Science.gov

Sample records for abatement studies chemical

  1. Pollution Abatement and Prevention Analysis (PAPA) Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    and prevention opportunities and activities that are in research , development, demonstration, and commercialization. (5) Selected case studies jointly...organizes Army policy into four categories: compliance, restoration , prevention, and conservation. These categories are referred to as the four "pillars" of...this pillar are generally categorized as "must fund" projects. (2) The restoration pillar focuses on cleaning up contaminated sites at Army

  2. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder.

  3. Compressor station noise-abatement: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bianucci, J.A.; Bush, R.C.; Dooher, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the noise abatement measures incorporated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company into the design of its Brannan Island Compressor Station. This two unit reciprocating compressor station is located within 100 feet of a state park and 600 feet of a camp site. Operating noise level data is presented and compared to design expectations.

  4. Debate over Social Studies Shows Little Sign of Abating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas board of education which consists of 15-member elected body drew national attention as a bloc of staunch conservatives largely succeeded in putting its stamp on a revised set of social studies standards. The debate was marked by tussles over such matters as the separation of church and state, the representation of minority figures and…

  5. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  6. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  7. Plan for study: response of the habitat and biota of the inner New York Bight to abatement of sewage sludge dumping. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in living marine resources and their habitats during and following the period in which sewage sludge dumping is phased out at the 12-mile site. Choice of monitoring variables was based on two considerations: (1) relevance to fisheries of the inner Bight, both directly, in terms of abundance, distribution, and contamination of resource species and indirectly, as indicated by quality of their habitats, and (2) predictive value in detecting changes with abatement. Biological, chemical, and physical oceanographic approaches were integrated to provide comprehensive and statistically valid work plans.

  8. Monitoring techniques for odour abatement assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raul; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Lebrero, R; Wang, Xinguang; Suffet, I H Mel; Stuetz, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Odorous emissions from sewers and wastewater treatment plants are a complex mixture of volatile chemicals that can cause annoyance to local populations, resulting in complaints to wastewater operators. Due to the variability in hedonic tone and chemical character of odorous emissions, no analytical technique can be applied universally for the assessment of odour abatement performance. Recent developments in analytical methodologies, specifically gas chromatography, odour assessment approaches (odour wheels, the odour profile method and dynamic olfactometry), and more recently combined gas chromatography-sensory analysis, have contributed to improvements in our ability to assesses odorous emissions in terms of odorant concentration and composition. This review collates existing knowledge with the aim of providing new insight into the effectiveness of sensorial and characterisation approaches to improve our understanding of the fate of odorous emissions during odour abatement. While research in non-specific sensor array (e-nose) technology has resulted in progress in the field of continuous odour monitoring, more successful long term case-studies are still needed to overcome the early overoptimistic performance expectations. Knowledge gaps still remain with regards to the decomposition of thermally unstable volatile compounds (especially sulfur compounds), the inability to predict synergistic, antagonistic, or additive interactions among odorants in combined chemical/sensorial analysis techniques, and the long term stability of chemical sensors due to sensor drift, aging, temperature/relative humidity effects, and temporal variations. Future odour abatement monitoring will require the identification of key odorants to facilitate improved process selection, design and management.

  9. A Study of Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Douglas, Willard L.; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Previously, preliminary data on the ability of a group of common indoor plants to remove organic chemical from indoor air was presented. The group of plants chosen for this study was determined by joint agreement between NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America. The chemicals chosen for study were benzene, trichloroethylene, and formaldehyde. The results show that plants can play a major role in removal of organic chemicals from indoor air.

  10. Group benefit and protection of pediatric research subjects: Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger and the Lead Abatement Study.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    The Maryland Court of Appeals in Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute was sharply critical of the lead abatement study conducted by this Institute, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University. Grimes ruled that investigators might, given the facts of the case, have a special relationship with subjects, thereby creating a duty of care that could, if breached, give rise to an action in negligence. This ruling has implications for pediatric research practices and long-standing disputes among informed people of good will about what pediatric studies should be permitted.

  11. Waste treatment and optimal degree of pollution abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Hernandez, O.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.; Livingston, A.G.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental impacts of industrial production processes are usually estimated by considering the emissions leaving the process. These emissions are often reduced using abatement processes, such as wastewater treatment technologies, in the belief that reducing emissions will reduce the environmental impact. Typical legislation focuses on reducing discharge levels, without considering the impact on the environment of the additional inputs required by the abatement process to achieve this reduction. This leads to the possibility that some waste streams may be over treated. In other words, industry might be devoting increased resources to reducing discharges and at the same time be worsening the environment. This paper presents a framework for the analysis of wastewater treatment technologies from an economic and environmental point of view. The work examines trade-offs in abatement processes between higher inputs (energy consumption and raw material) and lower discharge quantities (pollutant flow). As a result, an optimal degree of pollution abatement (ODPA), at which environmental impact is minimized, is identified. This value could act as a guideline to legislators who are setting discharge limits and to chemical engineers with waste discharge responsibilities. Case studies on two different abatement technologies, steam stripping and pervaporation, are presented to illustrate this framework.

  12. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places.

  13. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  14. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  15. A simulation study on the abatement of CO2 emissions by de-absorption with monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Greer, T; Bedelbayev, A; Igreja, J M; Gomes, J F; Lie, B

    2010-01-01

    Because of the adverse effect of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion on the earth's ecosystems, the most cost-effective method for CO2 capture is an important area of research. The predominant process for CO2 capture currently employed by industry is chemical absorption in amine solutions. A dynamic model for the de-absorption process was developed with monoethanolamine (MEA) solution. Henry's law was used for modelling the vapour phase equilibrium of the CO2, and fugacity ratios calculated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) were used for H2O, MEA, N2 and O2. Chemical reactions between CO2 and MEA were included in the model along with the enhancement factor for chemical absorption. Liquid and vapour energy balances were developed to calculate the liquid and vapour temperature, respectively.

  16. Is H2S a suitable process indicator for odour abatement performance of sewer odours?

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Wang, X; Le, N M; Kenny, S; Bustamante, H; Stuetz, R M

    2014-01-01

    Odour abatement units are typically designed and maintained on H(2)S concentrations, but operational failures are reported in terms of overall odour removal, suggesting a wide range of malodorous compounds emitted from sewers that may not be efficiently removed by existing odour abatement processes. Towards providing greater insight into this issue, several activated carbon filters and biofilters treating odorous emissions from sewer systems in Sydney (Australia) were monitored by collecting and analysing gas samples before and after treatment. The monitoring studies were conducted by both olfactometric measurements and gas-chromatography-based chemical analysis. Single H(2)S assessment often failed to indicate the odour abatement performance for treatment systems in the abatement units studied, particularly when the incoming H(2)S concentrations were in the sub-ppm range (i.e. below H(2)S odour threshold). Chemical analysis indicated that some non-H(2)S odorous compounds were not removed efficiently during odour treatment. Additionally, when odour eliminations were correlated with the removal of individual compounds (Pearson's correlations) it was observed that the correlation (with a coefficient of 0.79) was best when the overall removal of all the measured odorous compounds that exceeded their odour threshold values was used for the analysis. These findings may help to further advance the design and operation of odour abatement processes to address the treatment of sewer odour emissions.

  17. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  18. In situ and operando spectroscopic studies of sonically aided catalysts for biogas exhaust abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodłowski, P. J.; Chlebda, D.; Piwowarczyk, E.; Chrzan, M.; Jędrzejczyk, R. J.; Sitarz, M.; Węgrzynowicz, A.; Kołodziej, A.; Łojewska, J.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test sonochemical method to modify surface of catalysts to obtain highly dispersed and active materials for methane combustion. The catalysts were characterised by various physicochemical characterisation methods including: DLS, BET nitrogen adsorption, SEM, EDX and ED-XRF. The results of classical surface analyses and catalytic tests were correlated with the operando DRIFT/MS spectroscopy results. The sonochemical preparation method has proven an efficient way to obtain the active catalysts for methane catalytic combustion. The chromium oxide catalyst has revealed great activity compared to the commercially used palladium catalysts. The DRIFT/MS operando analyses have proven that the formate intermediates at the catalyst surface are stable during methane catalytic combustion.

  19. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  20. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  1. Groundwater pollution abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.; Holm, L.W.; Saunders, D.L.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described for for pollution abatement in groundwaters, comprising the steps of: drilling a series of wells into an aquifer, ahead of an advancing front of water which contains one or more contaminants. The wells are disposed along a line approximately parallel to the advancing front; and introducing, through the wells and into the aquifer, a particulate adsorbent material which can adsorb at least one contaminant.

  2. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  3. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  4. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  5. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  6. BTX abatement using Chilean natural zeolite: the role of Brønsted acid sites.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, S; Valdés, H; Manero, M-H; Zaror, C A

    2012-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities, air quality is not only affected by conventional unpleasant odour compounds; toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also found. In this study, the adsorptive capacity of Chilean natural zeolite toward VOC removal was evaluated. Moreover, the influence of zeolite chemical surface properties on VOC elimination was also investigated. Three modified zeolite samples were prepared from a natural Chilean zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz). Natural and modified zeolite samples were characterised by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analyses and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Chemical modifications of natural zeolite showed the important role of Brønsted acid sites on the abatement of VOCs. The presence of humidity has a negative effect on zeolite adsorption capacity. Natural zeolites could be an interesting option for benzene, toluene and xylene vapour emission abatement.

  7. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  8. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  9. Economic Effects of Noise Abatement Regulations on the Helicopter Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    are estimated. The effects an consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight...helicopter by subsystem. This thesis proposes that if noise abatement regulations are iqposed on the helicopter industry without due consideration for future...abatement regu- lations on Sikorsky’s s-7S helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. kn appendix compares two

  10. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  11. Abatement of Marine Coatings Containing Heavy Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    in the abatement of heavy metal containing marine coatings. Funding for this...shipyards to be proactive in the area of heavy metal coating systems abatement as current regulations were not "user friendly" in shipboard applications.

  12. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  13. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  14. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  15. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  16. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  17. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  18. MECHANISTIC STUDIES AND DESIGN OF HIGHLY ACTIVE CUPRATE CATALYSTS FOR THE DIRECT DECOMPOSITION AND SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE AND HYDROCARBONS TO NITROGEN FOR ABATEMENT OF STACK EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-30

    A flow trough type catalytic reactor system was adequately modified for NO related catalytic and adsorption measurements, including the on-line connection of a digital chemiluminescent NO-NO{sub x} analyzer to the reactor outlet system. Moreover, we have largely completed the installation of an FTIR coupled catalytic system containing a HTEC cell for high temperature DRIFT studies. Three different barium cuprate samples, Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 3}, BaCuO{sub 2}, and Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5} were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD for catalytic tests. Prior to catalytic studies over these cuprates, a new, liquid indium based supported molten metal catalyst (In-SMMC) was tested in the reduction of NO by various reductants. In the presence of excess O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, the In-SMMC proved to be more active for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to N{sub 2} by ethanol than most other catalysts. Using C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols as reductants, self sustained periodic oscillations observed in the NO{sub x} concentrations of reactor effluents indicated the first time that radical intermediates can be involved in the SCR of NO by alcohols. Further, In-SMMC is the only effective and water tolerant SCR catalyst reported thus far which contains SiO{sub 2} support. Thus, this novel catalyst opens up a promising new alternative for developing an effective and durable catalyst for NO{sub x} abatement in stack emission.

  19. Measuring the benefits from air pollution abatement on human health and welfare: a case study of Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Erfani-Ezati, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test benefit measures of air pollution to human health and welfare. Two market approaches, labor market (wage rate) and housing market (property value), were employed to estimate benefits from improvements in air quality. Indices of air pollution used in this study were sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and total suspended particulate matter (TSP). Using the labor market approach as a measure of benefits from improved air quality, a Mortality Effect Model (MEM) was developed. Then, the model was utilized to quantify the estimates of the pollution mortality relationship for the city of Jacksonville. The resulting pollution related mortality function was then monetized by applying estimates of individual's willingness to pay for mortality reductions. The MEM was estimated using multiple regression analysis. TSP showed no statistically significant association with mortality rates. The significance of the estimated coefficient for the pollution variable SO/sub 2/ supported the contention that some form of air pollution bears a positive and significant relationship to mortality rates. By utilizing a willingness to pay estimate for mortality reductions, it was concluded that individuals in Jacksonville would be willing to pay a minimum of $10 million annually, in order to maintain SO/sub 2/ concentrations at a level of 1% below the average for 1972.

  20. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  1. Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

  2. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

    2000-09-15

    The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

  3. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated for... measures for decision-making. (b) In abating traffic noise impacts, a highway agency shall give...

  4. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated...

  5. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated...

  6. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  7. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  8. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  9. Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH₄, N₂O, and CO₂) abatement: state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified.

  10. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  11. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  12. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  13. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  14. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... date identified in the final order for abatement; or (B) The date computed by adding the period allowed... (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must: (i) Post each...

  15. Interaction of pollution abatement with world dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The world dynamics model of Jay W. Forrester was modified to account for pollution abatement. In the modified model, it is assumed that as pollution increases, efforts are made to control pollution. There is a competition between food supply, material standard of living, and pollution abatement for capital, and time is required for diversion of capital toward pollution abatement. Inclusion of pollution abatement in the model drastically alters the response of the world system for the case in which depletion of natural resources is not considered. Instead of undergoing a pollution catastrophe, all system levels move more or less smoothly toward an equilibrium. A FORTRAN program listing of the modified world dynamics model is included.

  16. Long-term abatement potential and current policy trajectories in Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; McFarland, James; Octaviano, Claudia; van Ruijven, Bas; Beach, Robert; Daenzer, Kathryn; Herreras Martínez, Sara; Lucena, André F. P.; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Loboguerrero Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Mundra, Anupriya; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the role of Latin American and Latin American countries in meeting global abatement goals, based on the scenarios developed through the CLIMACAP-LAMP modeling study.

  17. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  18. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H. H.; Farrar, M. E.; Fink, S. D.

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  19. The difficulties of abating smoke in late Victorian York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    Historical railway documents and council minutes for the city of York reveal an active interest in abating smoke. As early as the mid-nineteenth century the public became less willing to accept pollution as a necessary part of economic progress. The Sanitary Committee of the council, while diligent in the latter part of the century, seemed unable to use the Public Health Act (1875) effectively. It undertook studies of smoke control devices and their use, but could not identify a workable method of smoke control. Industry, under continual pressure from the Town Clerk's office usually took steps to control smoke emissions. However the improvements in air quality, even when control procedures were adopted by many of the city's major factories, seem disappointing. Weak laws and limited technology hampered a very clear enthusiasm to abate smoke.

  20. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  1. Chemical Information: Print. Directed Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Catherine C.

    This report provides a survey and evaluation of chemical information literature. Contained in this survey are an overview of the chemical literature field, comments on obtaining access to this literature and annotated bibliographies of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources as well as special topics. Primary sources include journals, patents,…

  2. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a timely... based on the following hierarchy: (1) Elimination or substitution of the hazards where feasible...

  3. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a timely... based on the following hierarchy: (1) Elimination or substitution of the hazards where feasible...

  4. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  5. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds...

  6. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  7. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  8. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  9. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  12. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy.

  13. Plasma Source Development for Effective Dissociation and Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds for the Reduction of Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Leonard J.

    2001-10-01

    Perfluorinated gas compounds (PFCs) are widely used in the semiconductor industry for etching process and for cleaning of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems. However, most of these compounds have very high infrared adsorbance strengths and long life times (i.e. several times greater than carbon dioxide). Thus their emissions can strongly contribute to global warming if left unabated. To reduce PFC emissions, the industry has adopted high power density, sub-atmospheric plasma sources to completely dissociate F-bearing compounds at the point of use or to completely convert PFC emissions within the post process exhaust stream. Many electrodeless plasma sources have been applied including microwave, conventional inductive, and ferrite-based inductive plasma devices. As a general scaling rule, most all of these devices provide effective electric field strengths on the order 1-10 V/cm and power densities of 0.1-10 W/cm3 into electronegative discharges at pressures ranging from 0.1-100 Torr. To explore one contemporary example, we examine the properties a ferrite-based, inductively-coupled plasma source as applied to typical processes used in CVD chamber clean and PFC-based etching processes. Along with the operational properties of this device, we examine mass spectroscopy measurements of residual gases from the source when used to (1) fully dissociate high flows of pure NF3 and mixtures of C3F8/O2 and (2) abate moderate flows of CF4, C2F6 and SF6 in combination with O2 or H2O vapor. Also, we review select plasma engineering topics related to these PFC abatement approaches whose study would greatly advance the performance and cost effectiveness of plasma abatement technology within the industry.

  14. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Anderson, E.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 {times} 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 {times} 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  15. Relative toxicity of decamethrin, chlorphoxim and temephos (abate) to simulium larvae.

    PubMed

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C

    1981-09-01

    Tolerance levels Simulium larvae (S. ornatum and S. equinum) to chlorphoxim and decamethrin, relative to those with Abate, were determined in rapid through-flow laboratory test vessels; a 1-hour exposure followed by 24-hour mortality observations being the standard of comparison of the three chemicals. In addition, a further comparison between chlorphoxim and Abate was made on the basis of a 15-minute exposure in a miniature simulated stream, with the same mortality criteria. On the basis of LC95/1-hour data the results showed that decamethrin was approximately 4 times as lethal as chlorphoxim, and approximately 20 times more than Abate. On the basis of a 15-minute exposure, chlorphoxim was found to be even more toxic than Abate--approximately 10 times more--than with the 1-hour exposure--viz 5 times more. Concentration/mortality curves indicate that with both the organophosphorus larvicides there is a critical zone where mortality increases sharply with increase in concentration of toxinant. With decamethrin, there is a more uniform rate of increase in mortality with increasing concentration, these differences being illustrated by comparison at both LC50 and LC95 levels. These findings are discussed firstly, in relation to other laboratory test methods in use, and secondly with reference to the scarcity of comparable laboratory data for Simulium damnosum in the Onchosceriasis Control Programme (OCP) in the Volta River basin area of West Africa.

  16. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  17. Forest Tree Growth as a Bioindicator of Pollution Abatement Systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-14

    U-0Al C 0LIGNAPLTCGICIS P TT IY BLCSUG-EC FS1/ FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYS--ETC(I 𔃾- oa2 JAN 62 J M SKELLY. L W...947! FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS AT THE RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT Accession For FINAL REPORT Dr. John M...test potential bioindicator systems. x The study objectives of this research were: i’l) To determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible

  18. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny; Keyser, David; Gagnon, Pieter; Aznar, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    strategies, could significantly augment the carbon abatement contributions of city actions toward national climate targets. The results suggest that cities may play a pivotal role in progress toward national climate targets. In addition to providing carbon and emissions estimates, this report estimates the national net economic impacts of policies for which cost and benefit data are available. Impact metrics include employment, worker earnings, and gross domestic product (GDP). For the policy areas studied, the economic analysis demonstrates that city carbon abatement may be achieved with only minimal and generally slightly positive economic impacts. Employment impacts range from 0.04% to 0.13% of U.S, employment during implementation and zero to 0.1% thereafter. GDP estimates show net impacts of 0.02% to 0.07% of GDP during implementation and impacts from -0.02% to zero thereafter. This report quantitatively demonstrates the material impact of a limited set of local policy areas on national carbon abatement potential. The magnitude of estimated carbon reductions from city policies, 3%-7% of national emissions by 2035, suggests an important role for city-led actions in reaching U.S. climate goals. Multi-level governance at the city, state, and national levels could augment the carbon abatement potential of city actions and make cities a key component of long-term U.S. climate strategies.

  19. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  20. 23 CFR Table 1 to Part 772 - Noise Abatement Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noise Abatement Criteria 1 Table 1 to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE Pt. 772, Table 1 Table 1 to Part...

  1. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes. (a) General rule....

  2. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes. (a) General rule....

  3. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

  4. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... partial withdrawals after a reduction or waiver of complete withdrawal liability under a plan amendment... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.10 Plan rules for abatement....

  5. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall order cessation of...

  6. Least-cost groundwater pollution abatement: The case of irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.D.

    1992-12-01

    This case study treats nitrate leaching stochastically with a bio-physical simulation linked to a chance constrained programming. Consequences of stochastic leaching on policy effectiveness and producer cost are drawn. A cost abatement frontier shows considerable leaching reduction at relatively little cost.

  7. Chemical Case Studies: Science-Society "Bonding."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Nae, Nehemia

    1981-01-01

    Describes a unit designed to illustrate the "science-society-technology connection," in which three case studies of the chemical industry in Israel are presented to high school chemistry students. Chosen for the unit are case studies on copper production in Timna, on plastics, and on life from the Dead Sea. (CS)

  8. Alternative methods of marginal abatement cost estimation: Non- parametric distance functions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Molburg, J.; Prince, R.

    1996-12-31

    This project implements a economic methodology to measure the marginal abatement costs of pollution by measuring the lost revenue implied by an incremental reduction in pollution. It utilizes observed performance, or `best practice`, of facilities to infer the marginal abatement cost. The initial stage of the project is to use data from an earlier published study on productivity trends and pollution in electric utilities to test this approach and to provide insights on its implementation to issues of cost-benefit analysis studies needed by the Department of Energy. The basis for this marginal abatement cost estimation is a relationship between the outputs and the inputs of a firm or plant. Given a fixed set of input resources, including quasi-fixed inputs like plant and equipment and variable inputs like labor and fuel, a firm is able to produce a mix of outputs. This paper uses this theoretical view of the joint production process to implement a methodology and obtain empirical estimates of marginal abatement costs. These estimates are compared to engineering estimates.

  9. Performance of a narrow buffer strip in abating agricultural pollutants in the shallow subsurface water flux.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Bigon, Elisa; Zanin, Giuseppe; Fava, Luca

    2004-09-01

    The performance of a narrow buffer strip in abating dissolved P, electrical conductivity and herbicides (terbuthylazine, alachlor, nicosulfuron, pendimethalin, linuron) in subsurface water coming from cropland was tested in an experiment carried out on the low plains of the Veneto Region (NE Italy). The experiment lasted from December 1997 to June 1999, monitoring subsurface water quality entering and exiting a buffer composed of a grass strip (5 m wide) and 1 m wide row of trees. Dissolved phosphorus concentrations were reduced by almost 100% passing through the buffer and in most cases exiting water satisfied the limit for avoiding eutrophication. A positive effect was also detected on ECW (reduced by 20%), while pH was not significantly altered. Herbicide concentration abatement varied between 60 and 90%, depending on the chemical and the time elapsed since application.

  10. Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases 2005-2050 with abatement potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena

    2017-02-01

    This study uses the GAINS model framework to estimate current and future emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), their abatement potentials, and costs for twenty source sectors and 162 countries and regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. Global F-gas (HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) emissions are estimated at 0.7 Pg CO2 eq. in 2005 with an expected increase to 3.7 Pg CO2 eq. in 2050 if application of control technology remains at the current level. There are extensive opportunities to reduce emissions using existing technology and alternative substances with low global warming potential. Estimates show that it would be technically feasible to reduce cumulative F-gas emissions from 81 to 11 Pg CO2 eq. between 2018 and 2050. A reduction in cumulative emissions to 23 Pg CO2 eq. is estimated to be possible at a marginal abatement cost below 10 EUR t-1 CO2 eq. We also find that future F-gas abatement is expected to become relatively more costly for developing than developed countries due to differences in the sector contribution to emissions and abatement potentials.

  11. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  12. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  13. Comparison of methylisoborneol and geosmin abatement in surface water by conventional ozonation and an electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weikun; Qu, Qiangyong; von Gunten, Urs; Chen, Chao; Yu, Gang; Wang, Yujue

    2017-01-01

    In this study methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin abatement in a surface water by conventional ozonation and the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was compared. Batch tests with addition of ozone (O3) stock solutions and semi-batch tests with continuous O2/O3 gas sparging (simulating real ozone contactors) were conducted to investigate O3 decomposition, •OH production, MIB and geosmin abatement, and bromate formation during the two processes. Results show that with specific ozone doses typically used in routine drinking water treatment (0.5-1.0 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), conventional ozonation could not adequately abate MIB and geosmin in a surface water. While increasing the specific ozone doses (1.0-2.5 mg O3/mg DOC) could enhance MIB and geosmin abatement by conventional ozonation, this approach resulted in significant bromate formation. By installing a carbon-based cathode to electrochemically produce H2O2 from cathodic oxygen reduction, conventional ozonation can be conveniently upgraded to an E-peroxone process. The electro-generated H2O2 considerably enhanced the kinetics and to a lesser extent the yields of hydroxyl radical (•OH) from O3 decomposition. Consequently, during the E-peroxone process, abatement of MIB and geosmin occurred at much higher rates than during conventional ozonation. In addition, for a given specific ozone dose, the MIB and geosmin abatement efficiencies increased moderately in the E-peroxone (by ∼8-9% and ∼10-25% in the batch and semi-batch tests, respectively) with significantly lower bromate formation compared to conventional ozonation. These results suggest that the E-peroxone process may serve as an attractive backup of conventional ozonation processes during accidental spills or seasonal events such as algal blooms when high ozone doses are required to enhance MIB and geosmin abatement.

  14. Quantum chemical study of methane oxidation species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackels, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    The research funded by this project has focused on quantum chemical investigations of molecular species thought to be important in the chemistry of the earth's upper and lower atmospheres. The body of this report contains brief discussions of the results of the several phases of this investigation. In many instances these results have been presented at scientific meetings and/or published in refereed journals. Those bibliographic references are given. In addition to the study of specific chemical systems, there were several phases during the course of this investigation where much of the effort went into the development and modification of computer codes necessary to carry out these calculations on the wide range of computer equipment used during this study. This type of code maintenance and development work did not generally result in publications and presentations, but a brief review is given.

  15. Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

  16. A Photoacoustic Study of Chemically Active Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    unless so designated by other documentation IS. KEY WORDS (Continue w reverse aide If neceeairy wd Identify by block nmber) Photoacoustic, Spectroscopy ...CwcAhnm i, pwo If w M Idntitty by block nin1b9) -,xThe method of gas-microphone photoacoustic spectroscopy and the related photothermal deflection... spectroscopy have been developed for application to chemically active systems. Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectros- copy has been used to study

  17. Physical Chemical Studies on Molecular Composite Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-20

    McCrone , L. B., Deity, J. G., Polarized Light Microscopy, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago (1987). 32. Wolfe, W. L., In Handbook of Optics, Optical...are discussed. The rheology of miscible blends of the rodlike chains with flexibie or semiflexible chains is discussed using a model accounting for...vii PHYSICAL- CHEMICAL STUDIES ON RODLIKE POLYMER COMPOSITIONS The following is a final report for work of AFOSR-89--0125, covering the period January

  18. Study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chmura, A.

    1995-11-01

    The study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.

  19. Prospects for non-thermal atmospheric plasmas for pollution abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, R.

    2001-09-01

    For approximately the past ten years, atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas have been increasingly promoted as a technology for a number of applications in the area of pollution abatement. In such plasmas, the electrons have a significantly higher temperature compared to the ions, atoms and molecules. This paper provides an overview of both the technologies involved and the diverse potential application areas. A general description of these atmospheric plasmas and the basic principles involved in the destruction or removal of gaseous phase pollutants, based on the nature of the processes taking place within these plasmas, are given. A number of examples of the different plasma technologies are described. The technologies described are pulsed corona, microwave and dielectric barrier plasmas. Their suitability and use in various application areas are also discussed including incinerator off gas treatment, industrial process off gas treatment and diesel exhaust aftertreatment. The use of modelling of the physical and chemical processes involved to predict system performance and as a tool for sizing systems to meet customer requirements is also discussed.

  20. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  1. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton toxicity, inhibition and biodegradability assessment of intermediates.

    PubMed

    González, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-07-31

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200mgL(-1) sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)/COD) and toxicity by Microtox and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H(2)O(2) were carried out. The initial amount of Fe(2+) and pH of the solution were set at 10mgL(-1) and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25+/-0.8 degrees C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H(2)O(2) dose over 300mgL(-1). Biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H(2)O(2) dose over 300mgL(-1) showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity.

  2. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, J.L. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  3. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, G.C.

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  4. Advanced oxidation processes coupled with electrocoagulation for the exhaustive abatement of Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Durante, Christian; Cuscov, Marco; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Sandonà, Giancarlo; Gennaro, Armando

    2011-02-01

    Using Cr-EDTA as a model system, a two-step method has been investigated for the abatement of persistent chromium complexes in water. The treatment consists of an oxidative decomposition of the organic ligands by means of ozonization or electrochemical oxidation at a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, followed by removal of the metal via electrochemical coagulation. In the designed synthetic waste, EDTA has been used both as a chelating agent and as a mimic of the organic content of a typical wastewater provided by a purification leather plant. A crucial point evaluated is the influence of the oxidative pretreatment on the chemical modification of the synthetic waste and hence on the electrocoagulation efficacy. Because of the great stability of Cr complexes, such as Cr-EDTA, the classical coagulation methods, based on ligand exchange between Cr(III) and Fe(II) or Fe(III), are ineffective toward Cr abatement in the presence of organic substances. On the contrary, when advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as ozonization or electrooxidation at a BDD anode are applied in series with electrocoagulation (EC), complete abatement of the recalcitrant Cr fraction can be achieved. ECs have been carried out by using Fe sacrificial anodes, with alternating polarization and complete Cr abatement (over 99%) has been obtained with modest charge consumption. It has been found that Cr(III) is first oxidized to Cr(VI) in the AOP preceding EC. Then, during EC, Cr(VI) is mainly reduced back to Cr(III) by electrogenerated Fe(II). Thus, Cr is mainly eliminated as Cr(III). However, a small fraction of Cr(VI) goes with the precipitate as confirmed by XPS analysis of the sludge.

  5. A Comparison of Lead Abatement Technologies at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeziorowski, Luz Y.; Calla, Joanne

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Lewis participated in a pilot test of Lead Specifications. The Specifications were sponsored by the Center to Protect Worker's Rights (CPWR). Entitled "Model Specifications for the Protection of Worker's from Lead on Steel Structures", one aspect of this endeavor was to test and compare several lead abatement technologies. The project overview, objectives, team, and requirements as well as abatement methods and materials are outlined.

  6. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  7. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  8. High Resolution Chemical Study of ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Douglas, Susanne; Kuhlman, Kimberly R.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the chemistry of a sample of the SNC meteorite ALH84001 using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an energy dispersive chemical analytical detector and a focused ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometer (FIB-SIMS). Here we present the chemical data, both spectra and images, from two techniques that do not require sample preparation with a conductive coating, thus eliminating the possibility of preparation-induced textural artifacts. The FIB-SIMS instrument includes a column optimized for SEM with a quadrupole type mass spectrometer. Its spatial and spectral resolution are 20 nm and 0.4 AMU, respectively. The spatial resolution of the ESEM for chemical analysis is about 100 nm. Limits of detection for both instruments are mass dependent. Both the ESEM and the FIB-SIMS instrument revealed contrasting surficial features; crumbled, weathered appearance of the matrix in some regions as well as a rather ubiquitous presence of euhedral halite crystals, often associated with cracks or holes in the surface of the rock. Other halogen elements present in the vicinity of the NaCl crystals include K and Br. In this report, elemental inventories are shown as mass spectra and as X-ray maps.

  9. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  10. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  11. Studies on purothionin by chemical modifications.

    PubMed

    Wada, K; Ozaki, Y; Matsubara, H; Yoshizumi, H

    1982-01-01

    Purothionin from wheat flour was chemically modified by acetic or succinic anhydride under specific conditions. The complete modification of all amino groups of purothionin caused a large change in the net charge of the molecule, leading to the loss of the toxicity to mice and yeast. The sole tyrosyl residue in purothionin was nitrated by tetranitromethane at neutral pH or iodinated by the lactoperoxidase method. The nitro- and diiodo-derivatives of purothionin showed considerably reduced toxicity. Based on these modification studies we conclude that the positive charges of lysyl residues have an important role in the interaction with the negatively charged cell surface, and that the emergence of the toxicity of purothionin depends on a certain state of the tyrosyl residue.

  12. Abatement of methane emissions from landfills -- The German way

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, G.; Kalb, H.

    1996-09-01

    landfills are a major source of methane. Methane is generated by biological decomposition of native organic matter under anaerobic conditions. In Germany one quarter to one third of the total methane emissions into the air originate from municipal solid waste landfills. These emissions amount to 1.2--1.9 million metric tons annually. Environmental policy aiming to abate methane emissions focuses on waste management. In Germany the most effective policy instrument for this task is the Third Administrative Provision to the waste framework law. This Provision is known as the Technical Directive on Municipal Waste (TA Siedlungsabfall). It came into operation in 1993 and requires that from the year 2005 on all waste disposed in landfills must be inert. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the waste is limited to 1--3%. This limit requires a pretreatment of municipal waste, and among the currently available technology options only an incineration is able to fulfill the stipulated criteria. A recent study by the Fraunhofer-Institute for Systems and Innovation Research for the German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) quantified the effects of the established policy instruments on methane emissions. The results of this study are presented in this paper. It shows that methane emissions from landfills will be cut by two thirds in the forthcoming 10 years. By 2015 methane emissions from that source will have decreased to 20% of the present level, and this trend will still continue.

  13. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  14. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  15. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  16. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  17. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  18. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  19. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  20. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  1. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  2. Lead abatement training for supervisors and contractors. Instructors guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This training program is designed to be a 32 hour training course, and is intended for individuals supervising residential lead abatement projects. The course is designed to meet the requirements of 40 CFR Part 745-Lead. Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied Facilities, a federal regulation under section 402 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). Topics covered in the course include; the history of lead; health effects; legal and insurance consideration; regulations overview; inspection and risk assessment; report interpretation; development and implementation of occupant protection plans; paint hazard recognition and materials identification; XRF testing/sampling and abatement methods.

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  4. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  5. Non-thermal plasma techniques for abatement of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1995-12-04

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in atmospheric-pressure air streams. Either electrical discharge or electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. Each of these methods can be implemented in many ways. There are many types of electrical discharge reactors, the variants depending on the electrode configuration and electrical power supply (pulsed, AC or DC). Two of the more extensively investigated types of discharge reactors are based on the pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge. Recently, compact low-energy (<200 keV) electron accelerators have been developed to meet the requirements of industrial applications such as crosslinking of polymer materials, curing of solvent-free coatings, and drying of printing inks. Special materials have also been developed to make the window thin and rugged. Some of these compact electron beam sources are already commercially available and could be utilized for many pollution control applications. In this paper we will present a comparative assessment of various nonthermal plasma reactors. The thrust of our work has been two-fold: (1) to understand the scalability of various non-thermal plasma reactors by focusing on the energy efficiency of the electron and chemical kinetics, and (2) to identify the byproducts to ensure that the effluent gases from the processor are either benign or much easier and less expensive to dispose of compared to the original pollutants. We will present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor and various types of electrical discharge reactors. We have used these reactors to study the removal of NO{sub x} and a wide variety of VOCS. We have studied the effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry.

  6. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  7. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  8. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  9. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  10. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  11. A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that

  12. Investigating fossil hydrothermal systems by means of fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in banded travertine: an example from Castelnuovo dell'Abate (southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Marco; Boschi, Chiara; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo; Liotta, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) hosts geothermal anomalies with associated widespread CO2 gas-rich manifestations and active travertine-deposing thermal springs. Geothermal anomalies have been active since the Late Miocene and have led to the formation of widespread Late Miocene-Pleistocene travertine deposits and meso- and epithermal mineralizations. This study investigates the travertine deposit exposed in the Castelnuovo dell'Abate area of southern Tuscany. Here, a fissure-ridge type travertine deposit and its feeding conduits, currently filled with banded calcite veins (i.e. banded travertine), represent a spectacular example of fossil hydrothermal circulation in the peripheral area of the exploited Monte Amiata geothermal field. The Castelnuovo dell'Abate travertine deposit and associated calcite veins were analysed to establish the characteristics of the parent hydrothermal fluids, and the age of this circulation. The focus of the study was on fluid inclusions, rarely considered in travertine studies, but able to provide direct information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the original fluid. Uranium-thorium geochronological data provided further constraints on the: (1) age of tectonic activity; (2) age of the hydrothermal circulation; and (3) evolution of the Monte Amiata geothermal anomaly. Results indicate that brittle deformation (NW- and SE-trending normal to oblique-slip faults) was active during at least the Middle Pleistocene and controlled a hydrothermal circulation mainly characterized by fluids of meteoric origin, and as old as 300-350 ka. This is the oldest circulation documented to date in the Monte Amiata area. The fluid chemical composition is comparable to that of fluids currently exploited in the shallow reservoir of the Monte Amiata geothermal field, therefore suggesting that fluid composition has not changed substantially over time. These fluids, however, have cooled by about 70 °C in the last 300-350 ka, corresponding to a cooling rate

  13. BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON MYCOBACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Fregnan, G. B.; Smith, D. W.; Randall, H. M.

    1961-01-01

    Fregnan, G. B. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), D. W. Smith, and H. M. Randall. Biological and chemical studies on mycobacteria. Relationship of colony morphology to mycoside content for Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium fortuitum. J. Bacteriol. 82:517–527. 1961.—Using a suitable technique and an adequate medium it was possible to show a unique and uniform type of colony characteristic for Mycobacterium kansasii (photochromogen) and for Mycobacterium fortuitum strains freshly isolated either from patients, or from the soil, or kept in our stock culture collection for several years. New symbols have been proposed to represent these colony types. It was demonstrated that colony morphology is closely related to the specific mycoside present in a given strain; for example, M. kansasii strains showed in each instance colony type K and mycoside A, and M. fortuitum strains showed colony type F and mycoside F. Attention is called to the importance of the technique and the medium used. No change in colony morphology resulted from incubation in the presence of air containing 5 to 10% CO2, although this improved growth. Better growth of mycobacteria occurred in the presence of glycerol, or lipids of a human strain of mycobacteria, or sodium bicarbonate, but the specificity of colony form was lost. Images PMID:13894938

  14. Theoretical study of chemical reactions in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Yokogawa, D.

    2015-12-31

    Quantum chemical calculations in solution are becoming more and more important in chemistry. Reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) is one of the powerful approaches to perform quantum chemical calculations in solution. In this work, we developed a new generation of RISM-SCF, where a robust fitting method was newly introduced. We applied the new method to tautomerization reaction of cytosine in aqueous phase. Our calculation reproduced experimentally obtained relative stabilities and relative free energies correctly.

  15. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  16. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  17. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful conditions. Where a Notice of an Unsafe or Unhealthful Working Condition has been issued, abatement shall...

  18. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  19. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  1. NO{sub x}-abatement potential of lean-premixed GT combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Sattelmayer, T.; Polifke, W.; Winkler, D.; Doebbeling, K.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the structure of perfectly premixed flames on NO{sub x} formation is investigated theoretically. Since a network of reaction kinetics modules and model flames is used for this purpose, the results obtained are independent of specific burner geometries. Calculations are presented for a mixture temperature of 630 K, an adiabatic flame temperature of 1840 K, and 1 and 15 bars combustor pressure. In particular, the following effects are studied separately from each other: molecular diffusion of temperature and species, flame strain, local quench in highly strained flames and subsequent reignition, turbulent diffusion (no preferential diffusion), and small scale mixing (stirring) in the flame front. Either no relevant influence or an increase in NO{sub x} burners is to avoid excessive turbulent stirring in the flame front. Turbulent flames that exhibit locally and instantaneously near laminar structures (flamelets) appear to be optimal. Using the same methodology, the scope of the investigation is extended to lean-lean staging, since a higher NO{sub x}-abatement potential can be expected in principle. As long as the chemical reactions of the second stage take place in the boundary between the fresh mixture of the second stage and the combustion products from upstream, no advantage can be expected from lean-lean staging. Only if the preliminary burner exhibits much poorer mixing than the second stage can lean-lean staging be beneficial. In contrast, if full mixing between the two stages prior to afterburning can be achieved (lean-mix-lean technique), the combustor outlet temperature can in principle be increased somewhat without NO penalty.

  2. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  3. 23 CFR Table 1 to Part 772 - Noise Abatement Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to serve its intended purpose. B 3 67 70 Exterior Residential. C 3 67 70 Exterior Active sport areas... Abatement Criteria Activitycategory Activity Leq(h) Criteria 2 L10(h) Evaluationlocation Activity...(h) or L10(h) (but not both) may be used on a project. 2 The Leq(h) and L10(h) Activity...

  4. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  5. 29 CFR 4208.4 - Conditions for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4208.4 Conditions for abatement. (a... partial withdrawal (other than delinquent payments) for plan years beginning after the second consecutive... with respect to that partial withdrawal (other than delinquent payments) for plan years beginning...

  6. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... are considering promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of... take birds or other wildlife to mitigate damage or other problems, including risks to human health...

  7. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  8. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR... representative acting on behalf of the plan sponsor, shall sign and submit the request. (c) Where to file....

  9. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR... representative acting on behalf of the plan sponsor, shall sign and submit the request. (c) Where to file....

  10. [Studies on chemical components of Cirsium segestum].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Chen, Lin; Liu, Zhi-peng; Deng, Qin-ying

    2007-01-01

    Six chemical components were got from the alcohol extract of Cirsium segestum, their structures were identified by UV, IR, NMR, MS and EA. They were 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, baicalin, oleanolic acid, cholesterol, methyl ursolate and rutin. The first to the fifth of which were got from Cirsium segestum for the first time.

  11. Chemical Studies of Free Radical Relocalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    201300826 Julien Dubarle-Offner, M. Rosa Axet, Lise Marie Chamoreau, Hani Amouri, Andrew L. Cooksy. Enantiomerically Pure, Planar Chiral Cp*Ru...reactions catalyzed by his compounds may have suitably separated energy levels to allow a detailed quantum chemical analysis, which in turn may

  12. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized. Research topics include: Molar enthalpies of formation of BaCmO{sub 3} and BaCfO{sub 3}; luminescence of europium oxychloride at various pressures; and anti-stokes luminescence of selected actinide (III) compounds. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015

  14. Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Schumeyer, G.

    1990-04-01

    Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

  15. Polyketide stereocontrol: a study in chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The biosynthesis of reduced polyketides in bacteria by modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) proceeds with exquisite stereocontrol. As the stereochemistry is intimately linked to the strong bioactivity of these molecules, the origins of stereochemical control are of significant interest in attempts to create derivatives of these compounds by genetic engineering. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding this key aspect of the biosynthetic pathways. Given that much of this information has been obtained using chemical biology tools, work in this area serves as a showcase for the power of this approach to provide answers to fundamental biological questions. PMID:28326145

  16. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  17. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease.

  18. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion and destruction of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburning zone of a laboratory coal combustor were explored. Emphasis was on a configuration in which the primary flame was of pulverized coal and the reburning fuel was natural gas, although other fuels were also considered. The objective was to extract models to be used in estimating reburning effectiveness in practical combustors. Reburning mechanisms occur in two regimes; one in which fast reactions between NO and hydrocarbons are usually limited by mixing; the other in which reactions have slowed and in which known gas phase chemistry controls. For the latter regime, a simplified model based on detailed gas phase chemical kinetic mechanisms and known rate coefficients was able to predict temporal profiles of NO, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Reactions with hydrocarbons played important roles in both regimes and the Fenimore N{sub 2} fixation reactions limited reburning effectiveness at low primary NO values.

  19. Chemical Equilibrium in Supramolecular Systems as Studied by NMR Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gaitano, Gustavo; Tardajos, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students are required to study the chemical balance in supramolecular assemblies constituting two or more interacting species, by using proton NMR spectrometry. A good knowledge of physical chemistry, fundamentals of chemical balance, and NMR are pre-requisites for conducting this study.

  20. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Dust Abatement Products for Expedient Helipads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    generated by an electric fan motor and transmitted through a 3-in. polyvinyl chloride pipe with a rectangular aperture 4.5 in. wide and 0.5 in. tall...will be used to update the USMC Dust Abatement Handbook (PCN 50011240000). DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...palliatives investigated in this study. TerraLOC® TerraLOC ® is a polyvinyl alcohol solution made by MonoSol, LLC. TerraLOC® is water soluble and

  1. Quantum Chemical Studies of Light Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Carles; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2017-01-25

    The design of optimal light-harvesting (supra)molecular systems and materials is one of the most challenging frontiers of science. Theoretical methods and computational models play a fundamental role in this difficult task, as they allow the establishment of structural blueprints inspired by natural photosynthetic organisms that can be applied to the design of novel artificial light-harvesting devices. Among theoretical strategies, the application of quantum chemical tools represents an important reality that has already reached an evident degree of maturity, although it still has to show its real potentials. This Review presents an overview of the state of the art of this strategy, showing the actual fields of applicability but also indicating its current limitations, which need to be solved in future developments.

  2. CHEMICAL STUDIES IN HOST-VIRUS INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Seymour S.; Arbogast, Rachel

    1950-01-01

    Various chemical and physiological aspects of the reproductive cycles of r+ and r strains of T2, T4, and T6 viruses have been examined and compared. These include the ultraviolet absorption spectra in which differences between r and r+ strains were not observed, though they were obtained in the case of T2, T4, and T6. Adsorption of T4 and T6 was found to require the adsorption cofactor l-tryptophane. Among the r and r+ strains of these viruses limiting tryptophane requirements for adsorption were found to be different. Some differences were observed in the one-step growth curves of these viruses under conditions of single and multiple infection. The turbidity-time relations of infected cultures were characteristically different. The rates of DNA and protein synthesis in the infected cells were found to be independent of the viruses used. Certain implications of the data have been discussed. PMID:15422088

  3. Chemical approaches to study metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Nomura, Daniel K

    2013-03-01

    One of the more provocative realizations that have come out of the genome sequencing projects is that organisms possess a large number of uncharacterized or poorly characterized enzymes. This finding belies the commonly held notion that our knowledge of cell metabolism is nearly complete, underscoring the vast landscape of unannotated metabolic and signaling networks that operate under normal physiological conditions, let alone in disease states where metabolic networks may be rewired, dysregulated, or altered to drive disease progression. Consequently, the functional annotation of enzymatic pathways represents a grand challenge for researchers in the post-genomic era. This review will highlight the chemical technologies that have been successfully used to characterize metabolism, and put forth some of the challenges we face as we expand our map of metabolic pathways.

  4. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  5. Airborne exposure and soil levels associated with lead abatement of a steel tank.

    PubMed

    Lange, John H

    2002-02-01

    This study reports on airborne exposure levels and soil concentrations of lead in regard to abatement of a steel structure (water tank). The tank was de-leaded by abrasive sand blasting. The ball of the tank had a lead surface level that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definition of lead-based paint (LBP) (0.5% lead), but paint on stem and base was below this criterion. Personal and area airborne samples were collected during different activities of lead abatement of the tank. Summary results suggest during abrasive blasting of ball and stem/base personal exposure levels, as reported with arithmetic and geometric means, exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (50 microg/m3). Highest personal exposure (occupational exposure) was associated with blasting of ball. Distribution of airborne and soil samples suggest non-normality and is best represented by a logarithmic form. Geometric standard deviations for air and soil lead support a non-normal distribution. Outlying values were found for personal and area air samples. Exposure levels associated with blasting stem/base section of tank support OSHA's policy requiring air monitoring of work at levels below the criterion established by EPA in identifying LBP. Area samples were statistically lower than personal samples associated with blasting ball and stem/base of tank. Exposure data suggest that workers performing abatement on steel structures have elevated lead exposure from surface lead. Respirator protection requirements are discussed. Soil lead concentration was suggested to decrease as distance increased from tank. Soil lead is suggested to be a result of deposition from LBP on tank surface. Minimal efforts were required to reduce average lead soil levels below EPA's upper acceptable criterion (1200 ppm Pb).

  6. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-07

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited.

  7. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  8. Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.

    PubMed

    Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

    2004-12-01

    A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction.

  9. Chemical Physics: A Subject for Study at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunmur, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces development of chemical physics as a distinct discipline and reviews its position as a subject for study in United Kingdom universities. Reports results of a survey of chemical physics courses and graduates (1975-1980), including employment data on these graduates. (Author/JN)

  10. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  11. The effect of oil spills on workers involved in containment and abatement: the role of the occupational health nurse.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta; Burns, Candace M

    2011-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the most recent manmade disaster to challenge occupational health nurses caring for a unique worker population. The effects of oil spills on wildlife, marine life, and the ecosystem are well studied and documented, but the effects on workers who contain and abate such disasters are not. These workers can suffer from a multitude of illnesses and injuries, such as ataxia, migraines, and various lung diseases, which can be a challenge for occupational health nurses.

  12. Studies on Semantic Systems Chemical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current "one disease, one target and one drug" drug development paradigm is under question as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Increasingly research focus is being placed on the study of drug action against biological systems as a whole rather than against a single component (called "Systems…

  13. Tylosin abatement in water by photocatalytic process.

    PubMed

    Alatrache, A; Laoufi, N A; Pons, M N; Van Deik, J; Zahraa, O

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a macrolide (tylosin) has been studied using immobilized titanium dioxide as photocatalyst in a laboratory reactor under UV illumination (365 nm). The degradation of the antibiotic and of the reaction intermediary product was monitored by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. Three photocatalysts (P25 from Degussa and PC105 and PC500 from Millennium) immobilized on glass plates were compared. A slightly better degradation was obtained with P25. Then the tylosin degradation kinetics were investigated with the P25 photocatalyst. The kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood is satisfactorily obeyed at initial time and in the course of the reaction. Adsorption and apparent rate constants were determined. These results suggest that, although an intermediary by-product was detected during the reaction, complete degradation of tylosin can be achieved, which confirms the feasibility of such a photocatalytic treatment for tylosin elimination from wastewater.

  14. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies.

  15. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  16. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-20

    units in the U.S. and Europe. Ecolnstal, a leading supplier of environmental equipment in Poland, is licensed to sell the Core Separator, and will support LSR as a subcontractor. The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), located in Katowice, is a consulting organization with extensive expertise in the Polish economy and natural environment. FEWE is also a subcontractor to LSR. This project will be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 is called `Infrastructure Studies` and will includes business planning, and site-selection of a full- scale Core Separator Demonstration Unit. Phase 2, called `Commercial Development,` includes the first Demonstration Unit in a local boilerhouse, followed by several Core Separator installations collecting flyash from different Polish coals. Also, a manufacturing facility is to be equipped to accommodate the projected sales volume. If the goals of this project are met and the Core Separator can be successfully marketed, there is a potential to significantly reduce particulate emissions in Krakow.

  17. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    units in the U.S. and Europe. Ecolnstal, a leading supplier of environmental equipment in Poland, is licensed to sell the Core Separator, and will support LSR as a subcontractor. The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), located in Katowice, is a consulting organization with extensive expertise in the Polish economy and natural environment. FEWE is also be a subcontractor to LSR. This project will be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 is called `Infrastructure Studies` and includes business planning, and site-selection of a full-scale Core Separator Demonstration Unit. Phase 2, called `Commercial Development,` includes the first Demonstration Unit in a local boilerhouse, followed by several Core Separator installations collecting flyash from different Polish coals. Also, a manufacturing facility is to be equipped to accommodate the projected sales volume. If the goals of this project are met and the Core Separator can be successfully marketed, there is a potential to significantly reduce particulate emissions in Krakow.

  18. Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Biswas, Sanchita; Navin, Chelliah V.; Yamane, Dawit G.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures utilizing millifluidic devices for chemical synthesis and time-resolved mechanistic studies are described by taking three examples. In the first, synthesis of ultra-small copper nanoclusters is described. The second example provides their utility for investigating time resolved kinetics of chemical reactions by analyzing gold nanoparticle formation using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final example demonstrates continuous flow catalysis of reactions inside millifluidic channel coated with nanostructured catalyst. PMID:24327099

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Introduction to the biological monitoring and abatement program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a long-term biological monitoring program and the Environmental Management special issue titled Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management. The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, or BMAP, was implemented to assess biological impairment downstream of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, beginning in 1985. Several of the unique aspects of the program include its long-term consistent sampling, a focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific facility abatement and remedial actions, and the use of quantitative sampling protocols using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper describes the need and importance of long-term watershed-based biological monitoring strategies, in particular for addressing long-term stewardship goals at DOE sites, and provides a summary of the BMAP's objectives, spatial and temporal extent, and overall focus. The primary components of the biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee are introduced, as are the additional 9 papers in this Environmental Management special issue.

  1. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  2. Molecular simulation studies on chemical reactivity of methylcyclopentadiene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yingchun; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Molecular simulations are important to predict thermodynamic values for reactive chemicals especially when sufficient experimental data are not available. Methylcyclopentadiene (MCP) is an example of a highly reactive and hazardous compound in the chemical process industry. In this work, chemical reactivity of 2-methylcyclopentadiene, including isomerization, dimerization, and oxidation reactions, is investigated in detail by theoretical computational chemistry methods and empirical thermodynamic-energy correlation. On the basis of molecular simulations, an average value of -15.2 kcal/mol for overall heat of dimerization and -45.6 kcal/mol for overall heat of oxidation were obtained in gaseous phase at 298 K and 1 atm. These molecular simulation studies can provide guidance for the design of safer chemical processes, safer handling of MCP, and also provide useful information for an investigation of the T2 Laboratories explosion on December 19, 2007, in Florida.

  3. Chemical Modeling for Studies of GeoTRACE Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Geostationary measurements of tropospheric pollutants with high spatial and temporal resolution will revolutionize the understanding and predictions of the chemically linked global pollutants aerosols and ozone. However, the capabilities of proposed geostationary instruments, particularly GeoTRACE, have not been thoroughly studied with model simulations. Such model simulations are important to answer the questions and allay the concerns that have been expressed in the atmospheric sciences community about the feasibility of such measurements. We proposed a suite of chemical transport model simulations using the EPA Models 3 chemical transport model, which obtains its meteorology from the MM-5 mesoscale model. The model output consists of gridded abundances of chemical pollutants and meteorological parameters every 30-60 minutes for cases that have occurred in the Eastern United States. This output was intended to be used to test the GeoTRACE capability to retrieve the tropospheric columns of these pollutants.

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  8. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  9. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement...

  10. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period. 53.4961-1 Section 53.4961-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction...

  11. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period. 53.4961-1 Section 53.4961-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction...

  12. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  13. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  14. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  15. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  18. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  19. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4208.9 Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions....

  20. Multiple chemical sensitivity: controlled scientific studies as proof of causation.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, L

    1993-08-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity is an environmental illness that demands exacting methods of diagnosis. Proposed associations between symptoms and specific substances, whether to one substance or to multiple chemicals, need to be critically examined through adequately designed scientific studies. Appropriate methods for controlled scientific study of adverse reactions to chemicals are discussed as well as the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) experience with aspartame as an example of the need for controlled scientific studies to refute or confirm anecdotal evidence. Since 1986 the FDA has received reports of 265 cases of epileptic seizures temporally associated with the ingestion of aspartame. Information obtained from the complainants' medical records as well as data on consumption patterns, temporal relationships, and challenge tests do not support the claim that the occurrences of the seizures are linked to consumption of aspartame. In addition, two double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies failed to demonstrate an association between epileptic seizures in children and adults and the ingestion of aspartame.

  1. A chemical EOR benchmark study of different reservoir simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Ali; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy

    2016-09-01

    chemical design for field-scale studies using commercial simulators. The benchmark tests illustrate the potential of commercial simulators for chemical flooding projects and provide a comprehensive table of strengths and limitations of each simulator for a given chemical EOR process. Mechanistic simulations of chemical EOR processes will provide predictive capability and can aid in optimization of the field injection projects. The objective of this paper is not to compare the computational efficiency and solution algorithms; it only focuses on the process modeling comparison.

  2. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  3. Studies in chemical physics through high-pressure luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Drickamer, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    Energy transfer in chelates of Eu/sup 3 +/ with ligands (dibenzylmethane) was studied as a function of pressure. Rate of thermal dissipation of electronic excitation was correlated with viscosity and dielectric constant for indoles in a series of solvents, and with pressure for porphyrins. Effects of medium (dielectric constant, viscosity) on complexes were studied. Studies on 3-hydroxyflavone are also summarized. These studies show the power of high pressure luminescence as a tool in chemical physics. 11 figures. (DLC)

  4. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  5. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study of atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. G.; Seals, R. D.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) on several Nuclepore filters which were exposed during air pollution studies are presented along with correlative measurements by Neutron Activation Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Samples were exposed during air pollution studies at Norfolk, Virginia and the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It was demonstrated that with the ESCA technique it was possible to identify the chemical (bonding) state of elements contained in the atmospheric particulate matter collected on Nuclepore filters. Sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, chlorine, alkali, and alkaline earth metal species were identified in the Norfolk samples. ESCA binding energy data for aluminum indicated that three chemically different types of aluminum are present in the launch and background samples from NASA-KSC.

  6. A Feasibility Study of H{sub 2}S Abatement by Incineration of Noncondensable Gases in Vented Steam Flow from Davies-State 5206-1 Geothermal Steam Well, Geysers Geothermal Steam Field, Lake County, California

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-25

    Determine feasibility of using an incineration-type device to accomplish the required reduction in vent steam H{sub 2}S content to meet ICAPCO rules. This approach is to be the only method considered in this feasibility study.

  7. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  8. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  9. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  10. Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies on mitomycin and adriamycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özalp-Yaman, Şeniz; Önal, Ahmet M.; Türker, Lemi

    2003-06-01

    In-situ spectroelectrochemical redox behaviour of two prominent chemotherapeutic agents, mitomycin and adriamycin were studied at constant potential. AM1 (UHF) type quantum chemical calculations on the neutral as well as radical anion and cation forms of mitomycin and adriamycin were performed.

  11. Examples and Case Studies for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document presents examples and case studies to help you in reporting for 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR), formerly known as Inventory Update Reporting (IUR).EPA designed these examples to illustrate the new reporting requirements, which were published as part of the CDR Rule (published August 16, 2011), and to address general reporting issues from the 2006 IUR.

  12. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    PubMed

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  13. Chemical composition and bioactivity studies of Alpinia nigra essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free radical scavenging, bactericidal and bitting deterrent properties of Alpinia nigra essential oils (EOs) were investigated in the present study. Chemical composition of the EOs were analyzed using GC-MS/GC-FID which revealed the presence of 63 constituents including ß-caryophyllene as major comp...

  14. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HCl vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others.

  15. Chemical Reactivity Theory Study of Advanced Glycation Endproduct Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frau, Juan; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2017-02-02

    Several compounds with the known ability to perform as inhibitors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) have been studied with Density Functional Theory (DFT) through the use of anumberofdensityfunctionalswhoseaccuracyhasbeentestedacrossabroadspectrumofdatabases in Chemistry and Physics. The chemical reactivity descriptors for these systems have been calculated through Conceptual DFT in an attempt to relate their intrinsic chemical reactivity with the ability to inhibit the action of glycating carbonyl compounds on amino acids and proteins. This knowledge could be useful in the design and development of new drugs which can be potential medicines for diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Identity method-a new tool for studying chemical fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowiak, M.

    2012-06-15

    Event-by-event fluctuations of the chemical composition of the hadronic system produced in nuclear collisions are believed to be sensitive to properties of the transition between confined and deconfined strongly interacting matter. In this paper a new technique for the study of chemical fluctuation, the identity method, is introduced and its features are discussed. The method is tested using data on central PbPb collisions at 40 A GeV registered by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS.

  17. Comparative chemical study of MTA and Portland cements.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt de; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luis Barbosa; Costa, Aline Tempel; Pozza, Daniel Humberto

    2007-01-01

    Portland cement has been analyzed and compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) because of their chemical similarity. The possibility of using this material as a less expensive alternative to MTA in dental practice should be considered. In view of this, the present study compared the components of a Portland cement (Votoran) to two commercial brands of MTA (Pro-Root and MTA-Angelus). Twelve specimens of each material were fabricated and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to obtain their percentage of chemical elements. The means of the chemical elements found in each material was compared by descriptive statistics. Bismuth was present only in MTA cements to provide radiopacity. In conclusion, the tested cements have similar components, which supports, as far as composition is concerned, the possible clinical use of Portland as an option to MTA.

  18. RECOVERY OF FISH COMMUNITIES IN A WARMWATER STREAM FOLLOWING POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The long-term recovery process for fish communities in a warm water stream in East Tennessee was studied using quantitative measurements over 20 years. The stream receives effluents from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, but since 1985 these effluents have been greatly reduced, eliminated, or diluted as part of a substantial long-term pollution abatement program. The resulting changes in water quantity and quality led to a recovery of the fish communities, evidenced by significant changes in species richness, abundance (density and biomass), and community composition (e.g., number of fish species sensitive to stress). The fish community changes occurred over a spatial gradient (downstream from the headwater release zone nearest the DOE facility) and temporally, at multiple sampling locations in the stream. Changes in measured parameters were associated with specific remedial actions and the intervening steps within the recovery process are discussed with regard to changes in treatment processes.

  19. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  20. A Preliminary Study for Chemical Ranking System in Terms of Soil and Groundwater Contamination by Chemical Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Jeong, Y. C.; Kim, K. E.; Lee, D.; Yoo, K.; Kim, J.; Hwang, S.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of chemicals could affect human health and ecosystems by chemical accidents such as fire, explosion, and/or spill. Chemical accidents make chemicals spread to the environment via various routes such as dispersion into ambient air, soil, and surface/ground water media. Especially, soil and groundwater contamination by chemical accidents become a secondary source to have a long term effect on human health and environment. Strength of long term effect by soil and groundwater contamination depends largely on inherent characteristics of a chemical and its fate in soil and groundwater. Therefore, in this study, we developed a framework on how to determine what kind of chemicals is more important in management scheme in terms of soil and groundwater contamination during chemical accidents. We ranked approximately fifty chemicals using this framework which takes into account an exposure into soil and groundwater, toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation of a chemical. This framework helps to prepare systematically the management plan for chemical related facilities. Furthermore, results from our study can make a policy maker have interests in highly ranked chemicals and facilities.

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of the Chemical Bond Approach, the Chemical Education Material Study, and a Representative Traditional Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crilly, Alice Roth

    This study compared three one-year courses in high school chemistry. One of these, entitled Modern Chemistry, represents the "traditional" precollegiate chemistry course. The others are the Chemical Bond Approach (CBA) and the Chemical Education Material Study (CHEM Study). These are the two major revisions in high school chemistry which emerged…

  2. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  3. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  4. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  5. Status and Perspective of Chemical Studies of Heaviest Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gäggeler, H. W.

    2013-06-01

    During the last decade the elements hassium (Hs, Z=108), copernicium(Cn, Z=112), and flerovium (Fl, Z=114) have been studied for the first time by chemical means. Hassium as a member of group eight of the periodic table proved to form a volatile molecule with oxygen, HsO4. Copernicium and flerovium both behaved like a volatile noble metal. While HsO4 turned out to be less volatile compared to the nearestby homologue in the same group of the periodic table, OsO4, Cn and Fl were both significantly more volatile compared to their homologues Hg and Pb, respectively, in their elemental state. All first ever chemical studies were performed with very few atoms: seven in case of Hs, five with Cn and three with Fl, respectively.

  6. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  7. Chemical composition studies of flint with different origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarina, Liga; Seglins, Valdis; Kostjukovs, Juris; Burlakovs, Juris

    2015-04-01

    Flint is a widely used material in the Stone Age because of its physical characteristics, which makes the material suitable for obtaining tools with sharp working edges. Chert, flint, chalcedony, agate and jasper in composition and several other physical characteristics are very similar. Therefore in archaeology most often they are determined simplified and are not distinguished, but described as flint or chert, denoting only the material in a general sense. However, in-depth studies it is necessary accurately identify the rock type and, in addition, to determine the origin of the flint and the conditions of the formation for the various archaeological research needs. As a typical example can be noted the localization problems in determining whether flint is local, or have emerged in the region through the exchange or by transportation. Flint consists mainly from quartz and mostly it has cryptocrystalline or amorphous structure. In nature it occurs as nodules and interbedded inclusions in sedimentary deposits as a result of digenesis processes when calcium carbonate is replaced with silicia. Bedded chert primarily is accumulations originated from excess alkalinity in the sediments. Flint can also be formed in the crystallization processes of the chemically unstable amorphous silicia. In this context, it should be noted that flint is naturally heterogeneous and very varied material by the physical properties and therefore problematic in many contemporary studies. In the study different origin flint samples from England, Denmark and Latvia were compared after their chemical composition. Flint nodules from Northern Europe chalk cliffs formed as inclusions in interbedded deposits or results of the digenesis and samples of chalcedony saturated dolomite from Latvia formed in hydrothermal processes were analysed using XRD and XRF methods. The obtained data were statistically analysed, identifying major, minor and trace elements and subsequently assessing the chemical

  8. Toxicity of abate® 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diets mixed to contain 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6.0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate® 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41 °C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18°C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma Cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

  9. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  10. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  11. Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO{sub 2}: Improved NO{sub 2} conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez-Nicolás, M.; Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M.

    2015-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NO{sub x}) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO{sub 2}: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO{sub 2}, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NO{sub x} removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO{sub 2}. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO{sub 2} accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples.

  12. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY.... Any changes in an abatement plan will require the preparation of a new plan in accordance with...

  13. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  14. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  15. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  16. Historical cohort study of mortality among chemical researchers

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.V.; Defonso, L.R.

    1986-03-01

    This historical cohort study examined mortality among 1,510 white male researchers employed from 1950-1959 who handled chemicals. During 1950-1979, 95 deaths were observed, significantly less than the 173.2 predicted by general population rates (SMR = 55). This was due to deficits in overall cancer deaths (SMR = 66), particularly respiratory cancer (SMR = 28), and reduced mortality from circulatory diseases and accidents. Those who had worked directly with chemicals for more than 5 yr and those who had the most hazardous exposures experienced similar low mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory cancer. Although deaths due to digestive cancer were elevated among those with 1-5 yr of work experience, there was no excess among those working more than 5 yr as would be expected from occupational exposure.

  17. Chemical Approaches to Studying Labile Amino Acid Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Marmelstein, Alan M; Moreno, Javier; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is the archetypal posttranslational modification of proteins. While phosphorylation of these residues has become standard textbook knowledge, phosphorylation of other amino acid side chains is underappreciated and minimally characterized by comparison. This disparity is rooted in the relative instability of these chemically distinct amino acid side chain moieties, namely phosphoramidates, acyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and phosphoanhydrides. In the case of the O-phosphorylated amino acids, synthetic constructs were critical to assessing their stability and developing tools for their study. As the chemical biology community has become more aware of these alternative phosphorylation sites, methodology has been developed for the synthesis of well-characterized standards and close mimics of these phosphorylated amino acids as well. In this article, we review the synthetic chemistry that is a prerequisite to progress in this field.

  18. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HC1 vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others. The next section summarizes our research activities during the first year of the project, and the section that follows consists of the statement of work for the second year.

  19. Holistic Watershed-Scale Approach for Studying Agricultural Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capel, P. D.; Domagalski, J. L.

    2006-05-01

    The USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program studied the water quality of 51 areas across the United States during its first decade (1991-2001). Analyses of results from that phase of the NAWQA Program indicated that detailed studies of the processes affecting water quality could aid in the interpretation of these data, help to determine the direction and scope of future monitoring studies, and add to the understanding of the sources, transport and fate of non-point source chemicals, such as from agriculture. Now in the second decade of investigations, the NAWQA Program has initiated new process-based detailed studies to increase our understanding at the scale of a small watershed (about 3-15 square kilometers), nested within the larger basins studied during the first decade. The holistic, mass-budget approach for small agricultural watersheds that was adopted includes processes, and measures water and chemicals in the atmosphere, surface water, tile drains, overland flow, and within various sub-surface environments including the vadose, saturated, and hyporheic zones. The primary chemicals of interest were nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), the triazine and acetanilide herbicides, and the organophosphorus insecticides. Extensive field observations were made, and numerical models were developed to simulate important environmental compartments and interfaces associated with the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals. It is well recognized that these field measurements and simulations cannot fully achieve a full mass budget at this scale, but the approach provides a useful means for comparisons of various processes in different environmental settings. The results gained using this approach will add to the general knowledge of environmental transport and fate processes, and have transfer value to unstudied areas and different scales of investigation. The five initial study areas started in 2002, included watersheds in California, Indiana

  20. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-05

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence.

  1. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs.

  2. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  3. Quantifying the uncertainties of chemical evolution studies. II. Stellar yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Tosi, M.; Matteucci, F.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Galactic chemical evolution models are useful tools for interpreting the large body of high-quality observational data on the chemical composition of stars and gas in galaxies that have become available in recent years. Aims: This is the second paper of a series that aims at quantifying the uncertainties in chemical evolution model predictions related to the underlying model assumptions. Specifically, it deals with the uncertainties due to the choice of the stellar yields. Methods: We adopted a widely used model for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy to test the effects of changing the stellar nucleosynthesis prescriptions on the predicted evolution of several chemical species. Up-to-date results from stellar evolutionary models were carefully taken into account. Results: We find that, except for a handful of elements whose nucleosynthesis in stars is well understood by now, large uncertainties still affect model predictions. This is especially true for the majority of the iron-peak elements, but also for much more abundant species such as carbon and nitrogen. The main causes of the mismatch we find among the outputs of different models assuming different stellar yields and among model predictions and observations are (i) the adopted location of the mass cut in models of type II supernova explosions; (ii) the adopted strength and extent of hot bottom burning in models of asymptotic giant branch stars; (iii) the neglection of the effects of rotation on the chemical composition of the stellar surfaces; (iv) the adopted rates of mass loss and of (v) nuclear reactions; and (vi) the different treatments of convection. Conclusions: Our results suggest that it is mandatory to include processes such as hot bottom burning in intermediate-mass stars and rotation in stars of all masses in accurate studies of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. In spite of their importance, both these processes still have to be better understood and characterized. As for massive

  4. Chemical functionalization of graphene via aryne cycloaddition: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-xiang; Wang, Hong-xia; Gao, Bo; Wang, Xiao-guang; Cai, Qing-hai; Wang, Xuan-zhang

    2012-06-01

    Chemical functionalization of graphene provides a promising route to improve its solubility in water and organic solvents as well as modify its electronic properties, thus significantly expanding its potential applications. In this article, by using density functional theory (DFT) methods, we have studied the effects of the chemical functionalization of graphenes via aryne cycloaddition on its properties. We found that the adsorption of an isolated aryne group on the graphene sheet is very weak with the adsorption energy of -0.204 eV, even though two new single C-C interactions are formed between the aryne group and the graphene. However, the interaction of graphene with the aryne group can be greatly strengthened by (i) substituting the H-atoms in aryne group with F-, Cl-, -NO(2) (electron-withdrawing capability), or CH(3)-group (electron-donating capability), and (ii) increasing the coverage of the adsorbed aryne groups on the graphene sheet. As expected, the strongest bonding is found on the graphene edges, in which the adsorbed aryne groups prefer to be far away from each other. Interestingly, chemical functionalization with aryne groups leads to an opening of the band gap of graphene, which is dependent on the coverage of the adsorbed aryne groups. The present work provides an insight into the modifications of graphene with aryne groups in experiment.

  5. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities: a case study in the Danube River.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study

  6. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  7. Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Odor Indicator Abatement by Biofilm Communities in Swine Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Bruns, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste odors arising from products of anaerobic microbial metabolism create community relations problems for livestock producers. We investigated a novel approach to swine waste odor reduction: the addition of FeCl3, a commonly used coagulant in municipal wastewater treatment, to stimulate degradation of odorous compounds by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) FeCl3 is an effective source of redox-active ferric iron (Fe3+) for dissimilatory reduction by bacteria indigenous to swine manure, and (ii) dissimilatory iron reduction results in significant degradation of odorous compounds within 7 days. Our results demonstrated that Fe3+ from FeCl3 was reduced biologically as well as chemically in laboratory microcosms prepared with prefiltered swine manure slurry and limestone gravel, which provided pH buffering and a substrate for microbial biofilm development. Addition of a 1-g liter−1 equivalent concentration of Fe3+ from FeCl3, but not from presynthesized ferrihydrite, caused initial, rapid solids flocculation, chemical Fe3+ reduction, and Eh increase, followed by a 2-day lag period. Between 2 and 6 days of incubation, increases in Fe2+ concentrations were accompanied by significant reductions in concentrations of volatile fatty acids used as odor indicators. Increases in Fe2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 days did not occur in FeCl3-treated microcosms that were sterilized by gamma irradiation or amended with NaN3, a respiratory inhibitor. DNA sequences obtained from rRNA gene amplicons of bacterial communities in FeCl3-treated microcosms were closely related to Desulfitobacterium spp., which are known representatives of DIRB. Use of iron respiration to abate wastewater odors warrants further investigation. PMID:16151075

  8. Experimental Studies on Hypersonic Stagnation Point Chemical Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    emission spectroscopy and atomic absorbtion spectroscopy , Appl. Spectrosc. vol. 31, 1977, pp 237-239 [27] Allemand C. D., Barnes R.M., A study of...ii se ie se e zh h c Le Lelffl h glgf µ (3) Atom mass conservation: 02 1 =⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛− ′ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ′+′ − is ie cdx duz... spectroscopy , material processing, spray coating, powder synthesis, chemical vapor deposition and in many, generally called Thermal Plasma

  9. An experimental study of steam explosions involving chemically reactive metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H.; Basu, S.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental study of molten zirconium-water explosions was conducted. A 1-kg mass of zirconium melt was dropped into a column of water. Explosions took place only when an external trigger was used. In the triggered tests, the extent of oxidation of the zirconium melt was very extensive. However, the explosion energetics estimated were found to be very small compared to the potential chemical energy available from the oxidation reaction. Zirconium is of particular interest, since it is a component of the core materials of the current nuclear power reactors. This paper describes the test apparatus and summarizes the results of four tests conducted using pure zirconium melt.

  10. Study to establish cost projections for production of Redox chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, J. F.; Greco, C. C.; Rusinko, R. N.; Wadsworth, A. L., III

    1982-01-01

    A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

  11. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking.

  12. Matrix isolation as a tool for studying interstellar chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, David W.; Ortman, Bryan J.; Hauge, Robert H.; Margrave, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Since the identification of the OH radical as an interstellar species, over 50 molecular species were identified as interstellar denizens. While identification of new species appears straightforward, an explanation for their mechanisms of formation is not. Most astronomers concede that large bodies like interstellar dust grains are necessary for adsorption of molecules and their energies of reactions, but many of the mechanistic steps are unknown and speculative. It is proposed that data from matrix isolation experiments involving the reactions of refractory materials (especially C, Si, and Fe atoms and clusters) with small molecules (mainly H2, H2O, CO, CO2) are particularly applicable to explaining mechanistic details of likely interstellar chemical reactions. In many cases, matrix isolation techniques are the sole method of studying such reactions; also in many cases, complexations and bond rearrangements yield molecules never before observed. The study of these reactions thus provides a logical basis for the mechanisms of interstellar reactions. A list of reactions is presented that would simulate interstellar chemical reactions. These reactions were studied using FTIR-matrix isolation techniques.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  14. Mast cells are required for phototolerance induction and scratching abatement.

    PubMed

    Schweintzger, Nina A; Bambach, Isabella; Reginato, Eleonora; Mayer, Gerlinde; Limón-Flores, Alberto Y; Ullrich, Stephen E; Byrne, Scott N; Wolf, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Dermal mast cells protect the skin from inflammatory effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are required for UV-induced immune suppression. We sought to determine a potential mechanistic role of mast cells in reducing the sensitivity to UV radiation (i.e. phototolerance induction) through photohardening. We administered single UV exposures as well as a chronic UV irradiation regime to mast cell-deficient Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice and their controls. The chronic irradiation protocol was similar to that given for prophylaxis in certain photodermatoses in humans. Compared to controls, UV-exposed Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice were more susceptible to epidermal hyperplasia and dermal oedema which was linked to blood vessel dilation. Unexpectedly, Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice exhibited an excessive scratching behaviour following broadband UVB plus UVA or solar simulated UV irradiation at doses far below their minimal skin-swelling dose. Protection from this UV-induced scratching phenotype was dependent on mast cells, as engraftment of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells abated it entirely. Kit(W-Sh/W-Sh) mice were entirely resistant to phototolerance induction by photohardening treatment. Compared to controls, these mice also showed reduced numbers of regulatory T cells and neutrophils in the skin 24 h after UV irradiation. While it is well known that mast cell-deficient mice are resistant to UV-induced immune suppression, we have discovered that they are prone to develop photo-itch and are more susceptible to UV-induced epidermal hyperplasia and skin oedema.

  15. Residential lead-based-paint hazard remediation and soil lead abatement: their impact among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Beiser, A; Bellinger, D; Copenhafer, D; Weitzman, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study describes the impact of residential lead-based-paint hazard remediations on children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. METHODS: Changes in blood lead levels were observed following paint hazard remediation alone and in combination with soil abatement. RESULTS: After adjustment for the confounding variables paint hazard remediation alone was associated with a blood lead increase of 6.5 micrograms/dL (P = 0.5), and paint hazard remediation combined with soil abatement was associated with an increase of 0.9 microgram/dL (P = 36). CONCLUSIONS: Lead-based-paint hazard remediation as performed in this study, is not an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. PMID:9357358

  16. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny; Keyser, David; Gagnon, Pieter; Aznar, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic studies of Isoleucine by quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-04-24

    In this work, we reported a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of Isoleucine (2-Amino-3-methylpentanoic acid). The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments, thermodynamics properties, NBO analyses, NMR chemical shifts and ultraviolet-visible spectral interpretation of Isoleucine have been studied by performing MP2 and DFT/cc-pVDZ level of theory. The FTIR, FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1) respectively. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. Computational calculations at MP2 and B3LYP level with basis set of cc-pVDZ is employed in complete assignments of Isoleucine molecule on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using VEDA-4 program. The calculated wavenumbers are compared with the experimental values. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The formation of hydrogen bond was investigated in terms of the charge density by the NBO calculations. Based on the UV spectra and TD-DFT calculations, the electronic structure and the assignments of the absorption bands were carried out. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were investigated using theoretical calculations.

  18. Combined spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of ezetimibe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Preeti; Pandey, Jaya; Shimpi, Manishkumar R.; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Velaga, Sitaram P.; Sinha, Kirti

    2016-12-01

    Ezetimibe (EZT) is a hypocholesterolemic agent used for the treatment of elevated blood cholesterol levels as it lowers the blood cholesterol by blocking the absorption of cholesterol in intestine. Study aims to combine experimental and computational methods to provide insights into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of EZT which is important for explaining drug substance physical and biological properties. Computational study on molecular properties of ezetimibe is presented using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A detailed vibrational assignment has been done for the observed IR and Raman spectra of EZT. In addition to the conformational study, hydrogen bonding and molecular docking studies have been also performed. For conformational studies, the double well potential energy curves have been plotted for the rotation around the six flexible bonds of the molecule. UV absorption spectrum was examined in methanol solvent and compared with calculated one in solvent environment (IEF-PCM) using TD-DFT/6-31G basis set. HOMO-LUMO energy gap of both the conformers have also been calculated in order to predict its chemical reactivity and stability. The stability of the molecule was also examined by means of natural bond analysis (NBO) analysis. To account for the chemical reactivity and site selectivity of the molecules, molecular electrostatic potential (MEPS) map has been plotted. The combination of experimental and calculated results provide an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of EZT. In order to give an insight for the biological activity of EZT, molecular docking of EZT with protein NPC1L1 has been done.

  19. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Experimental studies of the Universal Chemical Key (UCK) algorithm on the NCI database of chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Robert; Kasturi, Pavan; Hamelberg, Donald; Liu, Bing

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm called the Universal Chemical Key (UCK) algorithm that constructs a unique key for a molecular structure. The molecular structures are represented as undirected labeled graphs with the atoms representing the vertices of the graph and the bonds representing the edges. The algorithm was tested on 236,917 compounds obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database of chemical compounds. In this paper we present the algorithm,some examples and the experimental results on the NCI database. On the NCI database, the UCK algorithm provided distinct unique keys for chemicals with different molecular structures.

  1. NOx abatement by fuel-lean reburning: Laboratory combustor and pilot-scale package boiler results. Report for June 1995--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A.; Touati, A.D.; Becker, J.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses two experimental studies related to the abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by fuel-lean reburning. First, systematic tests in a 17-kW down-flow laboratory combustor, in which nitric oxide (NO) in the oxidant was destroyed in long, axial, methane/air diffusion flames, showed that substantial reduction of NO was possible under overall fuel-lean conditions.

  2. Chemical genomics for studying parasite gene function and interaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Chin-chien; Inglese, James; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2013-01-01

    With the development of new technologies in genome sequencing, gene expression profiling, genotyping, and high-throughput screening of chemical compound libraries, small molecules are playing increasingly important roles in studying gene expression regulation, gene-gene interaction, and gene function. Here we briefly review and discuss some recent advancements in drug target identification and phenotype characterization using combinations of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries and various genome-wide methods such as whole genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genome-wide expressional analysis. These approaches can be used to search for new drugs against parasitic infections, to identify drug targets or drug-resistance genes, and to infer gene function. PMID:24215777

  3. Particle adhesion studies relevant to chemical mechanical polishing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Ryde, Niels P; Babu, S V; Matijević, Egon

    2005-10-25

    This study describes particle adhesion experiments carried out to elucidate interactions between particles in slurries used for polishing of wafers and disks. For this purpose the packed column technique was employed, which simulated chemical mechanical polishing of copper with silica and alumina, as well as of silicic oxide with ceria. The model systems consisted of uniform copper and glass beads as collectors, representing the wafers, and colloidal dispersions of silica, alumia, and silica coated with nanosize ceria, all of well-defined properties that are used as abrasives. It was shown that a strong correlation exists between deposition and detachment results of the adhesion studies and the polish rates measured using actual substrates with the same or similar slurries.

  4. Studies on nonequilibrium phenomena in supersonic chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Chandrasekhar, Rajnish

    1993-01-01

    This study deals with a systematic investigation of nonequilibrium processes in supersonic combustion. The two-dimensional, elliptic Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate supersonic flows with nonequilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics, coupled with radiation, for hydrogen-air systems. The explicit, unsplit MacCormack finite-difference scheme is used to advance the governing equations in time, until convergence is achieved. For a basic understanding of the flow physics, premixed flows undergoing finite rate chemical reactions are investigated. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the radiative interactions vary substantially, depending on reactions involving HO2 and NO species, and that this can have a noticeable influence on the flowfield. The second part of this study deals with premixed reacting flows under thermal nonequilibrium conditions. Here, the critical problem is coupling of the vibrational relaxation process with the radiative heat transfer. The specific problem considered is a premixed expanding flow in a supersonic nozzle. Results indicate the presence of nonequilibrium conditions in the expansion region of the nozzle. This results in reduction of the radiative interactions in the flowfield. Next, the present study focuses on investigation of non-premixed flows under chemical nonequilibrium conditions. In this case, the main problem is the coupled turbulence-chemistry interaction. The resulting formulation is validated by comparison with experimental data on reacting supersonic coflowing jets. Results indicate that the effect of heat release is to lower the turbulent shear stress and the mean density. The last part of this study proposes a new theoretical formulation for the coupled turbulence-radiation interactions. Results obtained for the coflowing jets experiment indicate that the effect of turbulence is to enhance the radiative interactions.

  5. Sensitivity study of SMILES-2 for chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Manago, Naohiro; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Baron, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Sensitivity studies of temperature and chemical species (Observed by ISS/JEM/SMILES: O3, HCl, ClO, HO2, BrO, HNO3, CH3CN, and Not observed by SMILES: Temperature, H2O, N2O, NO2, NO, CH3Cl, CO, H2CO, OH and O-atom) was carried out for the SMILES-2 proposal, a sub-mm and THz observation of limb emission from space over the spectral region from 400 GHz to 2.5 THz. Tentative but optimal candidate of frequency bands to cover these species was selected with 3 SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) mixers; SIS-1 (485-489 GHz + 523-527 GHz), SIS-2 (623-627 GHz + 648-652 GHz), SIS-3 (557 GHz + 576.3 GHz) and 2 HEB (Hot Electron Bolometer); HEB-1 (1.8 THz OH) and HEB-2 (2.06 THz O-atom). Temperature can be retrieved with 1 K precision and 1 km vertical resolution from 15 to 120 km. Other chemical species also showed very high single scan precision (random error) comparable to statistical standard error of previous satellite measurements.

  6. Quantum chemical computational studies on bis-thiourea zinc acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pir, Hacer; Günay, Nergin; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Tarcan, Erdoğan; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    In this study, quantum chemical calculations of vibrational spectra, Raman spectra, electronic properties (total energy, dipole moment, electronegativity, chemical hardness and softness), Mulliken atomic charges and thermodynamic parameters of bis-thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) have been performed using Gaussian 09 program. Additionally, nonlinear optical (NLO), conformational, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses of BTZA have been carried out using the same program. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state have been calculated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, the molecular frontier orbital energies (HOMO, HOMO-1, LUMO and LUMO+1) of the title compound have been calculated at the HF and B3LYP levels. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally, the calculated results were applied to simulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which showed good agreement with the experimental ones.

  7. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  8. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  9. Prospective study of chemical exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, MG; Morozova, N; O'Reilly, EJ; McCullough, ML; Calle, EE; Thun, MJ; Ascherio, A

    2009-01-01

    Background Although environmental toxins, including pesticides, are suspected of contributing to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), no data exist from large prospective investigations. This study assessed the association between exposure to chemicals and risk of ALS in a prospective cohort study. Methods We prospectively assessed the relation between self-report of regular exposure to 11 different chemical classes or X-rays and ALS mortality among over 1 million participants in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II. Follow-up from 1989 through 2004 identified 617 deaths from ALS among men and 539 among women. We calculated adjusted rate ratios (RR) using Cox proportional hazards. Results The RR for ALS mortality among individuals exposed to pesticides/herbicides compared to the unexposed was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.44), but somewhat higher after excluding those with missing duration of pesticides exposure (RR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.89-2.31; p=0.14). A non-significant increase in ALS mortality was found among individuals who reported exposure to formaldehyde (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.93-1.92). Excluding those with missing duration of formaldehyde exposure, the RR was 2.47 (95% CI: 1.58-3.86), and there was a strongly significant dose-response relation with increasing years of exposure (p-trend=0.0004). Conclusions We found little evidence for an association between pesticides/herbicide exposure and ALS. In contrast, we found evidence suggesting an increased risk of ALS with formaldehyde exposure. Because of the longitudinal design, this result is unlikely to be due to bias, but it should nevertheless be interpreted cautiously and needs to be independently verified. PMID:19372290

  10. Efficiency of final cleaning for lead-based paint abatement in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Willeke, Klaus; Menrath, William; Friedman, Warren

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of procedures used for the final indoor cleaning after active lead-based paint abatement were evaluated in a 830 ft3 test chamber. Dry and wet scraping and dry machine sanding were applied to wooden doors obtained from lead-hazard control sites. The airborne particle concentration and size distribution were monitored using a real-time particle size spectrometer. Particulates were also collected on filters and analyzed for total dust and lead. The resulting airborne lead mass was determined for each cleaning procedure, and the potential floor lead loading resulting from the dust settling was calculated. Wipe samples were collected to measure the actual floor lead loading. The effectiveness of final cleaning was evaluated first for dry abatement methods. Various cleaning work practices were tested by applying wet and dry debris sweeping as well as no sweeping in combinations with wet and dry removal of plastic sheeting. Considerable resuspension of leaded particles was detected during dry sweeping: the airborne lead mass increase ranged between 65 and 220 percent. However, this increase did not exceed 22 percent when wet sweeping was applied. Minimal or no resuspension was found when the plastic was folded with leaded debris inside (no sweeping was performed prior to the sheeting removal). During folding activity, the "clean" (uncovered) floor surface may be significantly contaminated with leaded dust from workers' shoes and cleaning tools. The first HEPA vacuuming resulted in a 15- to 20-fold decrease of the airborne lead mass; however, it was not sufficient to reduce the floor lead loading to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) clearance level of 40 microg/ft2, as determined by wipe sampling. Wet mopping following the first HEPA vacuuming was proven to be effective to reduce the lead loading significantly below 40 microg/ft2. The second HEPA vacuuming resulted in further reduction of the airborne lead mass concentration. The

  11. Profiling the reproductive toxicity of chemicals from multigeneration studies in the toxicity reference database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multigeneration reproduction studies are used to characterize parental and offspring systemic toxicity, as well as reproductive toxicity of pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Results from 329 multigeneration studies on 316 chemicals have been digitized into sta...

  12. Isotopic and chemical studies of early crustal metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The aim, within the bounds of the Early Crustal Genesis Project, was the isotopic and chemical study of selected early crustal meta-sedimentary rocks. Western Australia was chosen as the first field area to examine, as the Yilgarn and Pilbara Blocks comprise one of the largest and most varied Precambrian terranes. Furthermore, the Western Gneiss Terrane (on the western flank of the Yilgarn Block) and the Pilbara Block are both non-greenstone in character; these types of terrane were relatively neglected, but are of great significance in the understanding of early crustal meta-sediments. The meta-sediments of aluminous or peraluminous character, commonly also enriched in Mg and/or Fe relative to the more common pelitic meta-sediments, and at many locations, deficient in one or more of the elements Ca, N, and K, were initially chosen.

  13. A chemical relaxation study of human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Shear, D B; Kustin, K

    1968-01-01

    Chemical relaxation methods and a dilution technique were applied to the study of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by human prostatic acid phosphatase. Although the reaction mechanism was not elucidated, rate constants and equilibrium constants were obtained for the reaction of enzyme and p-nitrophenol to form a complex. A slow, 2-sec relaxation effect which showed no concentration dependence was observed in various reaction mixtures, including some lacking the substrate and products of the hydrolytic reaction. The conclusion drawn is that there are two forms of the prostatic enzyme, which are normally in equilibrium with each other, but which undergo a relatively slow interconversion when this equilibrium is perturbed. A preliminary calculation indicates that these forms are present in the equilibrium ratio of 2:1.

  14. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  15. Surface chemical studies of anodically oxidised aluminium membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treverton, J. A.; West, R.; Johnson, D.; Thornton, M.

    1993-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fast atom bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (FAB-SIMS) have been used to study the surfaces of inorganic microfiltration membranes produced by controlled removal of anodic films formed on aluminium in phosphoric and oxalic acid electrolytes. The results are compared with those of similar analyses of membranes produced from anodic films formed in mixed oxalic/phosphoric acid electrolyte. Both techniques established that phosphates were concentrated on the surface of membranes formed in phosphoric acid and oxalic/phosphoric acid and that oxalate ions were present on the surfaces of membranes formed in oxalic acid. The low intensity of the AlO -x fragments implies that all of the aluminium ions in the surface are coordinated to phosphates or oxalates. However, any differences its the chemical state of the aluminium on the different membranes were not detectable by either technique.

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF METHODS TO CHEMICALLY BIND ZINC

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2011-06-10

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first two experimental tasks were completed. The results of the third experimental task are reported here. This task was conducted to determine if the zinc vapors could be chemically bound on two non hydrogen active substrates. Based on a thermodynamic study copper and cobalt were the most favorable for capturing zinc without forming hydrides. Within the experimental parameters tested, which include temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C at pressures of nominally 20-40 millitorr, the zinc deposited on the both copper screen and cobalt rods but did not react to form a compound. The conditions that were tested are not prototypic and additional testing under higher vacuum conditions, i.e., .01 millitorr, may enhance the reactivity of the surfaces and is recommended.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  18. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: CORROSION STUDIES RESULTS: FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-09-29

    Due to the need to close High Level Waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the removal of sludge heel materials remaining at the completion of mechanical tank cleaning efforts. Oxalic acid is considered the preferred cleaning reagent for heel dissolution of iron-based sludge. However, the large quantity of chemical reagents added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acidic systems may be required for specific waste components that have low solubility in oxalic acid, and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Electrochemical corrosion studies were conducted with 1 wt. % oxalic acid at mineral acid concentrations above and below the optimal conditions for this oxalic acid concentration. Testing environments included pure reagents, pure iron and aluminum phases, and sludge simulants. Mineral acid concentrations greater than 0.2 M and temperatures greater than 50 C result in unacceptably high corrosion rates. Results showed that manageable corrosion rates of carbon steel can be achieved at dilute mineral acid concentrations (i.e. less than 0.2 M) and low temperatures based on the contact times involved. Therefore, it is recommended that future dissolution and corrosion testing be performed with a dilute mineral acid and a less concentrated oxalic acid (e.g., 0.5 wt.%) that still promotes optimal dissolution. This recommendation requires the processing of greater water volumes than those for the baseline process during heel dissolution, but allows for minimization of oxalic acid additions. The following conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) In both nitric and sulfuric acid based reagents, the low temperature and

  19. Chemical kinetic studies on dry sorbents. Final report. [Sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.T.; Keener, T.C.

    1982-02-15

    The scope of this research investigation has included a review of potential additives suitable for dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and a bench scale laboratory study to determine the chemical kinetics for the reaction of five different sorbents with sulfur dioxide. The sorbents chosen included sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/), soda ash (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/), trona, lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). This study has shown that: (1) The reaction rate increases with temperature for soda ash and calcium oxide. The reaction temperature has an inverse effect on sodium bicarbonate and trona due, primarily, to the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. The calcium hydroxide-SO/sub 2/ reaction increased up to 550/sup 0/F, and then decreased, due to uneven gas flow distribution. (2) The reaction rates for soda ash, calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were increased by decreasing their particle size. This effect was not confirmed for sodium bicarbonate and trona where reaction temperature was the most important reaction parameter. (3) Reaction with soda ash was found to be limited by the presence of an impervious ash layer which prevented interparticle gaseous diffusion. Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were found to be limited by a slow chemical reaction rate. Results on the rate-limiting steps for sodium bicarbonate and trona were inconclusive because of the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. (4) The effect of thermal activation was to increase the reaction rate for sodium bicarbonate and trona at lower temperatures. This effect was less pronounced at higher temperatures. (5) Results obtained for nitric oxide show limited adsorption for the five sorbents tested as compared to the finding for sulfur dioxide.

  20. [Study of quantum-pharmacological chemical characteristics of quercetin].

    PubMed

    Zahorodnyĭ, M I

    2007-01-01

    It was established in the previous studies that quercetin prevented the development and caused faster regression of ulcers, petechia and anabroses in rats, which were induced by diclofenac taking. In the group of patients taking diclofenac together with quercetin, the ulcers and dyspeptic events were less found. The application of quercetin normalizes the function and metabolism of cartilage tissue of rabbits with an experimental osteoarthrosis and in patients with osteoartrosis. Quantum-chemical properties of molecule quercetin were studied using the methods of molecular mechanics MM+ and ab initio 6-31G*, and also semiempirical method. The following indices were investigated: distance between atoms (A), the distribution of electronic density of only external valency electrons, distribution of electrostatic potential; common energy of the exertion of molecule (kkal/mmol); binding energy (kkal/mmol); electron energy (kkal/mmol); energy of nucleus-nucleus interaction (kkal/mmol); formation heat (kkal/mmol); atomic charge (eB); value of the dipole moment of molecule (D); localization and energy of highest occupied orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied (LUMO) molecular orbital (eB) of quercetin miolecule; the value of absolute rigidity of chemical structure of bioflavonoid. It was shown, that bioflavonoid quercetin belongs to mild reagents, has nucleophilic properties, can react with alkaline, unsaturated and aromatic compounds,. Polar substitutes in the quercetine molecule influence on the distribution of superficial valency electrons and localization of HOMO and LUMO. The energy value of quercetin LUMO enables us to refer quercetine to the reducing agent and it is illustrated by antioxidant properties of this medicine.

  1. Negative chemical ionization studied of human and food chain contamination with xenobiotic chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, R C; Whitaker, M J; Smith, L M; Stalling, D L; Kuehl, D W

    1980-01-01

    Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasma, and human adipose tissue, were cleaned up by one of the following three cleanup procedures: (1) continuous liquid-liquid extraction steam distillation; (2) gel-permeation chromatography; and (3) adsorption on activated carbon followed by elution with toluene. The third procedure was used only for the examination of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples. Using these techniques, we have found evidence for contamination of fish samples with polychloronaphthalenes, polychlorostyrenes, polychlorobiphenyls, polychlorodibenzofurans, and polychlorodibenzodioxins among other chemicals. The polychlorodibenzodioxins appeared only in the spectra of extracts of fish obtained from the Tittabawassee River at Midland Michigan. The polychlorodibenzofuran ions appeared in NCI mass spectra of fish that were significantly contaminated (above 2 ppm) with polychlorobiphenyls. Toxic substances occurring in human seminal plasma included pentachlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, DDT metabolites, and polychlorobiphenyls. We have investigated toxic substances in human seminal plasma because of the apparent decrease in sperm density in U.S. males over the last 30 years. Results of screening human adipose tissue for contamination with xenobiotic chemicals have been largely coincident with result of the EPA human monitoring program. Polychlorobiphenyls, DDT metabolites, nonachlor, and chlordane have appeared in most samples examined. Detection limits for all of these chemicals were of the order of 1 ppb. PMID:7428739

  2. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  3. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  4. Laser-induced gas breakdown - Spectroscopic and chemical studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Montgolfier, PH.; Dumont, P.; Mille, Y.; Villermaux, J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the results of several experimental investigations on laser-induced gas breakdown. The experiments included time-resolved spectroscopy, direct detection of H atoms with a TiO2 probe, and chemical reactions; each of them provided insight into the behavior of the medium at different times. Chemical reactions and explosions have been initiated by the laser beam when a plasma was created. No primary multiphotonic absorption and no macroscopic chemical reactions were observed below the breakdown threshold.

  5. A sensitivity analysis of process design parameters, commodity prices and robustness on the economics of odour abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies.

  6. Chemical treatment of machined titanium surfaces. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Krozer, A; Hall, J; Ericsson, I

    1999-06-01

    Microbial plaque accumulation on titanium dental implant surfaces can result in an inflammatory condition of the surrounding tissues. Cleaning of such a contaminated surface, in vivo, by means of a solution of amino-alcohol, following surgical exposure, has been proposed. However, the tissue healing following treatment resulted in formation of a fibrous capsule at the tissue-implant interface, i.e. improper implant re-integration. The present experiment was designed to investigate the possible influence of an amino-alcohol solution on machined titanium surface properties. Titanium samples with topography and chemical composition similar to the clinically used Brånemark implant surfaces were used in this experimental in-vitro study to investigate the adsorption of amino-alcohol to such surfaces, and the possibilities to chemically remove the adsorbed alcohols in order to recover a pristine titanium surface. The amino-alcohol solution was supplied to the sample surfaces and four different methods were subsequently used in order to remove the adsorbed alcohol molecules. It was shown that rinsing in water, saline solution, and 5% H2O2 did not remove the amino-alcohol from the surface. However, exposure to ozone produced by using a commercial mercury lamp in ambient air resulted in complete removal of the adsorbed amino-alcohol. The results show that the amino-alcohol used forms a stable and dense film at the implant surface in vitro. Presence of such a film most likely prevents re-integration to occur at the implant-tissue interface in vivo.

  7. Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1977-01-01

    Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds Using Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Bong; Park, S.; Park, Y.; Youn, S.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma source with a cylindrical cavity has been proposed to abate the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This plasma source was designed to generate microwave plasma with the cylindrical shape and to be easily installed in existing exhaust line. The microwave frequency is 2.45 GHz and the operating pressure range is 0.1 Torr to 0.3 Torr. The plasma characteristic of the cylindrical microwave plasma source was measured using the optical spectrometer, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of CF4 and CHF3 were measured by a quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) with the various operation conditions. The effect of the addition of the oxygen gas were tested and also the correlation between the plasma parameters and the DRE are presented in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  9. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  10. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Calza, P; Gionco, C; Giletta, M; Kalaboka, M; Sakkas, V A; Albanis, T; Paganini, M C

    2017-02-05

    In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV-vis and visible light. Commercial TiO2 P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO2 P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO2 P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  11. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  12. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: feasibility of abatement strategies.

    PubMed

    Carew, Richard

    2010-08-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH(3)) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH(3) emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH(3) emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Québec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH(3) emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods.

  13. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  14. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  15. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

  16. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  17. The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

  18. Organic chemical degradation by remote study of the redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, P. M.; Revil, A.; Binley, A. M.; Bloem, E.; French, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the natural (and enhanced) degradation of organic contaminants is essential for managing groundwater quality in many parts of the world. Contaminated sites often have limited access, hence non-intrusive methods for studying redox processes, which drive the degradation of organic compounds, are required. One example is the degradation of de-icing chemicals (glycols and organic salts) released to the soil near airport runways during winter. This issue has been broadly studied at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway using intrusive and non-intrusive methods. Here, we report on laboratory experiments that aim to study the potential of using a self-potential, DCresistivity, and time-domain induced polarization for geochemical characterization of the degradation of Propylene Glycol (PG). PG is completely miscible in water, does not adsorb to soil particles and does not contribute to the electrical conductivity of the soil water. When the contaminant is in the unsaturated zone near the water table, the oxygen is quickly consumed and the gas exchange with the surface is insufficient to ensure aerobic degradation, which is faster than anaerobic degradation. Since biodegradation of PG is highly oxygen demanding, anaerobic pockets can exist causing iron and manganese reduction. It is hypothesised that nitrate would boost the degradation rate under such conditions. In our experiment, we study PG degradation in a sand tank. We provide the system with an electron highway to bridge zones with different redox potential. This geo-battery system is characterized by self-potential, resistivity and induced polarization anomalies. An example of preliminary results with self-potential at two different times of the experiment can be seen in the illustration. These will be supplemented with more direct information on the redox chemistry: in-situ water sampling, pH, redox potential and electrical conductivity measurements. In parallel, a series of batch experiments have been

  19. Quantum chemical studies on the reactivity of oxazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Behzad; Eskandari, Khalil; Zarandi, Maryam; Asli, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The quantum chemical study of the reactivity of a series of oxazole derivatives substituted at 2, 4, and 5 positions was performed using B3LYP/6-311++G( d, p) and MP2/6-311++G( d, p) levels of theory. Different substituents have been applied to cover a wide range of electronic effects. On the basis of Fukui functions, oxazole derivatives in the gas phase are found to be suitable nucleophilic sites. For the most of studied substituents, it was observed that the calculated Fukui function f k - values at the N-position are small in case of electron-withdrawing substituents, resulting a preferred N-position for hard reactions. In contrast, large f k - values in case of electron-donating groups show a preferred N-position for soft reactions. These two local reactivity descriptors predicted the reactivity of the electron-rich oxazoles sequence to be 2-substituted oxazoles > 5-substituted oxazoles > 4-substituted oxazoles, where due to resonance effect, the reactivity toward electrophilic attack at the pyridine nitrogen atom is enhanced by electron donor substituents.

  20. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma or thermally enhanced low pressure chemical vapor deposition of diamond films is an exciting development with many challenging fundamental problems. The early stages of nucleation is relevant to the initial growth rate and the perfection and morphology of the deposit. To isolate one of the factors that influence nucleation, we have studied the effect of surface topography on the nucleation process. Our earlier work has shown preferential nucleation on sharp convex features and we have proposed several possible reasons for this behavior, including dangling bonds at the convex features. In our recent work, we have extended our investigation to include a novel patterning of silicon substrates used to pattern silicon solar cells. The results are consistent with our earlier observations that the majority of nucleation events occur on protruding surface features. In an effort to establish whether dangling bonds at the protruding surfaces may be responsible for the selective nucleation, we have evaluated the dangling bond concentration using electron spin resonance. We have carried out deposition under nominally identical surface topography, but with different concentrations of dangling bonds at or near the surface. The results of this study indicate that dangling bonds play a minor role in enhancing nucleation, in contrast to a substantial role played by special surface topographical features. In the course of the past year, we have submitted four manuscripts for publication and have made six presentations.

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  7. Fundamental studies on silicon dioxide chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Uday

    Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) has lately been adopted on a large scale by the semiconductor industry for planarizing and patterning metal and dielectric films. Additionally, CMP has been used for hundreds of years for optical polishing. Still, several aspects of this process remain poorly understood. In this study, some results on CMP of SiO2 are presented with a view to characterizing the effects of abrasive properties and slurry chemistry on the polishing process. Additionally, some results from a novel in-situ friction force measuring instrument are also presented. The friction force results showed the effect of several parameters such as surface roughness, solution pH and ionic strength on wafer-pad interactions. Additionally, monitoring the friction as a function of velocity showed that the transition from boundary lubrication to full fluid-film lubrication depends on the roughness (conditioning) of the polishing pad. The parameters investigated in the polishing experiments include abrasive size and concentration. From the experimental results, it was found that an optimum concentration exists for each abrasive size, which shifts to lower values and becomes narrower as particle size increases. From calculations, this was attributed to a decreased ability of the large particles to chemically modify the surface of the SiO2 films. The smaller particles, having a much larger surface area, are able to better adsorb dissolution and abrasion products at high concentrations, thus leading to high removal rates under those conditions. Studies on the effect of slurry ionic strength showed that the ability of a metal ion to shield the surface charge on the surfaces interacting during polishing is what determined removal rate. This was due to the reduced electrostatic repulsion between the surfaces, which resulted in better contact and thus higher polishing rates. These results were corroborated by the earlier friction force measurements. Finally, the influence of

  8. Methodological issues in human studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs, David R

    2015-12-01

    Possible harm from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans is speculated based on two types of evidence; 1) increasing trends of suspected diseases in ecological studies of populations and 2) findings from traditional epidemiological studies of individuals. However, ecological findings are not regarded as direct human evidence of the relation between EDCs and disease, while the evidence among epidemiological studies of individuals is often inconsistent. Thus, a criticism is that linking EDCs and health in human is naively presumed without solid evidence. However, human studies of EDCs are methodologically complex and understanding methodological issues will help to interpret findings from existing human studies and to properly design optimal human studies. The key issues are low reliability of exposure assessment of EDCs with short half-lives, EDC mixtures, possibility of non-monotonic dose-response relationships, non-existence of an unexposed group, difficulties in measuring exposure during critical periods, and interactions with established risk factors. Furthermore, EDC mixtures may affect human health through other mechanisms than traditional endocrine disruption, for example glutathione depletion or mitochondrial dysfunction. Given this complexity, the most plausible scenario in humans is that exposure to EDC mixtures leads to increasing risk of related diseases at the ecological level, but inconsistent associations would be expected in traditional epidemiological studies. Although epidemiologists have long relied on Bradford Hill's criteria to objectively evaluate whether associations observed in epidemiology can be interpreted as causal, there are challenges to use these criteria for EDCs, particularly concerning consistency across studies and the findings of linear dose-response relationships. At the individual level, compared to EDCs with short half-lives, epidemiological studies of EDCs with long half-lives among populations with a relatively low

  9. Preliminary Problem Definition Study of 48 Munitions-Related Chemicals. Volume II. Propellant-Related Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    million lb/year. This production rate will increase as the dye and rubber market grows and as planned new diphenyl- a;nine production facilities become...this chemical are estimated at Ř million lb/year. In the civilian market , lead salicylate is used as a stabilizer in flooring and other vinyl compounds...these four reports. In addition a general methodology report was also prepared. This report describes the search strategy and evaluation methodology

  10. Rodent-repellent studies. III. Advanced studies in the evaluation of chemical repellents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1949-01-01

    In order to bridge the gap between preliminary screening of chemicals for potential rodent repellency and the application ofthese compounds to paper cartons, more advanced studies in the evaluation ofpromising materials have been carried out. These studies have resulted in: (1) a modification of the food acceptance technique which eliminates doubtful compounds and also provides a closer analogy to the ultimate goal, and (2) a method for rapidly testing chemicals incorporated in paper. When the results of these latter tests are expressed as a function of time, it can be shown that a distinct correlation exists between the deterrency exhibited by treated paper and the repellency of treated food.

  11. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  12. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell. Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.

  13. Study of microcontact printed patterns by chemical force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujihira, M; Furugori, M; Akiba, U; Tani, Y

    2001-01-01

    Patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on sputtered gold films prepared by microcontact printing (microCP) were studied by mapping adhesive forces with pulsed-force-mode atomic force microscopy. A stamp for microCP was fabricated by pouring polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) over a photolithographically prepared master. The patterned SAMs were prepared by two methods. One is called the wet-inking method, in which inking was done by placing a thiol ethanol solution for 30 s on the stamp and then removing the excess ink solution under a stream of nitrogen. The other is called the contact-inking method, in which a pad made of PDMS was dipped overnight in a thiol ethanol solution and then the stamp was placed on the inker pad impregnated with the thiol ethanol solution. The second step for pattern formation was the same for both of the two different microCP methods. Namely, the gold surfaces stamped with alkanethiols were further reacted with a thiol terminating in COOH in ethanol. The resulting patterns with CH3- and COOH-terminated regions were analyzed by imaging the adhesive forces with the chemically modified gold coated AFM tips with a SAM of CH3 or COOH terminal functional groups.

  14. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  15. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    DOE PAGES

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell.more » Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.« less

  16. Chemical approaches to the study of environmental diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cause-and-effect relationships are difficult to establish in chronic diseases which take years to develop. Awareness of the health hazards posed by long-term, low-level exposure to toxins has focused attention on causative environmental agents. Studies discussed here identified chemical factors potentially involved in the induction of chronic diseases. The novel spiroketal mycotoxins talaromycins A and B (C/sub 12/H/sub 22/O/sub 4/) were isolated from Talaromyces stipitatus, a fungus associated with fermenting silage. /sup 1/H NMR 2D COSY spectroscopy was used to distinguish isolated spin systems in the diastereomeric mixture and to facilitate the complete proton assignments of the pure isomers. Dipolar couplings between protons on different rings of the bicyclic system, observed by NOE difference and 2D Exchange spectroscopy, established the relative configuration of the ketal center. Extracts of the fungus Fusarium equiseti isolated from the home of genetically unrelated leukemia patients showed toxicity to mammals and immunosuppressive activity. Chronic byssinosis may result from accumulation of toxins in the lungs of long-term cotton mill workers.

  17. Chemical mixing study for the Hanford TWRS Supporting facilities (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Heal, D.W.; Brantley, W.M.

    1996-09-03

    This Engineering Calculation addresses consequences of mixing any two hazardous chemicals contained in the same section of TWRS supporting facilities, as screened in accordance with `Westinghouse Savannah River Company Engineering and Construction Services Division Guidelines and Methods.`

  18. Spectroscopic and photochemical study of molecules important in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The primary broad goals of this research are to investigate (1) the possible reactions responsible for generation of compounds important in chemical evolution, and (2) reactions of compounds important in chemical evolution. In both cases the interest includes molecules that exist in interstellar space as well as those present on or near other planets and those which were thought to be present on or near the primitive earth.

  19. The Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program with parametric study capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevigny, R.

    1981-01-01

    The program was developed to determine chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Using a free energy minimization technique, the program permits calculations such as: chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states; theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion; incident and reflected shock properties; and Chapman-Jouget detonation properties. It is shown that the same program can handle solid coal in an entrained flow coal gasification problem.

  20. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat.

  1. Comparison of physiological and subjective strain in workers wearing two different protective coveralls for asbestos abatement tasks.

    PubMed

    Turpin-Legendre, E; Meyer, J P

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and subjective strain in workers wearing a disposable "Tyvek" (TYV) and a ventilated "Mururoa" (MUR) coverall in a real working situation. Eleven men performing normal abatement tasks volunteered to participate. Physiological measurements included oral temperature, heart rate and sweat loss. Subjective evaluations of clothing comfort, cooling, robustness, cumbersomness, acceptable exposure duration and physical exertion were carried out at the end of the task. The ventilated MUR reduced heat strain. Indeed, it allowed significantly higher sweat loss than TYV and showed a tendency to reduce the increase in oral temperature. Subjective ratings reveal that MUR was considered better than TYV in terms of clothing comfort, coolness and robustness. On the other hand, MUR is more cumbersome to wear. In this study, where workload and heat stress were moderate, there were few differences between the two coveralls in terms of physiological strains, but far more significant differences in the subjective ratings.

  2. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  3. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  4. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  5. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  6. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO POLLUTION ABATEMENT: A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Responses to Pollution Abatement: A Framework for Measurement and Assessment for Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the 16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. ...

  7. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... rule. Two State highway agencies and a university commented that quiet pavements should be allowed as a... agencies and the pavement industries, there are still too many unknowns that currently prohibit the use of pavement as a noise abatement measure. One national organization commented that while they recognize...

  8. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  9. 18 CFR 808.17 - Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders. 808.17 Section 808.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... subpart. If a proceeding before a court becomes necessary, the penalty amount determined in...

  10. 18 CFR 808.17 - Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders. 808.17 Section 808.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... subpart. If a proceeding before a court becomes necessary, the penalty amount determined in...

  11. 18 CFR 808.17 - Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enforcement of penalties, abatement or remedial orders. 808.17 Section 808.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... subpart. If a proceeding before a court becomes necessary, the penalty amount determined in...

  12. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  13. Crossed molecular beam studies of atmospheric chemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingsong

    1993-04-01

    The dynamics of several elementary chemical reactions that are important in atmospheric chemistry are investigated. The reactive scattering of ground state chlorine or bromine atoms with ozone molecules and ground state chlorine atoms with nitrogen dioxide molecules is studied using a crossed molecular beams apparatus with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. The Cl + O3 → ClO + O2 reaction has been studied at four collision energies ranging from 6 kcal/mole to 32 kcal/mole. The derived product center-of-mass angular and translational energy distributions show that the reaction has a direct reaction mechanism and that there is a strong repulsion on the exit channel. The ClO product is sideways and forward scattered with respect to the Cl atom, and the translational energy release is large. The Cl atom is most likely to attack the terminal oxygen atom of the ozone molecule. The Br + O3 → ClO + O2 reaction has been studied at five collision energies ranging from 5 kcal/mole to 26 kcal/mole. The derived product center-of-mass angular and translational energy distributions are quite similar to those in the Cl + O3 reaction. The Br + O3 reaction has a direct reaction mechanism similar to that of the Cl + O3 reaction. The electronic structure of the ozone molecule seems to play the central role in determining the reaction mechanism in atomic radical reactions with the ozone molecule. The Cl + NO2 → ClO + NO reaction has been studied at three collision energies ranging from 10.6 kcal/mole to 22.4 kcal/mole. The center-of-mass angular distribution has some forward-backward symmetry, and the product translational energy release is quite large. The reaction proceeds through a short-lived complex whose lifetime is less than one rotational period. The experimental results seem to show that the Cl atom mainly attacks the oxygen atom instead of the nitrogen atom of the NO2

  14. Studies of Trace Gas Chemical Cycles Using Inverse Methods and Global Chemical Transport Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2003-01-01

    We report progress in the first year, and summarize proposed work for the second year of the three-year dynamical-chemical modeling project devoted to: (a) development, testing, and refining of inverse methods for determining regional and global transient source and sink strengths for long lived gases important in ozone depletion and climate forcing, (b) utilization of inverse methods to determine these source/sink strengths using either MATCH (Model for Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) which is based on analyzed observed wind fields or back-trajectories computed from these wind fields, (c) determination of global (and perhaps regional) average hydroxyl radical concentrations using inverse methods with multiple titrating gases, and (d) computation of the lifetimes and spatially resolved destruction rates of trace gases using 3D models. Important goals include determination of regional source strengths of methane, nitrous oxide, methyl bromide, and other climatically and chemically important biogenic/anthropogenic trace gases and also of halocarbons restricted by the Montreal protocol and its follow-on agreements and hydrohalocarbons now used as alternatives to the restricted halocarbons.

  15. Experimental study of chemical and crystallization remanent magnetizations in magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. K. T.; Pechersky, D. M.

    1987-06-01

    Crystallization magnetization (KRM) of magnetite is experimentally studied by the oxidation of fine grains of pyrite and by the oxidation (unmixing) of titanomagnetite with Tc = 150-200°C at the temperature of 400-450°C in the magnetic field of 50-100 mkT. Chemical remanence (CRM) of magnetite, which forms by the unmixing of titanomaghemite with Tc = 380-450°C at the temperature of 350°C in a magnetic field, is investigated. The main properties of KRM and CRM are: (1) the relation of KRM/ARM t = 1.0-1.4 and CRM/ARM 1 = 0.7-0.9, where ARM t is anhysteretic remanent magnetization after thermal demagnetization to the temperature of KRM or CRM acquisition; (2) the relative distance NT between linear portions of coercive force spectra of normal remanence from KRM or CRM state and from zero state is less than 0.2; for the same samples when absolute zero state and zero state are comparing NT ⩾ 0.3 (Sholpo-Luzianina NT-test of TRM); and (3) the spontaneous growth of KRM is small, but the spontaneous growth of CRM is not less than that of ARM or TRM. The properties of artificial KRM and CRM are similar to the properties of some rocks with natural KRM and CRM. As CRM/ARM t and KRM/ARM t ratio varies in the narrow limit, it can be used for the palaeointensity estimation. The first palaeointensity results are demonstrated: Holocene deep sea nodules—51 ± 4 mkT, Palaeocene magnetite ore —47 ± 3 mkT and Devonian baked rocks—6.1 ± 2.1 mkT.

  16. Role of phosphorus in lunar samples: a chemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The roles played by phosphorus present in lunar material may be important in understanding the evolution of the crustal rocks. Quantitative extraction of phosphorus and trace elements associated with possible phosphate phases is the ultimate objective of these studies. Because P may be present in glassy or microcrystalline mesostasis and also as discrete phosphate minerals and as phosphides, chemical procedures provide a tool for its determination along with its complements of trace elements. In these experiments 0.1 M acid was used as a phosphate-specific agent. One experiment was designed to measure how quantitatively P-related constituents are extracted. In consecutive leaching steps more p and REE were dissolved, 76 vs 26% P and 64 vs 37% Sm, from the finer grain sample split. This could be a grain size effect or it could be due to phase separations. Only small amounts of soluble phases remained after the initial 10 minute extraction. Phosphorus and REE are dilute acid soluble in amounts ranging up to 70%. They have sympathetically but are not necessarily highly correlated. Acid soluble fractions of KREEP-rich breccia 14312 and highland breccia 66095 matrix and melt rock clast have chondrite normalized REE patterns similar to that of apatite from a terrestrial gabbro. A different pattern is observed for mare basalt 75055 whole rock and pyroxene and an ilmenite-rich separate. The residues after the acid leach are always HREE enriched relative to the leached fractions. No KREEP-like REE/CH pattern was observed. A systematics for highland rocks based on P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is noted. Igneous KREEP rock 15386 and Apollo-16, Fe-rich, high-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ glasses reported by Powell et al. (1975) play key roles. 5 figures, 1 table.

  17. Results of Chemical Analyses in Support of Yucca Mountain Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeanette

    2007-12-11

    Ground water monitoring for the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (NCEWDP) was established to monitor underground water sources of the area and to protect communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from potential radionuclide contamination of these water sources. It provides hydrological information pertaining to groundwater flow patterns and recharge issues in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) obtained groundwater samples from select NCEWDP wells shown in Figure 1. These samples were analyzed for major cations, major anions, trace elements, rare earth elements, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. These geochemical results can be used to evaluate the degree of interaction between the aquifers sampled, leading to a thorough mapping of the aquifer system. With increased analysis down gradient of the Yucca Mountain area, evaluations can identify viable groundwater flow paths and establish mixing of the groundwater systems. Tracer tests provide insight into groundwater flow characteristics and transport processes of potential contaminants. These tests are important for contaminant migration issues including safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials and remediation of potentially released contaminants. At a minimum, two conservative (non-sorbing) tracers with different diffusion coefficients are used for each tracer test. The tracer test performed under this cooperative agreement utilized fluorinated benzoic acids and halides as conservative tracers. The tracers are of differing size and have differing rates of diffusion into the rock. Larger molecules can not enter the pore spaces that are penetrated by the smaller molecules, therefore larger tracers will travel faster through thegroundwater system. Identical responses of the two tracers indicate no appreciable diffusion into pores of the aquifer system tuff. For the Nye County Tracer Tests, the HRC provided chemical analysis for the tracer

  18. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey on sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Erwin, Martha L.

    2004-01-01

    Information from these studies will help with decision-making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields. This information also will benefit the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, local and regional water managers, and agricultural chemical manufacturers who are involved in managing chemical use and pesticide registration.

  19. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  20. STUDIES ON THE SENSITIZATION OF ANIMALS WITH SIMPLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Landsteiner, K.; Di Somma, A. A.

    1938-01-01

    With the view of making new types of chemicals accessible for investigations on drug hypersensitiveness, methods have been devised for sensitizing animals with diazomethane and mustard oil, two non-aromatic compounds. Guinea pigs have been sensitized to diazomethane, a substance of high reactivity and known to cause severe allergic effects in man. With the second substance, allylisothiocyanate, likewise capable of forming conjugates with substances in the animal body, sensitization effects have been obtained in man and in hogs. Sensitization in human beings was successful with one out of six individuals treated. The observations indicate species and individual differences as regards the ability to become sensitized to various chemical compounds. PMID:19870801

  1. Chemical bonding in TiSb(2) and VSb(2): a quantum chemical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Armbrüster, Marc; Schnelle, Walter; Schwarz, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri

    2007-08-06

    The chemical bonding in the isostructural intermetallic compounds TiSb2 and VSb2, crystallizing in the CuAl2 type, was investigated by means of quantum chemical calculations, particularly the electron localization function (ELF), as well as by Raman spectroscopy, Hall effect and conductivity measurements on oriented single crystals, and high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction. The homogeneity ranges of the compounds were determined by powder X-ray diffraction, WDXS, and DSC measurements. TiSb2 exhibits no significant homogeneity range, while VSb2 shows a small homogeneity range of approximately 0.3 at. %. According to the ELF calculations, the Sb atoms form dumbbells via a two-center two-electron bond, while the T atoms (T = Ti, V) build up chains along the crystallographic c-axis. Both building units are connected by covalent T-Sb-T three-center bonds, thus forming a three-dimensional network. The strength of the bonds involving Sb was determined by fitting a force constant model to the vibrational mode frequencies observed by polarized Raman measurements on oriented single crystals. The resulting bond order of the Sb2 dumbbells is 1, while the strength of the three-center bonds resembles a bond order of 1.5. The weak pressure dependence of the c/a ratio confirms the slightly different bonding picture in TiSb2 compared to that in CuAl2. Electrical transport measurements show the presence of free charge carriers, as well as a metal-like temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity.

  2. GENE INDUCTION STUDIES AND TOXICITY OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its mixtures program the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) supports in vitro and limited in vivo toxicity testing to further our understanding of the toxicity and health effects of chemical mixtures. There are increasing concerns that environment...

  3. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  4. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  5. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  6. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  7. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  8. Quantum Chemical Studies on Stability and Chemical Activities in Calcium Ion Bound Calmodulin Loops.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Samapan; Ghosh, Mahua; De Raychaudhury, Molly; Chakrabarti, J

    2015-11-19

    Quantum chemical (QC) calculations for macromolecules require truncation of the molecule, highlighting the portion of interest due to heavy computation cost. As a result, an estimation of the effects of truncation is important to interpret the energy spectrum of such calculations. We perform density functional theory based QC calculations on calcium ion bound EF-hand loops of Calmodulin isolated from the crystal structure in an implicit solvent. We find that the terminal contributions of neutral capping are negligible across the entire ground-state energy spectrum. The coordination energy range and the nature of hybridization of the coordination state molecular orbitals remain qualitatively similar across these loops. While the HOMO and LUMO of loops in the N-terminal domain are dominated by the acidic aspartates, and the polar/hydrophobic residues, respectively, these levels of the C-terminal domain loops show strong localized electron density on the phenyl rings of the tyrosines. The Fukui index calculation identifies the hydroxyl oxygen in the phenyl ring of Y99 as a potent nucleophile. Our analysis indicates a general way of interpreting the electronic energy spectra to understand stability and functions of large biomolecules where the truncation of the molecule and, hence, the terminal capping effects are inevitable.

  9. Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paula; Roth, Isabelle; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2015-06-16

    Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell volume is restored rapidly by ion influx but at the expense of elevated intracellular sodium and chloride levels that persist long after challenge. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of molecular crowding on the effects of hypertonicity, the effects of ionic imbalance on cellular trafficking dynamics in living cells are largely unexplored. By tracking distinct fluorescently labeled endosome/vesicle populations by live-cell imaging, we show that vesicle motility is reduced dramatically in a variety of cell types at the onset of hypertonic challenge. Live-cell imaging of actin and tubulin revealed similar arrested microfilament motility upon challenge. Vesicle motility recovered long after cell volume, a process that required functional regulatory volume increase and was accelerated by a return of extracellular osmolality to isosmotic levels. This delay suggests that, although volume-induced molecular crowding contributes to trafficking defects, it alone cannot explain the observed effects. Using fluorescent indicators and FRET-based probes, we found that intracellular ATP abundance and mitochondrial potential were reduced by hypertonicity and recovered after longer periods of time. Similar to the effects of osmotic challenge, isovolumetric elevation of intracellular chloride concentration by ionophores transiently decreased ATP production by mitochondria and abated microfilament and vesicle motility. These data illustrate how perturbed ionic balance, in addition to molecular crowding, affects membrane trafficking.

  10. Models of chemical biosignatures - a vibrational spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bödeker, B.; Böttger, U.; Hübers, H.-W.; deVera, J.-P.; Fox, S.; Strasdeit, H.

    2013-09-01

    Investigating possible biosignatures is of central interest in the search for the oldest traces of terrestrial life. Possible biosignatures are: (i) physical structures, such as fossilized single-celled or colonyforming microorganisms; (ii) biomolecules and their altered residues (chemical biosignatures); (iii) altered element, isotope and mineral compositions in former microbial habitats and related effects caused by metabolic activity [1]. New insights in this field of research are also important in the search for life on other planets and moons, especially Mars. However, abiotically formed organic compounds are widely distributed in the universe. Therefore, in future Mars missions, it will be essential to know whether organic molecules are actually of biological origin. Here, we describe the syntheses and spectroscopic (Raman and infrared) properties of artificial chemical biosignatures that might help answering this question.

  11. Material Development Study for a Hazardous Chemical Protective Clothing Outfit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    innocuous. Literature review was used to establish a test plan. Test results showed that butyl rubber was 38% acceptable and polycarbonate 60...those chemicals found incompatible with butyl rubber and polycarbonate. I1. Otiluftetor’ Key Uerde 16. AvailabilSty State.,se Levels of protection... rubber , polycarbonate, protective clothing, lechnical Information Service,CHRIS list, swatch, penetration, decon tests, Springfield, VA 22161 R&D 19. U. S

  12. Chemical studies on the existence of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, C; Honda, Y; Navarro-González, R

    1992-01-01

    Although the search for extraterrestrial intelligence has not produced any direct evidence of extraterrestrial life, the emergence of life on Earth, which appears to be controlled by universal laws of physics and chemistry, must have been repeated elsewhere in the universe. The experimental approaches in our laboratory to understand the origin of life on the Earth are summarized in an attempt to obtain a better insight into the chemical basis of extraterrestrial life.

  13. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  14. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  15. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    PubMed

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  16. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  17. Abatement of SO2-NOx binary gas mixtures using a ferruginous active absorbent: Part I. Synergistic effects and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Yinghui; Li, Xiaolei; Fan, Maohong; Russell, Armistead G; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Chunmei; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Genshan

    2015-04-01

    A novel ferruginous active absorbent, prepared by fly ash, industrial lime and the additive Fe(VI), was introduced for synchronous abatement of binary mixtures of SO2-NOx from simulated coal-fired flue gas. The synergistic action of various factors on the absorption of SO2 and NOx was investigated. The results show that a strong synergistic effect exists between Fe(VI) dose and reaction temperature for the desulfurization. It was observed that in the denitration process, the synergy of Fe(VI) dose and Ca/(S+N) had the most significant impact on the removal of NO, followed by the synergy of Fe(VI) and reaction temperature, and then the synergy of reaction temperature and flue gas humidity. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the surface characteristics of the raw and spent absorbent as well as fly ash. A reaction mechanism was proposed based on chemical analysis of sulfur and nitrogen species concentrations in the spent absorbent. The Gibbs free energy, equilibrium constants and partial pressures of the SO2-NOx binary system were determined by thermodynamics.

  18. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. The aetiology is unknown, but chemical related respiratory symptoms have been found associated with positive patch test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing and the two most severe groups of self-reported sensitivity to airborne chemicals. When adjusting for confounding, associations were weakened, and only non-allergic cutaneous reactions were significantly associated with individuals most severely affected by inhalation of airborne chemicals (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0.006). Our results suggest that individuals with self-reported chemical sensitivity show increased non-allergic cutaneous reactions based on day 2 readings of patch tests.

  19. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  20. STUDIES ON THE SENSITIZATION OF ANIMALS WITH SIMPLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Merrill W.

    1947-01-01

    Evidence is presented to show that guinea pigs actively sensitized to simple chemical compounds form serum antibodies capable of sensitizing the skin of normal guinea pigs. Skin sites prepared as for the Prausnitz-Küstner test develop immediate-type ("evanescent") reactions with erythema and edema, upon subsequent injection of the corresponding simple compounds or protein conjugates thereof, and give effects resembling transferred reaginic reactions as seen in human beings. The antibodies were obtainable after sensitization by acyl chlorides, acid anhydrides, and also substances of lesser reactivity, picryl chloride and 2:4 dinitrochlorobenzene, which are human allergens. Observations are reported on the specificity of the antibodies and on various details of the reaction. Like effects result when antiprotein immune sera and their corresponding antigens are employed for the test, making it highly probable that the antibodies secured after sensitization to drugs result from immunization by conjugates formed in vivo. The sera obtained after sensitization with simple chemical compounds readily confer passive anaphylaxis, and their capacity for sensitizing the skin declines gradually with progressive heating. It was observed that following a reaction of substantial degree in guinea pig skin the area involved does not fully recover for some days its capacity to react, the effect being a manifestation, it would seem, of what has been termed "non-specific antianaphylaxis." PMID:19871693

  1. Solvent Influenced Fluxionality Studied by Ultrafast Chemical Exchange Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Matthew; Kubarych, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) allows unprecedentedly detailed understanding of the dynamics of chemical systems in the condensed phase. Carbonyl vibrations of small transition metal complexes report intramolecular dynamics and solvent-solute interactions due to their strong oscillator strengths and moderate environmental sensitivity. We studed the fluxional dynamics of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5), which is unique in that it contains nearly perfectly uncoupled vibrational modes. We seek to probe the ``molecularity'' of condensed phase activated barrier crossings beyond the continuum Kramers theory picture. Using 2DIR chemical exchange spectroscopy, we show how the dynamics of Berry pseudorotation, the only significant mechanism for vibrational mode mixing on our experimental timescale, is sensitive to interactions with the environment. In a wide range of solvents, we have investigated the effects of hydrogen bonding with alcohols and friction from high viscosity alkanes. In addition, we have monitored vibrational energy redistribution as a solvation shell probe. Moreover, recently implemented mid-infrared pulse shaper based methods allow increased flexibility in experimental design, enabling experimental techniques that are not possible using passive optics.

  2. Chemical Biology Applied to the Study of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Anthouard, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, chemical biology and chemical genomics have been increasingly applied to the field of microbiology to uncover new potential therapeutics as well as to probe virulence mechanisms in pathogens. The approach offers some clear advantages, as identified compounds (i) can serve as a proof of principle for the applicability of drugs to specific targets; (ii) can serve as conditional effectors to explore the function of their targets in vitro and in vivo; (iii) can be used to modulate gene expression in otherwise genetically intractable organisms; and (iv) can be tailored to a narrow or broad range of bacteria. This review highlights recent examples from the literature to illustrate how the use of small molecules has advanced discovery of novel potential treatments and has been applied to explore biological mechanisms underlying pathogenicity. We also use these examples to discuss practical considerations that are key to establishing a screening or discovery program. Finally, we discuss the advantages and challenges of different approaches and the methods that are emerging to address these challenges. PMID:25404026

  3. Quantum Chemical Study of the Thermochemical Properties of Organophosphorous Compounds.

    PubMed

    Khalfa, A; Ferrari, M; Fournet, R; Sirjean, B; Verdier, L; Glaude, P A

    2015-10-22

    Organophosphorous compounds are involved in many toxic compounds such as fungicides, pesticides, or chemical warfare nerve agents. The understanding of the decomposition chemistry of these compounds in the environment is largely limited by the scarcity of thermochemical data. Because of the high toxicity of many of these molecules, experimental determination of their thermochemical properties is very difficult. In this work, standard gas-phase thermodynamic data, i.e., enthalpies of formation (ΔfH298°), standard entropies (S298°), and heat capacities (Cp°(T)), were determined using quantum chemical calculations and more specifically the CBS-QB3 composite method, which was found to be the best compromise between precision and calculation time among high accuracy composite methods. A large number of molecules was theoretically investigated, involving trivalent and pentavalent phosphorus atoms, and C, H, O, N, S, and F atoms. These data were used to propose 83 original groups, used in the semiempirical group contribution method proposed by Benson. Thanks to these latter group values, thermochemical properties of several nerve agents, common pesticides and herbicides have been evaluated. Bond dissociations energies (BDE), useful for the analysis the thermal stability of the compounds, were also determined in several molecules of interest.

  4. Analytical and Characterization Studies of Organic Chemicals, Drugs, and Drug Formulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-21

    of the bulk drugs, drug products, to determine their stability under defined conditions, to prepare formulations of bulk drugs for biological...testing, and to coordinate ongoing stability studies on an artesunate dosage form with a subcontractor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anti-Parasitic Drugs, Chemical...Defense Agents, Chemical Analyses, Stability Studies, Formulation Development 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  5. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  6. CH 1 Introduction to Chemistry. Study Guide to Minicourse I - 13 Chemical Reaction Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard

    Provided is a study guide for an introductory minicourse to the principles of chemical reactions. This written text is designed to accompany a series of audio tapes and 35mm slides which the student studies at his own pace. The course presents chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, reaction rates, and equilibrium. (SL)

  7. An Event-Related Potentials Study of Mental Rotation in Identifying Chemical Structural Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how mental rotation strategies affect the identification of chemical structural formulas. This study conducted event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments. In addition to the data collected in the ERPs, a Chemical Structure Conceptual Questionnaire and interviews were also admin-istered for data…

  8. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  9. Evaluation of Vacuum Blasting and Heat Guns as Methods for Abating Lead- Based Paint on Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    profile measured on metal and wood after cleaning. 20 5 USING VACUUM ABRASIVE TO REMOVE LEAD- BASED PAINT Abrasive Cleaning Units The results of vacuum...Laboratories Evaluation of Vacuum Blasting and Heat Guns as Methods for Abating Lead- based Paint on Buildings by Jan W. Gooch Susan A. Drozdz The U.S. Army...exterior surfaces painted with lead- based paint. To minimize potential health problems resulting from exposure to lead- based paint, the Army is

  10. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  11. Multimedia-based decision support system for hazards recognition and abatement

    DOEpatents

    Czachowski, John B.; Zoldak, John T.

    1998-01-01

    A system for monitoring a site includes a portable data collection module used in the field to collect site specific data, and a processor module located at a central location. The data collection module displays choices of categories of findings, and then specific findings within each category. A selected specific finding is then displayed in report form with a citation to the specific code or statutory requirement, as well as a recommended course of action and an abatement date.

  12. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGES

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; ...

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  13. Abating climate change. What will be done and the consequences for investors

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, A.; Mellquist, N.; Shah, S.; Winton, B.

    2008-01-15

    This report is meant for institutional investors. Sections discuss: the science of climate change; global emissions - abatement scenario; coal - the world's dominant fuel for electric generation; CO{sub 2} transport and storage; nuclear energy - the new green solution; renewable energy - harnessing the power of water, wind and sun; regulation; increasing energy efficiency - the lowest cost option; enhancing the efficiency of electric applications; enhancing the efficiency of transportation; macroeconomic implications; and investment implications.

  14. Candidate-Gene Screening and Association Analysis at the Autism-Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 16p: Evidence of Association at GRIN2A and ABAT

    PubMed Central

    Barnby, Gabrielle; Abbott, Aaron; Sykes, Nuala; Morris, Andrew; Weeks, Daniel E.; Mott, Richard; Lamb, Janine; Bailey, Anthony J.; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose underlying genetic causes have yet to be identified. To date, there have been eight genome screens for autism, two of which identified a putative susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p. In the present study, 10 positional candidate genes that map to 16p11-13 were examined for coding variants: A2BP1, ABAT, BFAR, CREBBP, EMP2, GRIN2A, MRTF-B, SSTR5, TBX6, and UBN1. Screening of all coding and regulatory regions by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography identified seven nonsynonymous changes. Five of these mutations were found to cosegregate with autism, but the mutations are not predicted to have deleterious effects on protein structure and are unlikely to represent significant etiological variants. Selected variants from candidate genes were genotyped in the entire International Molecular Genetics Study of Autism Consortium collection of 239 multiplex families and were tested for association with autism by use of the pedigree disequilibrium test. Additionally, genotype frequencies were compared between 239 unrelated affected individuals and 192 controls. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium were investigated, and the transmission of haplotypes across candidate genes was tested for association. Evidence of single-marker association was found for variants in ABAT, CREBBP, and GRIN2A. Within these genes, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were subsequently genotyped in 91 autism trios (one affected individual and two unaffected parents), and the association was replicated within GRIN2A (Fisher's exact test, P<.0001). Logistic regression analysis of SNP data across GRIN2A and ABAT showed a trend toward haplotypic differences between cases and controls. PMID:15830322

  15. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  16. Hubbard pair cluster in the external fields. Studies of the chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.

    2017-02-01

    The chemical potential of the two-site Hubbard cluster (pair) embedded in the external electric and magnetic fields is studied by exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The formalism of the grand canonical ensemble is adopted. The influence of temperature, Hubbard on-site Coulombic energy U and electron concentration on the chemical potential is investigated and illustrated in figures. In particular, a discontinuous behaviour of the chemical potential (or electron concentration) in the ground state is discussed.

  17. Development and study of chemical vapor deposited tantalum base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, G. H.; Bryant, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for the chemical vapor deposition of alloys was developed. The process, termed pulsing, involves the periodic injection of reactant gases into a previously-evacuated reaction chamber where they blanket the substrate almost instantaneously. Formation of alternating layers of the alloy components and subsequent homogenization allows the formation of an alloy of uniform composition with the composition being determined by the duration and relative numbers of the various cycles. The technique has been utilized to produce dense alloys of uniform thickness and composition (Ta- 10 wt % W) by depositing alternating layers of Ta and W by the hydrogen reduction of TaCl5 and WCl6. A similar attempt to deposit a Ta - 8 wt % W - 2 wt% Hf alloy was unsuccessful because of the difficulty in reducing HfCl4 at temperatures below those at which gas phase nucleation of Ta and W occurred.

  18. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stickel, T.

    1996-05-09

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine.

  19. Preliminary Problem Definition Study of 48 Munitions Related Chemicals. Volume I. Explosives Related Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. mPORT NUM10 N OVT ACCESSION NO. 3. PRECIPILNT’S CATALOG NUMNER 5 I L ( a n S u...PIN JC ps 1 10 "𔃻 06 (F- 04. PC CA Cu CAU CA= " uI 0%- -r -H C.C r4 F- 0) F- 0 4.4 =O QO Ř It Ai O0i 4-4 4-4C 4- (A 4- (n~ U% U0 0 1U * Q di 0 04 L .4...that additional experimental studies be conducted to clarify the environmental fate of l ,3-dinitrobenzene and the effectiveness of planned treatment

  20. Crystal chemical and quantum chemical studies of Ba(Sr)-Nb oxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, V. G.; Turzhevsky, S. A.; Pereliaev, V. A.; Liechtenstein, A. I.; Gubanov, V. A.

    1990-01-01

    The information available on the BaO(SrO)-NbO-NbO2 system with the niobium atom in the lower oxidation degree is very limited. Very few compounds have been found previously in this system. They are BaNbO3, SrxNbO3(0,7=x=1), Ba2Nb2O9, SrNb8O14; and some suggestions on the BaNb8O14 existence have been made also. At the same time Nb-based oxide compounds could be quite interesting in the search of new noncopper high T(sub c) superconductors Researchers studied Ba(Sr) NbxO2x-2 and Ba2(Sr2)-NbxO2x-1 compositions in the phase diagram of BaO(SrO)-NbO-NbO2 system. The synthesis of the materials was carried out in vacuum at the temperatures of 1000 to 1500 C. Barium carbonate and niobium pentoxide were used as initial components. X-ray analysis was carried out.

  1. [Study on Chemical Kinetic Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma].

    PubMed

    Zrang, Peng; Hong, Yan-ji; Shen, Shuang-yan; Ding, Xiao-yu; Ma, Di

    2015-03-01

    To reveal the mechanism of plasma (assisted the ignition process of methane/air further, schematic of dielectric barrier discharge plasma system with atmospheric air was designed and set up, the emission spectrum of dielectric barrier discharge plasma with atmospheric air was measured, and the active particles produced by the interaction of dielectric barrier discharge plasma with atmospheric air were analyzed with the spectrum technology, the ignition model and calculation methods of sensitivity analysis and reaction path analysis were given, effects of NO and O3 on the ignition delay time were simulated, and the chemical kinetics mechanism of NO and O3 assisted ignition was revealed via sensitivity analysis and reaction path analysis. The results show that main excited particles of N2 and O3 are generated via effect of plasma on the atmospheric air, which are converted into active particles of NO(ξ) and O3 in the end, the life of which are longer than any other active particles, effects of plasma on the ignition is simplified as effects of NO(ξ) and O3 on the ignition; NO and O3 could reduce the ignition delay time significantly, but the amplitude decrease with increase of the initial temperature, this is because the rate of ignition is decided by the oxidation rate of CH3, the oxidized pathway of CH3 is R155 and R156 for auto-ignition and their rates are slower when temperature is low, so the ignition delay time of methane/air is longer; NO could reduce the ignition delay time significantly because of the oxidized pathway of CH3 is changed to R327 CH3O2 + NO = CH3O + NO2, R328 CH3 + NO2 = CH3O + NO for NO(ξ) (assisted ignition process from R155 and R156 for auto-ignition; and the chemical kinetic effect is the dominating factor of O3 on the ignition and which change the reaction path.

  2. Hypoglycemic activity evaluation and chemical study on hollyhock flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Jin, Lijun; Chen, Qiu; Wu, Zhizhen; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Hollyhock (Althaea rosea (Linn.) Cavan) belongs to Althaea genus, Malvaceae family, is a perennial garden plant distributed throughout the world in warm temperate and tropical regions, which was used as anti-diabetes ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. In the process of our research, ethanolic extract of hollyhock flower (HFE) was found to decrease serum triglyceride and glucose levels significantly in KK-A(y) mice after oral administration for 8weeks. Meanwhile, gene expressions on AMPK, IRS2, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in liver were remarkably up-regulated. Three new dihydroflavonol glycosides, named as roseaflavanonolosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with two known ones were obtained from HFE. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Hepatic cell glucose uptake experiment was performed using 2-NBDG as a glucose uptake indicator. At the dosage of 20μg/mL for 1-5, the glucose uptake increasing level was nearly 30%-40% in HepG2 cells. We partly revealed the glucose metabolism regulation effect may relate to dihydroflavonols in hollyhock flower.

  3. Clinical Chemical Studies in Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Gershbein, Leon L.; Spencer, Kathryn L.

    1964-01-01

    Clinical chemical determinations were carried out on blood removed by cardiac puncture from 49 mink affected with Aleutian disease and 25 normal animals and the respective differences tested for statistical significance. Blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and globulin, thymol turbidity, glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases and amylase were definitely elevated in the affected animals whereas serum calcium, albumin and A/G ratio were depressed. No statistically significant difference was apparent between the two groups in the comparison of inorganic phosphorus, alkaline and acid phosphatases, bilirubin, total cholesterol and esters, cephalin-cholesterol flocculation (3+ in each case), sodium, potassium, chloride, CO2-combining power, leucine aminopeptidase and lactic dehydrogenase (means: over 2,000 u./ml.). For both the control and affected mink, the distribution of serum lactic dehydrogenase isozymes resembled that of human homologous serum hepatitis. Electrophoresis of serum proteins confirmed earlier findings of hypergammaglobulinemia in the diseased animals but a fast-moving or pre-albumin component, averaging 4% of the total protein, occurred in both the diseased and normal mink. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17649484

  4. Chemical Retraction Agents - in vivo and in vitro Studies into their Physico-Chemical Properties, Biocompatibility with Gingival Margin Tissues and Compatibility with Elastomer Impression Materials.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Danuta; Saczko, Jolanta; Kulbacka, Julita; Więckiewicz, Włodzimierz

    2016-04-18

    Gingival margin retraction/displacement (GMR/D) is a commonly accepted procedure in restorative dentistry. Of the various retraction methods, the chemo-mechanical approach with retraction media and chemical retraction agents (ChRAs) is the most used. Different local and/or systemic side effects were observed after "chemical attacks" from these retraction agents. Moreover, no consensus exists as to the compatibility of chemical agents with different impression materials. This paper reports the findings of in vivo and in vitro studies and we discuss the physico-chemical properties of chemical retraction agents, their undesirable clinical side effects, biological activity and compatibility with selected groups of elastomer impression materials.

  5. Wave Tank Studies On Formation And Transport Of OMA From The Chemically Dispersed Oil

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on dispersion of oil, formation ...

  6. A study on the sensitivity of bovine rotavirus to some chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Gualandi, G L; Minelli, M F

    1986-04-01

    The behaviour of bovine rotavirus, strain 81/36 F, to some chemical agents was studied. The chemicals tested were all more or less effective, depending on their concentration and time of exposure under room temperature. It is suggested therefore, that they could be used as disinfectants in the case of rotaviral contamination.

  7. PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION SAMPLER EVALUATION FIELD PROGRAM: RESULTS FROM THE FOUR CITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this sampler intercomparison field study is to determine the performance characteristics for the collection of the chemical components of PM2.5 by the chemical speciation monitors developed for the national network relative to each other, to the Federal Referen...

  8. In-Situ Chemical Reduction and Oxidation of VOCs in Groundwater: Groundwater Treatability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Amy; Glasgow, Jason; McCaleh, Rececca C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's treatability studies for volatile organic compounds in groundwater. In-Situ groundwater treatment technologies include: 1) Chemical Reduction(Ferox); 2) Chemical Oxidation (Fenton Reagents, Permanganate, and Persulfate); and 3) Thermal (Dynamic Underground Stripping, Six-Phase Heating). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  9. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  10. Single-collision studies of energy transfer and chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, J.J.

    1993-12-01

    The research focus in this group is state-to-state dynamics of reaction and energy transfer in collisions of free radicals such as H, OH, and CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2}, alkanes, alcohols and other hydrogen-containing molecules. The motivation for the work is the desire to provide a detailed understanding of the chemical dynamics of prototype reactions that are important in the production and utilization of energy sources, most importantly in combustion. The work is primarily experimental, but with an important and growing theoretical/computational component. The focus of this research program is now on reactions in which at least one of the reactants and one of the products is polyatomic. The objective is to determine how the high dimensionality of the reactants and products differentiates such reactions from atom + diatom reactions of the same kinematics and energetics. The experiments use highly time-resolved laser spectroscopic methods to prepare reactant states and analyze the states of the products on a single-collision time scale. The primary spectroscopic tool for product state analysis is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. CARS is used because of its generality and because the extraction of quantum state populations from CARS spectra is straightforward. The combination of the generality and easy analysis of CARS makes possible absolute cross section measurements (both state-to-state and total), a particularly valuable capability for characterizing reactive and inelastic collisions. Reactant free radicals are produced by laser photolysis of appropriate precursors. For reactant vibrational excitation stimulated Raman techniques are being developed and implemented.

  11. Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2005-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

  12. Blood Pressure Changes and Chemical Constituents of Particulate Air Pollution: Results from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongyi; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Hao, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, but associations with PM chemical constituents are still uncertain. Objectives: We investigated associations of BP with various chemical constituents of fine PM (PM2.5) during 460 repeated visits among a panel of 39 university students. Methods: Resting BP was measured using standardized methods before and after the university students relocated from a suburban campus to an urban campus with different air pollution contents in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central monitors close to student residences. We used mixed-effects models to estimate associations of various PM2.5 constituents with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure. Results: An interquartile range increase of 51.2 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 1.08-mmHg (95% CI: 0.17, 1.99) increase in SBP and a 0.96-mmHg (95% CI: 0.31, 1.61) increase in DBP on the following day. A subset of PM2.5 constituents, including carbonaceous fractions (organic carbon and elemental carbon), ions (chloride and fluoride), and metals/metalloid elements (nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, and arsenic), were found to have robust positive associations with different BP variables, though robust negative associations of manganese, chromium, and molybdenum with SBP or DBP also were observed. Conclusions: Our results support relationships between specific PM2.5 constituents and BP. These findings have potential implications for the development of pollution abatement strategies that maximize public health benefits. PMID:23086577

  13. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  14. Hazard Analysis of Pollution Abatement Techniques. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    events as per 385-22). During the course of this contract, the molecular sieve process to be studied was changed and rotary kiln incinerator at Radford...TNT ).itrator molecular sieve process . Consequently, tail-gas from the nitric acid plant was analyzed in this study. The rotary kiln in- cinerator was...of Results for each System a. Carbon Adsorption of TNT Pink Water - The analysis of the seven principal process units in the carbon adsorption system

  15. Radiation and chemical studies of carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiachieh.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are environmental pollutants. 3MC effectively neutralized the lethality of C3H mouse 10T1/2 cells resulting from B(a)P or DMBA. PAH binding to macromolecules increased linearly with exposure, but DNA-adducts saturated with exposure. 3MC or {alpha}NF appreciably reduced the formation of DNA adducts due to B(a)P or DMBA. The reductions in DNA-adduct formation did not result from a reduction in the induction of AHH. By using DNA adducts as chemical dose, and plotting the DMBA survival curve as a function of DMBA-DNA adducts, the curve was an exponential curve. A similar application with B(a)P-DNA adduct showed the survival curve as a shoulder followed by an exponential region. When 10T1/2 cells were treated with X-radiation and a PAH, the nontoxic compounds and B(a)P did not show any significant effect on X-ray survival curve. However, the damage due to DMBA was found to be additive to X-ray damage. The latter property of DMBA was lost when cells were cotreated with 3MC and DMBA presumably because damage to DNA due to DMBA alone was suppressed. Thus, the combined action is complex. DMBA produced damage in 10T1/2 cells that added to radiation damage. Although a nontoxic PAH could neutralize the effect of a toxic PAH, the former were not able to mitigate the lethal effects of radiation. Operationally, the latter results suggested that a nontoxic PAH could cancel out the effect of a toxic one because it inhibited the formation of the DNA damage with which radiation damage could interact rather than because the nontoxic PAH removed the radiation damage with which the PAH could interact. It showed that at least 4 hours were required for DMBA to affect the sublethal radiation damage repair, a period long enough for a large fraction of the latter damage to have been lost.

  16. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  17. The effect of chemical modification on the physico-chemical characteristics of halloysite: FTIR, XRF, and XRD studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanik, Beata; Słomkiewicz, Piotr; Garnuszek, Magdalena; Czech, Kamil; Banaś, Dariusz; Kubala-Kukuś, Aldona; Stabrawa, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The effect of chemical modification of halloysite from a Polish strip mine "Dunino" on the chemical composition and structure of this clay mineral was studied using infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods. The results obtained by the WDXRF technique confirm that the content of silica and alumina was the highest for bleached halloysite samples and the lowest for acid-treated halloysite. A higher content of Fe2O3 in comparison to halloysite samples coming from other countries was observed for raw halloysite samples. XRPD diffraction pattern obtained for raw halloysite confirmed the presence of halloysite, kaolinite, hematite, and calcite minerals in the sample. Bleaching the halloysite removes (or significantly reduces) the content of other minerals present in the raw halloysite. The FT-IR spectra of the studied halloysite samples show in the 3700-3600 cm-1 region well-defined hydroxyl stretching bands characteristic for the kaolin-group minerals and bands associated with the vibrations of the aluminium-silicon skeleton in the 1400-1000 cm-1 region. Modifying halloysite with 4-chloro-aniline causes successive incorporation of amine into the BH sample.

  18. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr).

  19. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF LEAD PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to demonstrate lead-based paint (LBP) removal from architectural wood components in CO2 unoccupied residential housing using four technologies: granular carbon dioxide (CO2 blasting), pelletized CO2 blasting, encapsulant paint remover, and wet abrasive bl...

  1. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  2. Noise abatement technology options for conventional turboprop airplanes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, W.J.; Wilby, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    The practical application of noise control technology to new and derivative conventional turboprop airplanes likely to come into service in the 1980's has been analyzed with a view to determining noise control cost/benefits. The analysis identifies feasible noise control methods, applies them to four study airplanes, and presents the noise reductions in terms of the equivalent perceived noise level at takeoff, sideline and approach locations, and the effect on the area within selected EPNL contours. Noise reductions of up to 8.3 dB for takeoff and 10.7 dB for approach are calculated for the study airplanes but, for most cases, the changes are less than 5 dB. Weight and cost increases associated with the noise control treatments are determined under the assumption there they are no changes to airplane performance or fuel consumption.

  3. Corrosion abatement in sulfuric acid alkylation unit horizontal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, H.U.

    1999-03-01

    A leak to the atmosphere in the hydraulic end cone of a horizontal contactor and the realization that basic corrosion data are not available for high-throughput process conditions in alkylation units prompted a laboratory study to develop the lacking expertise. Corrosion in the horizontal contractor of an alkylation unit was mitigated successfully by saturating fresh alkylation acid with ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}).

  4. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  5. Environmental impact of a coal combustion-desulphurisation plant: abatement capacity of desulphurisation process and environmental characterisation of combustion by-products.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Tomás, A

    2006-12-01

    The fate of trace elements in a combustion power plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) installation was studied in order to evaluate its emission abatement capacity. With this aim representative samples of feed coal, boiler slag, fly ash, limestone, FGD gypsum and FGD process water and wastewater were analysed for major and trace elements using the following techniques: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ion chromatography (IC), ion selective electrode (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mass balances were established allowing to determine the element partitioning behaviour. It was found that, together with S, Hg, Cl, F, Se and As were those elements entering in the FGD plant primarily as gaseous species. The abatement capacity of the FGD plant for such elements offered values ranged from 96% to 100% for As, Cl, F, S and Se, and about 60% for Hg. The environmental characterisation of combustion by-products (boiler slag, fly ash and FGD gypsum) were also established according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. To this end, water leaching tests (EN-12457-4) were performed, analysing the elements with environmental concern by means of the aforementioned techniques. According to the leaching behaviour of combustion by-products studied, these could be disposed of in landfills for non-hazardous wastes.

  6. Synthesis and analysis in studies of chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponnamperuma, C.; Hobish, M. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Hua, L. L.; Senaratne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the various processes that may have given rise to life on the Earth have demonstrated the appropriateness of an approach that makes use of analysis and synthesis. Analysis of extraterrestrial samples in the form of meteorites has demonstrated the presence of several precursors of biomolecules, most notably a full suite of nucleic acid bases and nucleotides of biological significance. These species were determined after exhaustive extraction of the sample and subsequent analysis using HPLC, GC, MS, and GC-MS. Procedural blanks indicate that these molecules are likely not the result of contamination during the extraction and analysis process. Similar species were found as products of spark discharge experiments in atmospheres thought to mimic primitive Earth conditions. These results indicate that the basic chemistry underlying these syntheses is common, and that life may not be unique to the Earth. Studies underway in the laboratory make use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a probe to assess associations between selected amino acids and any of several nucleotides comprising their genetic code and genetic anticode sequences. These studies demonstrate a clear selectivity by the anticode sequences, thus confirming the hydrophobicity studies performed by Lacey et al. These studies further support the contention that life is likely a natural result of the physics and chemistry of the universe.

  7. DS-OPTIMAL DESIGNS FOR STUDYING COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICALS USING MULTIPLE FIXED-RATIO RAY EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Detecting and characterizing interactions among chemicals is an important environmental issue. Traditional factorial designs become infeasible as the number of compounds under study increases. Ray designs, which reduce the amount of experimental effort, can be...

  8. Study of Chemical Carcinogens by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.; Karasev, A. O.

    2013-11-01

    We have used positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to study the carcinogens C21H20BrN3, C4H7Cl2O4P, CCl4, CHCl3, AlF3, C8H12N4O, C6H4Cl2 and the non-carcinogens H2O, AlCl3, CH2Cl2, C2H6OS. We have established a correlation between the annihilation characteristics of the studied compounds and their degree of carcinogenicity.

  9. Corrosion abatement in sulfuric acid alkylation unit horizontal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, H.U.

    1997-09-01

    The need to increase throughput in alkylation plants has resulted in higher operating temperatures and higher water levels in alkylation acids than projected by design. Combined with higher flow rates, the more severe process environment causes carbon steel to corrode at increased rates. Carbon steel is the main material of construction for horizontal contactors (Stratco reactors). A leak to the atmosphere in the hydraulic end cone of one contactor and the realization that basic corrosion data are not available for high throughput process conditions in alkylation units prompted a laboratory study to develop the lacking expertise. Corrosion in alkylation unit horizontal contactors is successfully mitigated by saturating fresh alkylation acid with ferrous sulfate.

  10. Noise Abatement Technology Options for Conventional Turboprop Airplanes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    impact of noise regulations on pro- peller design," SAE Paper 790593, April 1979. 26. Metzger, F. B., Magliozzi, B., Towle , G. B., Gray, L. "A study of...Influence of propeller design para- meters on far field harmonic noise in forward flight," AIAA Paper 79-0609, March 1979. 2. jutin, L. J. "On the...19-38, 1979. 10. Woan, C. J., Gregorek, G. M. "The exact numerical calcu- lation of propeller noise," AIAA Paper 78-1122, July 1978. 11. Succi, G. P

  11. Study on incompatibility of traditional chinese medicine: evidence from formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room.

    PubMed

    Long, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Jin, Jin; Yu, Guang-Yun; He, Xin; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Zhou, Ze-Wei; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula network including 362 TCM formulas was built by using complex network methodologies. The properties of this network were analyzed including network diameter, average distance, clustering coefficient, and average degree. Meanwhile, we built a TCM chemical space and a TCM metabolism room under the theory of chemical space. The properties of chemical space and metabolism room were calculated and analyzed. The properties of the medicine pairs in "eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors," an ancient rule for TCM incompatibility, were studied based on the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The results showed that the properties of these incompatible medicine pairs are different from those of the other TCM based on the analysis of the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The lines of evidence derived from our work demonstrated that the ancient rule of TCM incompatibility, "eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors," is probably scientifically based.

  12. Proliferation of chemical weapons: putting the genie back in the bottle. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Weekly, T.M.

    1989-02-24

    Following the introduction of gas warfare in World War I, there developed a set of restraints which were effective in preventing the use of toxic chemical agents in World War II. The prolonged Korean and Vietnam conflicts were fought, again without resort to toxic chemical weapons. Recently, however, there has been a breakdown of the traditional restraints which were effective for fifty years in preventing chemical warfare. This study examines the traditional restraint system that evolved after World War I and extrapolates that framework into the modern era to determine what has changed to render the traditional restraints ineffective today. From this analysis, a model is derived for an effective chemical weapons protocol, and a strategy is proposed for worldwide chemical disarmament.

  13. Abatement of perfluorocompounds with microwave plasma in atmospheric pressure environment.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongduan; Sun, Bing; Zhu, Xiaomei

    2009-09-15

    Perfluorocompounds emitted by the semiconductor industry are global warming gases. These gases need to be removed efficiently because of their strong absorption of infrared radiation and long atmospheric lifetimes which cause the global warming effect. In this study, microwave argon plasma operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated experimentally for various operating conditions including microwave power, total gas flow rate, initial concentration, and additive gas. The mechanisms of perfluorocompounds decomposition were studied by the plasma emission spectrum. Under the optimum condition, the destruction and removal efficiency of CF(4) could reach up to 98.4%. The emission spectrum analysis indicated that the existence of the O or OH radicals could enhance the CF(4) decomposition by adding suitable volume of O(2) or H(2)O. The mechanisms of CF(4) decomposition are that the electron, O and OH radicals all associated with CF(4) conversion, it has the sequence that enough effective electrons reacted with CF(4) to form CF(i) radicals, O and OH radicals further reacted with CF(i) radicals to convert CF(4) into CO(2) and HF.

  14. Theoretical studies of the dynamics of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.F.

    1993-12-01

    Recent research effort has focussed on several reactions pertinent to combustion. The formation of the formyl radical from atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide, recombination of alkyl radicals and halo-alkyl radicals with halogen atoms, and the thermal dissociation of hydrogen cyanide and acetylene have been studied by modeling. In addition, the inelastic collisions of NCO with helium have been investigated.

  15. Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics - Annual Report, 1970.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Karplus, Martin

    1970-10-01

    The research performed includes (a) Alkali-Halide, Alkali-Halide (MX, M’X’) Exchange Reactions; (b) Inversion Problem; (c) Quantum Mechanics of Scattering Processes, (d) Transition State Analysis of Classical Trajectories, (e) Differential Cross Sections from Classical Trajectories; and (f) Other Studies.

  16. A Spectral, Chemical and Mineralogical Study of Mars Analogue Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Dyar, M. D.; Hamilton, V. E.; Harloff, J.

    2002-01-01

    The macroscopic and microscopic properties of basaltic and andesitic rocks are under study for integration of diverse spectroscopic approaches to evaluate the composition and texture of Mars materials using both in situ and remote sensing techniques. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    Habib-ur-Rehman; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Khaliq, Naeem; Atta-ur-Rahman; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Malik, Shahid

    2007-07-20

    Phytochemical investigations on Phyllanthus emblica have resulted in the isolation of the two new flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6''-methyl)-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6''-ethyl)-rhamnopyranoside (2). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic studies including 2D-NMR experiments.

  18. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    C-Alkylation has been utilized in the solubilization of various coals. Low rank, high oxygen Illinois No. 6 coal was alkylated with different alkylating agents under different conditions to determine the most suitable reaction conditions. A new method of alkylating coal with n-butyl lithium and potassium tertiary butoxide in refluxing heptane has been studied. The influence of the solvent for alkylation on the pyridine solubility of the product was studied. The pyridine solubility of the products obtained with n-butyl iodide ranged from 39% for the reaction in heptane to 5l% for the reaction in tetrahydropyran. Tetrahydrofuran, in contrast, produced only 33% pyridine soluble product. The reactivity pattern for alkylation was determined by deuterium and carbon NMR spectroscopy of the products that were obtained with deuterium and carbon-13 labelled alkylating agents.

  19. Physico-chemical study of Vaikrānta bhasma

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, R.; Rathore, A. S.; Mehra, B. L.; Raghubir, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it. Aims and Objectives: The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today. Settings and Design: In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science. Materials and Methods: Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product. Results and Conclusions: Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today. PMID:24991067

  20. Study of Molecular Collision Dynamics for Chemical Laser Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    have concentrated our studies on photosensitive oxidizers such as chlorine dioxide (ClO 2) and hydrazoic acid (HN3) combined with carbon -containing fuel...resulting in intense emission throughout the visible spectrum. The emission was observed well downstream from the UV laser ignition region in an observation...sustaining by branched chain kinetics and no significant excitation by the initial UV laser pulse occurred. -- - - I a*- - - - . -a | .. nNI.. 6 As one

  1. Physical-Chemical Studies of Solutions Processing of Nematic Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-08

    be used in the preparation of molecular composites . The system has h-en studied prevIousiv, principally with respect to its use in the formation of...filmq [6]. A single phase of the three component solutions is an essential requirement in the preparation of A molecular composite . Accordingly, ternary...discussed in the preceding section [51. Such aggregation could have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties a molecular composite processed fr

  2. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  3. A Microbial Feed Additive Abates Intestinal Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, Ghana; Kiron, Viswanath; Kulkarni, Amod; Dahle, Dalia; Lokesh, Jep; Kitani, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a microbial feed additive (Bactocell®) in countering intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon was examined in this study. Fish were fed either the additive-coated feed (probiotic) or feed without it (control). After an initial 3-week feeding, an inflammatory condition was induced by anally intubating all the fish with oxazolone. The fish were offered the feeds for 3 more weeks. Distal intestine from the groups was obtained at 4 h, 24 h, and 3 weeks, after oxazolone treatment. Inflammatory responses were prominent in both groups at 24 h, documented by changes in intestinal micromorphology, expression of inflammation-related genes, and intestinal proteome. The control group was characterized by edema, widening of intestinal villi and lamina propria, infiltration of granulocytes and lymphocytes, and higher expression of genes related to inflammatory responses, mul1b, il1b, tnfa, ifng, compared to the probiotic group or other time points of the control group. Further, the protein expression in the probiotic group at 24 h after inducing inflammation revealed five differentially regulated proteins – Calr, Psma5, Trp1, Ctsb, and Naga. At 3 weeks after intubation, the inflammatory responses subsided in the probiotic group. The findings provide evidence that the microbial additive contributes to intestinal homeostasis in Atlantic salmon. PMID:26347738

  4. The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalälven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources.

  5. Vanadium compounds as therapeutic agents: some chemical and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Faneca, H; Figueiredo, V A; Tomaz, Isabel; Gonçalves, Gisela; Avecilla, Fernando; Pedroso de Lima, M C; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Pessoa, João Costa; Castro, M Margarida C A

    2009-04-01

    The behaviour of three vanadium(V) systems, namely the pyridinone (V(V)-dmpp), the salicylaldehyde (V(V)-salDPA) and the pyrimidinone (V(V)-MHCPE) complexes, is studied in aqueous solutions, under aerobic and physiological conditions using (51)V NMR, EPR and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The speciations for the V(V)-dmpp and V(V)-salDPA have been previously reported. In this work, the system V(V)-MHCPE is studied by pH-potentiometry and (51)V NMR. The results indicate that, at pH ca. 7, the main species present are (V(V)O(2))L(2) and (V(V)O(2))LH(-1) (L=MHCPE(-)) and hydrolysis products, similar to those observed in aqueous solutions of V(V)-dmpp. The latter species is protonated as the pH decreases, originating (V(V)O(2))L and (V(V)O(2))LH. All the V(V)-species studied are stable in aqueous media with different compositions and at physiological pH, including the cell culture medium. The compounds were screened for their potential cytotoxic activity in two different cell lines. The toxic effects were found to be incubation time and concentration dependent and specific for each compound and type of cells. The HeLa tumor cells seem to be more sensitive to drug effects than the 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. According to the IC(50) values and the results on reversibility to drug effects, the V(V)-species resulting from the V(V)-MHCPE system show higher toxicity in the tumor cells than in non-tumor cells, which may indicate potential antitumor activity.

  6. Quantum chemical study of penicillin: Reactions after acylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Feng, Dacheng; Zhu, Feng

    The density functional theory methods were used on the model molecules of penicillin to determine the possible reactions after their acylation on ?-lactamase, and the results were compared with sulbactam we have studied. The results show that, the acylated-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate can evolves with opening of ?-lactam ring as well as the thiazole ring; the thiazole ring-open products may be formed via ?-lactam ring-open product or from tetrahedral intermediate directly. Those products, in imine or enamine form, can tautomerize via hydrogen migration. In virtue of the water-assisted, their energy barriers are obviously reduced.

  7. Surface studies relevant to silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinespring, C. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactions of C2H4, C3H8, and CH4 on the Si(111) surface and C2H4 on the Si(100) surface were investigated for surface temperatures in the range of 1062-1495 K. Results led to the identification of the reaction products, a characterization of the solid-state transport process, a determination of the nucleation mechanism and growth kinetics, and an assessment of orientation effects. Based on these results and on the modeling studies of Stinespring and Wormhoudt (1988) on the associated gas phase chemistry, a physical model for the two-step beta-SiC CVD process is proposed.

  8. Coordinated Chemical and Isotopic Studies of GEMS in IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cometary IDPs contain a record of the building blocks of the solar system including presolar grains, molecular cloud material, and materials formed in the early solar nebula [1]. Following their accretion, these materials have remained relatively unaltered because of the lack of parent body hydrothermal alteration. We are using coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion microprobe studies to establish the origins of the various components within cometary IDPs. Of particular interest is the nature and abundance of presolar silicates in these IDPs because astronomical observations suggest that crystalline and amorphous silicates are the dominant grain types produced in young main sequence stars and evolved O-rich stars [e.g. 2]. Amorphous silicates (in the form of GEMS grains) are a major component of cometary IDPs and so a major objective of this work is to elucidate their origins. In rare cases, GEMS grains have highly anomalous O isotopic compositions that establish their origins as circumstellar condensates [3]. Here we present data on a systematic study of the silicate components within a primitive IDP.

  9. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  10. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. ); Black, M.C. ); Gatz, A.J. Jr. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  11. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    M. Lumia; C. Gentile; K. Creek; R. Sandoval

    2003-11-06

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal.

  12. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    -scale system tests. An additional finding from this work is that low-amplitude oscillation may provide an alternative, non-invasive, non-contact means of controlling settling and/or suspension of solids. Further investigation would be necessary to evaluate its utility for radioactive waste treatment applications. This project did not uncover a new technology for radioactive waste treatment. While it may be possible that an efficient electrically driven technology for aerosol treatment could be developed, it appears that other technologies, such as steel and ceramic HEPA filters, can suitably solve this problem. If further studies are to be undertaken, additional fundamental experimentation and modeling is necessary to fully capture the physics; in addition, larger-scale tests are needed to demonstrate the treatment of flowing gas streams through the coupling of acoustic agglomeration with electrocoalescence.

  13. Chemical composition and Biological studies of Ficus benjamina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current study has been designed to estimate the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and hemolytic potential of Ficus benjamina different parts (leaves, stem and root). Results All examined extracts and fractions were significantly rich in antioxidants and exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. GC/MS analysis of essential oil identified four compounds in stem and eight compounds in root, respectively. HPLC analysis indicated four phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic and syringic acids) in roots, three (chlorogenic p-coumaric and ferulic acids) in stem and only one (caffeic acid) in leaves. Extracts of all three parts of F. benjamina exhibited substantial hemolytic activity. Conclusions Considering these results, it is concluded that F. benjamina can be used as a potential source for the exploration of new antioxidant compounds and antimicrobial agents. PMID:24524349

  14. Photosensitization and phototherapy with furocoumarins: A quantum-chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Pérez, Juan José; Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Merchán, Manuela

    2008-05-01

    The effect of electromagnetic radiation on biological objects extends from heating to complex photochemistry, and includes DNA alteration, that properly modified in damaged cells may entail beneficial effects. In this regard, psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy, in which furocoumarins, psoralen-like chromophores, are used as photosensitizers and photoreactants with DNA bases, is one of the most promising strategies against a plethora of diseases. Understanding the underlying photochemical mechanisms is crucial to design effective drugs without undesired side effects. We have undertaken a quantum-mechanical study on the photophysics and photochemistry of furocoumarins, analyzing firstly the most efficient way in which the lowest excited triplet state, as protagonist of the photosensitizing action, is populated from the initially promoted singlet states, and secondly the basics of the formation of furocoumarin-DNA photoadducts.

  15. Chemical Degradation Studies on a Series of Dithiophosphinic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Freiderich, Melissa E; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Peterman, D. R.; Marc, Philippe L; Klaehn, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a significant increase in the stability of a series of dithiophosphinic acids (DPAHs) under oxidizing acidic conditions was achieved. The degradation behavior of a series of DPAHs, designed for lanthanide/actinide separation, was examined. The stability of the DPAHs, when contacted with varying nitric acid concentrations, was tested and monitored using 31P {1H} NMR. Changes in the functional groups of the DPAHs resulted in substantial increases in the stability. However, all the DPAHs eventually showed signs of degradation when placed in contact with 2 M HNO3. The addition of a radical scavenger, hydrazine, inhibited the degradation of the DPAHs. With small amounts of hydrazine, five of the DPAHs remained stable for over a month in direct contact with 2 M HNO3.

  16. Chemical components of shredded paper insulation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelman, B J; Swenson, L J; Uppala, L V; Cohen, J M; Millette, J R; Mueller, W F

    1999-03-01

    We conducted an evaluation of shredded paper insulation to identify potentially toxic components. The study was to provide a preliminary characterization of a few samples of insulation currently in use. The following samples were analyzed: previously produced insulation (PPI) containing fire retardants, shredded recycled paper (PPI feedstock), freshly produced insulation (FPI), and insulation which had been installed in a residence (II). Volatile constituents were analyzed by GC-MS from headspace air of samples held at room temperature or heated to 90 degrees C. Extractable constituents were sampled by extracting with methylene chloride, and analyzing by GC-MS. Formaldehyde analysis was done according to EPA Method TO11. Headspace air at room temperature contained no detectable quantities of volatile constituents for any sample measured. In headspace air at 90 degrees C, only PPI contained traces of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes, and FPI traces of toluene. Extracts of PPI contained traces of octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes. Extracts of PPI feedstock contained traces of a substituted cyclohexenecarboxylic acid. FPI contained extractable diethyl phthalate (30-50 micrograms/g). Extracts of II contained traces of methyl palmitate, an octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and a phthalate plasticizer. No formaldehyde was detected. PPI was composed of approximately 98 percent paper fiber and 2 percent pre-gelatinized starch. PPI samples agglomerated together with less than 0.01 percent separating from clumps as fine dust. Boron and sodium were expected and confirmed because they were added to PPI and FPI as fire retardants. Chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and silicon were present at detectable concentrations. Study calculations indicate that an occupant would have to completely consume all the fine particles produced from 3.3 kg of insulation per day to

  17. Derivation of Environmental Signals from Chemically Altered Speleothems: Initial Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. H.; Aharon, P.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonate speleothems are useful archives of land-based paleoclimate studies. Trace elements (e.g., Mg, Sr, Ba) and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen that are incorporated into the carbonate minerals are used to infer changes in air temperature, vegetation, rainfall amount and short-lived events such as hurricanes. Most speleothems exhibit stable calcite mineralogy but a growing number of studied archives display aragonite mineralogy that tends to convert to calcite with time. Aragonite is the second most abundant cave mineral after calcite and the number of aragonite speleothems serving as canonic paleoclimate archives has recently expanded. Conventional practice is to avoid areas of aragonite alteration lest the data derived is a product of diagenesis and not reflective of the original paleoclimatic signal. This avoidance comes at the expense of potentially useful data that could represent important time intervals of climate change. Hence an understanding of the diagenetic behavior of aragonite with time is essential to fully retrieve the paleoclimate "signals" being preserved in the primary deposit. Here we present a petrographic and geochemical initial study of the aragonite to calcite transformation as evidenced in stalagmites from DeSoto Caverns, AL. Two types of calcite replacements were identified that vary with respect to the nature of replacement as well as their isotopic compositions: (i) equant/blocky calcite composed of fine to coarse crystals (50 μm to 2 cm size) whose replacement occurs along isolated and small transformation fronts, and (ii) columnar calcite comprised of elongated crystals with a length to width ratio > 6 whose replacement habit occurs on a much larger scale and across a wider area compared to the equant/blocky calcite. Profiles, from the precursor aragonite across the transformation boundary to the calcite replacement fabrics, were run in order to ascertain the effect of the mineral transformation on the δ18O and δ13C

  18. Chemical test for mammalian feces in grain products: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H R

    1989-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to validate the use of the AOAC alkaline phosphatase method for mammalian feces in corn meal, 44.B01-44.B06, for 7 additional products: brown rice cream, oat bran, grits, semolina, pasta flour, farina, and barley plus (a mixture of barley, oat bran, and brown rice). The proposed method determines the presence of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme contained in mammalian feces, by using phenolphthalein diphosphate as the enzyme substrate in a test agar medium. Fecal matter is separated from the grain products by specific gravity differences in 1% test agar. As the product is distributed on liquid test agar, fecal fragments float while the grain products sink. The alkaline phosphatase cleaves phosphate radicals from phenolphthalein diphosphate, generating free phenolphthalein, which produces a pink to red-purple color around the fecal particles in the previously colorless medium. Collaborators' recovery averages ranged from 21.7 particles (72.3%) for oat bran to 25.3 particles (84.3%) for semolina at the 30 particle spike level. Overall average background was 0.4 positive reactions per food type. The collaborators reported that the method was quick, simple, and easy to use. The method has been approved interim official first action for all 7 grain products.

  19. Chemical Approaches to Study O-GlcNAcylationζ

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Partha S.; Hart, Gerald W.; Cho, Jin Won

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic addition of a single β-D-N-acetylglucosamine sugar molecule on serine and/or threonine residues of protein chains is referred to as O-GlcNAcylation. This novel form of post-translational modification, first reported in 1984, is extremely abundant on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins and has site specific cycling dynamics comparable to that of protein-phosphorylation. A nutrient and stress sensor, O-GlcNAc abnormalities underlie insulin resistance and glucose toxicity in diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and dysregulation of tumor suppressors and oncogenic proteins in cancer. Recent advances have helped understand the biochemical mechanisms of GlcNAc addition and removal and have opened the door to developing key inhibitors towards this type of protein modification. Advanced methods in detecting and measuring O-GlcNAcylation have assisted in delineating its biological roles in a variety of cellular processes and diseased states. Availability of facile glycomic techniques are allowing for the exponential growth in the study of protein O-GlcNAacylation and are helping to elucidate key biological roles of this novel PTM. PMID:23247267

  20. Raman spectroscopic studies of gas/aerosol chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Aardahl, C.L.; Davis, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Reactions between sorbent particles and SO{sub 2} can be used to reduce atmospheric pollution either by {open_quotes}dry scrubbing{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}wet scrubbing{close_quotes} processes. This paper reports Raman spectroscopy results for single electrodynamically levitated droplets of NaOH reacting with SO{sub 2} and studies of the dehydration reactions of some hygroscopic salt species. The NaOH/SO{sub 2} reaction products and the liquid or solid state of the products are shown to depend on the gas phase SO{sub 2} concentration. Deliquesced particles of NaOH exhibit enhanced light scattering intensities associated with morphological resonances of the incident laser light, but crystalline materials show no such resonances. Raman-active hygroscopic salts exhibit bond frequencies characteristic of the stretching vibrations of the anionic group, but these frequencies are different in the presence of water because hydrogen bonding changes the bond force. This allows efficient tracking of the dehydration reactions in hygroscopic aerosols by Raman spectroscopy as the intensities of the two different modes are related to the degree of dehydration in the particle.

  1. [Study on antioxidant chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica leaves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Zhang, Qi-wei; Li, Chun; Liu, Su

    2015-06-01

    Guided by the antioxidant activity, the EtOAc-soluble and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the 50% methanol extract of Lonicera japonica leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatorgraphic methods, and the structures were identified by spectral analysis and comparison to the data reported in literature. As a result, nine compounds were obtained and identified as 5-O-caffeoylquinicacid (1), chlorogenicacid (2), 4-O-caffeoylquinicacid (3), luteolin-7-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)] -β-D-glucopyranoside (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8) and luteolin (9). The antioxidant activity of the nine compounds were determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging method, and ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Their antioxidant activities from high to low were 5 > 9 > 2 > 8 > 7 > 6 > 1 > 3 > 4. Among them, luteoloside (5) had the strongest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 0.018 18 g x L(-1), and luteolin (IC50 0.023 6 g x L(-1)) and chlorogenicacid (IC50 0.035 17 g x L(-1)) ranks No. 2 and 3. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of luteoloside and luteolin were stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 0.027 54 g x L(-1)). These results gave a basis for the further study and utilization of L. japonica leaves.

  2. Empirical Force Fields for Mechanistic Studies of Chemical Reactions in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Das, A K; Meuwly, M

    2016-01-01

    Following chemical reactions in atomistic detail is one of the most challenging aspects of current computational approaches to chemistry. In this chapter the application of adiabatic reactive MD (ARMD) and its multistate version (MS-ARMD) are discussed. Both methods allow to study bond-breaking and bond-forming processes in chemical and biological processes. Particular emphasis is put on practical aspects for applying the methods to investigate the dynamics of chemical reactions. The chapter closes with an outlook of possible generalizations of the methods discussed.

  3. Long-term aging of elastomers: Chemical stress relaxation of fluorosilicone rubber and other studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Mazzeo, A. A.; Silver, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Aerospace applications of elastomers are considered, including: propellant binders, bladder materials for liquid propellant expulsion systems, and fuel tank sealants for high-speed aircraft. A comprehensive molecular theory for mechanical properties of these materials has been developed but has only been tested experimentally in cases where chemical degradation processes are excluded. Hence, a study is being conducted to ascertain the nature, extent, and rate of chemical changes that take place in some elastomers of interest. Chemical changes that may take place in the fluorosilicone elastomer, LS 420, which is regarded as a fuel and high-temperature-resistant rubber are investigated. The kinetic analysis of the chemical stress relaxation and gel permeation chromatography studies comprise the major portion of the report.

  4. Study of 202 natural, synthetic, and environmental chemicals for binding to the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hong; Tong, Weida; Branham, William S; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacy L; Hong, Huixiao; Xie, Qian; Perkins, Roger; Owens, William; Sheehan, Daniel M

    2003-10-01

    A number of environmental and industrial chemicals are reported to possess androgenic or antiandrogenic activities. These androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system of humans and wildlife by mimicking or antagonizing the functions of natural hormones. The present study developed a low cost recombinant androgen receptor (AR) competitive binding assay that uses no animals. We validated the assay by comparing the protocols and results from other similar assays, such as the binding assay using prostate cytosol. We tested 202 natural, synthetic, and environmental chemicals that encompass a broad range of structural classes, including steroids, diethylstilbestrol and related chemicals, antiestrogens, flutamide derivatives, bisphenol A derivatives, alkylphenols, parabens, alkyloxyphenols, phthalates, siloxanes, phytoestrogens, DDTs, PCBs, pesticides, organophosphate insecticides, and other chemicals. Some of these chemicals are environmentally persistent and/or commercially important, but their AR binding affinities have not been previously reported. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the largest and most diverse data set publicly available for chemical binding to the AR. Through a careful structure-activity relationship (SAR) examination of the data set in conjunction with knowledge of the recently reported ligand-AR crystal structures, we are able to define the general structural requirements for chemical binding to AR. Hydrophobic interactions are important for AR binding. The interaction between ligand and AR at the 3- and 17-positions of testosterone and R1881 found in other chemical classes are discussed in depth. The SAR studies of ligand binding characteristics for AR are compared to our previously reported results for estrogen receptor binding.

  5. Chemical redox reactions in ES-MS: Study of electrode reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Feimeng; VAn Berkel, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The authors previously demonstrated that chemical redox reactions can be used to ionize neutral commpounds for electrospray mass spectrometric (ES-MS) detection. Two different compounds, viz, C{sub 60}F{sub 48} and {beta}-carotene were used to demonstrate the utility of chemical redox reactions with on-line ES-MS for the elucidation of mechanisms of complicated electron transfer reactions and for the kinetic study of electrode reactions in which relatively short-lived intermediates are involved.

  6. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  7. Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies.

    PubMed

    Mitro, Susanna D; Dodson, Robin E; Singla, Veena; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Elmi, Angelo F; Tilly, Monica K; Zota, Ami R

    2016-10-04

    Indoor dust is a reservoir for commercial consumer product chemicals, including many compounds with known or suspected health effects. However, most dust exposure studies measure few chemicals in small samples. We systematically searched the U.S. indoor dust literature on phthalates, replacement flame retardants (RFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), synthetic fragrances, and environmental phenols and estimated pooled geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals for 45 chemicals measured in ≥3 data sets. In order to rank and contextualize these results, we used the pooled GMs to calculate residential intake from dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal uptake from air, and then identified hazard traits from the Safer Consumer Products Candidate Chemical List. Our results indicate that U.S. indoor dust consistently contains chemicals from multiple classes. Phthalates occurred in the highest concentrations, followed by phenols, RFRs, fragrance, and PFASs. Several phthalates and RFRs had the highest residential intakes. We also found that many chemicals in dust share hazard traits such as reproductive and endocrine toxicity. We offer recommendations to maximize comparability of studies and advance indoor exposure science. This information is critical in shaping future exposure and health studies, especially related to cumulative exposures, and in providing evidence for intervention development and public policy.

  8. Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Indoor dust is a reservoir for commercial consumer product chemicals, including many compounds with known or suspected health effects. However, most dust exposure studies measure few chemicals in small samples. We systematically searched the U.S. indoor dust literature on phthalates, replacement flame retardants (RFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), synthetic fragrances, and environmental phenols and estimated pooled geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals for 45 chemicals measured in ≥3 data sets. In order to rank and contextualize these results, we used the pooled GMs to calculate residential intake from dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal uptake from air, and then identified hazard traits from the Safer Consumer Products Candidate Chemical List. Our results indicate that U.S. indoor dust consistently contains chemicals from multiple classes. Phthalates occurred in the highest concentrations, followed by phenols, RFRs, fragrance, and PFASs. Several phthalates and RFRs had the highest residential intakes. We also found that many chemicals in dust share hazard traits such as reproductive and endocrine toxicity. We offer recommendations to maximize comparability of studies and advance indoor exposure science. This information is critical in shaping future exposure and health studies, especially related to cumulative exposures, and in providing evidence for intervention development and public policy. PMID:27623734

  9. Chemical and geochemical studies off the coast of Washington. Progress report, September 1981-July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.

    1982-07-01

    Progress is reported on a series of marine chemical and geochemical investigations involving both laboratory studies and field studies off the coast of Washington. Most of the field work the past few years has been on the Washington continental shelf, slope, and the submarine canyons indenting the shelf north of the Columbia River. The aim is to provide basic data required to characterize underlying chemical and physical processes and their rates which control the distributions, concentrations, and ultimate fate of some of the potentially hazardous agents associated with fossil fuel and/or nuclear power production or transportation. Several processes of special importance in the sea, and methodologies and expertise to study them are being emphasized. Laboratory and field experiments and theories derived from them are being used iteratively to investigate: vertical transfer of trace chemicals from surface seawaters to underlying waters and sediments; processes which may transfer certain chemicals from sediments back into the overlying water column; redox processes which besides changing valence states of certain chemicals may alter their precipitation/dissolution tendencies, their biological availability and/or toxicity; and accumulation histories of potentially hazardous chemicals in sediments during the past 100 years.

  10. Chemical and geochemical studies off the coast of Washington. Progress report, September 1980-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes progress from September 1980 through July 1981 on a series of marine chemical and geochemical investigations involving both laboratory studies and field studies off the coast of Washington. Most of the field work has been on the Washington continental shelf, slope, and the submarine canyons indenting the shelf north of the Columbia River. The aim is to provide basic data required to characterize underlying chemical and physical processes and their rates which control the distributions, concentrations, and ultimate fate of some of the potentially hazardous agents associated with fossil fuel and/or nuclear power production or transportation. We are concentrating on several processes which we feel are of special importance in the sea, and developing methodologies and expertise to study them. Laboratory and field experiments and theories derived from them are being used iteratively to investigate: (1) vertical transfer of trace chemicals from surface seawaters to underlying waters and sediments; (2) processes which may transfer certain chemicals from sediments back into the overlying water column; (3) redox processes which besides changing valence states of certain chemicals may alter their precipitation/dissolution tendencies, their biological availability and/or toxicity; and (4) accumulation histories of potentially hazardous chemicals in sediments during the past 100 years.

  11. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  12. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  14. Two-liquid phase partitioning biotrickling filters for methane abatement: exploring the potential of hydrophobic methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Hernández, Laura; Pérez, Rebeca; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-15

    The potential of two-liquid phase biotrickling filters (BTFs) to overcome mass transfer limitations derived from the poor aqueous solubility of CH4 has been scarcely investigated to date. In this context, the abatement of diluted methane emissions in two-liquid phase BTFs was evaluated using two different inocula: a type II methanotrophs culture in BTF 1 and a hydrophobic microbial consortium capable of growing inside silicone oil in BTF 2. Both BTFs supported stable elimination capacities above 45 g m(-3) h(-1) regardless of the inoculum, whereas no improvement derived from the presence of hydrophobic microorganisms compared to the type II metanotrophs culture was observed. Interestingly, the addition of silicone oil mediated a reduced metabolites concentration in the recycling aqueous phase, thus decreasing the needs for mineral medium renewal. Moreover, a 78% similarity was recorded between the microbial communities enriched in both BTFs at the end of the experimental period in spite of the differences in the initial inoculum structure. The results obtained confirmed the superior performance of two-liquid phase BTFs for CH4 abatement compared with conventional biotrickling filters.

  15. The abatement strategies assessment model—ASAM: Applications to reductions of sulphur dioxide emissions across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ApSimon, H. M.; Warren, R. F.; Wilson, J. J. N.

    In May 1991 the 34 nations of the UN ECE region agreed that strategies for the abatement of SO 2 and NO x should be designed in the most cost-effective way, and that the concept of critical loads should serve as a guideline to formulate these strategies where science has provided the necessary information. The ASAM model has been developed in this context, as a computer tool to aid in guiding policy through investigation of the effectiveness of potential abatement strategies in Europe. In evaluating the environmental consequences, it takes into account the geographical distribution of emissions and the patterns of atmospheric transport and deposition; with the introduction of costs of reducing the different emissions, it provides a stepwise optimized approach to attaining specified target loads or critical loads for deposition across Europe, subject to flexible constraints in different countries. This paper describes the ASAM model, and work undertaken to establish the robustness of the model with regard to the assumptions made and uncertainties in the data used; and explores a range of scenarios currently being addressed.

  16. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.

  17. Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lumia, Margaret E.; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

  18. Life cycle of meats: an opportunity to abate the greenhouse gas emission from meat industry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Thammawong, Manasikan; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Xu, Qingyi; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if the population makes different dietary choices. It was confirmed that the GHG emission of beef was greater than that of pork or chicken. The GHG emission from meat in general also depends on the per capita caloric intake (if meat supplies the recommended animal protein or contributes to it at the present rate). In a healthy and balanced diet (9.2 MJ i.e., 2200 kcal in total, where either mixed meat or chicken or pork or beef contributes 2.2%), the GHG emission is estimated to be 0.28 or 0.17 or 0.15 or 0.77 kg CO₂ eq/person/day, respectively. A change in consumption patterns (from beef to chicken or pork) and the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet would help to abate about 2.5-54.0 million tons (CO₂ eq) produced by the meat industry each year in Japan.

  19. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Effects of Altosid and Abate-4E on deformities and survival in southern leopard frogs under semi-natural conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental wetlands were sprayed with Abate-4E (a.i. temephos) and Altosid (a.i. methoprene) through the summer following label directions. In late August and early Septemeber metamorphing tadpoles were captured and examined for deformities. Tadpoles captured from ponds sprayed with Altosid had a 15% deformity rate mostly involving total or partially missing hind limbs. Tadpoles from control ponds had a 5% rate of deformities. The difference was statistically significant. The relative abundance of tadpoles from ponds sprayed with Abate-4E was significantly lower than those from Altosid-sprayed or control wetlands.

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  2. Comparative study of biodegradability prediction of chemicals using decision trees, functional trees, and logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangchao; Li, Xuehua; Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-12-01

    Biodegradation is the principal environmental dissipation process of chemicals. As such, it is a dominant factor determining the persistence and fate of organic chemicals in the environment, and is therefore of critical importance to chemical management and regulation. In the present study, the authors developed in silico methods assessing biodegradability based on a large heterogeneous set of 825 organic compounds, using the techniques of the C4.5 decision tree, the functional inner regression tree, and logistic regression. External validation was subsequently carried out by 2 independent test sets of 777 and 27 chemicals. As a result, the functional inner regression tree exhibited the best predictability with predictive accuracies of 81.5% and 81.0%, respectively, on the training set (825 chemicals) and test set I (777 chemicals). Performance of the developed models on the 2 test sets was subsequently compared with that of the Estimation Program Interface (EPI) Suite Biowin 5 and Biowin 6 models, which also showed a better predictability of the functional inner regression tree model. The model built in the present study exhibits a reasonable predictability compared with existing models while possessing a transparent algorithm. Interpretation of the mechanisms of biodegradation was also carried out based on the models developed.

  3. Integrated Risk Index of Chemical Aquatic Pollution (IRICAP): case studies in Iberian rivers.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Francesc; Marquès, Montse; Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Barceló, Damià; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2013-12-15

    The hazard of chemical compounds can be prioritized according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties by using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The objective of the present study was to develop an Integrated Risk Index of Chemical Aquatic Pollution (IRICAP), useful to evaluate the risk associated to the exposure of chemical mixtures contained in river waters. Four Spanish river basins were considered as case-studies: Llobregat, Ebro, Jucar and Guadalquivir. A SOM-based hazard index (HI) was estimated for 205 organic compounds. IRICAP was calculated as the product of the HI by the concentration of each pollutant, and the results of all substances were aggregated. Finally, Pareto distribution was applied to the ranked lists of compounds in each site to prioritize those chemicals with the most significant incidence on the IRICAP. According to the HI outcomes, perfluoroalkyl substances, as well as specific illicit drugs and UV filters, were among the most hazardous compounds. Xylazine was identified as one of the chemicals with the highest contribution to the total IRICAP value in the different river basins, together with other pharmaceutical products such as loratadine and azaperol. These organic compounds should be proposed as target chemicals in the implementation of monitoring programs by regulatory organizations.

  4. Chemical and geochemical studies off the coast of Washington. Progress report, September 1982-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes progress from September 1982 through July 1983 on a series of marine chemical and geochemical investigations involving both laboratory studies and field studies off the coast of Washington. Most field work the past few years has been on the Washington continental shelf, slope, and the submarine canyons indenting the shelf north of the Columbia River. Our aim is to provide basic data required to characterize underlying chemical and physical processes and their rates which control the distributions, concentrations, and ultimate fate of some of the potentially hazardous agents associated with fossil fuel and/or nuclear power production or transportation. Laboratory and field experiments and theories derived from them are being used iteratively to investigate: (1) vertical transfer or trace chemicals from surface seawaters to underlying waters and sediments; (2) processes which may transfer certain chemicals from sediments back into the overlying water column; (3) redox processes which besides changing valence states of certain chemicals may alter their precipitation/dissolution tendencies, their biological availability and/or toxicity; and (4) accumulation histories of potentialy hazardous chemicals in sediments during the past 100 years.

  5. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  6. An Informatics Approach to Evaluating Combined Chemical Exposures from Consumer Products: A Case Study of Asthma-Associated Chemicals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Gabb, Henry A.; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    exposures from consumer products: a case study of asthma-associated chemicals and potential endocrine disruptors. Environ Health Perspect 124:1155–1165; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510529 PMID:26955064

  7. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.

  8. A study of chemical remediation on 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Shujun Ye, Guanqun Wang, and Jichun WuKey Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China, Nanjing, 210093, China; sjye@nju.edu.cn The ground water is contaminated by 1,2,4 Trichlorobenzene (TCB) in a former chemical plant in Nanjing, China. So 1,2,4-TCB is the contaminant of concern in this study. As chemical oxidation technology is a common in-site remediation technique, hydrogen peroxide, sodium sulfate and the two-mixed oxidants under the catalytic condition are used to remove 1,2,4-TCB from groundwater. By changing the values of temperature and pH in the experiments, the best conditions for chemical oxidation with oxidants mentioned above were determined. The fluorescent brightener of PF, manufactured by the former chemical plant, was added to groundwater to evaluate whether its existence made an impact on the chemical oxidation. 1-D sand column tests were conducted to study the degradation effect by using the chemical oxidation technology. The experiment results showed that single oxidant and mixed both oxidants can remove 1,2,4-TCB completely. The oxidation efficiency of both oxidants is influenced by temperature and pH. For hydrogen peroxide, the oxidation efficiency decreases with the increase of pH, while, for sodium sulfate, the efficiency is high under the mild acidic condition. The fluorescent brightener PF has an impact on the oxidation efficiency, with negative effect on the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide but positive effect with sodium sulfate. 1-D sand column tests testified the degradation of 1,2,4-TCB by the chemical oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and sodium sulfate. KEY WORDS: 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene hydrogen peroxide sodium persulfate optical brightener PF chemical oxidation AcknowledgementsFunding for this research from DuPont Company and NSFC Project No. 41472212.

  9. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  10. The Role of Some Individual Differences in Understanding Chemical Changes: A Study in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypraios, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of chemical changes was investigated in relation to four individual differences, related to logical thinking, field dependence/independence, convergence and divergence thinking. The study took place in Greece with the participation of students (n = 374) from three grades (8th, 10th and 12th grades) of…

  11. Recent studies of nuclear and chemical properties of elements 103, 104 and 105

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-08-01

    Information obtained since 1983 on the nuclear and chemical properties of element 103, the last on the actinide series, and elements 104 and 105, at the beginning of the transactinide series, is reviewed. Their chemical properties are compared with their lanthanide and lighter group 4 and 5 homologs and evidence for possible relativistic effects is discussed. The current knowledge of the nuclear properties of these elements and how these affect of the study of chemical properties is discussed. Some of the challenges involved in the study of short-lived isotopes which can only be produced an atom-at-a-time'' at an appropriate accelerator and the prognosis for future studies of these and still heavier elements are considered. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Density functional theory study of (13)C NMR chemical shift of chlorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Songqing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-02-01

    The use of the standard density functional theory (DFT) leads to an overestimation of the paramagnetic contribution and underestimation of the shielding constants, especially for chlorinated carbon nuclei. For that reason, the predictions of chlorinated compounds often yield too high chemical shift values. In this study, the WC04 functional is shown to be capable of reducing the overestimation of the chemical shift of Cl-bonded carbons in standard DFT functionals and to show a good performance in the prediction of (13)C NMR chemical shifts of chlorinated organic compounds. The capability is attributed to the minimization of the contributions that intensively increase the chemical shift in the WC04. Extensive computations and analyses were performed to search for the optimal procedure for WC04. The B3LYP and mPW1PW91 standard functionals were also used to evaluate the performance. Through detailed comparisons between the basis set effects and the solvent effects on the results, the gas-phase GIAO/WC04/6-311+G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) was found to be specifically suitable for the prediction of (13)C NMR chemical shifts of chlorides in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated carbons. Further tests with eight molecules in the probe set sufficiently confirmed that WC04 was undoubtedly effective for accurately predicting (13) C NMR chemical shifts of chlorinated organic compounds.

  13. Physico-Chemical Structural and Electrical Studies of Cu-Zn Ferrites Synthesized by Novel Chemical Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohar, K. S.; Patange, S. M.; Mane, D. R.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Shinde, N. D.; Kulkarni, Nilesh

    The physico-chemical, structural and electrical properties of zinc substituted copper ferrites having the general formula Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0 to x=0.8) have been studied as a function of zinc ion concentration. The sample was prepared by co-precipitation method from corresponding metal sulphates. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the structure of synthesized samples. The calculated and theoretical values of average lattice constant, tetrahedral bond, tetrahedral edge and unshared octahedral edge were found to increase, while the shared octahedral edge and octahedral bond decrease as the Zn ion concentration increases. The dielectric constant (ε‧) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) were measured at a constant frequency 1 kHz as a function of temperature. The dielectric constant and loss tangent were found to increase with rise in temperature. The conduction mechanism in these ferrites is discussed on the basis of electron exchange between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. The temperature dependent dc resistivity was carried out in the temperature range 300 to 800 K. The plots of log ρ versus 103/T are linear showing two regions, corresponding to ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic regions.

  14. Heat-stress abatement during the dry period: does cooling improve transition into lactation?

    PubMed

    do Amaral, B C; Connor, E E; Tao, S; Hayen, J; Bubolz, J; Dahl, G E

    2009-12-01

    Environmental factors, especially temperature and light exposure, influence the health and productivity of dairy cows during lactation, possibly via similar physiological mechanisms. For example, heat stress is a critical component of decreased milk yield during summer. However, less is known about the effect of heat stress during the dry period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress prepartum under a controlled photoperiod on lactation performance and hepatic metabolic gene expression of periparturient multiparous Holstein cows (n = 16). Cows were dried off approximately 46 d before expected calving date and assigned to treatment randomly after blocking by mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments consisted of either heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) with fans and sprinklers, both under a photoperiod of 14L:10D. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily during the dry period. After calving, cows were housed in a freestall barn with cooling devices, and milk yield was recorded daily up to 210 d in milk. Blood samples were taken from dry off until +42 d relative to calving for metabolites and from -2 until +2 d relative to calving for hormone analysis. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -35 to +42 d relative to calving. Liver biopsies were collected at dry off, -20, +2, and +20 d relative to calving for cows on HT (n = 5) and CL (n = 4) to measure mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling-2 (SOCS-2), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5), a key transcription factor in lipid biosynthesis (SREBP-1c), and enzymes of lipid metabolism (FASN, ACACA, and ACADVL) by real-time quantitative PCR. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures (39.2 vs. 38.8 degrees C), plasma prolactin concentrations at -1 (171 vs. 79 ng/mL) and 0 d (210 vs. 115 ng/mL) relative to calving, and decreased dry matter intake at 0 and +14 d relative to calving and 3.5% fat-corrected milk postpartum (26.1 vs. 35.4 kg

  15. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    The career of Dr. E.L. Powers, a pioneer in the development of radiobiology, is reviewed. His initial research involved the effects of radiation and certain chemicals on Paramecium, associated ultrastructural studies on protozoan cells, responses of Rickettsia and bacteriophage to irradiation, and the development of techniques for studying bacterial spores. These efforts established the basic radiation biology of the spore and its importance in understanding the effects of free radicals, oxygen, and water. His recent research extended work on the dry spore to the very wet spore and to other selected chemical systems in aqueous suspension. 126 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Chemical compatibility study of Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat with Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-06-23

    An independent chemical compatibility review of various wrapping and absorbent/padding materials was conducted to evaluate resistance to chemicals and constituents present in liquid waste from the Hanford underground tanks. These materials will be used to wrap long-length contaminated equipment when such equipment is removed from the tanks and prepared for transportation and subsequent disposal or storage. The materials studied were Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat. The study concludes that these materials are appropriate for use in this application.

  17. Laboratory Studies of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Importance in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for reactions of importance in the stratosphere and upper troposphere, and to study the interaction of trace gases with ice surfaces in order to elucidate the mechanism of heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, using both a theoretical and an experimental approach. The measurements were carried out under temperature and pressure conditions covering those applicable to the stratosphere and upper troposphere. The main experimental technique employed was turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which is particularly well suited for investigations of radical-radical reactions.

  18. Computer-assisted mechanistic structure-activity studies: application to diverse classes of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Loew, G H; Poulsen, M; Kirkjian, E; Ferrell, J; Sudhindra, B S; Rebagliati, M

    1985-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we have indicated how the techniques and capabilities of theoretical chemistry, together with experimental results, can be used in a mechanistic approach to structure-activity studies of toxicity. In the second part, we have illustrated how this computer-assisted approach has been used to identify and calculate causally related molecular indicators of relative carcinogenic activity in five classes of chemical carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their methyl derivatives, aromatic amines, chloroethanes, chloroalkenes and dialkyl nitrosamines. In each class of chemicals studied, candidate molecular indicators have been identified that could be useful in predictive screening of unknown compounds. In addition, further insights into some mechanistic aspects of chemical carcinogenesis have been obtained. Finally, experiments have been suggested to both verify the usefulness of the indicators and test their mechanistic implications. PMID:3905382

  19. What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Gennings, Chris; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals: Some of these may be toxic, and many others have unknown or poorly characterized health effects. There is intense interest in determining the impact of exposure to environmental chemical mixtures on human health. As the study of mixtures continues to evolve in the field of environmental epidemiology, it is imperative that we understand the methodologic challenges of this research and the types of questions we can address using epidemiological data. In this article, we summarize some of the unique challenges in exposure assessment, statistical methods, and methodology that epidemiologists face in addressing chemical mixtures. We propose three broad questions that epidemiological studies can address: a) What are the potential health impacts of individual chemical agents? b) What is the interaction among agents? And c) what are the health effects of cumulative exposure to multiple agents? As the field of mixtures research grows, we can use these three questions as a basis for defining our research questions and for developing methods that will help us better understand the effect of chemical exposures on human disease and well-being. PMID:26720830

  20. In vitro model systems for studying the impact of organic chemicals on the skin barrier lipids.

    PubMed

    Groen, Daniël; Berthaud, Fabienne; Bouwstra, Joke A; Chapuis, Christian; Gooris, Gert S; Boncheva, Mila

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two synthetic lipid models designed to replace human stratum corneum (SC) in studies of the impact of volatile organic chemicals on the molecular organization of the skin barrier lipids. The models built upon previously developed self-assembled lipid membranes which have composition and 3D organization similar to those of the lipid matrix in SC. In one model the target chemicals were incorporated in the lipids before their self-assembly, and in the other one they were applied on top of a preformed lipid membrane. The chemicals could be incorporated within the model membranes in quantities close to those reached within human SC upon heavy surface loading. The dose-dependent effects of the chemicals on the lateral molecular organization in the models were qualitatively identical to those observed by infrared spectroscopy in human SC. The models facilitated the interpretation of X-ray diffraction profiles used to determine the nature of the interactions between the chemicals and the lipid lamellae and the position of the exogenous molecules within the unit cell of the lipid phases. These model systems are suitable for in vitro studies in the areas of skin biophysics, dermatology, transdermal drug delivery, and risk assessment.

  1. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  2. Possibilities of detecting health effects by studies of populations exposed to chemicals from waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Buffler, P A; Crane, M; Key, M M

    1985-10-01

    Factors affecting the design of an epidemiologic study assessing possible health effects from chemical waste disposal sites are reviewed. Such epidemiologic studies will most likely be prompted either by a known release of chemicals into the environment around the site, or by an unusual disease cluster in a population near the site. In the latter situation, a method for evaluating the health effects is needed, and one possible approach is discussed. In the former situation, it may not be obvious what health outcomes are relevant. Reported associations between health effects and chemicals in humans were reviewed. Studies from the occupational and environmental literature were classified by chemical and target organ affected and presented in tabular form. No attempt was made to critically evaluate the quality of evidence for each health effect, although bibliographic documentation was provided where possible. Episodes of chemical contamination of food, drinking water and other media were also reviewed and presented in a separate table. The organ sites likely to be affected by toxic chemicals from waste disposal sites depend heavily on the route of exposure and the dose that is received. Ingestion is the most frequently reported route of exposure in episodes of environmental contamination. These have affected the hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The type and severity of effects were dose-dependent. Direct skin contact is important in the occupational environment where dermal and central nervous system effects have been reported but seems less likely as a route of exposure for populations around waste disposal sites. Inhalation, unless at relative high concentrations or as a result of fire, is unlikely to be important, although hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous system effects have been reported in occupational studies.

  3. Possibilities of detecting health effects by studies of populations exposed to chemicals from waste disposal sites.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Crane, M; Key, M M

    1985-01-01

    Factors affecting the design of an epidemiologic study assessing possible health effects from chemical waste disposal sites are reviewed. Such epidemiologic studies will most likely be prompted either by a known release of chemicals into the environment around the site, or by an unusual disease cluster in a population near the site. In the latter situation, a method for evaluating the health effects is needed, and one possible approach is discussed. In the former situation, it may not be obvious what health outcomes are relevant. Reported associations between health effects and chemicals in humans were reviewed. Studies from the occupational and environmental literature were classified by chemical and target organ affected and presented in tabular form. No attempt was made to critically evaluate the quality of evidence for each health effect, although bibliographic documentation was provided where possible. Episodes of chemical contamination of food, drinking water and other media were also reviewed and presented in a separate table. The organ sites likely to be affected by toxic chemicals from waste disposal sites depend heavily on the route of exposure and the dose that is received. Ingestion is the most frequently reported route of exposure in episodes of environmental contamination. These have affected the hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The type and severity of effects were dose-dependent. Direct skin contact is important in the occupational environment where dermal and central nervous system effects have been reported but seems less likely as a route of exposure for populations around waste disposal sites. Inhalation, unless at relative high concentrations or as a result of fire, is unlikely to be important, although hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous system effects have been reported in occupational studies. PMID:3910420

  4. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  5. 29 CFR 4206.8 - Reduction of credit for abatement or other reduction of prior partial withdrawal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prior partial withdrawal liability. 4206.8 Section 4206.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ADJUSTMENT OF LIABILITY FOR A WITHDRAWAL SUBSEQUENT TO A PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL § 4206.8 Reduction of credit for abatement...

  6. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor.

  7. An overview of the 2003 Chemical Emission, Loss, Transformation and Interactions within Canopies (CELTIC) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A.; Geron, C.; Baker, B.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Huey, G.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Matsunaga, S.; Mielke, L.; Nemitz, E.; Potosnak, M.; Rapparini, F.; Rasmussen, R.; Sparks, J.; Stroud, C.; Turnipseed, A.; Vizuete, W.; Jimenez, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Chemical Emission, Loss, Transformation and Interactions within Canopies (CELTIC) study was conducted from June 30 to July 25, 2003 at the Duke Forest FACTS-1 Site. The primary objective of CELTIC is to improve our ability to predict regional air quality (e.g., particulates and ozone) and climate through a quantitative understanding of the processes controlling the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the atmosphere and vegetation canopies. CELTIC researchers used an unprecedented array of enclosure and whole canopy trace gas and aerosol measurement systems to compile a unique database that is being used to develop and evaluate models of biosphere-atmosphere chemical exchange. Analytical systems included twelve real-time, fast-response and continuous analyzers capable of quantifying key trace gases (>10 VOC species, NH3, PANs, NOy, CO2) and CCN and total particle numbers and chemical composition. The measurements demonstrate that our current understanding of the controlling biological, chemical and physical factors is limited and that current models are not able to accurately simulate observed biosphere-atmosphere exchange of trace gases and particles. Leaf, branch and soil enclosure systems characterized the response of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated VOC, ozone and NOx emission and uptake to changes in chemical (e.g., ozone and CO2) and physical (e.g., temperature, light, soil moisture) conditions. Major findings include observations that 1) isoprene emission increases with elevated ozone, 2) canopy scale isoprene emission increases with elevated CO2, 3) soil and leaf litter are a net sink of oxygenated VOC, and 4) sesquiterpene emissions may be higher than monoterpene emissions under certain environmental conditions. Above canopy fluxes and within canopy vertical profiling systems characterized variations in trace gases (isoprene, monoterpenes, oxygenated VOC, NOx, ozone, CO2, PANs, NH3), particles (numbers, size distribution

  8. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  9. Apparatus and practices for electrical noise and shock hazard abatement in pulsed power environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hilderbrand, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Electronic data acquisition, control and diagnostic hardware are an integral part of an electromagnetic launcher system. The design, purchase, installation and maintenance of electrical and electronic hardware requires a substantial financial investment worth protecting from the adverse affects of electrical interference. Electromagnetic and electrostatic shielding, in addition to proper grounding, can extend the useful hardware's life, can improve the signal to noise ratio, and can reduce the threat of electrical shock. The apparatus and practices employed in effective grounding and shielding are both a science to the instrumentation engineer and an art to the experienced technician. This paper discusses the concepts of signal shielding, single point star grounding, maintenance of the ground with the Ground Monitor system (GMS) and the minimum recommended practices which have proven effective in electrical noise and shock hazard abatement.

  10. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation.

  11. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument application to a solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch.

  12. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  13. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (p< or =0.05 or less) between natural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures.

  14. CO[subscript 2] Rebreathing: An Undergraduate Laboratory to Study the Chemical Control of Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domnik, N. J.; Turcotte, S. E.; Yuen, N. Y.; Iscoe, S.; Fisher, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    The Read CO[subscript]2 rebreathing method (Read DJ. "A clinical method for assessing the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide." "Australas Ann Med" 16: 20-32, 1967) provides a simple and reproducible approach for studying the chemical control of breathing. It has been widely used since the modifications made by Duffin and…

  15. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  16. Meta-analysis of toxicity and teratogenicity of 133 chemicals from zebrafish developmental toxicity studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish developmental toxicity testing is an emerging field, which faces considerable challenges regarding data meta-analysis and the establishment of standardized test protocols. Here, we present an initial correlation study on toxicity of 133 chemicals based on data in the li...

  17. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  18. Kinetic Monte Carlo models for the study of chemical reactions in the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchak, L. I.; Shematovich, V. I.

    2016-06-01

    A stochastic approach to study the non-equilibrium chemistry in the Earth's upper atmosphere is presented, which has been developed over a number of years. Kinetic Monte Carlo models based on this approach are an effective tool for investigating the role of suprathermal particles both in local variations of the atmospheric chemical composition and in the formation of the hot planetary corona.

  19. Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment…

  20. Evaluating Evidence from a Historical Chemical Controversy: A Study in a French High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of evaluating evidence for enriching critical thinking in the chemistry classroom. The purpose of the study was to examine the usefulness of a historical chemical controversy in promoting students' assessment of evidence. The investigation was conducted in a high school in Melun, France. 63 participants (24…