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Sample records for abatement program bmap

  1. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  2. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  3. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Shoemaker, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  4. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  5. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Shoemaker, B. A.; Hinzman, R. L.

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  6. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  8. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  9. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. ); Black, M.C. ); Gatz, A.J. Jr. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  10. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  11. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  12. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  14. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  15. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  18. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  19. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  20. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  1. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  2. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  3. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  4. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  5. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  6. Analysis of the United States Air Force nonpoint-source water-pollution-abatement program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, T.G.

    1990-09-01

    This theses examined the Air Force nonpoint source pollution abatement program by evaluating Major Command, Air Force Regional Civil Engineer and installations compliance to the official Air Force policy. Seventy-two installations in 37 states and ten Major Commands were represented in the data. The evaluation classified nonpoint source pollutants into five categories: urban, agricultural, construction, silvacultural and other. The research showed that most of the Major Command abatement programs were adequately meeting the needs of the Air Force. Two Air Force Regional Civil Engineers were evaluated. It was determined that one of these organizations had taken the necessary steps to implement nonpoint source abatement at the installations within their jurisdiction. The other organization was found to have a lack of current state regulatory information. Installation compliance was inconclusive due to the ambiguous, unstructured nature of the data. The major conclusion of this study was the need for the Air Force installations to implement more comprehensive nonpoint source pollution abatement programs. Elements of these programs range from educating the installations' populaces to implementing nonstructural best management practices such as including nonpoint source pollution abatement in Natural Resources Plans.

  7. BMAP dipole magnetic field analysis and orbit tracking/calculations of energy deposition in GaAs WHEBY detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, S., Jr.; Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Ekdahl, C.; Young, C.; Warn, C.

    This report contains two separate papers. The first paper discusses BMAP which is a versatile program for field analysis and orbit tracking in dipole magnets. The program was created to aid the design of charged-particle magnetic spectrometers. BMAP is written in Pascal and runs on any IBM-PC computer or compatible. The second paper covers a study on energy deposition in GaAS WHEBY detectors. The study was done for two purposes: (1) to set up a three-dimensional electron-photon transport problem using the ACCEPT computer code; and (2) to calculate energy deposition in GaAs detectors in the WHEBY for a given flux of electrons.

  8. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  9. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  10. Biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Beaty, T.W.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.S.

    1997-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  11. Effect of BMAP-28 on human thyroid cancer TT cells is mediated by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, DAQI; WAN, LANLAN; ZHANG, JINNAN; LIU, CHANG; SUN, HUI

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant endocrine tumor, with significant morbidity and mortality. Bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28) is a cathelicidin that is found in bovine neutrophils. In the present study, the effect and relative mechanism of BMAP-28 on the human thyroid cancer TT cell line in vitro and in vivo were investigated. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and a TT-xenograft mouse model were used in this study. The data obtained indicated that BMAP-28 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the TT cells in vitro. In addition, the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay detected that BMAP-28 induced apoptotic effects in the TT cells. Moreover, the expression of activated caspase-3 and -9 was upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Simultaneously, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)3 and MMP9 was downregulated following BMAP-28 treatment. Finally, BMAP-28 significantly prevented the tumor growth in the TT-xenograft mouse model. These results indicated that BMAP-28 could be a potential agent for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26622900

  12. Randomized Trial of a Delirium Abatement Program for Post-acute Skilled Nursing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Bergmann, Margaret A.; Kiely, Dan K.; Orav, E John; Jones, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a Delirium Abatement Program (DAP) can shorten the duration of delirium among new admissions to post-acute care (PAC). Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Eight skilled nursing facilities specializing in PAC within a single metropolitan region. Participants Four hundred fifty-seven participants with delirium at PAC admission. Intervention The DAP consisted of four steps: 1) assessment for delirium within 5 days of PAC admission, 2) assessment and correction of common reversible causes of delirium, 3) prevention of complications of delirium, and 4) restoration of function. Measurements Eligible patients were screened by trained researchers. Those with Confusion Assessment Method defined delirium were eligible for participation via proxy consent. Two weeks and one month after enrollment, regardless of location, participants were re-assessed for delirium by researchers blind to intervention status. Results Nurses at DAP sites detected delirium in 41% of participants vs. 12% in usual care (UC) sites (p<.001) and completed DAP documentation in most delirium-detected participants. However, the DAP intervention had no impact on delirium persistence based on two measurements at 2 weeks (DAP 68% vs. UC 66%) and 1 month (DAP 60% vs. UC 51%), adjusted p values ≥ 0.20. Adjusting for baseline differences between DAP and UC participants and restricting analysis to delirium-detected DAP participants did not alter the results. Conclusion Detection of delirium improved at the DAP sites, however, the DAP had no impact on the persistence of delirium. This effectiveness trial demonstrated that a nurse-led DAP intervention was not effective in typical PAC facilities. PMID:20487083

  13. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  14. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  15. Noise Abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  16. BMAP-28, an Antibiotic Peptide of Innate Immunity, Induces Cell Death through Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Angela; Braidot, Enrico; Sordano, Maria Concetta; Vianello, Angelo; Macrì, Francesco; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Zanetti, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Bernardi, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    BMAP-28, a bovine antimicrobial peptide of the cathelicidin family, induces membrane permeabilization and death in human tumor cell lines and in activated, but not resting, human lymphocytes. In addition, we found that BMAP-28 causes depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane in single cells and in isolated mitochondria. The effect of the peptide was synergistic with that of Ca2+ and inhibited by cyclosporine, suggesting that depolarization depends on opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The occurrence of a permeability transition was investigated on the basis of mitochondrial permeabilization to calcein and cytochrome c release. We show that BMAP-28 permeabilizes mitochondria to entrapped calcein in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner and that it releases cytochrome c in situ. Our results demonstrate that BMAP-28 is an inducer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and that its cytotoxic potential depends on its effects on mitochondrial permeability. PMID:11865069

  17. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S. ); Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. ); Gatz, A.J. )

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were best'' or worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature.

  18. Tennessee`s East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-12-31

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge`s Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ``best`` or ``worst`` for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature.

  19. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  20. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  1. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  2. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of BMAP-derived peptides for the treatment of cystic fibrosis-related pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Mardirossian, Mario; Pompilio, Arianna; Crocetta, Valentina; De Nicola, Serena; Guida, Filomena; Degasperi, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Scocchi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis require pharmacological treatment against chronic lung infections. The alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 have shown to be highly active in vitro against planktonic and sessile forms of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia cystic fibrosis strains. To develop small antibacterial peptides for therapeutic use, we tested shortened/modified BMAP fragments, and selected the one with the highest in vitro antibacterial activity and lowest in vivo acute pulmonary toxicity. All the new peptides have shown to roughly maintain their antibacterial activity in vitro. The 1-18 N-terminal fragment of BMAP-27, showing MIC90 of 16 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa isolates and strain-dependent anti-biofilm effects, showed the lowest pulmonary toxicity in mice. However, when tested in a murine model of acute lung infection by P. aeruginosa, BMAP-27(1-18) did not show any curative effect. If exposed to murine broncho-alveolar lavage fluid BMAP-27(1-18) was degraded within 10 min, suggesting it is not stable in pulmonary environment, probably due to murine proteases. Our results indicate that shortened BMAP peptides could represent a starting point for antibacterial drugs, but they also indicate that they need a further optimization for effective in vivo use. PMID:27270571

  4. Interaction of pollution abatement with world dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The world dynamics model of Jay W. Forrester was modified to account for pollution abatement. In the modified model, it is assumed that as pollution increases, efforts are made to control pollution. There is a competition between food supply, material standard of living, and pollution abatement for capital, and time is required for diversion of capital toward pollution abatement. Inclusion of pollution abatement in the model drastically alters the response of the world system for the case in which depletion of natural resources is not considered. Instead of undergoing a pollution catastrophe, all system levels move more or less smoothly toward an equilibrium. A FORTRAN program listing of the modified world dynamics model is included.

  5. Inhibitory effect of BMAP-28 on Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR2-Dependent Immune Response in Bovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Yijie; Ding, Cuiping; Zhang, Bo; XU, Jun; XUN, Meng; XU, Jiru

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease, leading to serious economic losses in animal production and causing potential hazards to human health. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) plays an important role in leptospirosis pathogenicity. Objectives With respect to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we examined bovine immune response to L-LPS and the inhibitory ability of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) against L-LPS-induced immune activation in bovine cells. Materials and Methods In this study, L-LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in bovine cells was quantitatively measured with real-time PCR and ELISA, and we determined which cell membrane receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2 and TLR4) played a major role. In addition, the ability of BMAP-28 to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like immune activation in bovine cells was determined by the decrease in cytokine secretion. Results L-LPS showed the ability to induce cytokine production in bovine cells, and its induction was TLR2-dependent. BMAP-28 was used to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like activity. The function of BMAP-28 was to inhibit LPS-induced TLR2 expression and cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, the L-LPS immune response of bovine cells was significant, indicating that TLR2 is the predominant receptor for L-LPS. Due to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we found a strategy through using BMAP-28 to prevent L-LPS-induced TLR2-dependent immune activation in bovine cells.

  6. Inhibitory effect of BMAP-28 on Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR2-Dependent Immune Response in Bovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Yijie; Ding, Cuiping; Zhang, Bo; XU, Jun; XUN, Meng; XU, Jiru

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease, leading to serious economic losses in animal production and causing potential hazards to human health. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) plays an important role in leptospirosis pathogenicity. Objectives With respect to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we examined bovine immune response to L-LPS and the inhibitory ability of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) against L-LPS-induced immune activation in bovine cells. Materials and Methods In this study, L-LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in bovine cells was quantitatively measured with real-time PCR and ELISA, and we determined which cell membrane receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2 and TLR4) played a major role. In addition, the ability of BMAP-28 to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like immune activation in bovine cells was determined by the decrease in cytokine secretion. Results L-LPS showed the ability to induce cytokine production in bovine cells, and its induction was TLR2-dependent. BMAP-28 was used to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like activity. The function of BMAP-28 was to inhibit LPS-induced TLR2 expression and cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, the L-LPS immune response of bovine cells was significant, indicating that TLR2 is the predominant receptor for L-LPS. Due to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we found a strategy through using BMAP-28 to prevent L-LPS-induced TLR2-dependent immune activation in bovine cells. PMID:27635213

  7. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.22 Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention...

  8. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  9. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  10. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  11. Biodegradable Hydrophilic Polyurethane PEGU25 Loading Antimicrobial Peptide Bmap-28: A Sustained-release Membrane Able to Inhibit Bacterial Biofilm Formation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhong; Liu, Qinyu; Tian, Ye; Jian, Zhongyu; Li, Hong; Wang, Kunjie

    2015-01-01

    Catheter-related infection makes up a large part of hospital infection and contributes 80% to all nosocomial urological infection, costing hundreds of millions dollar per year for treatment. Biodegradable hydrophilic material incorporating antibiotic substance is a promising way to prevent catheter-related infection. And antimicrobial peptide seems an optimal drug for its desirable antibiotic effect. In the current research, we produced a new kind of antibiotic material by incorporating antimicrobial peptide Bmap-28 with polyurethane PEGU25 and tested its effect on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Compared with the control group, PEGU25 membrane incorporating Bmap-28 had a significant lower bacteria load after co-cultured with the Proteus mirabilis. And its antibiotic effect could be observed throughout the whole 7-day test. Also the Bmap-28 membrane could delay catheter obstruction caused by encrustation. Our findings reveal that PEGU25 incorporating Bmap-28 can well inhibit bacterial biofilm formation of common pathogens for catheter-related urinary tract infection in vitro, which makes it a promising antibiotic material for medical tubes for urology. PMID:25727362

  12. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  13. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  14. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  15. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  16. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  17. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  18. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  19. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  20. Lead abatement training for supervisors and contractors. Instructors guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This training program is designed to be a 32 hour training course, and is intended for individuals supervising residential lead abatement projects. The course is designed to meet the requirements of 40 CFR Part 745-Lead. Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied Facilities, a federal regulation under section 402 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). Topics covered in the course include; the history of lead; health effects; legal and insurance consideration; regulations overview; inspection and risk assessment; report interpretation; development and implementation of occupant protection plans; paint hazard recognition and materials identification; XRF testing/sampling and abatement methods.

  1. Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1998-04-01

    Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan.

  2. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abatement verification. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.19 Abatement verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are intended to result in...

  3. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  5. Waste abatement: recycling, disposal practices can cut costs.

    PubMed

    Paul, A; Strout, P

    1997-09-01

    On average, most healthcare facilities are doing less than they should in the areas of source reduction and recycling, and will likely do so until mandated by law. The main reasons for this are ever-tightening healthcare budgets, limited staffing, and the cost of operating recycling programs compared to the cost of general solid waste disposal. Poor record keeping also may also be hampering the final decision to recycle. This article, Part II on waste abatement practices in healthcare organizations, examines what factors facilities should consider in establishing a recycling program, and analyzes cost-effective collection and disposal practices.

  6. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a timely... appropriate; (2) Engineering controls where feasible and appropriate; (3) Work practices and...

  7. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  8. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  9. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  10. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section as well as the posting requirement of 29 CFR 1903.16. (2) The employer must use a... designed and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.20(b)(3) and 29 CFR 1926.200(h) is deemed by OSHA to meet.... Appendix A to Section 1903.19—Sample Abatement-Certification Letter (Nonmandatory) (Name), Area Director...

  11. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section as well as the posting requirement of 29 CFR 1903.16. (2) The employer must use a... designed and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.20(b)(3) and 29 CFR 1926.200(h) is deemed by OSHA to meet.... Appendix A to Section 1903.19—Sample Abatement-Certification Letter (Nonmandatory) (Name), Area Director...

  12. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section as well as the posting requirement of 29 CFR 1903.16. (2) The employer must use a... designed and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.20(b)(3) and 29 CFR 1926.200(h) is deemed by OSHA to meet.... Appendix A to Section 1903.19—Sample Abatement-Certification Letter (Nonmandatory) (Name), Area Director...

  13. Toxicity of Abate? to green frog tadpoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Green frog tadpoles were exposed to a 96hr toxicity test using Abate4E, the formulation for temephos used in mosquito control. Concentrations ranged from 0 (control) to 10 uL/L. Concentrations as low as 2.60 uL/L reduced activity for several hours after exposure but had negligible effects after 24 hr, presumably because the temephos had degraded during that time. The LC50 for Abate was 4.24 uL/L. Butyrlcholinesterase activity, which is known to be more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase (AChE), declined with concentration of Abate with a significant depression bserved between controls and the lowest concentration used of 1.86 uL/L. However, AChE activity increased with concentration of temephos. Temephos must be converted to its sulfone form to reach maximum toxicity and tadpoles may be inefficient in metabolizing the parent compound. Hence, temephos may have stressed the tadpoles, causing them to release more acetylcholine and AChE. Toxic levels were above expected ambient concentrations found during mosquito control operations.

  14. Efficacy of the Community Reinvestment Act in promoting lead abatement.

    PubMed

    Yiin, Lih-Ming; Weber, John; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Rhoads, George

    2005-04-01

    The efficacy of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) in assisting homeowners or landlords in urban areas of New Jersey to finance lead abatement was evaluated in the study reported here, as was the effectiveness of the abatement. The study involved working with homeowners, banks, local health departments, and communities to facilitate financing for lead abatement, and collecting environmental-dust specimens from some of the participants' homes before and after abatement. Of the 113 interested subjects, 59 (52 percent) completed abatement of their homes. Of the 58 who applied for CRA loans, 21 received approvals and had the work completed. Thirty-nine of the homeowners found alternate means of financing abatement. The environmental data showed a significant decrease on the windowsills in the 4aated homes, but not on the floors. In conclusion, one-on-one counseling of homeowners about funding was associated with more than 50 percent success in completing abatement, The CRA loans' accounted for about one-third of the abated units. The lead abatement was effective in removing lead paint from the windows, but not in reducing dust lead levels on the floors. PMID:15856664

  15. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  16. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  17. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  18. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  19. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  20. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... bald eagles. There is currently no limit to the number of raptors an abatement permit holder may hold... depredation order or depredation permit. Any harassment, disturbance, or take of bald eagles, golden eagles... migratory bird abatement permit. On January 12, 2007, we published a Federal Register notice (72 FR...

  1. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes. (a) General rule....

  2. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes. (a) General rule....

  3. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Commissioner may at his discretion abate the unpaid portion of the assessment of any tax imposed by section 507... the abatement of tax imposed under section 507(c), no tax imposed under any provision of chapter...

  4. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs.

  5. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs. PMID:11057602

  6. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  7. A Comparison of Lead Abatement Technologies at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeziorowski, Luz Y.; Calla, Joanne

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Lewis participated in a pilot test of Lead Specifications. The Specifications were sponsored by the Center to Protect Worker's Rights (CPWR). Entitled "Model Specifications for the Protection of Worker's from Lead on Steel Structures", one aspect of this endeavor was to test and compare several lead abatement technologies. The project overview, objectives, team, and requirements as well as abatement methods and materials are outlined.

  8. Field characterization of external grease abatement devices.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Tarek N; Holt, Leon M; Keener, Kevin M; Groninger, John W; Ducoste, Joel J

    2012-03-01

    This study characterized some of the physical and chemical features of large outside field grease abatement devices (GADs). 24-hour measurements of several food service establishments' (FSEs') influent GAD flowrates indicated highly intermittent conditions with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that exceeded the common recommendation (30 minutes) by two to five times. Investigation into the chemical characteristics of GADs indicated highly variable influent and effluent fat, oil, and grease (FOG) concentrations. Low pH and dissolved oxygen values were measured throughout the GAD, indicating the likely occurrence of anaerobic microbial processes. Detailed spatial and temporal observations of the accumulation of FOG and food solids were also discussed. Though the FOG layer remained relatively constant for all GAD configurations investigated, results indicated that commonly-used GAD configurations with a straight submerged inlet tee or no-inlet tee configuration may result in the transport of food solids into the second compartment. The present research showed increased accumulation of food solids in the first compartment with a retro-fit flow distributive inlet. This retro-fit displays promise for potentially improving the separation characteristics of existing GADs.

  9. Evaluating the efficiency of toxicity abatement in a constructed wetland with Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Belin, J I; McCaskey, T A; Black, M C

    2000-05-26

    Constructed wetlands are becoming increasingly popular as low-cost, high-efficiency means of treating agricultural and municipal wastewaters. Monitoring programs for constructed wetlands usually measure physical and chemical characteristics of wetland treatment, including hydraulic residence time and removal of nutrients (N, P), suspended solids, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, toxicity abatement is seldom measured as evidence of wetland treatment efficiency. In this study, toxicity tests combined with chemical measurements were employed to measure the efficiency of a constructed wetland in treating swine wastes during fall and winter sampling periods. Although the wetland system operated at three wastewater loading rates, only the high-loading-rate cells were tested because of their year-round flows. Wastewater samples were collected prior to, during, and following wetland treatment to track treatment progress as effluents passed through the wetland cells. Toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia showed significant toxicity abatement of wastewater as it progressed through the constructed wetland system; however, residual toxicity was still observed in the final wetland effluent. No seasonal differences were observed in toxicity abatement between fall and winter wastewater samples, although nitrate and BOD were removed more efficiently during the fall. Results suggest that, while the constructed wetland system is effective in reducing toxicity in swine wastewater, further pre- or posttreatment or additional dilution is necessary before treated effluents are discharged into surface water.

  10. Health and housing collaboration at LAST: the Philadelphia Lead Abatement Strike Team.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Himmelsbach, Robert; Palermo, Peter; Tobin, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Lead Abatement Strike Team (LAST) was developed in 2002 by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) in response to community concern about management of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs). Fourteen hundred backlog properties (housing at least one child with EBLLs) were identified through inspection as having housing-based lead hazards for which no satisfactory environmental remediation (control of lead hazards) had been achieved. In the first two years of LAST, 834 new housing cases also were identified. The heightened awareness of this problem, sparked in part by community advocacy efforts, led to the appropriation of 1.5 million dollars for environmental remediation. A collaborative group of health, housing, and other officials was convened. Enforcement for remediation of properties with lead hazards was strengthened with the development of the Lead Court, a special judicial court devoted exclusively to hearing cases where owners had violated local lead poisoning prevention laws. Identifying a group of Pennsylvania-certified lead abatement contractors, expanding the health department's abatement team, creating temporary relocation capacity, and providing funding for basic housing system repair work were crucial to obtaining rapid remediation of homes. In the first two years of the LAST program, 1,037 properties (both backlog and new properties) that housed 1,476 children were remediated, representing a significant increase in remediation capacity. PMID:16134560

  11. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  12. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

    2000-09-15

    The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

  13. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  14. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  15. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  16. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  17. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  18. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The... the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, please refer to that document at 76 FR 39368 (July 6, 2011... Note Following 16 U.S.C. 703. Dated: October 21, 2011. Rachel Jacobson, Acting Assistant Secretary...

  19. Abating air pollution at negative cost via energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, A.B. )

    1989-11-01

    Advanced techniques for energy end-use efficiency can pay for very large direct and indirect reductions in emissions, usually with money left over. This permits much more complete abatements than are often analyzed, and not at a cost but at a large profit. The order of economic priority, however, is also the order of environmental priority. Choosing the best buys first maximizes abatement per dollar; Choosing anything else first thus reduces abatement per dollar. To achieve the largest, fastest abatement therefore requires that the Chinese-restaurant-menu approach to energy investments-buying one option from Column A, one from Column B, etc., until all constituencies are satisfied-give way to the least-cost approach that is now the expressed (if less often the observed) policy of utility regulations in more than 40 states. The powerful supply-curve method of identifying priorities is therefore valid only if pollution prevention is considered together with, and allowed to precede and even to displace as well as augment, the more traditional end-of-pipe technologies.

  20. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  1. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  2. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  3. Guide to respiratory protection for the asbestos-abatement industry (revised). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, G.P.; Linn, H.I.; Reed, L.D.

    1986-09-01

    This guide provides practical guidance for selection and use of respiratory protection to persons who work in asbestos abatement operations or other activities, such as maintenance or repair, where exposure or the potential for exposure to asbestos exists. The guide recommends controlling exposures to the lowest level possible as determined by the most sensitive and reliable monitoring methods. The guide has five parts. Part I is an introduction to the hazards associated with airborne asbestos and to the issues involving respiratory protection against asbestos. Part II presents a model respiratory protection program for the asbestos industry which both satisfies current Federal regulations and incorporates the most current information on appropriate respirators for use against airborne asbestos fibers. Part III contains a checklist for developing or evaluating a respiratory protection program. Part IV presents information on breathing air systems for supplied-air respirators. Part V lists sources of help for problems involving respirator use.

  4. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  5. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  6. Microwave plasma torch abatement of NF3 and SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup; Chun, Byung Jun; Lee, Sun Ku; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Kim, Dong Su

    2006-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch as a tool for fluorinated compounds (FCs) abatement was presented. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Swirl gas, compressed air for stable plasma, was tangentially injected into the microwave plasma torch and a mixture of N2, NF3, or SF6, and C2H4 was axially injected. The DRE of 99.1% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the total flow rate of 50.1 liters per minute (lpm) by applying a microwave power of 1.4kW. Also, a DRE of SF6 up to 90.1% was obtained at the total flow rate of 40.6lpm using an applied microwave power of 1.4kW. Experimental results indicate that the microwave plasma abatement device can successfully eliminate FCs in the semiconductor industry.

  7. Noise-abatement method for explosives testing.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, H E; Odell, B N; Arganbright, V E

    1980-09-01

    When Lawrence Livermore Laboratory started detonating explosives at its Site 300 test location in the sparsely populated hills east of the Laboratory, residents in neighboring areas complained of sudden loud noises. A combined literature and research study, coupled with an experimental test program, indicated the combination of air temperatures and winds at various elevations was primarily responsible for blast or sound waves being returned to the surface. To solve the noise problem, the Laboratory devised a method for determining the maximum amount of explosives that could be detonated aboveground under various atmospheric conditions without creating excessive noise in populated areas. This method for predicting explosives weight limits using pressure-distance-weight nomograms and the slope of a sound-velocity curve is described in this paper. The sound-velocity curve is computed with temperature information from the U.S. Weather Bureau and wind data from a target-acquisition radar system. By following this method, the Laboratory has been able to detonate thousands of shots without creating excessive noise in nearby communities. PMID:7457390

  8. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  9. RECOVERY OF FISH COMMUNITIES IN A WARMWATER STREAM FOLLOWING POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The long-term recovery process for fish communities in a warm water stream in East Tennessee was studied using quantitative measurements over 20 years. The stream receives effluents from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, but since 1985 these effluents have been greatly reduced, eliminated, or diluted as part of a substantial long-term pollution abatement program. The resulting changes in water quantity and quality led to a recovery of the fish communities, evidenced by significant changes in species richness, abundance (density and biomass), and community composition (e.g., number of fish species sensitive to stress). The fish community changes occurred over a spatial gradient (downstream from the headwater release zone nearest the DOE facility) and temporally, at multiple sampling locations in the stream. Changes in measured parameters were associated with specific remedial actions and the intervening steps within the recovery process are discussed with regard to changes in treatment processes.

  10. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  11. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25588032

  12. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  13. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  14. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  18. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  19. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  20. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  1. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  2. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  8. Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

  9. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement...

  10. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent....

  11. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent....

  12. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Abatement Division at FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800...

  13. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  14. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  15. SO2 abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at copper cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, C. A.; Dutton, A.; Edwards, J. D.; McDonald, R. N.

    1992-09-01

    Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO2 emissions from the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O2/t Cu+Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead toa substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation afhigh-strength SO2 off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant.

  16. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  17. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  18. Rotary concentrator followed by thermal or catalytic oxidation - a hybrid approach to economical styrene abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.

    1997-12-31

    There are varied challenges in deciding appropriate technology for styrene abatement. Due to high costs of using RTOs for styrene abatement the small businesses, which form the bulk of styrene emitters, are faced with economically difficult choices. The proposed Rotary Concentrator technology can reduce operating cost up to six times and reduce CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions by more than half over the currently preferred RTO technology. It is also less expensive in capital expenditure and its viability for styrene abatement has been sufficiently demonstrated by pilot studies in the US and existing installations overseas. In both cases styrene destruction of more than 95% was achieved.

  19. 40 CFR 280.62 - Initial abatement measures and site check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Response and Corrective Action for UST Systems Containing Petroleum or... release confirmation, site investigation, abatement, or corrective action activities. If these...

  20. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence.

  1. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  2. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  3. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  4. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. PMID:25516254

  5. Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1977-01-01

    Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  7. Optimal CO{sub 2} abatement in the presence of induced technological change

    SciTech Connect

    Goulder, L.H.; Mathai, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of policy-induced technological change for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The authors derive analytical expressions characterizing optimal CO{sub 2} abatement and carbon tax profiles under different specifications for the channels through which technological progress occurs. They consider both R and D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, and they examine each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. The authors show analytically in a cost-effectiveness setting that the presence of induced technological change (ITC) always implies a lower time profile of optimal carbon taxes. The same is true in a benefit-cost setting as long as damages are convex in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. The impact of ITC on the optimal abatement path varies. When knowledge is gained through R and D investments, the presence of ITC justifies shifting some abatement from the present to the future. However, when knowledge is accumulated via learning-by-doing the impact on the timing of abatement is analytically ambiguous. Illustrative numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC upon overall costs and optimal carbon taxes can be quite large in a cost-effectiveness setting but typically is much smaller under a benefit-cost policy criterion. The impact of ITC on the timing of abatement is very slight, but the effect (applicable in the benefit-cost case) on cumulative abatement over time can be large, especially when knowledge is generated through learning-by doing.

  8. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  9. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui-mei; Liang, Jun-wu

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methods and equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Three separating methods and equipment are used to control three different groups of electronic wastes. The first group includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes of semiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure for this group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric and manganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. The second group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus, HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedure involves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with a separator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions of As, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in a flocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test results showed that all waste gases and water after the abatement procedures presented in this article passed the discharge standards set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China.

  10. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-01

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  11. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  12. Improvement of lake water quality by paying farmers to abate nonpoint source pollution. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lupi, F.; Farnsworth, R.L.; Braden, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    To mitigate damages caused by agricultural runoff, private lake owners' associations are paying for inlake and instream pollution abatement measures and on land-conservation practices. This phenomenon supports the notion that individuals who benefit from improved water quality should be willing to pay part of the abatement costs. The research suggests that on land-conservation measures can substantially reduce sediment delivery at low cost. The Sediment Economics (SEDEC) model was modified and then used to select and to site management systems that achieved stated sediment goals at least cost. Other resource policies such as T value, no-till, and contouring were compared with the least-cost frontier and shown to be more costly. The noncropland areas substantially reduced sediment delivery to water channels and lowered abatement costs. Further research is needed for long-range watershed-planning models such as SEDEC.

  13. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  14. Abatement of NO3-N concentration in agricultural waters by narrow buffer strips.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Bigon, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The performance of narrow buffer strips in abating the NO3-N concentrations in the water coming from cropland was tested in an experiment carried out on the low plains of the Veneto Region (northeast Italy). The buffer was composed of a 5-m wide grass strip and a 1-m wide row of trees. Maize and wheat were cultivated in the neighbouring field during the monitoring period (December 1997-June 1999). Four experimental conditions were monitored, deriving from a combination of two levels of crop N fertilisation and two sizes of buffer trees. The narrow buffer was very effective in abating NO3-N concentrations, allowing water to be discharged with a concentration always below 2 ppm. Its zone of influence might be bigger than its simple width. The abatement was also efficient during winter. Tree size showed no evident effect on the reduction of the concentration. PMID:11843532

  15. Non-thermal plasmas chemistry as a tool for environmental pollutants abatement.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-hong; Chen, Jie-rong; Li, Xiao-yong; Zhang, Chun-hong

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, interest in environmental pollutants abatement has greatly increased. This interest is derived from growing concern about environmental pollution and the serious deterioration of many ecosystems as a result of environmental pollution. NTPs chemistry is a proven and effective tool both for decomposing a range of pollutants and for cleaning contaminated surfaces. NTPs chemistry has crucial advantages such as high energy efficiency, higher treatment effectiveness, effective treatment in more confined spaces, and near zero-emissions. When NTPs chemistry is combined with the use of certain catalysts, synergetic pollution abatement results may be achieved; however, the mechanism by which the synergy occurs is still unclear. The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of NTPs chemistry, including the commonly employed chemical mechanisms, examples of NTPs chemistry applications, and an opinion on the future for NTPs chemistry in the field of environmental pollutants abatement.

  16. Abatement of CF4 by atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-08-01

    An atmospheric microwave plasma torch is presented for post-pump destruction of perfluorocompound gases (PFCs), which are used widely in the semiconductor industry and are emitted with nitrogen gas for vacuum pump purges. Discharges of the microwave plasma torch are well suited for abatement of PFC contaminants discharged at a typical flow rate. The abatement was carried out using oxygen or air as additive gases. Analytical results are systematically compared to quadrupole mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data in the laboratory. Destruction and removal efficiency of more than 99% in FTIR data was achieved for carbon tetrafluoride.

  17. Dioxin abatement strategies and mass balance at a municipal waste management plant.

    PubMed

    Abad, E; Adrados, M A; Caixach, J; Rivera, Josep

    2002-01-01

    Since the thermal management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is considered to be one of the major sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), the purpose of this study was to show the results of a dioxin abatement program performed in the municipal waste incineration (MWI) plant of Tarragona (NE Spain). Previously, stack gas emission levels of PCDDs/PCDFs around 3.26 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 were determined when the gas-cleaning system consisted only of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Decreased levels, below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/ Nm3, were observed when a new air pollution control system was installed. This new system was improved by the injection of activated carbon, which helped to lower the levels of PCDDs/PCDFs to around 0.01 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. Considering the absence of a particular impact on herbages, soils, and ambient air around the plant, as reported in previous works, and the hypothesis that a modern installation could become a sink for dioxins instead of a source, a dioxin mass balance was evaluated. The study compared in a large-scale MWI plant the levels of PCDDs/PCDFs of all input and output contributors (MSW, ambient air, stack gas emission, fly ash, and slag) forming part of the inventory collected in various monitoring campaigns. The findings revealed a remarkable homogeneity in output values (between 1.19 and 2.62 ng I-TEQ/yr) in contrast to the large variability observed in input values. In the first sampling campaign, the dioxin content in MSW was around 64.15 ng I-TEQ/kg, and a negative balance of 7.68 g I-TEQ/yr was calculated. However, in the latest campaign, levels were about 2.36 ng I-TEQ/kg MSW, resulting in a positive balance of 2.28 g I-TEQ/yr.

  18. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  19. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  20. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... making scheduled withdrawal liability payments in the second year for those withdrawals, provide a bond... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...) Plan amendments concerning bond/escrow. A plan may, by amendment, adopt rules decreasing the amount...

  1. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... making scheduled withdrawal liability payments in the second year for those withdrawals, provide a bond... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...) Plan amendments concerning bond/escrow. A plan may, by amendment, adopt rules decreasing the amount...

  2. A Critique of the Public Education Approach to Industrial Pollution Abatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    1973-01-01

    Public education cannot be considered an efficient alternative to industrial pollution abatement. The public education alternative stresses that an informed non-industrial public will, out of civic responsibility, bring about sufficient social pressure on the industrial sector to end pollution. However, evidence suggests that the mere presence of…

  3. Relative toxicity of decamethrin, chlorphoxim and temephos (abate) to simulium larvae.

    PubMed

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C

    1981-09-01

    Tolerance levels Simulium larvae (S. ornatum and S. equinum) to chlorphoxim and decamethrin, relative to those with Abate, were determined in rapid through-flow laboratory test vessels; a 1-hour exposure followed by 24-hour mortality observations being the standard of comparison of the three chemicals. In addition, a further comparison between chlorphoxim and Abate was made on the basis of a 15-minute exposure in a miniature simulated stream, with the same mortality criteria. On the basis of LC95/1-hour data the results showed that decamethrin was approximately 4 times as lethal as chlorphoxim, and approximately 20 times more than Abate. On the basis of a 15-minute exposure, chlorphoxim was found to be even more toxic than Abate--approximately 10 times more--than with the 1-hour exposure--viz 5 times more. Concentration/mortality curves indicate that with both the organophosphorus larvicides there is a critical zone where mortality increases sharply with increase in concentration of toxinant. With decamethrin, there is a more uniform rate of increase in mortality with increasing concentration, these differences being illustrated by comparison at both LC50 and LC95 levels. These findings are discussed firstly, in relation to other laboratory test methods in use, and secondly with reference to the scarcity of comparable laboratory data for Simulium damnosum in the Onchosceriasis Control Programme (OCP) in the Volta River basin area of West Africa. PMID:6179275

  4. Relative toxicity of decamethrin, chlorphoxim and temephos (abate) to simulium larvae.

    PubMed

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C

    1981-09-01

    Tolerance levels Simulium larvae (S. ornatum and S. equinum) to chlorphoxim and decamethrin, relative to those with Abate, were determined in rapid through-flow laboratory test vessels; a 1-hour exposure followed by 24-hour mortality observations being the standard of comparison of the three chemicals. In addition, a further comparison between chlorphoxim and Abate was made on the basis of a 15-minute exposure in a miniature simulated stream, with the same mortality criteria. On the basis of LC95/1-hour data the results showed that decamethrin was approximately 4 times as lethal as chlorphoxim, and approximately 20 times more than Abate. On the basis of a 15-minute exposure, chlorphoxim was found to be even more toxic than Abate--approximately 10 times more--than with the 1-hour exposure--viz 5 times more. Concentration/mortality curves indicate that with both the organophosphorus larvicides there is a critical zone where mortality increases sharply with increase in concentration of toxinant. With decamethrin, there is a more uniform rate of increase in mortality with increasing concentration, these differences being illustrated by comparison at both LC50 and LC95 levels. These findings are discussed firstly, in relation to other laboratory test methods in use, and secondly with reference to the scarcity of comparable laboratory data for Simulium damnosum in the Onchosceriasis Control Programme (OCP) in the Volta River basin area of West Africa.

  5. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  6. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  7. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO POLLUTION ABATEMENT: A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Responses to Pollution Abatement: A Framework for Measurement and Assessment for Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the 16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. ...

  8. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  10. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  11. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  12. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  13. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  14. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  15. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  16. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming.

  17. Do Tax Abatements "Impair" the Financing of Local Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendling, Wayne R.

    This study discusses whether two tax programs instituted by local communities in Michigan to generate local economic activity have adversely affected local public elementary and secondary school financing. Analysis of the effects on school funding of The Plant Rehabilitation and Industrial Development Law of 1974 and its expansion in Act 255 of…

  18. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy.

  19. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  20. Air pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K; Majee, S R

    2001-10-01

    Opencast mining dominates coal production in India. A survey was conducted to evaluate its local atmospheric impact. Emissions data were utilised to compute dust generation due to different mining activities. Work zone air quality, ambient air quality and seasonal variations are described revealing high pollution potential due to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and consequent impact on human health. Air pollution control measures involve planning and implementing a series of preventive and suppressive measures in addition to dust extraction systems. Different abatement measures are enumerated. Pollution control by trees, the tolerance of trees to different air pollutants and plant species useful for controlling pollution are also discussed. There is a need for wider application of dust control chemicals on haul roads. Sustainable management of pollution can be achieved by the proper implementation of suggested abatement measures.

  1. Air pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K; Majee, S R

    2001-10-01

    Opencast mining dominates coal production in India. A survey was conducted to evaluate its local atmospheric impact. Emissions data were utilised to compute dust generation due to different mining activities. Work zone air quality, ambient air quality and seasonal variations are described revealing high pollution potential due to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and consequent impact on human health. Air pollution control measures involve planning and implementing a series of preventive and suppressive measures in addition to dust extraction systems. Different abatement measures are enumerated. Pollution control by trees, the tolerance of trees to different air pollutants and plant species useful for controlling pollution are also discussed. There is a need for wider application of dust control chemicals on haul roads. Sustainable management of pollution can be achieved by the proper implementation of suggested abatement measures. PMID:11721598

  2. Multimedia-based decision support system for hazards recognition and abatement

    DOEpatents

    Czachowski, John B.; Zoldak, John T.

    1998-01-01

    A system for monitoring a site includes a portable data collection module used in the field to collect site specific data, and a processor module located at a central location. The data collection module displays choices of categories of findings, and then specific findings within each category. A selected specific finding is then displayed in report form with a citation to the specific code or statutory requirement, as well as a recommended course of action and an abatement date.

  3. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  4. Advanced oxidation processes coupled with electrocoagulation for the exhaustive abatement of Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Durante, Christian; Cuscov, Marco; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Sandonà, Giancarlo; Gennaro, Armando

    2011-02-01

    Using Cr-EDTA as a model system, a two-step method has been investigated for the abatement of persistent chromium complexes in water. The treatment consists of an oxidative decomposition of the organic ligands by means of ozonization or electrochemical oxidation at a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, followed by removal of the metal via electrochemical coagulation. In the designed synthetic waste, EDTA has been used both as a chelating agent and as a mimic of the organic content of a typical wastewater provided by a purification leather plant. A crucial point evaluated is the influence of the oxidative pretreatment on the chemical modification of the synthetic waste and hence on the electrocoagulation efficacy. Because of the great stability of Cr complexes, such as Cr-EDTA, the classical coagulation methods, based on ligand exchange between Cr(III) and Fe(II) or Fe(III), are ineffective toward Cr abatement in the presence of organic substances. On the contrary, when advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as ozonization or electrooxidation at a BDD anode are applied in series with electrocoagulation (EC), complete abatement of the recalcitrant Cr fraction can be achieved. ECs have been carried out by using Fe sacrificial anodes, with alternating polarization and complete Cr abatement (over 99%) has been obtained with modest charge consumption. It has been found that Cr(III) is first oxidized to Cr(VI) in the AOP preceding EC. Then, during EC, Cr(VI) is mainly reduced back to Cr(III) by electrogenerated Fe(II). Thus, Cr is mainly eliminated as Cr(III). However, a small fraction of Cr(VI) goes with the precipitate as confirmed by XPS analysis of the sludge. PMID:21255817

  5. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGES

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  6. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  7. The effect of noise-abatement profiles on noise immissions and human annoyance underneath a subsequent climbpath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbell, Maurice A.

    1990-04-01

    En route noise emissions on the ground can be affected by the detailed characteristics of intended noise-abatement climb profiles and procedures to an extent of 10 or more nautical miles from the start of the takeoff roll of a large or heavy air-carrier-type aircraft. Suggestions submitted to the noise abatement officials of the airports at Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, and Zurick, Switzerland, and the aircarriers Lufthansa German Airlines and SWISSAIR are explained and discussed.

  8. Input quality, trade liberalization, and abatement of carbon-dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, M.; Zilberman, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a methodology to derive the incentives provided by two alternative policies--an emissions tax vs. liberalization of trade in higher quality coal--for increasing conversion-efficiency of electricity generation and for analyzing their impact on carbon emissions as well as on output of electricity. This methodology is applied empirically to examine the potential for abatement of carbon emissions from existing coal-based plants in the thermal power sector in India through the adoption of higher qualities of coal. The paper provides strong empirical support for achieving a complementarity between the goals of abatement and increased output, through policies which remove distortions in domestic and trade policies. It also demonstrates that abatement induced by an emissions-tax alone leads to a conflict between these goals. The authors examine a situation where the availability of higher quality coal is constrained by domestic and trade barriers. The role of coal quality in improving conversion-efficiency is analyzed when microunits are heterogeneous and have putty-clay technologies. The framework developed here juxtaposes engineering relationships governing plant performance and stylized features of electricity-generating technologies with a behavioral economic model.

  9. Microwave plasma torch abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup; Chun, Byung Jun; Lee, Sun Ku; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Kim, Dong Su

    2006-03-15

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch as a tool for fluorinated compounds (FCs) abatement was presented. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6} in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Swirl gas, compressed air for stable plasma, was tangentially injected into the microwave plasma torch and a mixture of N{sub 2}, NF{sub 3}, or SF{sub 6}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} was axially injected. The DRE of 99.1% for NF{sub 3} was achieved without an additive gas at the total flow rate of 50.1 liters per minute (lpm) by applying a microwave power of 1.4 kW. Also, a DRE of SF{sub 6} up to 90.1% was obtained at the total flow rate of 40.6 lpm using an applied microwave power of 1.4 kW. Experimental results indicate that the microwave plasma abatement device can successfully eliminate FCs in the semiconductor industry.

  10. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  11. Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

  12. 40 CFR 233.40 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Compliance Evaluation and Enforcement § 233.40 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. (a) In order to abate violations of the permit program, the State shall... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for compliance...

  13. 40 CFR 233.40 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Compliance Evaluation and Enforcement § 233.40 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. (a) In order to abate violations of the permit program, the State shall... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for compliance...

  14. 40 CFR 233.40 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Compliance Evaluation and Enforcement § 233.40 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. (a) In order to abate violations of the permit program, the State shall... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Requirements for compliance...

  15. 40 CFR 233.40 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Compliance Evaluation and Enforcement § 233.40 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. (a) In order to abate violations of the permit program, the State shall... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for compliance...

  16. 40 CFR 233.40 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Compliance Evaluation and Enforcement § 233.40 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. (a) In order to abate violations of the permit program, the State shall... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for compliance...

  17. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  18. METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed encompasses 190 square miles of predominantly agricultural cropland (65%) in Central Ohio (USA) where agronomic fertilizers and herbicides are used in row crop production. Runoff from the watershed drain to Hoover Reservoir which is Central Oh...

  19. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  20. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  1. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited.

  2. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  3. Use of a remote plasma source for CVD chamber clean and exhaust gas abatement applications

    SciTech Connect

    Holber, W.; Chen, X.; Smith, D.; Besen, M.

    1999-07-01

    Remote plasma sources have traditionally been used in semiconductor processing applications such as dry removal of photoresist, where the capability of delivering a large flux of atomic oxygen into a semiconductor process chamber, with little of the associated plasma used to dissociate the oxygen, has made them attractive. With the development of fluorine-compatible remote plasma sources, a range of new application opportunities has opened up. In remote cleaning of CVD chambers, the remote plasma source is positioned before the process chamber, and a stream of atomic fluorine from the source is flowed into the chamber, where it can effectively clean a wide variety of materials such as SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and W. The cleaning process is purely chemical, with no associated in-situ plasma which can cause degradation of the process chamber. In exhaust gas abatement, the remote plasma source is located between the outlet of the etch or deposition process chamber and the mechanical pump. By adding appropriate gases, the exhaust stream from the chamber can be converted to form which can be managed more readily. Using a robust toroidal plasma source design, the ASTRON{trademark} remote plasma source has been used to address both of these areas. As an atomic fluorine source, over the typical operating range of 2--10 Torr several SLM of gases such as NF{sub 3} can be fully dissociated. As an exhaust gas abatement device, with operating pressure in the 0.1--1.0 Torr regime, abatement of perfluorocompounds (PFC's) at greater than 95% levels has been demonstrated. Using a variety of techniques--FTIR, RGA, and sample etching--the operation of this source technology and issues such as transport of atomic fluorine over substantial distances has been investigated.

  4. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  5. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  6. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder.

  7. The abative effect: A new term to describe the action of antecedents that reduce operant responding

    PubMed Central

    Laraway, Sean; Snycerski, Susan; Michael, Jack; Poling, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Behavior-analytic terminology concerning the so-called inhibitory effect of operant antecedents lacks precision. The present paper describes the problem with current nomenclature concerning the effects of antecedent events that reduce operant responding and offers a solution to this problem. The solution consists of adopting a new term, abative, for the effect in question. This paper suggests that the new term has several advantages over terms currently used and that adopting this term will yield a variety of practical and theoretical benefits, including, but not limited to, a more consistent vocabulary to describe antecedent—behavior relations. PMID:22477232

  8. Flight evaluation of three-dimensional area navigation for jet transport noise abatement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, D. G.; Bourquin, K. R.; White, K. C.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The NASA, working with American Airlines, has completed the first phase of research to evaluate the operational feasibility of two-segment approaches for noise abatement. For these tests, area navigation was used to establish the upper glide slope and an ILS was used to establish the lower. The flight director was modified to provide command information during the entire approach. Twenty-eight pilots representing the airlines, professional pilot associations, FAA, and NASA participated. With an ILS approach for comparison, the procedure gave a noise reduction of 18 EPNdB at the outer marker and 8 EPNdB 1.1 n. mi. from touchdown.

  9. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    M. Lumia; C. Gentile; K. Creek; R. Sandoval

    2003-11-06

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal.

  10. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  11. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

  12. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well.

  13. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  14. Two-liquid phase partitioning biotrickling filters for methane abatement: exploring the potential of hydrophobic methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Hernández, Laura; Pérez, Rebeca; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-15

    The potential of two-liquid phase biotrickling filters (BTFs) to overcome mass transfer limitations derived from the poor aqueous solubility of CH4 has been scarcely investigated to date. In this context, the abatement of diluted methane emissions in two-liquid phase BTFs was evaluated using two different inocula: a type II methanotrophs culture in BTF 1 and a hydrophobic microbial consortium capable of growing inside silicone oil in BTF 2. Both BTFs supported stable elimination capacities above 45 g m(-3) h(-1) regardless of the inoculum, whereas no improvement derived from the presence of hydrophobic microorganisms compared to the type II metanotrophs culture was observed. Interestingly, the addition of silicone oil mediated a reduced metabolites concentration in the recycling aqueous phase, thus decreasing the needs for mineral medium renewal. Moreover, a 78% similarity was recorded between the microbial communities enriched in both BTFs at the end of the experimental period in spite of the differences in the initial inoculum structure. The results obtained confirmed the superior performance of two-liquid phase BTFs for CH4 abatement compared with conventional biotrickling filters. PMID:25555135

  15. Experiments testing the abatement of radiation damage in D-xylose isomerase crystals with cryogenic helium.

    PubMed

    Hanson, B Leif; Harp, Joel M; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Schall, Constance A; DeWitt, Ken; Howard, Andrew; Pinkerton, A Alan; Bunick, Gerard J

    2002-11-01

    Helium is a more efficient cryogen than nitrogen, and for macromolecular data collection at high-flux beamlines will deliver lower temperatures. An open-flow helium cryostat developed at the University of Toledo (the Pinkerton Device) has been used for macromolecular data collection. This device differs from standard commercial He cryostats by having a much narrower aperture providing a high velocity stream of He around the crystal that maximizes convective and conductive heat exchange between the crystal and the cryogen. This paper details a series of experiments conducted at the IMCA-CAT 17ID beamline using one crystal for each experimental condition to examine whether helium at 16 K provided better radiation-damage abatement compared with nitrogen at 100 K. These studies used matched high-quality crystals (0.94 A diffraction resolution) of D-xylose isomerase derived from the commercial material Gensweet SGI. Comparisons show that helium indeed abates the indicators of radiation damage, in this case resulting in longer crystal diffractive lifetimes. The overall trend suggests that crystals maintain order and that high-resolution data are less affected by increased radiation load when crystals are cooled with He rather than N(2). This is probably the result of a lower effective temperature at the crystal with concomitant reduction in free-radical diffusion. Other features, such as an apparent phase transition in macromolecular crystals at lower temperatures, require investigation to broaden the utility of He use.

  16. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  17. Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.

    PubMed

    Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general. PMID:12851012

  18. Effects of Altosid and Abate-4E on deformities and survival in southern leopard frogs under semi-natural conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental wetlands were sprayed with Abate-4E (a.i. temephos) and Altosid (a.i. methoprene) through the summer following label directions. In late August and early Septemeber metamorphing tadpoles were captured and examined for deformities. Tadpoles captured from ponds sprayed with Altosid had a 15% deformity rate mostly involving total or partially missing hind limbs. Tadpoles from control ponds had a 5% rate of deformities. The difference was statistically significant. The relative abundance of tadpoles from ponds sprayed with Abate-4E was significantly lower than those from Altosid-sprayed or control wetlands.

  19. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  20. 29 CFR 4206.8 - Reduction of credit for abatement or other reduction of prior partial withdrawal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reduction of credit for abatement or other reduction of prior partial withdrawal liability. 4206.8 Section 4206.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... fraction— (1) The numerator of which is the excess of the total partial withdrawal liability of...

  1. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor. PMID:25841085

  2. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor.

  3. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  4. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument application to a solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch.

  5. Environmental influence on the thermoeconomic optimization of a combined plant with NO{sub x} abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Agazzani, A.; Massardo, A.F.; Fangopoulos, C.A.

    1998-07-01

    Methods to analyze, improve, and optimize thermal energy systems have to take into account not only energy (exergy) consumption and economic resources, but also pollution and degradation of the environment. The term environomics implies a method that takes thermodynamic, economic, and environmental aspects systematically into consideration for the analysis and optimization of energy systems. For optimization of energy systems, the environmental aspects are quantified and introduced into the objective function. In this particular work, the environomic approach is followed of the analysis and optimal design of a combined-cycle plant. In addition to the basic configuration, two alternatives for NO{sub x} abatement are studied: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and steam injection. The optimization problem is solved for each configuration, and the results are compared with each other. The effect of the unit pollution penalties and of the limits imposed by regulations is studied. Some general conclusions are drawn.

  6. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation.

  7. Description and flight performance of two systems for two-segment approach. [for aircraft noise abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrend, W. R.; Shigemoto, F. H.; Bourquin, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes two different avionic systems which were designed and developed to provide guidance and control for two-segment noise abatement approaches. The concept of a low-cost retrofit avionic system evolved into a special-purpose two-segment computer which required a DME collocated with the ILS glide-slope transmitter. This system was evaluated in a Boeing 727-200 aircraft. The second system is an area navigation (RNAV) system modified to include the two-segment approach. This system is more sophisticated than the first system and does not restrict usage to any specific navigation ground aid. The modified RNAV system is a Collins ANS-70A and is currently being evaluated in a DC-8-61 aircraft.

  8. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  9. Abatement of waste-water biorefractory organics via electro-oxidative treatment.

    PubMed

    Saracco, G; Aigotti, R; Solarino, L; Specchia, V; Maja, M

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of coumaric acid, a biorefractory compound present in several industrial waste waters, has been investigated by use of Pt-Ti anodes and at electrolyte concentration (0.02 N NaCl or Na2SO4) low enough to allow direct dischargeability of the waste water into superficial water basins according to the Italian law (DL 152/11-5-99). Particularly, the role of the electrolyte over the conversion rate has been assessed. The obtained results show that the oxidation process should take place both at the electrode surface and in the bulk of the solution, via electrochemically-generated oxidising species (H2O2, persulfates, Cl2, NaClO). The faster coumaric acid abatement rates were found with chloride based electrolytes, which, however, lead to the formation of non-biodegradable small-molecular-weight chlorinated hydrocarbons. PMID:11381547

  10. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction. PMID:20048309

  11. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  12. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction.

  13. EURailNoise: a study of European priorities and strategies for railway noise abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivoda, M.; Danneskiold-Samsøe, U.; Krüger, F.; Barsikow, B.

    2003-10-01

    The European Union is developing its noise policy by using a number of expert groups on specific noise issues. One of the most relevant noise problems is railway traffic which is dealt with by Working Group 6 (WG 6). The Commission of the European Union appointed a consortium of six consultants and experts in railway noise to prepare a study on European priorities and strategies for railway noise abatement. The main purpose of this study was to support the work within WG 6 and to create an inventory of measures for future railway noise abatement policy of the European Union. The EURailNoise study was to be completed in autumn 2001. The countries included the European Union member states, together with Norway, and Switzerland, and three prospective members (Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland). The EURailNoise study consisted of three main parts. The baseline was a review of current European legislation on railway noise generation as well as noise perception. In parallel a documentation of cases, where technical measures against railway noise had been successfully applied, was prepared using a classification of "good practice", "promising new technology", and "promising research results". The second part covered the potential for further noise reduction demonstrated for High Speed Passenger Traffic, S-Trains, Locomotives, Trams, Freight Traffic, Track Design and finally Wheels and Track Monitoring and Maintenance. Thirdly, a strategy for future activities of the Commission concerning the reduction of rail noise was to be proposed including a proposal for noise emission limits. This paper summarizes the results of the EURailNoise study.

  14. Continuous nitrous oxide abatement in a novel denitrifying off-gas bioscrubber.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Osvaldo D; Arvelo, Ilan A; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    The potential of a bioscrubber composed of a packed bed absorption column coupled to a stirred tank denitrification bioreactor (STR) was assessed for 95 days for the continuous abatement of a diluted air emission of N2O at different liquid recycling velocities. N2O removal efficiencies of up to 40 ± 1 % were achieved at the highest recirculation velocity (8 m h(-1)) at an empty bed residence time of 3 min using a synthetic air emission containing N2O at 104 ± 12 ppmv. N2O was absorbed in the packed bed column and further reduced in the STR at efficiencies >80 % using methanol as electron donor. The long-term operation of the bioscrubber suggested that the specialized N2O degrading community established was not able to use N2O as nitrogen source. Additional nitrification assays showed that the activated sludge used as inoculum was not capable of aerobically oxidizing N2O to nitrate or nitrite, regardless of the inorganic carbon concentration tested. Denitrification assays confirmed the ability of non-acclimated activated sludge to readily denitrify N2O at a specific rate of 3.9 mg N2O g VSS h(-1) using methanol as electron donor. This study constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic assessment of the continuous abatement of N2O in air emission. A characterization of the structure of the microbial population in the absorption column by DGGE-sequencing revealed a high microbial diversity and the presence of heterotrophic denitrifying methylotrophs. PMID:25547842

  15. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  16. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  17. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  18. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  19. Illinois' nonpoint source management program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Illinois Nonpoint Source (NPS) Management Program (Program) describes the statewide authorities that give the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) responsibility to develop and implement this Program. It provides a brief summary of the results of the States' NPS assessment as reported in the Illinois Water Quality Report. Included are eleven sections correlated to NPS pollution sources, or to an area of water pollution protection initiatives. These sections outline goals and objectives to be implemented in Illinois to abate NPS pollution, when possible the sections include a descriptive narrative. Included in the Program, is the process or mechanism which Illinois uses to prioritize and fund future projects. Finally, this Program identifies the federal programs that the IEPA currently reviews for consistency with statewide goals and objectives. Revisions to the Program will be made in accordance with state and federal program changes and as needed.

  20. Efficiency of final cleaning for lead-based paint abatement in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Willeke, Klaus; Menrath, William; Friedman, Warren

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of procedures used for the final indoor cleaning after active lead-based paint abatement were evaluated in a 830 ft3 test chamber. Dry and wet scraping and dry machine sanding were applied to wooden doors obtained from lead-hazard control sites. The airborne particle concentration and size distribution were monitored using a real-time particle size spectrometer. Particulates were also collected on filters and analyzed for total dust and lead. The resulting airborne lead mass was determined for each cleaning procedure, and the potential floor lead loading resulting from the dust settling was calculated. Wipe samples were collected to measure the actual floor lead loading. The effectiveness of final cleaning was evaluated first for dry abatement methods. Various cleaning work practices were tested by applying wet and dry debris sweeping as well as no sweeping in combinations with wet and dry removal of plastic sheeting. Considerable resuspension of leaded particles was detected during dry sweeping: the airborne lead mass increase ranged between 65 and 220 percent. However, this increase did not exceed 22 percent when wet sweeping was applied. Minimal or no resuspension was found when the plastic was folded with leaded debris inside (no sweeping was performed prior to the sheeting removal). During folding activity, the "clean" (uncovered) floor surface may be significantly contaminated with leaded dust from workers' shoes and cleaning tools. The first HEPA vacuuming resulted in a 15- to 20-fold decrease of the airborne lead mass; however, it was not sufficient to reduce the floor lead loading to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) clearance level of 40 microg/ft2, as determined by wipe sampling. Wet mopping following the first HEPA vacuuming was proven to be effective to reduce the lead loading significantly below 40 microg/ft2. The second HEPA vacuuming resulted in further reduction of the airborne lead mass concentration. The

  1. 75 FR 48411 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed noise compatibility program that was submitted for... Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 by the city of...

  2. The effect of oil spills on workers involved in containment and abatement: the role of the occupational health nurse.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta; Burns, Candace M

    2011-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the most recent manmade disaster to challenge occupational health nurses caring for a unique worker population. The effects of oil spills on wildlife, marine life, and the ecosystem are well studied and documented, but the effects on workers who contain and abate such disasters are not. These workers can suffer from a multitude of illnesses and injuries, such as ataxia, migraines, and various lung diseases, which can be a challenge for occupational health nurses.

  3. Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH₄, N₂O, and CO₂) abatement: state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified.

  4. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A C; Maucieri, C; Ioppolo, A; Milani, M; Cavallaro, V

    2014-04-01

    Direct spreading on agricultural lands may represent an environmentally friendly disposal method and a possible use of water and nutrients from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). However, the agronomic use of OMWs is limited, among others by polyphenols, which exert phytotoxic effects. Activated charcoal (AC) has been recognized as a very effective agent for polyphenol abatement, as it enables an irreversible process of phenol adsorption. Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has also been described as a cheap and effective method in polyphenols abatement. However, the effects of Ca(OH)2 addition to OMW on seed germination are unclear. In this paper, the effects of AC and/or Ca(OH)2 on OMW polyphenols abatement, and Lolium multiflorum seed germination have been investigated. The highest polyphenols removal, approximately 95%, was observed when 80 g L(-1) of AC was added to OMWs (the maximum dose in this investigation). The addition of Ca(OH)2 not only improved the effectiveness of the AC treatment but also resulted in a significant rise in Lolium seed germination at the highest AC doses (60 and 80 g L(-1)). Considering the high salinity (7300 μS cm(-1)) of these wastewaters, low quantities of Ca(OH)2 may also exert a protective effect on soil structure counteracting the sodium-induced dispersion through the binding action of calcium cation on clays and organic matter.

  5. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  6. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  7. Abatement of wetland loss through diversions of Mississippi River water using siphons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Beek, J.L.; Roberts, D.W.; Fournet, S. )

    1990-09-01

    The long-term maintenance and renewal of Louisiana's wetlands cannot be accomplished without diversion of sediment laden water from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. Because of ramifications for flood control, navigation, and established estuarine resource uses, such diversions, at least initially, are likely to be limited to structures that permit flow to be taken from the upper part of the water column. To evaluate the potential benefits from such diversions in terms of sediment introduction into the wetlands, and the possibility of abatement of wetland loss through small structures that could be implemented at a local level, an existing diversion by means of a siphon was investigated. The investigation focused on the White's Ditch Siphon, in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. Siphon operation was monitored for the 1989-1990 water year to determine water and sediment discharge characteristics and their relationship to those of the Mississippi River and to estuarine hydrology To determine sedimentation benefits to the adjacent marsh and the need for outfall management, sediment dispersal was evaluated and sediment deposition was compared for a site within the siphon outfall area and a control site. Results of the siphon monitoring are extended to larger scale diversions. On the basis of suspended load characteristics of the Mississippi River and the operational characteristics of a major structure, as related to the estuarine salinity regime and resource constraints, the extent to which such diversions are likely to offset subsidence and related wetland loss is evaluated.

  8. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  9. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  10. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: feasibility of abatement strategies.

    PubMed

    Carew, Richard

    2010-08-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH(3)) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH(3) emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH(3) emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Québec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH(3) emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods.

  11. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  12. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  13. Toxicity of Abate? 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diets mixed to contain 0,0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6..0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate ? 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41?C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18?C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

  14. Abatement characteristics of N2O in low-pressure plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, M.; Lee, J. O.; Lee, J. Y.; Kang, W. S.; Song, Y.-H.

    2016-02-01

    The abatement characteristics of N2O were investigated in a plasma reactor positioned in front of a vacuum pump. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for evaluating the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and the identification of byproducts. The concentration of NO x (NO and NO2) was quantified by using an NO x analyzer. The DRE of N2O was enhanced by increasing the power or decreasing the N2O flow rate. A higher pressure yields a higher DRE of N2O and a lower concentration of NO x in the destroyed N2O. For understanding this phenomenon, the discharge characteristics were analyzed by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The spatial distribution of emission spectra from the discharge in a mixture of N2O and Ar gases was measured by varying the pressure. The mechanisms underlying the pressure effect on the N2O DRE and NO x concentration are discussed in terms of the electron density and the concentration of O radicals.

  15. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition. PMID:26552261

  16. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Juma Z; Dua, Rubal; Kurniasari, Novita; Kennedy, Maria D; Wang, Peng; Amy, Gary L

    2014-11-15

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ∼2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45 μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application.

  17. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Juma Z; Dua, Rubal; Kurniasari, Novita; Kennedy, Maria D; Wang, Peng; Amy, Gary L

    2014-11-15

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ∼2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45 μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. PMID:25128660

  18. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand. PMID:27421853

  19. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  20. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  1. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  2. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  3. Assessing the real-world performance of modern pollutant abatement systems on motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    The present statutory pollutant emission limits Euro-3 for motorcycles imply the use of modern emission abatement systems such as three-way catalytic converters. Determining the quality of implementation of these new systems in different driving situations such as real-world driving is important, since motorcycles are commonly used for personal transportation in urban areas. For this reason, a test bench series was carried out with a sample of 10 motorcycles of state-of-the-art certification category Euro-3. Emission factors of regulated pollutants and CO 2 are presented on the basis of the statutory driving cycle, the latest version of the real-world Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and the real-world Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). The results of the statutory driving cycle show that 7 out of 10 motorcycles fail to comply with the present emission limits. The results of both real-world driving cycles confirm notable emissions of HC in urban and NO x in motorway driving conditions. CO emissions of motorcycles with small displacement increase significantly in the urban and extra-urban sections of the CADC, which has a more dynamic velocity profile than the equivalent WMTC. Although pollutant emissions of motorcycles show a marked improvement compared with earlier certification classes, they clearly exceed the emission levels of modern light gasoline passenger cars, especially for CO and HC.

  4. Comparison of selected physicochemical characteristics of commercial phytases relevant to their application in phosphate pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Boyce, A; Walsh, G

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme phytase catalyses the dephosphorylation of phytic acid and it's salts, phytates. Supplementation of monogastric animal feed with microbial-derived phytase increases the bioavailability of phytic acid bound phosphate. This facilitates a reduction in the addition of inorganic phosphate to the feed and reduces phosphorus excretion. To achieve maximum efficacy in terms of phosphate pollution abatement, supplemental phytases added to animal feed must survive thermal processing of the feed, resist inactivation by the proteolytic enzymes encountered in the animal's digestive tract and display high activity at physiological temperature and pH. A series of in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the relative suitability of four major commercial phytase products for use in animal feed. The enzymes assessed lost between 14% and 72% of their original activities after heating to 80 degrees C for 5 minutes. After exposure to simulated upper digestive tract conditions, the phytases assessed retained between 0 and 28% of their original activities. The commercial phytases displayed between 98% and 67% of their maximum activities at 39 degrees C and all phytases assessed had an optimum pH between pH 4 and pH 5. None of the phytases assessed satisfied all of the criteria of an ideal phytase for use in animal feed.

  5. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  6. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  7. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  8. Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Odor Indicator Abatement by Biofilm Communities in Swine Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Bruns, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste odors arising from products of anaerobic microbial metabolism create community relations problems for livestock producers. We investigated a novel approach to swine waste odor reduction: the addition of FeCl3, a commonly used coagulant in municipal wastewater treatment, to stimulate degradation of odorous compounds by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) FeCl3 is an effective source of redox-active ferric iron (Fe3+) for dissimilatory reduction by bacteria indigenous to swine manure, and (ii) dissimilatory iron reduction results in significant degradation of odorous compounds within 7 days. Our results demonstrated that Fe3+ from FeCl3 was reduced biologically as well as chemically in laboratory microcosms prepared with prefiltered swine manure slurry and limestone gravel, which provided pH buffering and a substrate for microbial biofilm development. Addition of a 1-g liter−1 equivalent concentration of Fe3+ from FeCl3, but not from presynthesized ferrihydrite, caused initial, rapid solids flocculation, chemical Fe3+ reduction, and Eh increase, followed by a 2-day lag period. Between 2 and 6 days of incubation, increases in Fe2+ concentrations were accompanied by significant reductions in concentrations of volatile fatty acids used as odor indicators. Increases in Fe2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 days did not occur in FeCl3-treated microcosms that were sterilized by gamma irradiation or amended with NaN3, a respiratory inhibitor. DNA sequences obtained from rRNA gene amplicons of bacterial communities in FeCl3-treated microcosms were closely related to Desulfitobacterium spp., which are known representatives of DIRB. Use of iron respiration to abate wastewater odors warrants further investigation. PMID:16151075

  9. NO{sub x}-abatement potential of lean-premixed GT combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Sattelmayer, T.; Polifke, W.; Winkler, D.; Doebbeling, K.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the structure of perfectly premixed flames on NO{sub x} formation is investigated theoretically. Since a network of reaction kinetics modules and model flames is used for this purpose, the results obtained are independent of specific burner geometries. Calculations are presented for a mixture temperature of 630 K, an adiabatic flame temperature of 1840 K, and 1 and 15 bars combustor pressure. In particular, the following effects are studied separately from each other: molecular diffusion of temperature and species, flame strain, local quench in highly strained flames and subsequent reignition, turbulent diffusion (no preferential diffusion), and small scale mixing (stirring) in the flame front. Either no relevant influence or an increase in NO{sub x} burners is to avoid excessive turbulent stirring in the flame front. Turbulent flames that exhibit locally and instantaneously near laminar structures (flamelets) appear to be optimal. Using the same methodology, the scope of the investigation is extended to lean-lean staging, since a higher NO{sub x}-abatement potential can be expected in principle. As long as the chemical reactions of the second stage take place in the boundary between the fresh mixture of the second stage and the combustion products from upstream, no advantage can be expected from lean-lean staging. Only if the preliminary burner exhibits much poorer mixing than the second stage can lean-lean staging be beneficial. In contrast, if full mixing between the two stages prior to afterburning can be achieved (lean-mix-lean technique), the combustor outlet temperature can in principle be increased somewhat without NO penalty.

  10. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  11. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  12. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system.

  13. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  14. Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

  15. Injection of alkaline ashes into underground coal mines for acid mine drainage abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    The injection of fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) ash, and other alkaline waste materials into abandoned underground coal mines for acid mine drainage (AMD) abatement has obvious conceptual appeal. This report describes three ongoing projects -- one each in West Virginia, Maryland, and Ohio -- where field demonstrations of the technique are being pursued in cooperative efforts among State and Federal agencies and/or private companies. The West Virginia site produces AMD that is causing the State to incur very high treatment costs and operational problems, especially in the storage and disposal of metal hydroxide sludges that result from treatment. In an attempt to achieve a more cost-effective long-term remediation scheme, the State is working with local coal companies and power generators on a plan to fill part or all of the mine voids with slurries of fly ash and/or FBC ash. At the Maryland site, the goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of completely filling a very small underground mine with an FEC ash slurry. The information gained here will determine whether large-scale AMD remediation can be achieved if deep mine disposal of ash is incorporated into the design of a new FBC power plant. In Ohio, it is believed that sealing and complete flooding of a relatively small mine will be able to curtail its AMD production. In order to accelerate the flooding process and insure that alkaline conditions will prevail in the mine, a waste slurry of calcium hydroxide from a nearby source will be injected into the mine voids in conjunction with mine sealing.

  16. 76 FR 55158 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, St. Louis, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Lambert-St. Louis... Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted... Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of...

  17. Effects of temephos (Abate? 4E) on fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax and Uca minax) on a Delaware salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; McGowan, P.C.; Murphy, D.R.; Lowe, T.P.; Sparling, D.W.; Meredith, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    The non-target effects of temephos (as Abate 4E, 44.6% active ingredient) on fiddler crabs were examined on the salt marsh at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), near Dover, DE. Six 170 x 170 m plots were established; 3 were sprayed on 4 occasions at a rate of 1.5 fl oz/acre (0.054 kg active ingredient/ha) and 3 were controls. On each plot, marsh fiddler crab (Uca pugnax) populations were monitored by repeatedly counting the number of burrow holes in 2 counting areas marked out along tidal guts. One half of each counting area was covered with bird netting to evaluate sublethal toxic effects, which, if present, could result in increased susceptibility to bird predation. A statistically significant linear association was established between the number of holes and the number of crabs. No significant differences were found in the numbers of holes (or crabs) in the sprayed vs. control plots and in the covered vs. uncovered sections. However, survival of juvenile crabs in in situ bioassays was significantly reduced (16% lower) by the spraying. Median acetylcholinesterase activity in claw muscle of red-jointed fiddler crabs (U. minax) collected 2 days after an operational spray with Abate 4E was significantly reduced (28% lower) compared to unsprayed crabs. In view of the toxicity to juvenile crabs and the cholinesterase inhibition, we recommend continued monitoring and research for non-target impacts of Abate 4E on fiddler crabs to establish whether the reported level of cholinesterase inhibition results in acute or chronic toxicity.

  18. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    PubMed

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  19. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  20. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  1. Current status on the Florida Abate Monitoring program--susceptibility levels of three species of mosquitoes during 1984.

    PubMed

    Boike, A H; Rathburn, C B; Lang, K L; Masters, H M; Floore, T G

    1985-12-01

    During 1984, larval susceptibility tests of temephos were performed on Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex nigripalpus collected from the same general areas as in 1980-82, and the results compared to the susceptible laboratory strains. No resistance was detected against these two species. When strains of Culex quinquefasciatus from some new areas were tested against temephos, malathion, naled, fenthion and chlorpyrifos, their tolerance varied according to the insecticide tested and the origin of the strain. Some strains ranged from 1.6 to 43.0X more tolerant to temephos when compared to the West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory strain (WFARL strain). PMID:2466107

  2. Process modeling of an advanced NH₃ abatement and recycling technology in the ammonia-based CO₂ capture process.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Tade, Moses; Feron, Paul; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Shujuan

    2014-06-17

    An advanced NH3 abatement and recycling process that makes great use of the waste heat in flue gas was proposed to solve the problems of ammonia slip, NH3 makeup, and flue gas cooling in the ammonia-based CO2 capture process. The rigorous rate-based model, RateFrac in Aspen Plus, was thermodynamically and kinetically validated by experimental data from open literature and CSIRO pilot trials at Munmorah Power Station, Australia, respectively. After a thorough sensitivity analysis and process improvement, the NH3 recycling efficiency reached as high as 99.87%, and the NH3 exhaust concentration was only 15.4 ppmv. Most importantly, the energy consumption of the NH3 abatement and recycling system was only 59.34 kJ/kg CO2 of electricity. The evaluation of mass balance and temperature steady shows that this NH3 recovery process was technically effective and feasible. This process therefore is a promising prospect toward industrial application.

  3. Optimizing the performance of catalytic traps for hydrocarbon abatement during the cold-start of a gasoline engine.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, B; Navlani-García, M; García, T; Navarro, M V; Lozano-Castelló, D; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2014-08-30

    A key target to reduce current hydrocarbon emissions from vehicular exhaust is to improve their abatement under cold-start conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of factorial analysis to design a highly efficient catalytic trap. The impact of the synthesis conditions on the preparation of copper-loaded ZSM-5 is clearly revealed by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM and TEM. A high concentration of copper nitrate precursor in the synthesis improves the removal of hydrocarbons, providing both strong adsorption sites for hydrocarbon retention at low temperature and copper oxide nanoparticles for full hydrocarbon catalytic combustion at high temperature. The use of copper acetate precursor leads to a more homogeneous dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles also providing enough catalytic sites for the total oxidation of hydrocarbons released from the adsorption sites, although lower copper loadings are achieved. Thus, synthesis conditions leading to high copper loadings jointly with highly dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles would result in an exceptional catalytic trap able to reach superior hydrocarbon abatement under highly demanding operational conditions. PMID:25108828

  4. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    PubMed

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity.

  5. Abatement of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4} using an enhanced kerosene microwave plasma burner

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dong Hun; Hong, Yong Cheol; Cho, Soon Cheon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-11-15

    A kerosene microwave plasma burner was presented as a tool for abatement of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4} gases, which cause global warming. The plasma burner operates by injecting kerosene as a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into a microwave plasma torch and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen (O{sub 2}) gas. The abatement of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4}, by making use of the kerosene plasma burner, was conducted in terms of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) flow rates. The destruction and removal efficiency of the burner were achieved up to 99.9999% for 0.1 liters per minute (lpm) SF{sub 6} in 120 lpm N{sub 2} and 99.3% for 0.05 lpm CF{sub 4} in 60 lpm N{sub 2}, revealing that the microwave plasma burner can effectively eliminate perfluorocompounds emitted from the semiconductor industries.

  6. Continuous monitoring of conventional parameters to assess receiving water quality in support of combined sewer overflow abatement plans.

    PubMed

    Irvine, K N; McCorkhill, G; Caruso, J

    2005-01-01

    As part of its long-term control plan for combined sewer overflow (CSO) abatement, the city of Buffalo, New York, maintained a network of Hydrolab Datasondes (Hydrolab-Hach Company, Loveland, Colorado) to assess receiving water-quality effects by continuously logging dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, conductivity, and turbidity. Although the effect of individual CSOs could be visualized, turbidity levels entering the Buffalo River from the upper watershed often were greater than from CSO discharges. Turbidity data showed that the Buffalo River was a net-sediment sink. Low dissolved oxygen levels were observed in the summer during dry weather, baseflow, and watershed-wide storms and CSO events. Some CSOs did not produce dissolved oxygen sags in the receiving waters, but others did. This information, together with the sampling done for organic and inorganic contaminants, can aid the decisionmaking process when prioritizing outfalls for abatement work and provides a baseline against which receiving water-quality improvements can be measured.

  7. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality.

  8. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  9. A novel dielectric barrier discharge reactor with photocatalytic electrode based on sintered metal fibers for abatement of xylene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiping; Wang, Chunxia; Shao, Zhenhua; Ye, Qing; He, Yi; Shi, Yao

    2012-11-30

    A novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was made for the abatement of xylene. This reactor has a photocatalytic electrode prepared by a modified anodic oxidation method which was proposed in this work. The photocatalytic electrode has nano-TiO(2) deposited on sintered metal fiber (SMF). The reactor using the nano-TiO(2)/SMF electrode shows much better performance in abating xylene compared with reactors using other electrodes such as resistance wire or SMF. The conversion ratio of xylene reaches 92.7% in the novel reactor at a relatively voltage (23.6 kV). This ratio is much higher than the conversion ratios of xylene in the traditional reactors with resistance wire or SMF electrodes, which are ~64.7%. The selectivity of CO(2) of the reactor using the nano-TiO(2)/SMF electrode (300 pps, 23.6 kV) was observed to be 86.6%, which is about twice as large as that of a traditional reactor using a resistance wire electrode. If a traditional DBD reactor is replaced by the novel reactor, at the same specific input energy, the energy yield can increase from 0.391 to 0.556 mg/kJ. Finally, the xylene decomposition mechanism with the nano-TiO(2)/SMF electrode was also briefly discussed. PMID:23040659

  10. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality. PMID:17909641

  11. Phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA): mercury-bearing flexible gymnasium floors in schools--evaluation of hazards and controlled abatement.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Harry J; Beaulieu, Serrita; Brown, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA) historically has been used as a catalyst in polyurethane systems. In the 1950s-1970s, PMA was used as a catalyst in the 3M Tartan brand polyurethane flexible floors that were installed commonly in school gymnasiums. Mercury vapor is released into air above the surface of these floors. Sampling mercury in bulk flooring material and mercury vapor in air was conducted in nine Idaho schools in the spring of 2006. These evaluations were conducted in response to concerns by school officials that the floors could contain mercury and could release the mercury vapor into the air, presenting a potential health hazard for students, staff, and visitors. Controlled abatement was conducted in one school where remodeling would impact the mercury-bearing flexible gym floors ( approximately 9,000 ft(2) total). The controlled abatement consisted of containment of the work area with negative air technology; worker protection, including mercury-specific training, use of personal protective equipment, and biological and exposure monitoring; and environmental protection, including proper disposal of mercury-bearing hazardous waste material. PMID:18365889

  12. Phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA): mercury-bearing flexible gymnasium floors in schools--evaluation of hazards and controlled abatement.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Harry J; Beaulieu, Serrita; Brown, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA) historically has been used as a catalyst in polyurethane systems. In the 1950s-1970s, PMA was used as a catalyst in the 3M Tartan brand polyurethane flexible floors that were installed commonly in school gymnasiums. Mercury vapor is released into air above the surface of these floors. Sampling mercury in bulk flooring material and mercury vapor in air was conducted in nine Idaho schools in the spring of 2006. These evaluations were conducted in response to concerns by school officials that the floors could contain mercury and could release the mercury vapor into the air, presenting a potential health hazard for students, staff, and visitors. Controlled abatement was conducted in one school where remodeling would impact the mercury-bearing flexible gym floors ( approximately 9,000 ft(2) total). The controlled abatement consisted of containment of the work area with negative air technology; worker protection, including mercury-specific training, use of personal protective equipment, and biological and exposure monitoring; and environmental protection, including proper disposal of mercury-bearing hazardous waste material.

  13. Synergies and liabilities: a full-cost approach to the abatement of greenhouse gas fluxes in row-crop agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip Robertson, G.; Grace, P. R.

    2003-04-01

    According to the IPCC TAR, agriculture is responsible for 21-25% of the global anthropic CO2 flux, 55-60% of the anthropic CH4 flux, and 65-80% of the anthropic flux of N2O. A number of CO2 stabilization strategies target agricultural production practices, and the potential for simultaneously abating fluxes of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is substantial. But so is the potential for creating greenhouse gas (GHG) liabilities, the unintentional increase in one or more GHGs by activities that mitigate another. Whole-system accounting provides a means for including all GHG-contributing processes in the same cropping system analysis in order to illuminate major liabilities and synergies. We contrast a field crop system in the upper U.S. midwest with a similar system in tropical India, and provide evidence that N2O flux - the major contributor to radiative forcing in both row-crop systems - can be abated with little loss of crop productivity.

  14. Optimizing the performance of catalytic traps for hydrocarbon abatement during the cold-start of a gasoline engine.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, B; Navlani-García, M; García, T; Navarro, M V; Lozano-Castelló, D; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2014-08-30

    A key target to reduce current hydrocarbon emissions from vehicular exhaust is to improve their abatement under cold-start conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of factorial analysis to design a highly efficient catalytic trap. The impact of the synthesis conditions on the preparation of copper-loaded ZSM-5 is clearly revealed by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM and TEM. A high concentration of copper nitrate precursor in the synthesis improves the removal of hydrocarbons, providing both strong adsorption sites for hydrocarbon retention at low temperature and copper oxide nanoparticles for full hydrocarbon catalytic combustion at high temperature. The use of copper acetate precursor leads to a more homogeneous dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles also providing enough catalytic sites for the total oxidation of hydrocarbons released from the adsorption sites, although lower copper loadings are achieved. Thus, synthesis conditions leading to high copper loadings jointly with highly dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles would result in an exceptional catalytic trap able to reach superior hydrocarbon abatement under highly demanding operational conditions.

  15. A novel dielectric barrier discharge reactor with photocatalytic electrode based on sintered metal fibers for abatement of xylene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiping; Wang, Chunxia; Shao, Zhenhua; Ye, Qing; He, Yi; Shi, Yao

    2012-11-30

    A novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was made for the abatement of xylene. This reactor has a photocatalytic electrode prepared by a modified anodic oxidation method which was proposed in this work. The photocatalytic electrode has nano-TiO(2) deposited on sintered metal fiber (SMF). The reactor using the nano-TiO(2)/SMF electrode shows much better performance in abating xylene compared with reactors using other electrodes such as resistance wire or SMF. The conversion ratio of xylene reaches 92.7% in the novel reactor at a relatively voltage (23.6 kV). This ratio is much higher than the conversion ratios of xylene in the traditional reactors with resistance wire or SMF electrodes, which are ~64.7%. The selectivity of CO(2) of the reactor using the nano-TiO(2)/SMF electrode (300 pps, 23.6 kV) was observed to be 86.6%, which is about twice as large as that of a traditional reactor using a resistance wire electrode. If a traditional DBD reactor is replaced by the novel reactor, at the same specific input energy, the energy yield can increase from 0.391 to 0.556 mg/kJ. Finally, the xylene decomposition mechanism with the nano-TiO(2)/SMF electrode was also briefly discussed.

  16. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 2, November 1, 1987--January 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  17. Dissolved oxygen in the rehabilitation phase of an estuary: influence of sewage pollution abatement and hydro-climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Villate, Fernando; Iriarte, Arantza; Uriarte, Ibon; Intxausti, Lander; de la Sota, Alejandro

    2013-05-15

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of dissolved oxygen (DO) along the estuary of Bilbao were investigated from 1998 to 2008, during its rehabilitation phase from pollution, to determine whether anthropogenic or natural forcings or both govern DO dynamics and hypoxia. Both seasonal and inter-annual variations of DO were best explained by hydro-climatic factors, sewage pollution and phytoplankton dynamics in the inner, intermediate and outer estuary respectively. The most remarkable intra-decadal improvement in DO occurred in the halocline layer of the intermediate estuary, where the factor that best explained these changes was sewage pollution abatement. However, in the estuarine hotspot for hypoxia, i.e. inner estuary bottom waters, no parallel response to sewage pollution abatement was observed and hydro-climatic factors were the main drivers of inter-annual DO variations. Differences in the degree of stratification and flushing accounted for this differential response of DO to anthropogenic and climate-related forcings at both axial and vertical scales. PMID:23601887

  18. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  19. 78 FR 65419 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... revised flight procedures for noise abatement were proposed. DATED: Effective Date: This notice is.... Program measures relating to the use of flight procedures can be implemented within the period covered by... than the use of new or modified flight procedures for noise control). Failure to approve or...

  20. 78 FR 29428 - Availability of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Midway International Airport, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Midway.... SUMMARY: The FAA announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the City of Chicago.... seq (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'')...

  1. 76 FR 18294 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Kissimmee Gateway Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review.... SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed Noise... et seq. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and...

  2. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing program. 120.225 Section 120.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  3. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing program. 120.225 Section 120.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  4. EPA/ORD/RTP (Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park) asbestos program support for the OTS (Office of Toxic Substances) asbestos-in-schools program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    An overview of the EPA/ORD/RTP Asbestos program support for the OTS Asbestos-in-Schools Program is given. The program includes (1) a bulk sample asbestos analysis audit program, (2) an intercomparison of three measurement methods for airborne asbestos, (3) the development of audit materials for airborne asbestos measurement methods, and (4) the development of guidance for post-abatement asbestos air monitoring.

  5. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  6. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  7. Environmental Research Program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multi-disciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally-benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  8. Fluidized-bed combustion: Air-pollution abatement. September 1972-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1972-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the abatement of air-pollution environments attributable to the operation of fluidized-bed combustion systems. Analyses and studies of combustion processes, fuels, regulations, and control equipment are provided. Air-pollution control and mechanical/chemical processes are described in separate bibliographies. (Contains 87 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Abatement of CF{sub 4} and CHF{sub 3} byproducts using low-pressure plasmas generated by annular-shaped electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Min; Lee, Jae O. K.; Hoon Song, Young; Yoo, Hoon A.

    2012-03-15

    Three different driving schemes are tested for a plasma reactor designed to abate the greenhouse gases emitted by the semiconductor industry. The reactor and electrodes all have a concentric annular shape, which allows them to be easily connected to pre-existing pipelines without any disturbance to the exhaust stream. The destruction and removal efficiencies are measured for CF{sub 4} by varying the O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} ratio and pressure. The influences of adding O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to the byproducts of the CHF{sub 3} abatement process are investigated by analyzing the spectra resulting from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. Based on the experimental results we suggest an appropriate combination of driving scheme and reactant gas species for efficient and economical abatement of a mixture of CHF{sub 3} and CF{sub 4}. Then, the optimal flow rate of the reactant gas is presented. Finally, the reduction rates for global warming emissions are estimated to demonstrate the feasibility of using our device for abatement of greenhouse gases emitted by the semiconductor industry.

  10. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or injury incurred while he was serving in a combat zone. (2) If an individuals dies as described in... zone, and wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone, see section 112. As to... and his spouse have for any such year filed a joint return, the tax abated, credited, or...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6404-3 - Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... request for advice by the taxpayer. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a written request from a... attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal Revenue Service. 301.6404-3 Section 301.6404-3... Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal...

  12. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places. PMID:26263277

  13. Mercury abatement report on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Mercury Abatement Report for fiscal year 1995 summarizes the status of activities and the levels of mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulting from activities at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The report outlines the status of the on-going project activities in support of project compliance, the results of the ongoing sampling and characterization efforts, the biological monitoring activities, and our conclusions relative to the progress in demonstrating compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit. Overall, the pace of mercury activities at the Y-12 Plant is ahead of the compliance schedules in the NPDES permit and new and exciting opportunities are being recognized for achieving additional mercury reductions. These opportunities were not felt to be achievable several years ago.

  14. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places.

  15. Organic pollutants abatement and biodecontamination of brewery effluents by a non-thermal quenched plasma at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Doubla, A; Laminsi, S; Nzali, S; Njoyim, E; Kamsu-Kom, J; Brisset, J-L

    2007-09-01

    A preliminary study was carried out to investigate possible decontamination of the waste waters from a Cameroonian brewery by using a non-thermal atmospheric plasma. Samples of waste waters collected during periods of intense activity of production were first analysed for organoleptic, physical-chemical and organic parameters, and then exposed to a humid air electric discharge at ambient temperature and pressure. The resultant pollution abatement and germicidal effects are both ascribed to strong oxidising effects of OH and NO radicals formed in the plasma. The BOD removal efficiency of the process with brewery industrial wastewaters under BOD concentration of 385 and 1018 mg l(-1) were 74% and 98% respectively. The alkaline wastewaters are rapidly neutralised due to the pH lowering effects of the plasma treatment.

  16. [The organization of key populations connected to HIV transmission: an intervention to abate stigma; Mexico, 2005-2009].

    PubMed

    Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Zarco-Mera, Ángel; Infante-Xibillé, César; Caballero-García, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative approach forms the base of this analysis of the results of "Vida Digna," a project aimed at abating stigma and discrimination in the HIV transmission field with actions taken by civil society organizations from 2005 to 2009 in the Mexican region of El Bajío. The results were analyzed in 2009 and 2010. The organizations involved were made up of key populations, defined as groups vulnerable to infection but also capable of resisting and controlling the transmission of HIV and the stigma and discrimination that are important barriers in the seeking of care and the achievement of effective HIV control. We describe and analyze the actions taken and the strengthening of the participating organizations. The visibility of new social actors such as transgender women and injecting drug users, as well as informative activities directed at journalists, the police and the military to prevent the criminalization and persecution of these groups, are highlighted.

  17. Impact of the implementation of PM abatement technology on the ambient air levels of metals in a highly industrialised area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Minguillón, M. C.; Alastuey, A.; Monfort, E.; Mantilla, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Sanz, F.; Roig, A.; Renau, A.; Felis, C.; Miró, J. V.; Artíñano, B.

    Data on the spatial and time (2002-2005) variation of levels of trace elements and the source attribution of these elements in the ceramic cluster of Castelló (Eastern Spain) are presented and discussed. Earlier studies concluded that metal levels in PM 10 were one of the most critical parameters for attaining the EU legal requirements of the air quality standards. Levels of Li, Sc, Co, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Zr, Cd, Cs, Ce, Tl and Pb were higher than the usual range of concentration in urban areas of Spain, and some of them exceeded the concentration ranges obtained for other industrial sites in Spain. Of these elements, Zr, Zn, Pb and As (and probably Tl) may be considered as tracers of the ceramic emissions from the study area. A downward trend was observed for most of them, simultaneously, with the progressive implementation of the emission abatement techniques, especially those applied to the PM abatement of the manufacture of glaze components and the avoidance of the use of specific raw materials with high contents of impurities. At the end of the study period, the elements for which the EU sets limit or target values met the established requirements for 2013 (2005 for Pb), whereas, at the beginning of the study some elements exceeded the 2013 target values. Furthermore, a detailed discussion on the interpretation of peak concentration events and source attribution for a number of trace elements is presented. Five different sources were identified: mineral emissions (from clay use and handling), industry (mainly glaze production and use), road traffic, sea spray and the regional background influenced by a fuel oil-power plant and a petrochemical plant.

  18. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation. PMID:24937461

  19. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  20. Abatement Cost of GHG Emissions for Wood-Based Electricity and Ethanol at Production and Consumption Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ−1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km−1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e−1 and $30 Mg CO2e−1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation. PMID:24937461

  1. 78 FR 78469 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Martin County Airport/Witham Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Martin.... SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed Noise.... 47504 et. seq (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'')...

  2. 76 FR 21939 - Noise Exposure Map; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Lambert-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for... that the noise exposure maps submitted by the St. Louis Airport Authority for the Lambert-St. Louis International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement...

  3. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  4. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

    2007-07-31

    The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

  5. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  6. Single- and dual-carrier microwave noise abatement in the deep space network. [microwave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathker, D. A.; Brown, D. W.; Petty, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) microwave ground antenna systems are presented which simultaneously uplink very high power S-band signals while receiving very low level S- and X-band downlinks. Tertiary mechanisms associated with elements give rise to self-interference in the forms of broadband noise burst and coherent intermodulation products. A long-term program to reduce or eliminate both forms of interference is described in detail. Two DSN antennas were subjected to extensive interference testing and practical cleanup program; the initial performance, modification details, and final performance achieved at several planned stages are discussed. Test equipment and field procedures found useful in locating interference sources are discussed. Practices deemed necessary for interference-free operations in the DSN are described. Much of the specific information given is expected to be easily generalized for application in a variety of similar installations. Recommendations for future investigations and individual element design are given.

  7. Shock chloramination: potential treatment for Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae nuisance abatement in water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Broza, M; Halpern, M; Teltsch, B; Porat, R; Gasith, A

    1998-08-01

    In the early 1990s, infestations of midge larvae (Chironomidae, Chironomus sp.) were discovered in the potable water system of Tel Aviv, Israel. Control measures, such as draining and cleaning tanks, spraying water into the tank's air space, and electrocution traps of midge adults, were either inadequate or ineffective. In this system, monochloramine concentrations of up to 0.75 mg/liter are used routinely as a secondary disinfectant. This chemical was tested in the laboratory as a toxicant of midge larvae. The mortality of 4th instar midge larvae after short exposure to high chloramine concentrations (LC50 values of 32 mg/liter for 75 min) suggested the efficacy of instituting a Shock Chloramination treatment program. Tanks were partially drained until they contained only 20 cm of water and were then temporarily disconnected. Chloramine was added to this water to produce a concentration of approximately 70 mg/liter for 1-2 h. Subsequently, all dead chironomids were flushed out, and the tank was refilled to attain the operational volume of water. A 2nd identical treatment of water in the tank was suggested 7 d later to kill midges from reproductive adults and egg-masses that survived the 1st treatment. This treatment program was tested in commercial covered tanks and gave complete control of these pests for 6-10 wk. These results suggest that this treatment program may effectively prevent midge outbreaks in Israel's drinking water supply system during the height of the summer. PMID:9725031

  8. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  9. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy wholly abated with one week twice daily application of fluticasone propionate lotion: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) is among the most common dermatoses of pregnancy. Most reports of the effective treatment of PUPPP involve high potency topical corticosteroids or oral steroids. Many authorities have noted cases of PUPPP whose resolution followed parturition. A few have noted that PUPPP can arise and resolve the third trimester. A 36-year-old prima gravida at 38 weeks of gestation presented with a 2-week history of a pruritic papular abdominal eruption. She used fluticasone propionate 0.05 percent lotion twice a day. One week after starting this medication, the pruritus had resolved and the erythema/urticaria had abated; the pigmentary alteration had improved, but still remained. The PUPPP did not return after parturition. PUPPP can abate entirely during pregnancy. Fluticasone propionate 0.05 percent lotion, a class 5 (low-medium potency) corticosteroid, has a benign side effect profile and should be considered for the treatment of PUPPP during pregnancy.

  10. Residential lead-based-paint hazard remediation and soil lead abatement: their impact among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Beiser, A; Bellinger, D; Copenhafer, D; Weitzman, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study describes the impact of residential lead-based-paint hazard remediations on children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. METHODS: Changes in blood lead levels were observed following paint hazard remediation alone and in combination with soil abatement. RESULTS: After adjustment for the confounding variables paint hazard remediation alone was associated with a blood lead increase of 6.5 micrograms/dL (P = 0.5), and paint hazard remediation combined with soil abatement was associated with an increase of 0.9 microgram/dL (P = 36). CONCLUSIONS: Lead-based-paint hazard remediation as performed in this study, is not an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. PMID:9357358

  11. Asbestos School Hazard Abatement. Hearing on H.R. 3677, a Bill To Reauthorize the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act of 1984, before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    A House of Representatives subcommittee convened to consider legislation (H.R. 3677) to reauthorize the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act of 1984 (ASHAA) that provides financial assistance to needy school districts in the form of loans and grants for asbestos-related activities. The hearing record contains the text of H.R. 3677, testimony, and…

  12. Abatement of SO2-NOx binary gas mixtures using a ferruginous active absorbent: Part I. Synergistic effects and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Yinghui; Li, Xiaolei; Fan, Maohong; Russell, Armistead G; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Chunmei; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Genshan

    2015-04-01

    A novel ferruginous active absorbent, prepared by fly ash, industrial lime and the additive Fe(VI), was introduced for synchronous abatement of binary mixtures of SO2-NOx from simulated coal-fired flue gas. The synergistic action of various factors on the absorption of SO2 and NOx was investigated. The results show that a strong synergistic effect exists between Fe(VI) dose and reaction temperature for the desulfurization. It was observed that in the denitration process, the synergy of Fe(VI) dose and Ca/(S+N) had the most significant impact on the removal of NO, followed by the synergy of Fe(VI) and reaction temperature, and then the synergy of reaction temperature and flue gas humidity. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the surface characteristics of the raw and spent absorbent as well as fly ash. A reaction mechanism was proposed based on chemical analysis of sulfur and nitrogen species concentrations in the spent absorbent. The Gibbs free energy, equilibrium constants and partial pressures of the SO2-NOx binary system were determined by thermodynamics.

  13. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

  14. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.

  15. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  16. Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    El Hanandeh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar.

  17. A study to determine the applicability of noise abatement approach procedures to McDonnell Douglas Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. A.; Shannon, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of McDonnell Douglas DC-8, DC-9, and DC-10 jet transports were conducted to investigate the applicability of two segment approach noise abatement procedures to these airplanes. All models had the required glide slope capability at the certified landing flap settings. The DC-8 models would probably be limited to an upper segment glide slope of 5.5 degrees and would probably not be suitable for the two segment procedure in icing conditions. The DC-8 would not be compatible with this procedure at a reduced landing flap setting. The feasibility of installing a two segment approach system in the Douglas-built fleet of commercial jet transports from a hardware viewpoint is discussed. The candidate system consists of a two segment computer plus the necessary peripheral equipment interfaced with the existing autopilot and associated avionics. The required modifications and additions to existing equipment are described and the attendant costs estimated. Potential problems which may be encountered are also discussed.

  18. Evaluation of road traffic noise abatement by vegetation treatment in a 1:10 urban scale model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyung Suk; Lee, Sung Chan; Jeon, Jin Yong; Kang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A 1:10 scale of a street canyon and courtyard was constructed to evaluate sound propagation when various vegetation treatments including trees, shrubs, vegetated facades, and green roofs were installed in the urban environment. Noise reductions in the street canyon and courtyard were measured for both single and combined vegetation treatments. Vegetated facades mitigated the overall noise level up to 1.6 dBA in the street canyon, and greening facades were effective to reduce low frequency noise levels below 1 kHz. Trees increased the noise level at high frequency bands to some extent in the street canyon, while the noise level over 1 kHz decreased in the courtyard after installing the street trees. This is because tree crowns diffused and reflected high frequency sounds into the street canyon. Green roofs offered significant noise abatement over 1 kHz in the courtyard, while the vegetated facade was effective to reduce noise levels at low frequencies. In terms of the integrated effects of vegetation treatments, a combined vegetation treatment was less effective than the sum of single treatments in the street canyon. The maximum noise reduction observed for all combinations of vegetation treatments provided 3.4 dBA of insertion loss in the courtyard.

  19. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    El Hanandeh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar. PMID:23129610

  1. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  2. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23182778

  3. The cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens in Harris County by a abating chemical plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The work examines the engineering reasonableness and the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens n ambient air by abating emissions of organic chemicals in waste gas streams from chemical plants in Harris County, Texas, which contains the large chemical manufacturing complex in the Houston ship channel areas. The work also examined the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure through changing the way vent streams are released to the atmosphere. The achievable exposure reductions are estimated by use of 1980 census data and of ambient concentration estimates. The ambient concentration estimates are calculated using the Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) and publicly available emissions inventory collected by the Texas Air Control Board. The TCM-2 is based on the steady state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and first order pollutant decay. The cost estimates rely on published studies and on the waste gas stream parameters of the chemical plant vents. The cost effectiveness results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are controlled because of their contribution to ozone air pollution, not because of the carcinogenicity of their emissions.

  4. A sensitivity analysis of process design parameters, commodity prices and robustness on the economics of odour abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies.

  5. Single and Coupled Electrochemical Processes and Reactors for the Abatement of Organic Water Pollutants: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sirés, Ignasi; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2015-12-23

    Traditional physicochemical and biological techniques, as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are often inadequate, ineffective, or expensive for industrial water reclamation. Within this context, the electrochemical technologies have found a niche where they can become dominant in the near future, especially for the abatement of biorefractory substances. In this critical review, some of the most promising electrochemical tools for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants are discussed in detail with the following goals: (1) to present the fundamental aspects of the selected processes; (2) to discuss the effect of both the main operating parameters and the reactor design on their performance; (3) to critically evaluate their advantages and disadvantages; and (4) to forecast the prospect of their utilization on an applicable scale by identifying the key points to be further investigated. The review is focused on the direct electrochemical oxidation, the indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by electrogenerated active chlorine, and the coupling between anodic and cathodic processes. The last part of the review is devoted to the critical assessment of the reactors that can be used to put these technologies into practice. PMID:26654466

  6. Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lumia, Margaret E.; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

  7. Life cycle of meats: an opportunity to abate the greenhouse gas emission from meat industry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Thammawong, Manasikan; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Xu, Qingyi; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if the population makes different dietary choices. It was confirmed that the GHG emission of beef was greater than that of pork or chicken. The GHG emission from meat in general also depends on the per capita caloric intake (if meat supplies the recommended animal protein or contributes to it at the present rate). In a healthy and balanced diet (9.2 MJ i.e., 2200 kcal in total, where either mixed meat or chicken or pork or beef contributes 2.2%), the GHG emission is estimated to be 0.28 or 0.17 or 0.15 or 0.77 kg CO₂ eq/person/day, respectively. A change in consumption patterns (from beef to chicken or pork) and the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet would help to abate about 2.5-54.0 million tons (CO₂ eq) produced by the meat industry each year in Japan.

  8. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  9. Impact of Atmospheric Plasma Generated by a DBD Device on Quality-Related Attributes of "Abate Fetel" Pear Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Vannini, Lucia; Ragni, Luigi; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

    The effects of gas plasma generated by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) device on "Abate Fetel" fresh pears were assessed following exposure times from 10 to 90 min. In particular the decontamination efficacy towards the indigenous microflora naturally occurring on the surface of the fruit was evaluated. The main results showed that total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds had different inactivation dynamics. However, maximum cell decreases of 2.5 Log CFU/fruit were achieved for all the microbial groups after 90 min of treatment at a relative humidity level of 60% (22°C). Immediately after the treatments, no significant effects were observed on the measured quality traits. After storage for 5 days at 20°C significant changes were detected only in the peel (colour and antioxidant capacity) of fruit samples treated for 90 min. The Magness-Taylor flesh firmness (MTf), the soluble solid content (SSC) and the antioxidant capacity of fruits were unaffected by the tested treatments.

  10. Abatement of SO2-NOx binary gas mixtures using a ferruginous active absorbent: Part I. Synergistic effects and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Yinghui; Li, Xiaolei; Fan, Maohong; Russell, Armistead G; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Chunmei; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Genshan

    2015-04-01

    A novel ferruginous active absorbent, prepared by fly ash, industrial lime and the additive Fe(VI), was introduced for synchronous abatement of binary mixtures of SO2-NOx from simulated coal-fired flue gas. The synergistic action of various factors on the absorption of SO2 and NOx was investigated. The results show that a strong synergistic effect exists between Fe(VI) dose and reaction temperature for the desulfurization. It was observed that in the denitration process, the synergy of Fe(VI) dose and Ca/(S+N) had the most significant impact on the removal of NO, followed by the synergy of Fe(VI) and reaction temperature, and then the synergy of reaction temperature and flue gas humidity. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the surface characteristics of the raw and spent absorbent as well as fly ash. A reaction mechanism was proposed based on chemical analysis of sulfur and nitrogen species concentrations in the spent absorbent. The Gibbs free energy, equilibrium constants and partial pressures of the SO2-NOx binary system were determined by thermodynamics. PMID:25872709

  11. Management of space heating emissions for effective abatement of urban smoke and SO 2 pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economopoulos, Alexander P.

    The results from recent health studies reveal the necessity of more stringent short-term standards for fine particulates and SO 2, thus placing increased emphasis on the regulation of space heating boilers. In view of this situation, management approaches that combine well-known measures, such as the boiler Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) programs, with powerful new ones, such as the rationalization of the boiler operating hours, are examined. Emission inventory and air quality models are employed for analyzing the environmental and energy impacts of the above measures, while new highly computerized methods are considered for enhancing their implementation potential. The above analysis is performed against the background of the Metropolitan Athens Area so as to allow quantification of the environmental and energy impacts, offering thus a realistic presentation of the very significant, and often overlooked, potential of the proposed measures.

  12. Organic Contaminant Abatement in Reclaimed Water by UV/H2O2 and a Combined Process Consisting of O3/H2O2 Followed by UV/H2O2: Prediction of Abatement Efficiency, Energy Consumption, and Byproduct Formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Gerrity, Daniel; Lee, Minju; Gamage, Sujanie; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Canonica, Silvio; Snyder, Shane A; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-01

    UV/H2O2 processes can be applied to improve the quality of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants by attenuating trace organic contaminants (micropollutants). This study presents a kinetic model based on UV photolysis parameters, including UV absorption rate and quantum yield, and hydroxyl radical (·OH) oxidation parameters, including second-order rate constants for ·OH reactions and steady-state ·OH concentrations, that can be used to predict micropollutant abatement in wastewater. The UV/H2O2 kinetic model successfully predicted the abatement efficiencies of 16 target micropollutants in bench-scale UV and UV/H2O2 experiments in 10 secondary wastewater effluents. The model was then used to calculate the electric energies required to achieve specific levels of micropollutant abatement in several advanced wastewater treatment scenarios using various combinations of ozone, UV, and H2O2. UV/H2O2 is more energy-intensive than ozonation for abatement of most micropollutants. Nevertheless, UV/H2O2 is not limited by the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and bromate whereas ozonation may produce significant concentrations of these oxidation byproducts, as observed in some of the tested wastewater effluents. The combined process of O3/H2O2 followed by UV/H2O2, which may be warranted in some potable reuse applications, can achieve superior micropollutant abatement with reduced energy consumption compared to UV/H2O2 and reduced oxidation byproduct formation (i.e., NDMA and/or bromate) compared to conventional ozonation.

  13. Organic Contaminant Abatement in Reclaimed Water by UV/H2O2 and a Combined Process Consisting of O3/H2O2 Followed by UV/H2O2: Prediction of Abatement Efficiency, Energy Consumption, and Byproduct Formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Gerrity, Daniel; Lee, Minju; Gamage, Sujanie; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Canonica, Silvio; Snyder, Shane A; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-01

    UV/H2O2 processes can be applied to improve the quality of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants by attenuating trace organic contaminants (micropollutants). This study presents a kinetic model based on UV photolysis parameters, including UV absorption rate and quantum yield, and hydroxyl radical (·OH) oxidation parameters, including second-order rate constants for ·OH reactions and steady-state ·OH concentrations, that can be used to predict micropollutant abatement in wastewater. The UV/H2O2 kinetic model successfully predicted the abatement efficiencies of 16 target micropollutants in bench-scale UV and UV/H2O2 experiments in 10 secondary wastewater effluents. The model was then used to calculate the electric energies required to achieve specific levels of micropollutant abatement in several advanced wastewater treatment scenarios using various combinations of ozone, UV, and H2O2. UV/H2O2 is more energy-intensive than ozonation for abatement of most micropollutants. Nevertheless, UV/H2O2 is not limited by the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and bromate whereas ozonation may produce significant concentrations of these oxidation byproducts, as observed in some of the tested wastewater effluents. The combined process of O3/H2O2 followed by UV/H2O2, which may be warranted in some potable reuse applications, can achieve superior micropollutant abatement with reduced energy consumption compared to UV/H2O2 and reduced oxidation byproduct formation (i.e., NDMA and/or bromate) compared to conventional ozonation. PMID:26909504

  14. Evaluation of hybrid SNCR/SCR for NOx abatement on a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, V.; Boyle, J.; Huhmann, A.; Wallace, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have given rise to a wave of technology development that anticipates meeting clean air challenges. Indeed, in the first half of this decade, the US witnessed the retrofit of low NOx burners on coal, oil, and gas-fired boilers. Additionally, there were new developments in air staging technologies, gas reburn demonstrations under the Clean Coal Technology Program, in-field applications of SNCR retrofit on various types of utility boilers, and even a retrofit application of SCR on a cyclone coal-fired boiler. Industry observers predict large costs will be borne by major sources to meet the air quality goals in some Phase 2 provisions of the Act. In preparation for life beyond Phase 1, field development is now being focused on effective combinations of NOx controls. Potentially, two or more available means of NOx control can be compatibly combined to reduce NOx wherein the end result is more cost effective than the sum of its parts. Hybrid combinations of SNCR and SCR are a particularly flexible method for effecting moderate to deep reductions of NOx at cost ranges typically below those of a fully-engineered SCR retrofit. The purpose of this paper is to discuss redundant utilization observed in recent field work, and ramifications of increased utilization on lifestyle costs of NOx reduction borne by owners and operators.

  15. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  16. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen.

  17. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John G.; Brandt, Craig C.; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    2011-06-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  18. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen. PMID:27196886

  19. Simulation of the GHG Abatement Potentials in the U.S. Building Sector by 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris; Bonnet, Florence; Lai, Judy; Phan, Trucy

    2010-10-01

    various USDOE research funding scenarios on the adoption of these and other building energy technologies. The results demonstrate that passive technologies contain significant potential for carbon reductions - exceeding 1165 Mt cumulative savings between 2005 and 2050 (with 50% likelihood) and outperforming similar R&D funding programs for distributed photovoltaics and high efficiency solid-state lighting.

  20. Whole Farm Net Greenhouse Gas Abatement from Establishing Kikuyu-Based Perennial Pastures in South-Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dean T; Sanderman, Jonathan; Eady, Sandra J; Masters, David G; Sanford, Paul

    2012-08-03

    On-farm activities that reduce GHG emissions or sequester carbon from the atmosphere to compensate for anthropogenic emissions are currently being evaluated by the Australian Government as carbon offset opportunities. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of establishing and grazing Kikuyu pastures, integrated as part of a mixed Merino sheep and cropping system, as a carbon offset mechanism. For the assessment of changes in net greenhouse gas emissions, results from a combination of whole farm economic and livestock models were used (MIDAS and GrassGro). Net GHG emissions were determined by deducting increased emissions from introducing this practice change (increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to higher stocking rates) from the soil carbon sequestered from growing the Kikuyu pasture. Our results indicate that livestock systems using perennial pastures may have substantially lower net GHG emissions, and reduced GHG intensity of production, compared with annual plant-based production systems. Soil carbon accumulation by converting 45% of arable land within a farm enterprise to Kikuyu-based pasture was determined to be 0.80 t CO₂-e farm ha(-1) yr(-1) and increased GHG emissions (leakage) was 0.19 t CO₂-e farm ha(-1) yr(-1). The net benefit of this practice change was 0.61 t CO₂-e farm ha(-1) yr(-1) while the rate of soil carbon accumulation remains constant. The use of perennial pastures improved the efficiency of animal production almost eight fold when expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of animal product. The strategy of using perennial pasture to improve production levels and store additional carbon in the soil demonstrates how livestock should be considered in farming systems as both sources and sinks for GHG abatement.

  1. New high efficiency mixed cycles with air-blown combustion for CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Gambini, M.; Guizzi, G.L.; Vellini, M.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a new advanced mixed cycle (AMC) for CO{sub 2} emission abatement with high conversion efficiency is presented. The AMC plant lay-out consists of a reheat gas turbine with steam injection in the first combustion chamber, a steam turbine for steam expansion before its injection, a heat recovery boiler for superheated and resuperheated steam generation and an atmospheric separator for water recovery from exhaust gas mixture. The steam recirculation in the cycle allows to reduce the excess of air to limit the turbine inlet temperature and then to enrich the exhaust gas by CO{sub 2}, as it occurs in combined cycle provided with exhaust gas recirculation at the compressor inlet. This involves a stack flow rate much lower than in conventional cycle configuration sot that exhaust gas treatment for CO{sub 2} removal may be usefully applied. In this work the chemical absorption technique for CO{sub 2} removal has been considered. The thermodynamic performance of the proposed AMC plant has been investigated in comparison with that attainable by combined cycle power plants (CC). This comparison has been developed pointing out the efficiency decrease involved by the CO{sub 2} removal systems and by the unit for the liquefaction of the removed carbon dioxide. The main result of the performed investigation is that while the two plants attain the same efficiency level without CO{sub 2} removal (about 56% for AMC and 55.8% for CC) the AMC plant achieves a net electric efficiency of about 50% with CO{sub 2} removal and liquefaction units: it's over 2 points higher than the efficiency evaluated for the Cc equipped with the same CO{sub 2} units (about 47.7%). The final carbon dioxide emissions are about 0.04 kg/kWh for AMC and CC, while the emissions of the plants without CO{sub 2} removal systems are about 0.36 kg/kWh.

  2. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. Methods: A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. Results: In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. Conclusion: The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation. PMID:27186297

  3. Candidate-Gene Screening and Association Analysis at the Autism-Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 16p: Evidence of Association at GRIN2A and ABAT

    PubMed Central

    Barnby, Gabrielle; Abbott, Aaron; Sykes, Nuala; Morris, Andrew; Weeks, Daniel E.; Mott, Richard; Lamb, Janine; Bailey, Anthony J.; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose underlying genetic causes have yet to be identified. To date, there have been eight genome screens for autism, two of which identified a putative susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p. In the present study, 10 positional candidate genes that map to 16p11-13 were examined for coding variants: A2BP1, ABAT, BFAR, CREBBP, EMP2, GRIN2A, MRTF-B, SSTR5, TBX6, and UBN1. Screening of all coding and regulatory regions by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography identified seven nonsynonymous changes. Five of these mutations were found to cosegregate with autism, but the mutations are not predicted to have deleterious effects on protein structure and are unlikely to represent significant etiological variants. Selected variants from candidate genes were genotyped in the entire International Molecular Genetics Study of Autism Consortium collection of 239 multiplex families and were tested for association with autism by use of the pedigree disequilibrium test. Additionally, genotype frequencies were compared between 239 unrelated affected individuals and 192 controls. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium were investigated, and the transmission of haplotypes across candidate genes was tested for association. Evidence of single-marker association was found for variants in ABAT, CREBBP, and GRIN2A. Within these genes, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were subsequently genotyped in 91 autism trios (one affected individual and two unaffected parents), and the association was replicated within GRIN2A (Fisher's exact test, P<.0001). Logistic regression analysis of SNP data across GRIN2A and ABAT showed a trend toward haplotypic differences between cases and controls. PMID:15830322

  4. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports.

  5. National radon contractor proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

  6. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

  7. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. This program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

  8. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

  9. Reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) in exhaust of advanced PM-NO x abatement technologies for future diesel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mosimann, Thomas; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Long-term exposure to increased levels of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) and particulate matter (PM) affect human health. Many cities are currently not able to fulfill European air quality standards for these critical pollutants. Meanwhile, promising new abatement technologies such as diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are developed to reduce PM and RNC emissions. Herein, effects of a urea-based SCR system on RNC emissions are discussed and we quantified the highly reactive intermediates isocyanic acid (HNCO) and ammonia (NH 3), both potential secondary pollutants of the urea-based SCR chemistry. A diesel engine (3.0 L, 100 kW), operated in the ISO 8178/4 C1, cycle was used as test platform. A V 2O 5-based SCR catalyst was either applied as such or down-stream of a high oxidation potential-DPF (hox-DPF). With active SCR, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) conversion efficiencies of 0.86-0.94 and 0.86-0.99 were obtained. On the other hand, mean HNCO and NH 3 emissions increased to 240-280 and 1800-1900 mg h -1. On a molar basis, HNCO accounted for 0.8-1.4% and NH 3 for 14-25% of the emitted RNCs. On roads, SCR systems will partly be inactive when exhaust temperatures drop below 220 °C. The system was active only during 75% of the test cycle, and urea dosing was stopped and restarted several times. Consequently, NO conversion stopped but interestingly, NO 2 was still converted. Such light-off and shutdown events are frequent in urban driving, compromising the overall deNO x efficiency. Another important effect of the SCR technology is illustrated by the NH 3/NO 2 ratio, which was >1 with active SCR, indicating that exhaust is basic rather than acidic after the SCR catalyst. Under these conditions, isocyanic acid is stable. The widespread use of various converter technologies already affected RNC release. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and hox-DPFs increased NO 2 emissions, three-way catalysts (TWCs

  10. Nitrogen-modified nano-titania: True phase composition, microstructure and visible-light induced photocatalytic NOx abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobaldi, D. M.; Pullar, R. C.; Gualtieri, A. F.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Singh, M. K.; Seabra, M. P.; Labrincha, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a popular photocatalyst used for many environmental and anti-pollution applications, but it normally operates under UV light, exploiting ∼5% of the solar spectrum. Nitrification of titania to form N-doped TiO2 has been explored as a way to increase its photocatalytic activity under visible light, and anionic doping is a promising method to enable TiO2 to harvest visible-light by changing its photo-absorption properties. In this paper, we explore the insertion of nitrogen into the TiO2 lattice using our green sol-gel nanosynthesis method, used to create 10 nm TiO2 NPs. Two parallel routes were studied to produce nitrogen-modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), using HNO3+NH3 (acid-precipitated base-peptised) and NH4OH (totally base catalysed) as nitrogen sources. These NPs were thermally treated between 450 and 800 °C. Their true phase composition (crystalline and amorphous phases), as well as their micro-/nanostructure (crystalline domain shape, size and size distribution, edge and screw dislocation density) was fully characterised through advanced X-ray methods (Rietveld-reference intensity ratio, RIR, and whole powder pattern modelling, WPPM). As pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are of particular concern for human health, so the photocatalytic activity of the NPs was assessed by monitoring NOx abatement, using both solar and white-light (indoor artificial lighting), simulating outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Results showed that the onset of the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation (ART) occurred at temperatures above 450 °C, and NPs heated to 450 °C possessed excellent photocatalytic activity (PCA) under visible white-light (indoor artificial lighting), with a PCA double than that of the standard P25 TiO2 NPs. However, higher thermal treatment temperatures were found to be detrimental for visible-light photocatalytic activity, due to the effects of four simultaneous occurrences: (i) loss of OH groups and water adsorbed

  11. Health benefits from reducing indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use in China--three abatement scenarios.

    PubMed

    Mestl, Heidi Elizabeth Staff; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin

    2007-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), indoor air pollution (IAP) from the use of solid fuels in households in the developing world is responsible for more than 1.6 million premature deaths each year, whereof 0.42 million occur in China alone. We argue that the methodology applied by WHO--the so-called fuel-based approach--underestimates the health effects, and suggest an alternative method. Combining exposure-response functions and current mortality and morbidity rates, we estimate the burden of disease of IAP in China and the impacts of three abatement scenarios. Using linear exposure-response functions, we find that 3.5 [0.8-14.7 95% CI] million people die prematurely due to IAP in China each year. The central estimate constitutes 47% of all deaths in China. We find that modest changes in the use of cooking fuels in rural households might have a large health impact, reducing annual mortality by 0.63 [0.1-3. 2 95% CI] million. If the indoor air quality (IAQ) standard set by the Chinese government (150 microg PM(10)/m(3)) was met in all households, we estimate that 0.9 [0.2-4.8] million premature deaths would be avoided in urban areas and 2.8 [0.7-12.4] million in rural areas. However, in urban areas this would require improvements to the outdoor air quality in addition to a complete fuel switch to clean fuels in households. We estimate that a fuel switch in urban China could prevent 0.7 [0.2-4.8] million premature deaths. The methodology for exposure assessment applied here is probably more realistic than the fuel-based approach; however, the use of linear exposure-response relationships most likely tends to overestimate the effects. The discrepancies between our results and the WHO estimates is probably also explained by our use of "all-cause mortality" which includes important causes of death like cardiovascular diseases, conditions known to be closely associated with exposure to particulate pollution, whereas the WHO estimate is limited to

  12. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  13. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156

  14. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services.

  15. Innovation under cap-and-trade programs

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Margaret R.

    2012-01-01

    Policies incentivizing the private sector to reach its innovative potential in “clean” technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. This article explores the relationship between innovation and cap-and-trade programs (CTPs)—the world's most prominent climate policy instrument—through empirical evidence drawn from successful CTPs for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide control. The article shows that before trading began for these CTPs, analysts overestimated the value of allowances in a pattern suggestive of the frequent a priori overestimation of the compliance costs of regulation. When lower-than-expected allowance prices were observed, in part because of the unexpected range of abatement approaches used in the lead-up to trading, emissions sources chose to bank allowances in significant numbers and reassess abatement approaches going forward. In addition, commercially oriented inventive activity declined for emissions-reducing technologies with a wide range of costs and technical characteristics, dropping from peaks before the establishment of CTPs to nadirs a few years into trading. This finding is consistent with innovators deciding during trading that their research and development investments should be reduced, based on assessments of future market conditions under the relevant CTPs. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and their implications for innovation and climate policy. PMID:22411797

  16. Illinois abandoned mined lands reclamation program: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmann, T.J.; Jenkusky, S.M.; Massie, S.

    1985-12-01

    The Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council (AMLRC), created in 1975, is responsible for the abatement of hazardous and environmental problems associated with pre-law abandoned coal mines throughout the State. The availability of federal funds for reclamation, through passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), greatly expanded the program. With funds provided through early cooperative agreements and current annual grants from the federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM), the State has reclaimed, or is currently reclaiming, 182 mine sites and has assisted OSM in the abatement of 67 emergency situations. This paper reviews the progress made by the AMLRC in dealing with the State's abandoned mine problems. Specifically, the numbers and types of problem sites reclaimed annually, their costs, and reclamation methods are identified. Progress of the program relative to the entire State's abandoned mine problems is reviewed. The effects of other reclamation factors, such as natural revegetation, remaining privately-funded reclamation, and secondary carbon recovery, on the overall scope of the State's program are also examined. General comments are made concerning grant preparation, State-OSM cooperation and AML-Inventory control. Selected reclamation projects and techniques are also discussed. 11 references, 3 tables.

  17. Strategies for steam handling and H/sub 2/S abatement at geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.F.; Stephens, F.B.

    1981-08-05

    Strict limitations on the emission of H/sub 2/S from new geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California have been imposed by Lake and Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control Districts. Lake County, under new source review rules, has stipulated that specific technologies shall be utilized to limit H/sub 2/S emissions to 5 lb/h as a condition for determination of compliance. The status of these technologies as well as other ongoing technology development efforts to conserve steam and abate H/sub 2/S are evaluated. Although projections indicate that it may be possible to meet the 5 lb/h limit, there is no firm assurance of achievement at this time because of the unproven, full-scale performance status of some key technologies specified by the air pollution control districts.

  18. Investigating fossil hydrothermal systems by means of fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in banded travertine: an example from Castelnuovo dell'Abate (southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Marco; Boschi, Chiara; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo; Liotta, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) hosts geothermal anomalies with associated widespread CO2 gas-rich manifestations and active travertine-deposing thermal springs. Geothermal anomalies have been active since the Late Miocene and have led to the formation of widespread Late Miocene-Pleistocene travertine deposits and meso- and epithermal mineralizations. This study investigates the travertine deposit exposed in the Castelnuovo dell'Abate area of southern Tuscany. Here, a fissure-ridge type travertine deposit and its feeding conduits, currently filled with banded calcite veins (i.e. banded travertine), represent a spectacular example of fossil hydrothermal circulation in the peripheral area of the exploited Monte Amiata geothermal field. The Castelnuovo dell'Abate travertine deposit and associated calcite veins were analysed to establish the characteristics of the parent hydrothermal fluids, and the age of this circulation. The focus of the study was on fluid inclusions, rarely considered in travertine studies, but able to provide direct information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the original fluid. Uranium-thorium geochronological data provided further constraints on the: (1) age of tectonic activity; (2) age of the hydrothermal circulation; and (3) evolution of the Monte Amiata geothermal anomaly. Results indicate that brittle deformation (NW- and SE-trending normal to oblique-slip faults) was active during at least the Middle Pleistocene and controlled a hydrothermal circulation mainly characterized by fluids of meteoric origin, and as old as 300-350 ka. This is the oldest circulation documented to date in the Monte Amiata area. The fluid chemical composition is comparable to that of fluids currently exploited in the shallow reservoir of the Monte Amiata geothermal field, therefore suggesting that fluid composition has not changed substantially over time. These fluids, however, have cooled by about 70 °C in the last 300-350 ka, corresponding to a cooling rate

  19. Verification approach for the Shuttle/Payload Contamination Evaluation computer program - Spacelab induced environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a compilation of the results of a systems level Shuttle/payload contamination analysis and related computer modeling activities. The current technical assessment of the contamination problems anticipated during the Spacelab program are discussed and recommendations are presented on contamination abatement designs and operational procedures based on experience gained in the field of contamination analysis and assessment, dating back to the pre-Skylab era. The ultimate test of the Shuttle/Payload Contamination Evaluation program will be through comparison of predictions with measured levels of contamination during actual flight.

  20. Intercultural Programs Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Lynne

    The report evaluates the programs of the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools' Office of Intercultural Programs' services. The programs are designed to provide educational equity and serve as a resource for students, parents, community, and staff in a variety of areas, including: a voluntary transfer program; paired and magnet schools; extended day…

  1. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    PubMed

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding.

  2. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  3. Development and field-scale optimization of a honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator/recuperative oxidizer for the abatement of volatile organic carbons from semiconductor industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji; Chen, Yufeng; Cao, Limei; Guo, Yuling; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    The combined concentrator/oxidizer system has been proposed as an effective physical-chemical option and proven to be a viable solution that enables Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) emitters to comply with the regulations. In this work, a field scale honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator combined with a recuperative oxidizer was developed and applied for the treatment of the VOC waste gas. The research shows the following: (1) for the adsorption rotor, zeolite is a more appropriate material than Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The designing and operation parameters of the concentrator were discussed in detail including the size and the optimal rotation speed of rotor. Also the developed rotor performance's was evaluated in the field; (2) Direct Fired Thermal Oxidizer (DFTO), Recuperative Oxidizer (RO), Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) and Regenerative Catalytic oxidizer (RCO) are the available incinerators and the RO was selected as the oxidizer in this work; (3) The overall performance of the developed rotor/oxidizer was explored in a field scale under varying conditions; (4) The energy saving strategy was fulfilled by reducing heat loss from the oxidizer and recovering heat from the exhaust gas. Data shows that the developed rotor/oxidizer could remove over 95% VOCs with reasonable cost and this could be helpful for similar plants when considering VOC abatement.

  4. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  5. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO sub x Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  6. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO{sub x} Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  7. Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO{sub 2}: Improved NO{sub 2} conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez-Nicolás, M.; Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M.

    2015-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NO{sub x}) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO{sub 2}: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO{sub 2}, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NO{sub x} removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO{sub 2}. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO{sub 2} accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples.

  8. Progress report: long-term benthic monitoring and assessment program for the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay (July 1986-October 1987). Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, A.F.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Scott, L.C.; Dickens, V.A.; Ranasinghe, J.A.

    1988-05-01

    The long-term benthic monitoring and assessment study for the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay is an integral component of the interdisciplinary Chesapeake Bay monitoring and assessment program. The major long-term objectives of the program are to: (1) determine the effectiveness of Baywide pollution abatement programs; (2) measure the cumulative, long-term impacts of power plant operations on Bay benthic resources; and (3) assess the status and trends for Bay water quality and biological resources. Sampling of benthic communities, sediments, and water quality was conducted from July 1, 1984 through December 1987 at 70 stations in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

  9. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation. PMID:26620865

  11. Intercultural Programs: Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    The Office of Intercultural Programs of the Des Moines public schools addresses the equity needs of the district through a wide range of equity services. The Office serves as a resource for students, parents, community, and staff, and provides service in the areas of: (1) the Voluntary Transfer Program; (2) paired and magnet schools; (3) extended…

  12. EPA Chesapeake Bay program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Governmental Efficiency and the District of Columbia of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, March 1, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Representatives of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported on progress made in evaluating environmental impacts in the Bay and developing recommendations for their abatement. The program was characterized as a positive example of intergovernmental cooperation in solving environmental problems. Testimony was directed at a description of the monitoring and analysis results and with the implications that the data base under development will have for other bodies of water. (DCK)

  13. Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Roger; Ionescu, Anda; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaëlle; Perrussel, Olivier; Languille, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris R.-A. Lefèvre1, A. Ionescu1, J. Desplat2, R. Kounkou-Arnaud2, O. Perrussel3, B. Languille4 At the beginning of the 21st century air pollution in Paris continued to considerably decrease. An evident visual consequence was the replacement of thick gypseous black crusts by thin grey coverings on the façades. A quantitative approach of this phenomenon was taken by measurement in the field, followed by calculation using Dose-Response Functions (DRF) and mapping the geographic distribution on a grid of 100m x100m of: 1) The total surface of façades of buildings and monuments in the part of Paris inscribed on the UNESCO List between the Ile Saint-Louis and the Concorde Square; 2) The surface of limestone and window glass present on each façade; 3) The distribution of SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentration every year from 1997 to 2014; 4) The response of materials to climatic and pollution doses; 5) The effective damage to limestone and window glass. Results of measurements in the field: 1) The 772 buildings and monuments inventoried have 20 674 m in length and 414 811 m2 in façade surface: they are representative of the centre of Paris; 2) Limestone occupies 348 268 m2 and window glass 207 394 m2; 3) The mean annual concentration in SO2 dropped from 20 to less than 3 μg m-3; NO2 from 60 to 40 μg m-3 and PM10 from 30 to 20 μg m-3. Results by application of DRF: 4) Limestone recession was divided by 5 in 18 years, from 10 to 2 μm y-1, but with only a spatial variation of 2%; 5) Limestone reflectance increased from 70.5 to 72.5 %; 6) The annual mass of deposited and neo-formed particles on window glass decreased from 100 to 20 μg cm-2; 7) The annual haze of window glass decreased from 8 to 3.5%. Effective damage to stone and glass: 8) The mean annual mass of limestone eroded on the façades decreased according to time but with an irregular

  14. Comparative performance evaluation of conventional and two-phase hydrophobic stirred tank reactors for methane abatement: Mass transfer and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Cantera, Sara; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrated for the first time the capability of methanotrophs to grow inside silicone oil (SO200) and identified the optimum cultivation conditions for enrichment of hydrophobic methanotrophs (high dilution rates (D) and low CH4 transfer rates). The potential of the hydrophobic methanotrophs enriched was assessed in a single-phase stirred tank reactor (1P-STR) and in a two-phase stirred tank reactor (2P-STR). Different operational conditions were systematically evaluated in both reactors (SO200 fractions of 30 and 60 %, stirring rates of 250 and 500 rpm, and D of 0.1-0.35 day(-1) with and without biomass retention). The results showed that the TPPB only supported a superior CH4 abatement performance compared to the 1P-STR (40% enhancement at 250 rpm and 25% enhancement at 500 rpm) at a D of 0.3 day(-1) due to the retention of the biocatalytic activity inside the SO200, while the 1P-STR achieved higher elimination capacities (EC up to ≈3 times) than the TPPB under the rest of conditions tested (ECmax  = 91.1 g m(-3)  h(-1) ). Furthermore, the microscopic examination and DGGE-sequencing of the communities showed that the presence of SO200 influenced the microbial population structure, impacting on bacterial biodiversity and favoring the growth of methanotrophs such as Methylosarcina. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1203-1212. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MECHANISTIC STUDIES AND DESIGN OF HIGHLY ACTIVE CUPRATE CATALYSTS FOR THE DIRECT DECOMPOSITION AND SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE AND HYDROCARBONS TO NITROGEN FOR ABATEMENT OF STACK EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-30

    A flow trough type catalytic reactor system was adequately modified for NO related catalytic and adsorption measurements, including the on-line connection of a digital chemiluminescent NO-NO{sub x} analyzer to the reactor outlet system. Moreover, we have largely completed the installation of an FTIR coupled catalytic system containing a HTEC cell for high temperature DRIFT studies. Three different barium cuprate samples, Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 3}, BaCuO{sub 2}, and Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5} were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD for catalytic tests. Prior to catalytic studies over these cuprates, a new, liquid indium based supported molten metal catalyst (In-SMMC) was tested in the reduction of NO by various reductants. In the presence of excess O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, the In-SMMC proved to be more active for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to N{sub 2} by ethanol than most other catalysts. Using C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols as reductants, self sustained periodic oscillations observed in the NO{sub x} concentrations of reactor effluents indicated the first time that radical intermediates can be involved in the SCR of NO by alcohols. Further, In-SMMC is the only effective and water tolerant SCR catalyst reported thus far which contains SiO{sub 2} support. Thus, this novel catalyst opens up a promising new alternative for developing an effective and durable catalyst for NO{sub x} abatement in stack emission.

  16. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  17. Climate Benefits of U.S. EPA Programs and Policies That Reduced Methane Emissions 1993-2013.

    PubMed

    Melvin, April M; Sarofim, Marcus C; Crimmins, Allison R

    2016-07-01

    The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established voluntary programs to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, and regulations that either directly reduce CH4 or provide co-benefits of reducing CH4 emissions while controlling for other air pollutants. These programs and regulations address four sectors that are among the largest domestic CH4 emissions sources: municipal solid waste landfills, oil and natural gas, coal mining, and agricultural manure management. Over the 1993-2013 time period, 127.9 Tg of CH4 emissions reductions were attributed to these programs, equal to about 18% of the counterfactual (or potential) domestic emissions over that time, with almost 70% of the abatement due to landfill sector regulations. Reductions attributed to the voluntary programs increased nearly continuously during the study period. We quantified how these reductions influenced atmospheric CH4 concentration and global temperature, finding a decrease in concentration of 28 ppb and an avoided temperature rise of 0.006 °C by 2013. Further, we monetized the climate and ozone-health impacts of the CH4 reductions, yielding an estimated benefit of $255 billion. These results indicate that EPA programs and policies have made a strong contribution to CH4 abatement, with climate and air quality benefits. PMID:27227378

  18. Climate Benefits of U.S. EPA Programs and Policies That Reduced Methane Emissions 1993-2013.

    PubMed

    Melvin, April M; Sarofim, Marcus C; Crimmins, Allison R

    2016-07-01

    The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established voluntary programs to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, and regulations that either directly reduce CH4 or provide co-benefits of reducing CH4 emissions while controlling for other air pollutants. These programs and regulations address four sectors that are among the largest domestic CH4 emissions sources: municipal solid waste landfills, oil and natural gas, coal mining, and agricultural manure management. Over the 1993-2013 time period, 127.9 Tg of CH4 emissions reductions were attributed to these programs, equal to about 18% of the counterfactual (or potential) domestic emissions over that time, with almost 70% of the abatement due to landfill sector regulations. Reductions attributed to the voluntary programs increased nearly continuously during the study period. We quantified how these reductions influenced atmospheric CH4 concentration and global temperature, finding a decrease in concentration of 28 ppb and an avoided temperature rise of 0.006 °C by 2013. Further, we monetized the climate and ozone-health impacts of the CH4 reductions, yielding an estimated benefit of $255 billion. These results indicate that EPA programs and policies have made a strong contribution to CH4 abatement, with climate and air quality benefits.

  19. Environmental Research Program 1989 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and effects of energy-related pollutants on all compartments of the environment. This multidisciplinary program includes both basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, ecology, and biology, as well as research and development of advanced technologies for pollutant abatement and destruction, efficient combustion, and new methods of detection and analysis of different contaminants. The Program's Annual Report contains summaries of research performed during 1989 in the areas of combustion, flue-gas chemistry, atmospheric aerosols, ecological systems, membrane bioenergetics, and analytical chemistry. The Combustion Group studies complex combustion processes by acquiring a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical processes that determine the combustion efficiency, formation, and emissions of species from these processes. The Flue-Gas Chemistry Group is engaged in research whose aim is to help develop new processes for simultaneous SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. The Atmospheric Aerosols Group studies atmospheric chemical processes in the laboratory and in the field, and develops novel methods for individual particle characterization. New activities have been initiated by the Ecological Systems Group to develop means of predicting the toxicity of contaminants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The Membrane Bioenergetics Group studies the effects of chemically reactive compounds on biological systems. The main emphases in Analytical Chemistry have continued to be in the area of asteroid impacts and mass extinctions. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Experimental bypass of Lake Reality, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Studies conducted by the Y-12 Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Program and Y-12 Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) in 1995 and 1996 (Y/ER-251, Y/ER-277) identified concerns regarding Lake Reality`s effect on the transport and transformation of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The pond appeared to have two potentially adverse effects on mercury transport. First, it acted as a biochemical reactor, converting inorganic mercury in inflowing water to methylmercury, a more toxic substance with extremely high bioaccumulation potential in aquatic environments. Second, the pond appeared to trap mercury associated with suspended particulates during periods of stormflow, and slowly released that mercury via the export of resuspended particles during periods of baseflow. The net effect was to raise the day-to-day exposure of aquatic life to mercury in the stream downstream from the pond, and add to the calculated mercury loading of the stream under baseflow conditions. Scientific investigations thus indicated that diversion of the flow of EFPC around Lake Reality had the potential to reduce time-averaged concentrations of methylmercury and total mercury in the creek below its discharge, but that such diversion might also interfere with possible beneficial effects of the retention pond. Therefore, an experimental bypass of the pond was undertaken in late 1996 to evaluate the consequences of such an action before embarking on a more permanent change.

  1. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts

  2. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article lists postsecondary programs specifically for people with deafness and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Alphabetized by state, contact information is provided for each of the programs, along with date the program was founded, programs, degrees, and number of students and staff with…

  3. Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J; Loar, James M

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  4. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  5. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  6. Twenty-five years of ecological recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: review of environmental problems and remedial actions.

    PubMed

    Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  7. VOC abatement clears the air

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    For several years, employees at a New York City brokerage company's printing facility experienced health problems associated with poor indoor air quality. Symptoms included headaches, dizziness, and respiratory and sinus conditions. The 4,000-square-foot facility is on the ground level of a 10-story office building, adjacent to occupied office floors, a loading dock and an outdoor, multilevel parking garage. It also is near a major transit tunnel, and diesel and automotive exhaust fumes were evident. A Phase 1 indoor environmental assessment revealed no violations of OSHA permissible exposure limits; however, such VOCs as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylenes and toluene were found to be at nuisance'' irritant levels. Phase 1 results provided enough information to implement mitigation and remediation efforts.

  8. Atmospheric iodine abates smog ozone.

    PubMed

    HAMILTON, W F; LEVINE, M; SIMON, E

    1963-04-12

    Traces of iodine in test samples of irradiated photochemical smog atmospheres either inhibit ozone formation or lower its concentration. Eye and respiratory irritation are reduced qualitatively. Iodine is more effective in suppressing ozone in a photochemical smog atmosphere than it is in purified air.

  9. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  10. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  11. Environmental research program. 1995 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and noncriteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems. Combustion chemistry research emphasizes modeling at microscopic and macroscopic scales. At the microscopic scale, functional sensitivity analysis is used to explore the nature of the potential-to-dynamics relationships for reacting systems. Rate coefficients are estimated using quantum dynamics and path integral approaches. At the macroscopic level, combustion processes are modelled using chemical mechanisms at the appropriate level of detail dictated by the requirements of predicting particular aspects of combustion behavior. Parallel computing has facilitated the efforts to use detailed chemistry in models of turbulent reacting flow to predict minor species concentrations.

  12. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program annual report, 1988, to the President and Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-13

    The Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 (Title VII of the Energy Security Act of 1980, Public Law 96-294) established the Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation to develop and implement the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The purpose of NAPAP is to increase the authors understanding of the causes and effects of acidic deposition, and to produce scientific information to support decisionmaking regarding acidic deposition control and abatement strategies. The Report, the Program's seventh, is divided into three major sections. The first section describes the Program's organizational structure, external coordination activities, peer reviews, and budgetary status. It also includes a discussion of the NAPAP assessment process, and provides a synopsis of NAPAP's plan and schedule for 1989 and 1990 assessment reports.

  13. Effect of ball-milling and Fe-/Al-doping on the structural aspect and visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 towards Escherichia coli bacteria abatement.

    PubMed

    Schlur, Laurent; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Gilliot, Pierre; Gallart, Mathieu; Carré, Gaëlle; Zafeiratos, Spiros; Keller, Nicolas; Keller, Valérie; André, Philippe; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Hezard, Bernard; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Pourroy, Geneviève

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli abatement was studied in liquid phase under visible light in the presence of two commercial titania photocatalysts, and of Fe- and Al-doped titania samples prepared by high energy ball-milling. The two commercial titania photocatalysts, Aeroxide P25 (Evonik industries) exhibiting both rutile and anatase structures and MPT625 (Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha), a Fe-, Al-, P- and S-doped titania exhibiting only the rutile phase, are active suggesting that neither the structure nor the doping is the driving parameter. Although the MPT625 UV-visible spectrum is shifted towards the visible domain with respect to the P25 one, the effect on bacteria is not increased. On the other hand, the ball milled iron-doped P25 samples exhibit low activities in bacteria abatement under visible light due to charge recombinations unfavorable to catalysis as shown by photoluminescence measurements. While doping elements are in interstitial positions within the rutile structure in MPT625 sample, they are located at the surface in ball milled samples and in isolated octahedral units according to (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The location of doping elements at the surface is suggested to be responsible for the sample cytotoxicity observed in the dark.

  14. Programs To Aid FORTRAN Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragosta, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  15. Robot programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano-Perez, T.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial robot's principal advantage over traditional automation is programmability. Robots can perform arbitrary sequences of pre-stored motions or of motions computed as functions of sensory input. This paper reviews requirements for and developments in robot programming systems. The key requirements for robot programming systems examined in the paper are in the areas of sensing, world modeling, motion specification, flow of control, and programming support. Existing and proposed robot programming systems fall into three broad categories: guiding systems in which the user leads a robot through the motions to be performed, robot-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user specifies operations by their desired effect on objects. A representative sample of systems in each of these categories is surveyed in the paper.

  16. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices.

  17. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

  18. EPA construction grants: Information on the Milwaukee Area Sewerage System Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Milwaukee Sewerage Water Pollution Abatement Program was initiated in response to federal and state court lawsuits to halt Lake Michigan's pollution. It is about $360 million under budget and on schedule with a 1996 target completion date. GAO found that the district meets the federal criteria for an eligible grantee; federal and Wisconsin regulations permit architect and engineering contracts to be competitively negotiated and do not require advertised competitive bidding; the job site rule, which limits allowable overhead billings, was not applied because it was determined that the operation of the prime contractor responsible for managing the program and its technical integrity did not constitute a job site; no federal funds have been involved in the disposition of rock from the north shore project site; and the total estimated architect and engineering costs $344.7 million represent about 28 percent of total estimated construction costs.

  19. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  20. Quality Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Dan; Smith, Judy

    1980-01-01

    Programs in special education and business with implications for reducing teacher stress and burnout are described. Included are inservice programs focusing on personal and environmental stressors as well as on administrative remedies. (CL)

  1. Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

  2. Sponsored Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University Business Administration, 1980

    1980-01-01

    General administrative principles and procedures applicable to any type of program sponsored by external funds, including the federal government, are examined. Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements are the devices for authorizing sponsored programs. Since the institutions assume full legal responsibility for the programs and for fulfilling…

  3. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  4. Gifted Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehning, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes programs for the gifted: visual and performing arts for secondary students, enrichment for rural elementary students, and a learning center elementary enrichment program. NOTE: includes "INTERARTS: The High School Program for the Talented in the Arts" by Barbara Luehning, "Spice" by Jane V. Salisbury, and "Learning Center Enrichment…

  5. MEXUS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Alvord; Hergert, Michael

    The MEXUS program, a transnational, undergraduate, dual-degree program in the United States and Mexico, addresses the problem of how universities can better prepare students to manage business in an interdependent global marketplace. The program was initiated as a consortium of four institutions (San Diego State University and Southwestern College…

  6. Programming Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan L.

    1994-01-01

    Programming that involves both the alumni association and current students can build good working relationships, promote the alumni office, and help provide efficient student programming. The experiences of several colleges and universities illustrate the creative role alumni can play in campus programs. (MSE)

  7. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  8. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  9. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Timothy D.; Shekell, Ted K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  10. DSM in context: Understanding the value of DSM and the value of DSM program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenblick, R.; Dowlatabadi, H.; Lave, L.

    1993-12-31

    Over the past two decades, demand-side management programs have emerged as a major element of electric utility integrated resource plans; EPRI and several PUC commissioners have concluded that DSM has saved utility and ratepayers many dollars. While DSM holds great potential as a means of abating greenhouse gas emissions and reducing acid rain, many programs have been ineffective and inefficient. If DSM is to serve the public welfare and attain its potential, extensive evaluation is required of the effectiveness of the programs and of their effects on the net energy bills of participants and non participants, as well as of the resulting short- and long-term changes in customer energy use. Since evaluation is expensive, a critical decision concerns the extensiveness of the evaluation. The authors discuss several benefits of evaluation, e.g., reducing the variance of demand forecasts and thus the need for new capacity, in order to determine the optimal level of the program. The authors model the effect of a commercial DSM program on the price of energy and use short term elasticities to estimate energy consumption for program participants and non-participants. They compare these consumption estimates to estimates of program savings to assess the magnitude of this effect and the importance of choosing the appropriate evaluation method.

  11. Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  12. Program Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Tribes Educational Technical Center, Bismarck, ND.

    The program management guide to Title IV Indian Education projects acquaints participants with program management concepts relative to application forms and encourages the development of management plans and objectives. Sections provide discussions, charts, and examples for the following: regulatory authorities, administrative organizational…

  13. Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

    Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

  14. Gifted Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Descriptions of four gifted programs are offered in articles titled "Career Education for Gifted Students in Illinois" (J. Ellis and B. Ford); "Interage Program for Critical Thinking" (H. Masterson); "Talcott Mountain Science Center" (D. LaSalle); and "Project L.O.G.I.C.--Nurturing the Mathematically Gifted" (W. Foley and B. Spack). (SBH)

  15. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  16. Programming environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Dieter; Sommer, Manfred; Stadel, Manfred

    1986-08-01

    This paper covers the implementation part of the software life cycle. It gives a survey of important tools and their user interface to assist the software developer. With these tools, programs can be edited, compiled and tested, and the various documents and finished programs can be managed in library systems. Programs have to be developed and modified by editors. The different kinds of editors, such as text editors, syntax oriented editors and syntax directed editors, are described and their advantages and current limitations for program development are discussed in the second part of this paper. Developed software has to be tested. Debuggers are tools which assist the software developer by discovering errors in a program. Therefore, requirement for such debuggers, their user interface and different realization approaches are described in the third part. The development of software systems leads to several versions and variants of the program. For each version, extensive documents such as design and specification documents as well as software modules will be produced. They are managed by library systems as they are described in the fourth part. The survey ends with the description of three examples of integrated programming environments: the GANDALF System, the Cornell Program Synthesizer and the Siemens Pascal-XT System

  17. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. postsecondary schools specifically for people who are deaf and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Schools and programs are listed by state and information is provided on the number of students with deafness enrolled, degrees offered, and special…

  18. Practical Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipe, Peter

    Programed instruction causes the student to take an active role in the instructional process and stimulates interchange between student and teacher. Since it adjusts itself to individual differences in students' learning rates, it can have delegated to it some parts of a teacher's task. Characteristics of programed instruction are small steps,…

  19. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  20. Clean Coal Technology Program: Completing the mission. Comprehensive report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    With its roots in the acid rain debate of the 1980`s, the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially emphasized acid rain abatement technologies in its early phases. With the subsequent passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments and growing concern with global climate change, the emphasis of the Program shifted in the later rounds to highly efficient technologies. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 provides a background of the CCT Program including the legislative history, the projects currently in the program, and the lessons that have been learned from the five rounds to date. Chapter 3 discusses the commercial potential of the technologies represented in the program and is based on a continuing series of interviews that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to solicit the views of senior management in those companies and organizations that will be making or affecting commercial decisions on the use of these technologies. Chapter 4 provides an accounting of the funds that have been appropriated for the CCT Program. Chapter 5 presents the options available for the Government to further assist in the commercial implementation of these technologies. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of these options with recommendations.

  1. Protecting the nation's wetlands, oceans, and watersheds: An overview of programs and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Wetlands, oceans, and watersheds are vitally linked; their health depends on the water quality of the particular watersheds that feed them. Because of their interconnectedness, an integrated, cooperative approach engaging the various water programs within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most effective way to manage and protect these irreplaceable resources. EPA's Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds (OWOW) was created in April 1991 to integrate the protection and management of the Nation's watersheds, coastal and marine waters, and wetlands. OWOW combines the Agency's responsibilities for abating nonpoint source pollution; restoring and protecting wetlands, lakes, rivers, coastal and marine environments; and providing leadership for surface water monitoring and water quality assessment activities. The booklet discusses these topics.

  2. Overseas programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-06-01

    Subprograms of the Overseas Program of the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources are presented and discussed. Topics addressed in the subprograms include volcanology, the geology and geophysics of Southwest Pacific island arcs and structural basins, and antarctic paleomagnetism and geology.

  3. Deconvolution Program

    1999-02-18

    The program is suitable for a lot of applications in applied mathematics, experimental physics, signal analytical system and some engineering applications range i.e. deconvolution spectrum, signal analysis and system property analysis etc.

  4. Programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, David J; Mc Pherson, Allen; Thorp, John R; Barrett, Richard; Clay, Robert; De Supinski, Bronis; Dube, Evi; Heroux, Mike; Janssen, Curtis; Langer, Steve; Laros, Jim

    2011-01-14

    A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

  5. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  6. Program TOMSCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-05-30

    Program TOMSCAT is an interactive code that calculates the scattering spectrum and background for a Thomson-scattering diagnostic in typical magnetic fusion plasmas. Thomson scattering yields values of the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density N/sub e/. This program is intended as an aid for designing Thomson-scattering systems, so all experimental parameters are input by the user. The code is operational on OCTOPUS.

  7. [Mentoring program].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N

    2001-11-01

    Due to drastic changes in the business environment and prolonged recession, stress management practices in business organizations have been encountering two kinds of problems: budget cuts and difficulties in the delivery of services. The feasibility of mentoring programs to cope with these two problems is discussed. Through an extensive review of the literature, it becomes clear that mentoring programs have the following features and advantages; (1) One to one relationship between elder mentor and younger protégé has a favorable effect on the both mentor and protégé's mental health. (2) Formal mentoring programs are widely used in the U.S. for the prevention of juvenile delinquency, professional education, and human resource development in business settings. (3) Mentoring programs, in general, are practiced with the cooperation of kindred volunteers and professionals who monitor the mentor-protégé relationships. (4) Since a mentoring program utilizes a wide range of human resources in work organizations, it is able to overcome the "budget and delivery" problems. Further discussions are about the comparison with listener programs as well as the relationship with the total human resource management system. PMID:11802451

  8. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  9. Modification of the EIC hydrogen sulfide abatement process to produce valuable by-products. Final report, May 4, 1981-May 4, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Offenhartz, P. O'D.

    1982-06-01

    A program of analytical and experimental studies has been carried out to develop modifications of the CUPROSUL process for the desulfurization of geothermal steam. The objective of the program was to devise practical means to manipulate the chemistry of the process so that the consumption of raw materials could be controlled and a variety of valuable by-products could be produced. The process had been demonstrated, at one-tenth commercial scale, for steam of the Geysers' average composition in a configuration which resulted in essentially complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The ability to control the extent of oxidation would increase process flexibility and extend its range of applicability to steams of widely varying composition. Preliminary market surveys of raw materials required for the process and by-products which could be produced indicated that controlling the oxidation of sulfides to produce elemental sulfur would probably be the preferred process option. Use of lime to treat sulfate-containing purge streams to produce by-product gypsum and ammonia for recycle or sale could also be justified for certain steam compositions. Recovery of ammonium sulfate alone from the purge stream would not normally be justified unless corecovery of other valuable by-products, such as boric acid, was possible at incremental cost. It was found that ferric sulfate was a highly effective, selective oxidant for the controlled oxidation of copper sulfide solids to produce elemental sulfur for sale and copper sulfate for recycle.

  10. Engineering simulation development and evaluation of the two-segment noise abatement approach conducted in the B-727-222 flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Profile modification as a means of reducing ground level noise from jet aircraft in the landing approach is evaluated. A flight simulator was modified to incorporate the cockpit hardware which would be in the prototype airplane installation. The two-segment system operational and aircraft interface logic was accurately emulated in software. Programs were developed to permit data to be recorded in real time on the line printer, a 14-channel oscillograph, and an x-y plotter. The two-segment profile and procedures which were developed are described with emphasis on operational concepts and constraints. The two-segment system operational logic and the flight simulator capabilities are described. The findings influenced the ultimate system design and aircraft interface.

  11. Undergraduate Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrum, Allison L.

    2005-08-01

    Continuing a 13-year tradition, the ACS Committee on Education's Task Force on Undergraduate Programming will offer undergraduate chemical science students at the 230th ACS National Meeting in Washington DC an eclectic and educational program designed to meet a wide variety of students' needs and interests. ACS National Meetings afford undergraduates in chemistry and chemical engineering unique opportunities to interact professionally with their peers and other chemists, discuss their original research with each other and ACS members from all areas of the chemistry profession, and attend a variety of workshops and symposia.

  12. Program Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  13. Basal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Products evaluated in this column are two readiness kits: Readiness Steps (Houghton Mifflin) and Experiences in Reading Readiness (Milton Bradley) plus three text series for the full elementary grade span: Pathfinders (Allyn and Bacon); American Book Reading Program (American Book Company); and Young America Basic Series (Rand McNally). (SJL)

  14. BEACON PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM AT LUDLOW SCHOOL, IN A PREDOMINANTLY PUERTO RICAN AND NEGRO NEIGHBORHOOD, HAS BEEN LABLED "BEACON" (BE A CITIZEN OF OUR NATION). IT ENDEAVORS TO ENRICH THE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE STUDENTS THEREBY DEVELOPING THEIR MAXIMUM POTENTIALS FOR ACHIEVEMENT, AND CONTRIBUTING TO THEIR USEFULNESS AS CITIZENS.…

  15. Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Isabella H.

    An intensive 6-week summer readiness program held in the Beaver Area School District, Beaver, Pennsylvania, developed linguistic facility among 15 preschool children. Daily activities included discussion, picture study, creative arts, field trips, developing experience charts, and other nonlanguage arts activities. A combined experiential,…

  16. Physico-chemical assessment of a fixated flue-gas desulfurization sludge cap emplaced along with other coal-combustion residues to abate acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Shawn; Branam, Tracy D; Olyphant, Greg A

    2012-05-01

    Long term monitoring of the physical and chemical effects of using coal-combustion residues (CCRs), in particular fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, as a major component in the reclamation of a pyritic refuse deposit was undertaken to determine the beneficial and detrimental consequences of placing these controversial materials in an unrestricted environment. Monitoring wells, neutron probe access tubes, and weirs were installed before and after reclamation to observe hydrologic conditions and determine how the use of FGD sludge as a recharge barrier was affecting hydrochemical response to ambient weather conditions. Data were collected for six months prior to reclamation and then for an additional 13 years (more intensively during the first 5 years). Statistical analyses of water levels in the pyritic refuse deposit indicate a shift from precipitation- to barometric-controlled fluctuations. These findings, along with minimal variability in soil moisture within the CCR cap and transient perching of groundwater above the cap, are evidence that recharge of the refuse aquifer has been minimized. Statistically significant improvements in the quality of groundwater on-site and surface water leaving the site include long-term declines in acidity, As, and Fe concentrations within the refuse aquifer, attributed to a decrease in recharge of oxygenated water as supported by an analysis of calculated mineral saturation indices. Long-term declines in acidity and associated trace metals discharging from the site are attributed to the post-reclamation loss of sulfate salts brought to the surface by capillary forces. The results of this study indicate that strategic usage of CCRs in reclamation programs can produce beneficial effects, including acid drainage reductions, that are beyond those achieved using traditional reclamation approaches such as the utilization of mine spoil as capping and fill material.

  17. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  18. Libraries program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

  19. AWARD program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppert, Frank

    1998-07-01

    The All Weather ARrival and Departure (AWARD) program is supported by the European Commission under the Brite-EuRam III structure. Following the VERSATILE preparation program, it started on June 1996 and is planned to finish end of 1999. The program consortium consists of ten partners such as a major airline, aircraft and equipment manufacturers, research and tests centers, and an university. Contractors from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and The Netherlands are coordinated by Sextant Avionique. AWARD main objective is to demonstrate the efficiency of vision systems under adverse weather conditions. In order to evaluate the added benefits of these concepts within aircraft operations of approach, landing, taxi and takeoff, two applications are developed: (1) Enhanced Vision System (EVS) based on Head Up Display enhancement with Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Millimeter Wave Radar (MMWR) images. (2) Synthetic Vision System (SVS) displaying an overlaid symbology on a perspective presentation of the environment, thanks to the combination of database and accurate positioning systems. The evaluation of these two tests systems will focus on: (1) Performance and human acceptability aspects. They will be appreciated according to human factors criteria as well as an integration within realistic environments. The NLR Research Flight Simulator and the DLR ATTAS flight test aircraft will be used. (2) Reliability, integrity aspects thanks to a theoretical certification/system study which will propose guidelines for certification, and will address impact on the system architecture. The paper addresses the work structure of AWARD in order to show what are the keypoints addressed in this program.

  20. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. PMID:21067860

  1. 75 FR 18048 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by... surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the requirements of this Act, and rules... circumstances which may qualify a surface coal mining operation for an abatement period of more than 90 days...

  2. RADARSAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, J.; Parashar, S.

    1993-01-01

    Work on the RADARSAT system is progressing towards the currently scheduled launch date of early 1995. The spacecraft bus and the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload are at various stages of development. Requirements for the ground segment have been mostly established. The design of the ground elements such as the mission control facility and the SAR data processor is underway. The SAR applications development work is continuing and the chosen distributor, RADARSAT International Inc. (RSI) is making preparations to market RADARSAT data internationally. A plan for the follow-on to RADARSAT 1 is being finalized to ensure continuity of SAR data under the Radarsat program.

  3. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the preceding year demonstrated an outstanding technological achievement or an innovative process, method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management programs can generally be characterized as waste treatment and/or pollution abatement programs....

  4. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the preceding year demonstrated an outstanding technological achievement or an innovative process, method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management programs can generally be characterized as waste treatment and/or pollution abatement programs....

  5. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the preceding year demonstrated an outstanding technological achievement or an innovative process, method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management programs can generally be characterized as waste treatment and/or pollution abatement programs....

  6. Educational Programs and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Listed are over 1,000 programs for the deaf including preschool through secondary schools and classes in the U.S. and Canada, postsecondary programs, teacher training programs, programs for professional specialists, programs for training interpreters for the deaf, programs for the deaf-blind, the Helen Keller National Center, and programs for…

  7. The MSFC Program Control Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    It is the policy of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that employees be given the opportunity to develop their individual skills and realize their full potential consistent with their selected career path and with the overall Center's needs and objectives. The MSFC Program Control Development Program has been designed to assist individuals who have selected Program Control or Program Analyst Program Control as a career path to achieve their ultimate career goals. Individuals selected to participate in the MSFC Program Control Development Program will be provided with development training in the various Program Control functional areas identified in the NASA Program Control Model. The purpose of the MSFC Program Control Development Program is to develop individual skills in the various Program Control functions by on-the-job and classroom instructional training on the various systems, tools, techniques, and processes utilized in these areas.

  8. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, JoAnn

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  9. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  10. Intrauterine programming

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Katayoun; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the intrauterine condition has an important role in the development of fetal physiological systems in later life. Suboptimal maternal environment can alter the regulatory pathways that determine the normal development of the fetus in utero, which in post-natal life may render the individual more susceptible to cardiovascular or metabolic adult-life diseases. Changes in the intrauterine availability of nutrients, oxygen and hormones can change the fetal tissue developmental regulatory planning, which occurs genomically and non-genomically and can cause permanent structural and functional changes in the systems, leading to diseases in early years of life and those that particularly become overt in adulthood. In this review we take a brief look at the main elements which program the fetal system development and consequently induce a crucial impact on the cardiovascular, nervous and hormonal systems in adulthood. PMID:25945232

  11. HEATKAU Program.

    SciTech Connect

    ELDIN NAFEE, SHERIF SALAH

    2013-07-24

    Version 00 Calculations of the decay heat is of great importance for the design of the shielding of discharged fuel, the design and transport of fuel-storage flasks and the management of the resulting radioactive waste. These are relevant to safety and have large economic and legislative consequences. In the HEATKAU code, a new approach has been proposed to evaluate the decay heat power after a fission burst of a fissile nuclide for short cooling time. This method is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of the minor fission products (MFPs) nuclides. HEATKAU is written entirely in the MATLAB programming environment. The MATLAB data can be stored in a standard, fast and easy-access, platform- independent binary format which is easy to visualize.

  12. HEATKAU Program.

    2013-07-24

    Version 00 Calculations of the decay heat is of great importance for the design of the shielding of discharged fuel, the design and transport of fuel-storage flasks and the management of the resulting radioactive waste. These are relevant to safety and have large economic and legislative consequences. In the HEATKAU code, a new approach has been proposed to evaluate the decay heat power after a fission burst of a fissile nuclide for short cooling time.more » This method is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of the minor fission products (MFPs) nuclides. HEATKAU is written entirely in the MATLAB programming environment. The MATLAB data can be stored in a standard, fast and easy-access, platform- independent binary format which is easy to visualize.« less

  13. Telemedicine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s, NASA has been involved in the research and demonstration of telemedicine for its potential in the care of astronauts in flight and Earth-bound applications. A combination of NASA funding, expertise and off-the-shelf computer and networking systems made telemedicine possible for a medically underserved hospital in Texas. Through two-way audio/video relay, the program links pediatric oncology specialists at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio to South Texas Hospital in Harlingen, providing easier access and better care to children with cancer. Additionally, the hospital is receiving teleclinics on pediatric oncology nursing, family counseling and tuberculosis treatment. VTEL Corporation, Sprint, and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials Consortium also contributed staff and hardware.

  14. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  15. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  16. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 2 used in the LOLA simulator: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  17. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 3: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  18. Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Martin; Tratt, Laurence

    A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp, yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous meta-programming - using a variant of MiniML_e^{square} by Davies and Pfenning as underlying meta-programming language. We show the applicability of our approach by reasoning about example meta-programs from the literature. We also demonstrate that our logics are relatively complete in the sense of Cook, enable the inductive derivation of characteristic formulae, and exactly capture the observational properties induced by the operational semantics.

  19. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  20. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  2. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  3. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  5. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  6. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  7. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance...

  8. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  9. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law judge has been docketed with the commission, unless a member of the commission has directed review... be required to submit periodic progress reports for each cited violation. The citation must indicate: (i) That periodic progress reports are required and the citation items for which they are...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6404-1 - Abatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income, estate, or gift tax. (c) Except in case of income, estate, or gift tax, if more than the correct... internal revenue officer by whom the tax was assessed or with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol...) with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms) where the...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6404-1 - Abatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... income, estate, or gift tax. (c) Except in case of income, estate, or gift tax, if more than the correct... internal revenue officer by whom the tax was assessed or with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol...) with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms) where the...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6404-1 - Abatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... income, estate, or gift tax. (c) Except in case of income, estate, or gift tax, if more than the correct... internal revenue officer by whom the tax was assessed or with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol...) with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms) where the...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6404-1 - Abatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income, estate, or gift tax. (c) Except in case of income, estate, or gift tax, if more than the correct... internal revenue officer by whom the tax was assessed or with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol...) with the assistant regional Commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms) where the...

  14. Particulate abatement and environmental control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, J.C.; Leavens, J.E.; Wyatt, C.H.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a method of providing an improved temporary working environment during removal or encapsulation of hazardous particulate material from a working space substantially sealed from space exterior of the working space. It comprises: powering one or more portable air moving units for exhausting air including hazardous particulate material from the defined working space and maintaining a negative pressure within the working space with respect to the space external of the working space; monitoring the level of negative pressure within the working space; filtering the exhausted air to remove the hazardous particulate material; discharging a first portion of the exhausted air to the space exterior of the working space; powering a portable conditioning unit to condition a second portion of the exhausted air being defined by the exhausted air less the discharged air; returning the conditioned air to the working space; and regulating the amount of the first portion of the exhausted air in response to the monitored level of negative pressure.

  15. Particulate abatement and environmental control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, J.C.; Leavens, J.E.; Wyatt, C.H.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a method of providing an improved temporary working environment during removal of hazardous particulate material or during the encapsulation of the hazardous particulate material. It comprises defining a working space substantially sealed from space exterior of the working space; powering a portable air moving unit for exhausting air including hazardous particulate material from the defined working space to maintain a negative pressure within the working space with respect to the space external of the working space; monitoring the level of negative pressure within the working space; filtering the exhausted air to remove the hazardous particulate material; discharging a minority portion of the exhausted air to the space exterior of the working space; powering a portable conditioning unit to condition a majority portion of the exhausted air, the majority portion of the exhausted air being defined by the exhausted air less the discharged air; returning the conditioned air to the working space; and regulating the ratio of the minority portion of the discharged air to the majority portion of the conditioned air in response to the monitored level of negative pressure.

  16. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance...

  20. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.