescent material has been used for many years as a low-cost solution for dust...effectiveness during testing. The high humidity and light precipitation allowed the deliquescent material to pull moisture from the air to aid in dust

  1. Mercury abatement report on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Mercury Abatement Report for fiscal year 1995 summarizes the status of activities and the levels of mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulting from activities at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The report outlines the status of the on-going project activities in support of project compliance, the results of the ongoing sampling and characterization efforts, the biological monitoring activities, and our conclusions relative to the progress in demonstrating compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit. Overall, the pace of mercury activities at the Y-12 Plant is ahead of the compliance schedules in the NPDES permit and new and exciting opportunities are being recognized for achieving additional mercury reductions. These opportunities were not felt to be achievable several years ago.

  2. [The organization of key populations connected to HIV transmission: an intervention to abate stigma; Mexico, 2005-2009].

    PubMed

    Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Zarco-Mera, Ángel; Infante-Xibillé, César; Caballero-García, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative approach forms the base of this analysis of the results of "Vida Digna," a project aimed at abating stigma and discrimination in the HIV transmission field with actions taken by civil society organizations from 2005 to 2009 in the Mexican region of El Bajío. The results were analyzed in 2009 and 2010. The organizations involved were made up of key populations, defined as groups vulnerable to infection but also capable of resisting and controlling the transmission of HIV and the stigma and discrimination that are important barriers in the seeking of care and the achievement of effective HIV control. We describe and analyze the actions taken and the strengthening of the participating organizations. The visibility of new social actors such as transgender women and injecting drug users, as well as informative activities directed at journalists, the police and the military to prevent the criminalization and persecution of these groups, are highlighted.

  3. Engineering simulation evaluation of the two-segment noise abatement approach in the Douglas DC-8-61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The development and operational evaluation are discussed of a noise abatement two-segment approach which is safe and operationally acceptable for routine use in air carrier service. An engineering simulation evaluation was conducted; it was found that the entry speed and initial configuration are more important in the DC-8-61 than in the 727 because of the DC-8's aerodynamic cleanliness and drag programming constraints. It was also found that the altitude required for the DC-8 upper and lower transitions is less than the 727 transitions principally due to the pitching moment from the underslung DC-8 engines as compared to the 727 engines which produce no pitching moment with a change in thrust. The 727 approach was a reduced flaps (30 degrees) procedure with a 10-knot airspeed bleed in the lower transition; the DC-8 approach is a full flaps (50 degrees) procedure with constant airspeed established as soon as possible after upper segment transition.

  4. Comparison of physiological and subjective strain in workers wearing two different protective coveralls for asbestos abatement tasks.

    PubMed

    Turpin-Legendre, E; Meyer, J P

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and subjective strain in workers wearing a disposable "Tyvek" (TYV) and a ventilated "Mururoa" (MUR) coverall in a real working situation. Eleven men performing normal abatement tasks volunteered to participate. Physiological measurements included oral temperature, heart rate and sweat loss. Subjective evaluations of clothing comfort, cooling, robustness, cumbersomness, acceptable exposure duration and physical exertion were carried out at the end of the task. The ventilated MUR reduced heat strain. Indeed, it allowed significantly higher sweat loss than TYV and showed a tendency to reduce the increase in oral temperature. Subjective ratings reveal that MUR was considered better than TYV in terms of clothing comfort, coolness and robustness. On the other hand, MUR is more cumbersome to wear. In this study, where workload and heat stress were moderate, there were few differences between the two coveralls in terms of physiological strains, but far more significant differences in the subjective ratings.

  5. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places.

  6. Rating Curve Estimation from Local Levels and Upstream Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, M.; Mascellani, G.

    2003-04-01

    Current technology allows for low cost and easy level measurements while the discharge measurements are still difficult and expensive. Thus, these are rarely performed and usually not in flood conditions because of lack of safety and difficulty in activating the measurement team in due time. As a consequence, long series of levels are frequently available without the corresponding discharge values. However, for the purpose of planning, management of water resources and real time flood forecasting, discharge is needed and it is therefore essential to convert local levels into discharge values by using the appropriate rating curve. Over this last decade, several methods have been proposed to relate local levels at a site of interest to data recorded at a river section located upstream where a rating curve is available. Some of these methods are based on a routing approach which uses the Muskingum model structure in different ways; others are based on the entropy concepts. Lately, fuzzy logic has been applied more and more frequently in the framework of hydraulic and hydrologic problems and this has prompted to the authors to use it for synthesising the rating curves. A comparison between all these strategies is performed, highlighting the difficulties and advantages of each of them, with reference to a long reach of the Po river in Italy, where several hydrometers and the relevant rating curves are available, thus allowing for both a parameterization and validation of the different strategies.

  7. Spectrum of power laws for curved hand movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-07-21

    In a planar free-hand drawing of an ellipse, the speed of movement is proportional to the -1/3 power of the local curvature, which is widely thought to hold for general curved shapes. We investigated this phenomenon for general curved hand movements by analyzing an optimal control model that maximizes a smoothness cost and exhibits the -1/3 power for ellipses. For the analysis, we introduced a new representation for curved movements based on a moving reference frame and a dimensionless angle coordinate that revealed scale-invariant features of curved movements. The analysis confirmed the power law for drawing ellipses but also predicted a spectrum of power laws with exponents ranging between 0 and -2/3 for simple movements that can be characterized by a single angular frequency. Moreover, it predicted mixtures of power laws for more complex, multifrequency movements that were confirmed with human drawing experiments. The speed profiles of arbitrary doodling movements that exhibit broadband curvature profiles were accurately predicted as well. These findings have implications for motor planning and predict that movements only depend on one radian of angle coordinate in the past and only need to be planned one radian ahead.

  8. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses April 2001, Discussion Paper 01-19

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, Roger; Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2001-04-05

    This study develops cumulative carbon ''supply curves'' for global forests utilizing a dynamic timber supply model for sequestration of forest carbon. Because the period of concern is the next century, and particular time points within that century, the curves are not traditional Marshallian supply curves or steady-state supply curves. Rather, the focus is on cumulative carbon cost curves (quasi-supply curves) at various points in time over the next 100 years. The research estimates a number of long-term, cumulative, carbon quasi-supply curves under different price scenarios and for different time periods. The curves trace out the relationship between an intertemporal price path for carbon, as given by carbon shadow prices, and the cumulative carbon sequestered from the initiation of the shadow prices, set at 2000, to a selected future year (2010, 2050, 2100). The timber supply model demonstrates that cumulative carbon quasi-supply curves that can be generated through forestry significantly depend on initial carbon prices and expectations regarding the time profile of future carbon prices. Furthermore, long-run quasi-supply curves generated from a constant price will have somewhat different characteristics from quasi-supply curves generated with an expectation of rising carbon prices through time.The ?least-cost? curves vary the time periods under consideration and the time profile of carbon prices. The quasi-supply curves suggest that a policy of gradually increasing carbon prices will generate the least costly supply curves in the shorter periods of a decade or so. Over longer periods of time, however, such as 50 or 100 years, these advantages appear to dissipate.

  9. Differentialless geometry of plane curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.; Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1997-10-01

    We introduce a class of planar arcs and curves, called tame arcs, which is general enough to describe the boundaries of planar real objects. A tame arc can have smooth parts as well as sharp corners; thus a polygonal arc is tame. On the other hand, this class of arcs is restrictive enough to rule out pathological arcs which have infinitely many inflections or which turn infinitely often: a tame arc can have only finitely many inflections, and its total absolute turn must be finite. In order to relate boundary properties of discrete objects obtained by segmenting digital images to the corresponding properties of their continuous originals, the theory of tame arcs is based on concepts that can be directly transferred from the continuous to the discrete domain. A tame arc is composed of a finite number of supported arcs. We define supported digital arcs and motivate their definition by the fact that hey can be obtained by digitizing continuous supported arcs. Every digital arc is tame, since it contains a finite number of points, and therefore it can be decomposed into a finite number of supported digital arcs.

  10. Learning curve of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tomi A; Kaipio, Johanna; Koivikko, Mika P

    2013-12-01

    Speech recognition (SR) speeds patient care processes by reducing report turnaround times. However, concerns have emerged about prolonged training and an added secretarial burden for radiologists. We assessed how much proofing radiologists who have years of experience with SR and radiologists new to SR must perform, and estimated how quickly the new users become as skilled as the experienced users. We studied SR log entries for 0.25 million reports from 154 radiologists and after careful exclusions, defined a group of 11 experienced radiologists and 71 radiologists new to SR (24,833 and 122,093 reports, respectively). Data were analyzed for sound file and report lengths, character-based error rates, and words unknown to the SR's dictionary. Experienced radiologists corrected 6 characters for each report and for new users, 11. Some users presented a very unfavorable learning curve, with error rates not declining as expected. New users' reports were longer, and data for the experienced users indicates that their reports, initially equally lengthy, shortened over a period of several years. For most radiologists, only minor corrections of dictated reports were necessary. While new users adopted SR quickly, with a subset outperforming experienced users from the start, identification of users struggling with SR will help facilitate troubleshooting and support.

  11. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Pedro; de Melo e Souza, Reinaldo; Farina, C.

    2016-12-01

    We show that there are an infinite number of tautochrone curves in addition to the cycloid solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658. We begin by reviewing the inverse problem of finding the possible potential energy functions that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many such solutions, called "sheared" potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a Pöschl-Teller potential and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same oscillation periods for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of a constant gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the oscillation period, there is an infinity of tracks that lead to the same period. As a bonus, we show that there are infinitely many tautochrones.

  12. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-03-01

    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  13. Towards freeform curved blazed gratings using diamond machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgenot, C.; Robertson, D. J.; Stelter, D.; Eikenberry, S.

    2016-07-01

    Concave blazed gratings greatly simplify the architecture of spectrographs by reducing the number of optical components. The production of these gratings using diamond-machining offers practically no limits in the design of the grating substrate shape, with the possibility of making large sag freeform surfaces unlike the alternative and traditional method of holography and ion etching. In this paper, we report on the technological challenges and progress in the making of these curved blazed gratings using an ultra-high precision 5 axes Moore-Nanotech machine. We describe their implementation in an integral field unit prototype called IGIS (Integrated Grating Imaging Spectrograph) where freeform curved gratings are used as pupil mirrors. The goal is to develop the technologies for the production of the next generation of low-cost, compact, high performance integral field unit spectrometers.

  14. Flexible NO(x) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Webster, Mort; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Thompson, Tammy; Prinn, Ronald; Ellerman, A Denny; Allen, David T

    2012-05-15

    Emission controls that provide incentives for maximizing reductions in emissions of ozone precursors on days when ozone concentrations are highest have the potential to be cost-effective ozone management strategies. Conventional prescriptive emissions controls or cap-and-trade programs consider all emissions similarly regardless of when they occur, despite the fact that contributions to ozone formation may vary. In contrast, a time-differentiated approach targets emissions reductions on forecasted high ozone days without imposition of additional costs on lower ozone days. This work examines simulations of such dynamic air quality management strategies for NO(x) emissions from electric generating units. Results from a model of day-specific NO(x) pricing applied to the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) portion of the northeastern U.S. electrical grid demonstrate (i) that sufficient flexibility in electricity generation is available to allow power production to be switched from high to low NO(x) emitting facilities, (ii) that the emission price required to induce EGUs to change their strategies for power generation are competitive with other control costs, (iii) that dispatching strategies, which can change the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions, lead to ozone concentration reductions comparable to other control technologies, and (iv) that air quality forecasting is sufficiently accurate to allow EGUs to adapt their power generation strategies.

  15. Finite transformers for construction of fractal curves

    SciTech Connect

    Lisovik, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we continue the study of infinite R{sup n}-transformers that can be used to define real functions and three-dimensional curves. An R{sup n}-transformer A generates an output n-tuple A(x) = (Y{sub 1},...,Y{sub n}), consisting of output binary representations. We have previously shown that finite R{sup n}-transformers with n = 1, 2 can be used to define a continuous, nowhere differentiable function and a Peano curve. Curves of this kind are objects of fractal geometry. Here we show that some other fractal curves, which are analogs of the Koch curve and the Sierpinski napkin, can be defined by finite R{sup 2}-transformers. R{sup n}-transformers (and also finite R{sup n}-transformers) thus provide a convenient tool for definition of fractal curves.

  16. Deployment of a Curved Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Structures capable of deployment into complex, three-dimensional trusses have well known space technology applications such as the support of spacecraft payloads, communications antennas, radar reflectors, and solar concentrators. Such deployable trusses could also be useful in terrestrial applications such as the rapid establishment of structures in military and emergency service situations, in particular with regard to the deployment of enclosures for habitat or storage. To minimize the time required to deploy such an enclosure, a single arch-shaped truss is preferable to multiple straight trusses arranged vertically and horizontally. To further minimize the time required to deploy such an enclosure, a synchronous deployment with a single degree of freedom is also preferable. One method of synchronizing deployment of a truss is the use of a series of gears; this makes the deployment sequence predictable and testable, allows the truss to have a minimal stowage volume, and the deployed structure exhibits the excellent stiffness-to-mass and strength-to-mass ratios characteristic of a truss. A concept for using gears with varying ratios to deploy a truss into a curved shape has been developed and appears to be compatible with both space technology applications as well as potential use in terrestrial applications such as enclosure deployment. As is the case with other deployable trusses, this truss is formed using rigid elements (e.g., composite tubes) along the edges, one set of diagonal elements composed of either cables or folding/hinged rigid members, and the other set of diagonal elements formed by a continuous cable that is tightened by a motor or hand crank in order to deploy the truss. Gears of varying ratios are used to constrain the deployment to a single degree of freedom, making the deployment synchronous, predictable, and repeatable. The relative sizes of the gears and the relative dimensions of the diagonal elements determine the deployed geometry (e

  17. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  18. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  19. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  20. Craniofacial Reconstruction Using Rational Cubic Ball Curves

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Abdul; Mt Piah, Abd Rahni; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Yahya, Zainor Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the reconstruction of craniofacial fracture using rational cubic Ball curve. The idea of choosing Ball curve is based on its robustness of computing efficiency over Bezier curve. The main steps are conversion of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom) images to binary images, boundary extraction and corner point detection, Ball curve fitting with genetic algorithm and final solution conversion to Dicom format. The last section illustrates a real case of craniofacial reconstruction using the proposed method which clearly indicates the applicability of this method. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) has also been developed for practical application. PMID:25880632

  1. Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 GHGs Report: Download the Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the report illustrating the abatement potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases through a comprehensive global analysis and resulting data set of marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves. The report can be viewed as a whole or by individual section.

  2. Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

  3. A survey of space cost models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwick, W. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    How do cost models help in making economic decisions about space transportation vehicles? To what extent do cost models illuminate the cost impact of decisions due to management, technical, engineering and manufacturing, and cultural factors? What types of cost explanatory variables are used and what are their impacts? We shall first identify cost drivers across several space cost models: PRICE-H, SEER-H, TRANSCOST, and NAFCOM, and then classify them by using a management cost reduction matrix. Second, we shall review cost explanatory variables for vehicle structure, engine system, and process and technical parameters. Third, we will present a simple baseline, consisting of a launch vehicle structure and engine and discuss methodology to develop the inter-model comparison of cost drivers. Fourth, we will present the economic properties of the cost models which include economies of size, schedule, learning curve and process improvement, and economic externalities. The concluding section lists the most important cost drivers and comments on each cost model's strengths.

  4. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  5. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two complex octonions, depicting simultaneously the electromagnetic and gravitational properties in the complex octonion curved space. The result reveals that the connection coefficient and curvature of the complex octonion curved space will exert an influence on the field strength and field source of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields, impacting the linear momentum, angular momentum, torque, energy, and force and so forth.

  6. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Curved Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical-discharge machining (EDM) used to cut deep hole with bends. EDM process done with articulating segmented electrode. Originally straight, electrode curved as it penetrates part, forming long, smoothly curving hole. After hole cut, honed with slurry to remove thin layer of recast metal created by EDM. Breakage of tools, hand deburring, and drilling debris eliminated.

  7. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeter, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  8. Forgetting Curves: Implications for Connectionist Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker

    2002-01-01

    Forgetting in long-term memory, as measured in a recall or a recognition test, is faster for items encoded more recently than for items encoded earlier. Data on forgetting curves fit a power function well. In contrast, many connectionist models predict either exponential decay or completely flat forgetting curves. This paper suggests a…

  9. Parallel Curves: Getting There and Getting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, A. F.; Mathews, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    This note takes up the issue of parallel curves while illustrating the utility of "Mathematica" in computations. This work complements results presented earlier. The presented treatment, considering the more general case of parametric curves, provides an analysis of the appearance of cusp singularities, and emphasizes the utility of symbolic…

  10. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  11. Remote sensing used for power curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Paulsen, U. S.; Larsen, T. J.; Antoniou, I.; Thesbjerg, L.

    2008-05-01

    : Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles.

  12. Curved and conformal high-pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, Paul F.; Kuczek, Andrzej E.; Zhao, Wenping

    2016-10-25

    A high-pressure vessel is provided. The high-pressure vessel may comprise a first chamber defined at least partially by a first wall, and a second chamber defined at least partially by the first wall. The first chamber and the second chamber may form a curved contour of the high-pressure vessel. A modular tank assembly is also provided, and may comprise a first mid tube having a convex geometry. The first mid tube may be defined by a first inner wall, a curved wall extending from the first inner wall, and a second inner wall extending from the curved wall. The first inner wall may be disposed at an angle relative to the second inner wall. The first mid tube may further be defined by a short curved wall opposite the curved wall and extending from the second inner wall to the first inner wall.

  13. Parametric Cost Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

  14. Detection of anomalous features in an earthen dam using inversion of P-wave first-arrival times and surface-wave dispersion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jeon, K. M.; Hong, M. H.; Park, Young-gyu

    2011-02-01

    To locate anomalous features including seepage pathways through the Daeryong earth-fill dam, P and Rayleigh waves were recorded along a 250-m profile on the crest of the dam. Seismic energy was generated using a 5-kg sledgehammer and detected by 24 4.5-Hz vertical-axis geophones installed at 3-m intervals. P-wave and apparent S-wave velocities of the reservoir dam and underlying bedrock were then inverted from first-arrival traveltimes and dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves, respectively. Apparent dynamic Poisson's ratios as high as 0.46 were obtained at the base of the dam near its north-east end, where an outlet conduit occurs, and in the clay core body near the south-west end of the profile where the dam was repeatedly grouted to abate seepage before our survey. These anomalies of higher Poisson's ratios in the upper part of clay core were also associated with effusion of grout on the downstream slope of the dam during post-survey grouting to abate leakage. Combining P-wave traveltime tomography and inversion of Rayleigh wave velocities was very effective in detecting potential pathways for seepage and previous grouted zones in this earthen dam.

  15. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  16. A simulation study on the abatement of CO2 emissions by de-absorption with monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Greer, T; Bedelbayev, A; Igreja, J M; Gomes, J F; Lie, B

    2010-01-01

    Because of the adverse effect of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion on the earth's ecosystems, the most cost-effective method for CO2 capture is an important area of research. The predominant process for CO2 capture currently employed by industry is chemical absorption in amine solutions. A dynamic model for the de-absorption process was developed with monoethanolamine (MEA) solution. Henry's law was used for modelling the vapour phase equilibrium of the CO2, and fugacity ratios calculated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) were used for H2O, MEA, N2 and O2. Chemical reactions between CO2 and MEA were included in the model along with the enhancement factor for chemical absorption. Liquid and vapour energy balances were developed to calculate the liquid and vapour temperature, respectively.

  17. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  18. Residential lead-based-paint hazard remediation and soil lead abatement: their impact among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Beiser, A; Bellinger, D; Copenhafer, D; Weitzman, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study describes the impact of residential lead-based-paint hazard remediations on children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. METHODS: Changes in blood lead levels were observed following paint hazard remediation alone and in combination with soil abatement. RESULTS: After adjustment for the confounding variables paint hazard remediation alone was associated with a blood lead increase of 6.5 micrograms/dL (P = 0.5), and paint hazard remediation combined with soil abatement was associated with an increase of 0.9 microgram/dL (P = 36). CONCLUSIONS: Lead-based-paint hazard remediation as performed in this study, is not an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. PMID:9357358

  19. Using the Hypergeometric Model to analyze the buckling of drillstrings in curved boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr.; Eustes, A.W. III

    1998-12-31

    Current methodologies for analytically determining the onset of buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes are limited. In this paper, the Hypergeometric Model is shown to be an effective model to determine drillstring buckling within curved boreholes. With the Hypergeometric Model, the analysis of drillstring buckling results in curves expressing the local buckling force versus the angle of inclination. The local buckling force alone, however, does not contain all the information required for a practical analysis. From the local buckling force curve, the positional buckling force is derived. The positional buckling force considers the distributed weight of the drillstring and the friction between the drillstring and the borehole wall. From this curve, the point of minimum resistance to buckling of the drillstring is determined. Using the local and positional buckling force curves, experimental results and simulations are presented. When multiple configurations exist (for example tapered drillstrings, tapered boreholes, multi-curved boreholes, or any combination of these), the analysis procedure uses superposition of two or more single configuration curves and a graphical algorithm. The Hypergeometric Model permits the optimization of the position of the crossing points (cross-over positioning, casing-shoe positioning, and change of curvature) to achieve extended reach with less risk and cost. The procedure for this model and examples are presented in this paper.

  20. Real-time defect detection on highly reflective curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, G.; Boschetti, G.; Biondi, A.; Rossi, A.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an automated defect detection system for coated plastic components for the automotive industry. This research activity came up as an evolution of a previous study which employed a non-flat mirror to illuminate and inspect high reflective curved surfaces. According to this method, the rays emitted from a light source are conveyed on the surface under investigation by means of a suitably curved mirror. After the reflection on the surface, the light rays are collected by a CCD camera, in which the coating defects appear as shadows of various shapes and dimensions. In this paper we present an evolution of the above-mentioned method, introducing a simplified mirror set-up in order to reduce the costs and the complexity of the defect detection system. In fact, a set of plane mirrors is employed instead of the curved one. Moreover, the inspection of multiple bend radius parts is investigated. A prototype of the machine vision system has been developed in order to test this simplified method. This device is made up of a light projector, a set of plane mirrors for light rays reflection, a conveyor belt for handling components, a CCD camera and a desktop PC which performs image acquisition and processing. Like in the previous system, the defects are identified as shadows inside a high brightness image. At the end of the paper, first experimental results are presented.

  1. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  2. Cost estimating procedure for unmanned satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, H.; Campbell, H. G.

    1980-11-01

    Historical costs from 11 unmanned satellite programs were analyzed. From these data, total satellite cost estimating relationships (CERs) were developed for use during preliminary design studies. A time-related factor, which it is believed accounts for differences in technology, was observed in the data. Stratification of the data by type of payload was also found to be necessary. Cost differences that stem from production quantity variations were accounted for by adjustment factors developed from standard learning curve theory. An example to illustrate use of the CERs is provided.

  3. Asbestos School Hazard Abatement. Hearing on H.R. 3677, a Bill To Reauthorize the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act of 1984, before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    A House of Representatives subcommittee convened to consider legislation (H.R. 3677) to reauthorize the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act of 1984 (ASHAA) that provides financial assistance to needy school districts in the form of loans and grants for asbestos-related activities. The hearing record contains the text of H.R. 3677, testimony, and…

  4. NOx abatement by fuel-lean reburning: Laboratory combustor and pilot-scale package boiler results. Report for June 1995--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A.; Touati, A.D.; Becker, J.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses two experimental studies related to the abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by fuel-lean reburning. First, systematic tests in a 17-kW down-flow laboratory combustor, in which nitric oxide (NO) in the oxidant was destroyed in long, axial, methane/air diffusion flames, showed that substantial reduction of NO was possible under overall fuel-lean conditions.

  5. Statistical aspects of modeling the labor curve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Troendle, James; Grantz, Katherine L; Reddy, Uma M

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review by Cohen and Friedman, several statistical questions on modeling labor curves were raised. This article illustrates that asking data to fit a preconceived model or letting a sufficiently flexible model fit observed data is the main difference in principles of statistical modeling between the original Friedman curve and our average labor curve. An evidence-based approach to construct a labor curve and establish normal values should allow the statistical model to fit observed data. In addition, the presence of the deceleration phase in the active phase of an average labor curve was questioned. Forcing a deceleration phase to be part of the labor curve may have artificially raised the speed of progression in the active phase with a particularly large impact on earlier labor between 4 and 6 cm. Finally, any labor curve is illustrative and may not be instructive in managing labor because of variations in individual labor pattern and large errors in measuring cervical dilation. With the tools commonly available, it may be more productive to establish a new partogram that takes the physiology of labor and contemporary obstetric population into account.

  6. Three-body choreographies in given curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki

    2009-10-01

    As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

  7. Generating artificial light curves: revisited and updated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; McHardy, I. M.; Papadakis, I. E.

    2013-08-01

    The production of artificial light curves with known statistical and variability properties is of great importance in astrophysics. Consolidating the confidence levels during cross-correlation studies, understanding the artefacts induced by sampling irregularities, establishing detection limits for future observatories are just some of the applications of simulated data sets. Currently, the widely used methodology of amplitude and phase randomization is able to produce artificial light curves which have a given underlying power spectral density (PSD) but which are strictly Gaussian distributed. This restriction is a significant limitation, since the majority of the light curves, e.g. active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray bursts, show strong deviations from Gaussianity exhibiting `burst-like' events in their light curves yielding long-tailed probability density functions (PDFs). In this study, we propose a simple method which is able to precisely reproduce light curves which match both the PSD and the PDF of either an observed light curve or a theoretical model. The PDF can be representative of either the parent distribution or the actual distribution of the observed data, depending on the study to be conducted for a given source. The final artificial light curves contain all of the statistical and variability properties of the observed source or theoretical model, i.e. the same PDF and PSD, respectively. Within the framework of Reproducible Research, the code and the illustrative example used in this paper are both made publicly available in the form of an interactive MATHEMATICA notebook.

  8. Simulation of the GHG Abatement Potentials in the U.S. Building Sector by 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris; Bonnet, Florence; Lai, Judy; Phan, Trucy

    2010-10-01

    Given the substantial contribution of the U.S. building sector to national carbon emissions, it is clear that to address properly the issue of climate change, one must first consider innovative approaches to understanding and encouraging the introduction of new, low-carbon technologies to both the commercial and residential building markets. This is the motivation behind the development of the Stochastic Lite Building Module (SLBM), a long range, open source model to forecast the impact of policy decisions and consumer behavior on the market penetration of both existing and emerging building technologies and the resulting carbon savings. The SLBM, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is part of the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS) project, a multi-laboratory effort undertaken in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and private companies. The primary purpose of SEDS is to track the performance of different U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Research and Development (R&D) activities on technology adoption, overall energy efficiency, and CO{sub 2} reductions throughout the whole of the U.S. economy. The tool is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with a number of characteristics to distinguish it from existing energy forecasting models. SEDS has been written explicitly to incorporate uncertainty in its inputs leading to uncertainty bounds on the subsequent forecasts. It considers also passive building systems and their interactions with other building service enduses, including the cost savings for heating, cooling, and lighting due to different building shell/window options. Such savings can be compared with investments costs in order to model real-world consumer behavior and forecast adoption rates. The core objective of this paper is to report on the new window and shell features of SLBM and to show the implications of

  9. Are driving and overtaking on right curves more dangerous than on left curves?

    PubMed

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that crashes on horizontal curves are a cause for concern in all countries due to the frequency and severity of crashes at curves compared to road tangents. A recent study of crashes in western Sweden reported a higher rate of crashes in right curves than left curves. To further understand this result, this paper reports the results of novel analyses of the responses of vehicles and drivers during negotiating and overtaking maneuvers on curves for right hand traffic. The overall objectives of the study were to find road parameters for curves that affect vehicle dynamic responses, to analyze these responses during overtaking maneuvers on curves, and to link the results with driver behavior for different curve directions. The studied road features were speed, super-elevation, radius and friction including their interactions, while the analyzed vehicle dynamic factors were lateral acceleration and yaw angular velocity. A simulation program, PC-Crash, has been used to simulate road parameters and vehicle response interaction in curves. Overtaking maneuvers have been simulated for all road feature combinations in a total of 108 runs. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed, using two sided randomized block design, to find differences in vehicle responses for the curve parameters. To study driver response, a field test using an instrumented vehicle and 32 participants was reviewed as it contained longitudinal speed and acceleration data for analysis. The simulation results showed that road features affect overtaking performance in right and left curves differently. Overtaking on right curves was sensitive to radius and the interaction of radius with road condition; while overtaking on left curves was more sensitive to super-elevation. Comparisons of lateral acceleration and yaw angular velocity during these maneuvers showed different vehicle response configurations depending on curve direction and maneuver path. The field test experiments also showed

  10. Optoacoustic endoscopy in curved scanning mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hailong; Buehler, Andreas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    Optoacoustic technique has been shown to resolve anatomical, functional and molecular features at depths that go beyond the reach of epi-illumination optical microscopy offering new opportunities for endoscopic imaging. Herein, we interrogate the merits of optoacoustic endoscopy implemented by translating a sound detector in linear or curved geometries. The linear and curved detection geometries are achieved by employing an intravascular ultrasound transducer (IVUS) within a plastic guide shaped to a line or a curve. This concept could be used together with optical endoscopes to yield hybrid optical and optoacoustic imaging.

  11. Approximation of Dynamical System's Separatrix Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoretto, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Sanjay; De Rossi, Alessandra; Menduni, Eleonora; Moretti, Francesca; Rodi, Maria Caterina; Venturino, Ezio

    2011-09-01

    In dynamical systems saddle points partition the domain into basins of attractions of the remaining locally stable equilibria. This problem is rather common especially in population dynamics models, like prey-predator or competition systems. In this paper we construct programs for the detection of points lying on the separatrix curve, i.e. the curve which partitions the domain. Finally, an efficient algorithm, which is based on the Partition of Unity method with local approximants given by Wendland's functions, is used for reconstructing the separatrix curve.

  12. Linear instability of curved free shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.

    1993-01-01

    The linear inviscid hydrodynamic stability of slightly curved free mixing layers is studied in this paper. The disturbance equation is solved numerically using a shooting technique. Two mean velocity profiles that represent stably and unstably curved free mixing layers are considered. Results are shown for cases of five curvature Richardson numbers. The stability characteristics of the shear layer are found to vary significantly with the introduction of the curvature effects. The results also indicate that, in a manner similar to the Goertler vortices observed in a boundary layer along a concave wall, instability modes of spatially developing streamwise vortex pairs may appear in centrifugally unstable curved mixing layers.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  14. NIOSH comments to EPA on EPA proposed rule: Asbestos abatement projects by J. D. Millar, August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The testimony contains comments by NIOSH on the proposed rule of the Environmental Protection Agency concerning asbestos (1332214) abatement programs. NIOSH proposes a slight change in the wording of the definition of asbestos to make it more mineralogically correct. NIOSH requests that the definition of asbestos fibers be extended to include both a length and a diameter measurement. The position of NIOSH regarding the choice of respirators for protection against asbestos fibers is stressed. Use of single use or dust and mist respirators for protection against asbestos is discussed. NIOSH encourages the use of more specific language on the hazard warning for asbestos, particularly to avoid creating and breathing the dust and that breathing the dust may cause asbestosis, lung cancer or mesothelioma. NIOSH recommends that annual x-rays not be permitted as its researchers do not believe that the diagnostic values of annual chest roentgenograms outweigh the risks attendant to x-ray exposure. NIOSH recommendations for medical surveillance are included in the testimony.

  15. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  16. Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lumia, Margaret E.; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

  17. Life cycle of meats: an opportunity to abate the greenhouse gas emission from meat industry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Thammawong, Manasikan; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Xu, Qingyi; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if the population makes different dietary choices. It was confirmed that the GHG emission of beef was greater than that of pork or chicken. The GHG emission from meat in general also depends on the per capita caloric intake (if meat supplies the recommended animal protein or contributes to it at the present rate). In a healthy and balanced diet (9.2 MJ i.e., 2200 kcal in total, where either mixed meat or chicken or pork or beef contributes 2.2%), the GHG emission is estimated to be 0.28 or 0.17 or 0.15 or 0.77 kg CO₂ eq/person/day, respectively. A change in consumption patterns (from beef to chicken or pork) and the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet would help to abate about 2.5-54.0 million tons (CO₂ eq) produced by the meat industry each year in Japan.

  18. Abatement of SO2-NOx binary gas mixtures using a ferruginous active absorbent: Part I. Synergistic effects and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Yinghui; Li, Xiaolei; Fan, Maohong; Russell, Armistead G; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Chunmei; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Genshan

    2015-04-01

    A novel ferruginous active absorbent, prepared by fly ash, industrial lime and the additive Fe(VI), was introduced for synchronous abatement of binary mixtures of SO2-NOx from simulated coal-fired flue gas. The synergistic action of various factors on the absorption of SO2 and NOx was investigated. The results show that a strong synergistic effect exists between Fe(VI) dose and reaction temperature for the desulfurization. It was observed that in the denitration process, the synergy of Fe(VI) dose and Ca/(S+N) had the most significant impact on the removal of NO, followed by the synergy of Fe(VI) and reaction temperature, and then the synergy of reaction temperature and flue gas humidity. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the surface characteristics of the raw and spent absorbent as well as fly ash. A reaction mechanism was proposed based on chemical analysis of sulfur and nitrogen species concentrations in the spent absorbent. The Gibbs free energy, equilibrium constants and partial pressures of the SO2-NOx binary system were determined by thermodynamics.

  19. Evaluation of road traffic noise abatement by vegetation treatment in a 1:10 urban scale model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyung Suk; Lee, Sung Chan; Jeon, Jin Yong; Kang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A 1:10 scale of a street canyon and courtyard was constructed to evaluate sound propagation when various vegetation treatments including trees, shrubs, vegetated facades, and green roofs were installed in the urban environment. Noise reductions in the street canyon and courtyard were measured for both single and combined vegetation treatments. Vegetated facades mitigated the overall noise level up to 1.6 dBA in the street canyon, and greening facades were effective to reduce low frequency noise levels below 1 kHz. Trees increased the noise level at high frequency bands to some extent in the street canyon, while the noise level over 1 kHz decreased in the courtyard after installing the street trees. This is because tree crowns diffused and reflected high frequency sounds into the street canyon. Green roofs offered significant noise abatement over 1 kHz in the courtyard, while the vegetated facade was effective to reduce noise levels at low frequencies. In terms of the integrated effects of vegetation treatments, a combined vegetation treatment was less effective than the sum of single treatments in the street canyon. The maximum noise reduction observed for all combinations of vegetation treatments provided 3.4 dBA of insertion loss in the courtyard.

  20. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.