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Sample records for abattoir workers exposed

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers at Debre Zeit and Modjo export abattoir, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, Amanuel; Tuli, Getachew; Kassa, Tesfu; Kebede, Nigatu

    2017-01-26

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses globally with great veterinary and public health importance, particularly in developing countries where people are having frequent contact with livestock and animal products. This cross sectional study was carried out from November 2013 to May 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and assess the potential risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers of five export abattoirs at Debre Ziet and Modjo, Central Ethiopia. Serology and structured questionnaire were the methods used. In this study, 156 abattoir workers participated in the questionnaire survey and among them, 149 agreed for blood sample collection. Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test were conducted using sera samples at serology laboratory of the National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center. Data collection sheets were used to gather information on possible risk factors believed to influence the spread of Brucella infection in abattoir workers such as sex, age, marital status, duration on job, types of work, educational level, etc. and further information obtained include knowledge of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases infection, symptoms of the disease, milk and meat consumption habits and work related risk factors. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in abattoir workers was found to be 4.7 and 1.3% using Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment fixation test, respectively. Based on the questionnaire survey, 66 (44.2%) and 85 (53.21%) of abattoir workers were aware of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases, and 29 (18.6%) and 21 (13.5%) were using gloves and cover their mouth while slaughtering, respectively. Brucellosis in abattoir workers could be prevented by using protective closing and measures. Concerned body should educate occupationally exposed groups and the general public regarding e prevention and control of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases.

  2. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-02-06

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs.

  3. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Johannes L.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Bekker, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers’ health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  4. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness

  5. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  6. Influenza virus A (H10N7) in chickens and poultry abattoir workers, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arzey, George G; Kirkland, Peter D; Arzey, K Edla; Frost, Melinda; Maywood, Patrick; Conaty, Stephen; Hurt, Aeron C; Deng, Yi-Mo; Iannello, Pina; Barr, Ian; Dwyer, Dominic E; Ratnamohan, Mala; McPhie, Kenneth; Selleck, Paul

    2012-05-01

    In March 2010, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H10N7) occurred on a chicken farm in Australia. After processing clinically normal birds from the farm, 7 abattoir workers reported conjunctivitis and minor upper respiratory tract symptoms. Influenza virus A subtype H10 infection was detected in 2 workers.

  7. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Junaidu, Yakubu Muhammad; Adeyemo, Olanike Kudrat; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. Materials and methods The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. Results The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721). Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards were the major findings of this study. However, the highest prevalence of occupational hazards identified among the workers was injury by sharp equipment such as a knife (20.0%), noise exposure (17.0%), and due to offensive odor within the abattoir premises (12.0%). Conclusion The major occupational hazards encountered by the workers in the study area were physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards. To ensure proper control of occupational health hazards among the abattoir workers, standard design and good environmental hygiene must be taken into consideration all the time. Exposure control plan, which includes risk identification, risk characterization, assessment of workers at risk, risk control, workers’ education/training, and implementation of safe work procedures, should be implemented by the government and all the existing laws governing the abattoir

  8. Multiple sites of exposure in an outbreak of ornithosis in workers at a poultry abattoir and farm.

    PubMed

    Tiong, A; Vu, T; Counahan, M; Leydon, J; Tallis, G; Lambert, S

    2007-10-01

    Cases of ornithosis amongst workers on a rural duck abattoir and farm were notified from late 2003 to health authorities in Victoria, Australia. In May 2004 we conducted a serological survey to identify the extent of exposure to Chlamydophila psittaci amongst workers and a case control study to identify high-risk work areas for ornithosis-related pneumonia. Some workers in all occupational groups showed serological evidence of exposure, while those with pneumonia were more likely to have worked in the slaughtering area of the abattoir (adjusted odds ratio 16.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-207). High exposure to blood and feathers from recently killed birds is likely to represent an occupational hazard to workers, but pneumonia did occur in workers without these exposures. We recommended respiratory protection for all abattoir workers and improvements to airflow and reduction of environmental contamination in high-risk work areas to prevent further cases.

  9. Evidence of Rickettsia and Orientia Infections among Abattoir Workers in Djibouti

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Katherine C.; Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice; Dueger, Erica; Zayed, Alia; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Pimentel, Guillermo; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9–29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1–14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2–17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2–38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8–15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6–12) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae, the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country. PMID:27273647

  10. Genome Sequencing of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Pigs and Abattoir Workers in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Founou, Luria L.; Founou, Raspail C.; Allam, Mushal; Ismail, Arshad; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Essack, Sabiha Y.

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is a serious public health issue globally. In this study, the antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, mobile genetic elements, and genetic lineages of circulating ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from pigs and humans in Cameroonian abattoirs were investigated using whole genome sequencing (WGS), in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission (viz. from animals to humans and/or vice-versa) in the food chain. Methods: During March–October 2016, 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were collected from Cameroon and South Africa. Seven ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae circulating in Cameroonian pig abattoirs were selected and their genomic DNA sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Generated reads were de novo assembled using the Qiagen CLC Genomics Workbench and SPAdes. The assembled contigs were annotated using RAST and antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, plasmids, and bacteriophages were identified with ResFinder, Virulence Finder, PlasmidFinder, and PHAST, respectively. Results: ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae were detected in pigs (34/158; 21.52%) and exposed workers (8/71; 11.26%) in Cameroon only. The circulating K. pneumoniae strains were dominated principally by the sequence type (ST) 14 and 39. In addition, the “high-risk” ST307 clone and two novel STs assigned ST2958 and ST2959 were detected. Genomic analysis identified various antibiotic resistance genes associated with resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramins, rifampicin, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, phenicols and tetracycline. None of the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae harbored virulence genes. Intermingled K. pneumoniae populations were observed between pig- and human-source within and across abattoirs in the country. Conclusion: Our study shows that ESBL

  11. Evidence of Rickettsia and Orientia Infections Among Abattoir Workers in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Horton, Katherine C; Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice; Dueger, Erica; Zayed, Alia; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Pimentel, Guillermo; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-03

    Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1-14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2-17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2-38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8-15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6-12) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae, the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Enterobacteriaceae on Hands of Workers in Halal Cattle Abattoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti

    2016-09-01

    Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work.

  14. Prevalence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Enterobacteriaceae on Hands of Workers in Halal Cattle Abattoirs in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti

    2016-01-01

    Background Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. Results The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Conclusions Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work. PMID:27904427

  15. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of abattoir workers in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Cadmus, Eniola; Awosanya, Emmanuel; Popoola, Olufemi Akinyele; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Moriyon, Ignacio; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria. Methods A slaughterhouse study was conducted in a major abattoir in Ibadan from March to August, 2013. To diagnose brucellosis, serum samples from 1,241 slaughtered cattle were tested using Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); again, 57 milk samples were tested with milk ring test (MRT) and indirect ELISA (iELISA). Furthermore, a survey on the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) and challenges to its use by abattoir workers was done. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Results Seroprevalence by RBT was 7.8%; 77.3% (75/97) of these were corroborated by cELISA. Prevalence in milk samples by MRT and indirect ELISA were 33.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Sex (OR: 2.5; 95%CI:1.3-4.5) was the factor significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity. None of the abattoir workers used standard protective overalls; while, 99.6% of the meat handlers and 84.1% of the butchers worked barefoot. Most of the workers (75.7%) wore no protective gloves. The respondents agreed that provision of free PPE and sanctions against non-users would encourage its use. Conclusion Our findings indicate moderate prevalence (7.8%) of bovine brucellosis with sex of cattle being a risk factor. A notable barrier to better protection of abattoir workers against brucellosis is perceived inconvenience arising from use of gloves. Therefore, preventive and control measures against brucellosis must include education and use of PPE among abattoir workers. PMID:29255538

  16. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of abattoir workers in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Cadmus, Eniola; Awosanya, Emmanuel; Popoola, Olufemi Akinyele; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Moriyon, Ignacio; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria. A slaughterhouse study was conducted in a major abattoir in Ibadan from March to August, 2013. To diagnose brucellosis, serum samples from 1,241 slaughtered cattle were tested using Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); again, 57 milk samples were tested with milk ring test (MRT) and indirect ELISA (iELISA). Furthermore, a survey on the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) and challenges to its use by abattoir workers was done. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Seroprevalence by RBT was 7.8%; 77.3% (75/97) of these were corroborated by cELISA. Prevalence in milk samples by MRT and indirect ELISA were 33.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Sex (OR: 2.5; 95%CI:1.3-4.5) was the factor significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity. None of the abattoir workers used standard protective overalls; while, 99.6% of the meat handlers and 84.1% of the butchers worked barefoot. Most of the workers (75.7%) wore no protective gloves. The respondents agreed that provision of free PPE and sanctions against non-users would encourage its use. Our findings indicate moderate prevalence (7.8%) of bovine brucellosis with sex of cattle being a risk factor. A notable barrier to better protection of abattoir workers against brucellosis is perceived inconvenience arising from use of gloves. Therefore, preventive and control measures against brucellosis must include education and use of PPE among abattoir workers.

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (<0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterizedmore » by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed

  19. Mortality of Munitions Workers Exposed to Dinitrotuluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    ACCESSION NO . 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED L MORTALITY OF MUNITIONS WORKERS EXPOSED...AD__ _ _ _ _ _ o MORTALITY OF MUNITIONS WORKERS tO EXPOSED TO DINITROTOLUENE Um FINAL REPORT Richard J. Levine, Dragana A. Andjelkovich, Sharon...Kersteter, Earl W. Arp, Jr., Sandor A. Balogh, Patricia B. Blunden, and Jonathan M. Stanley Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology Research Triangle

  20. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  1. Hearing parameters in noise exposed industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Celik, O; Yalçin, S; Oztürk, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out in a group of noise-exposed workers in a hydro-electric power plant. Thus, the main focus of the study is on 130 industrial workers who were exposed to high level of noise. The control group was consisted of 33 subjects with normal hearing. Hearing and acoustic reflex thresholds were obtained from all subjects and the results from age-matched subgroups were compared. The sensorineural hearing loss which were detected in 71 workers were bilateral, symmetrical and affected mainly frequencies of 4-6 kHz. In essence, the hearing losses were developed within the first 10 years of noise exposure and associated with slight progress in the following years. When acoustic reflex thresholds derived from the study and control groups were compared, statistically significant difference was determined only for the thresholds obtained at 4 kHz (p < 0.0005).

  2. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    SciTech Connect

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdi

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectionalmore » study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  3. Work ability in vibration-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Hagberg, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand-arm vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including sensorineural disturbances. To investigate which factors had the strongest impact on work ability in vibration-exposed workers. A cross-sectional study in which vibration-exposed workers referred to a department of occupational and environmental medicine were compared with a randomized sample of unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants underwent a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including measurements of hand and finger muscle strength and vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds. The vibration-exposed group (47 subjects) showed significantly reduced sensitivity to cold and warmth in digit 2 bilaterally (P < 0.01) and in digit 5 in the left hand (P < 0.05) and to warmth in digit 5 in the right hand (P < 0.01), compared with the 18 referents. Similarly, tactilometry showed significantly raised vibration perception thresholds among the workers (P < 0.05). A strong relationship was found for the following multiple regression model: estimated work ability = 11.4 - 0.1 × age - 2.3 × current stress level - 2.5 × current pain in hands/arms (multiple r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Vibration-exposed workers showed raised vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds, compared with unexposed referents. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stress disorders and muscle pain in hands/arms must also be considered when evaluating work ability among subjects with HAVS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  4. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  5. [Oxidative Stress Level of Vanadium-exposed Workers].

    PubMed

    Wei, Teng-da; Li, Shun-pin; Liu, Yun-xing; Tan, Chun-ping; Li, Juan; Zhang, Zu-hui; Lan, Ya-jia; Zhang, Qin

    2015-11-01

    To determine the oxidative stress level in peripheral blood of vanadium-exposed workers, as an indication of population health effect of vanadium on human neurobehavioral system. 86 vanadium-exposed workers and 65 non-exposed workers were recruited by cluster sampling. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic and occupational exposure information. Serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents were detected by kit assay. The differences in oxidative stress level between vanadium-exposed and non-exposed workers were compared. Vanadium-exposed workers had higher levels of MDA contents than the controls. The total superoxide dismutase(T-SOD) activity in vanadium-exposed workers was significantly lower than that in the controls, which was associated with lowered levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. No changes in serum levels of cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) was found in vanadium-exposed workers. No difference in iNOS activity was found between vanadium-exposed workers and controls. Vanadium exposure increases free radical production in serum and reduces antioxidant capacity. But the relationship between vanadium exposure and iNOS damage remains uncertain.

  6. [Psychological and neurobehavioral effects of aluminum on exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Guo, G; Ma, H; Wang, X

    1998-09-01

    To explore neurotoxicity and the changes in psychological and neurobehavioral functions in workers exposed to aluminum. Psychological status and neurobehavioral functions of 103 exposed workers and 64 controls were examined with Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), and meanwhile, air concentrations of aluminum in the workplaces and urine levels of aluminum in the exposed workers were determined. Urine levels of aluminum in the exposed workers were markedly higher than those in non-exposed controls, with a statistical significance. Scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion in the workers exposed to aluminum for more than ten years were significantly more than those in non-exposed controls. Scores of the performance of Santa Ana, digit symbol and pursuit aiming in the former were significantly lower, and no other changes in psychological and behavioral functions was found in workers exposed for less than ten years, except for their scores of pursuit aiming. Obvious changes in psychological status, neuromotor speed and their accuracy were observed in workers exposed to aluminum for a long term.

  7. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P < 0.01). The exposure group had a significantly higher abnormal rate of blood urea nitrogen than the control group (P < 0.01). The workers with different polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P < 0.01); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P < 0.01); there were no significant differences in overall chromosome aberration rate and mean level of DNA damage between each two groups of workers with different polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P < 0.01). Simultaneous exposure to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene causes occupational hazards among the workers in polyether manufacturer.

  8. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D M

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH). PMID:6743584

  9. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  10. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D D; Lockey, J E; Petajan, J; Gunter, B J; Rom, W N

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differences were noted between groups for the ulnar (motor and sensory), median (motor and sensory), peroneal, sural, or tibial nerve conduction velocities. Refrigeration repair workers reported palpitations and lightheadedness significantly more often than workers in the reference group. No clinical neurological or electroneurophysiological abnormalities were detected in eight refrigeration repair workers followed up for three years during continuous employment. PMID:3004555

  11. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Fulvio; Brera, Carlo; De Santis, Barbara; Fedrizzi, Giorgio; Bacci, Tiziana; Bedogni, Lorena; Capanni, Sauro; Collini, Giorgia; Crespi, Enrica; Debegnach, Francesca; Ferdenzi, Patrizia; Gargano, Angelo; Gattei, Daniela; Luberto, Ferdinando; Magnani, Ines; Magnani, Massimo Giuseppe; Mancuso, Pamela; Menotta, Simonetta; Mozzanica, Stefania; Olmi, Milva; Ombrini, Giuseppe; Sala, Orietta; Soricelli, Sabina; Vicentini, Massimo; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2) and aflatoxicol (AFOH) A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7%) revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432); the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs.) 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437). Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations. PMID:28338636

  12. Pulmonary function and symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust.

    PubMed Central

    Shamssain, M H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to wood dust can cause a variety of lung problems, including chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced expiratory flow (FEF), forced mid expiratory flow (FMF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, breathlessness, wheezing, and nasal symptoms) were recorded in 145 non-smoking workers (77 male, 68 female) exposed to wood dust in a furniture factory in Umtata, Republic of Transkei, and 152 non-smoking control subjects (77 male, 75 female) from a bottling factory with a clean environment. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and standing height the forced expiratory indices were significantly lower in the exposed male workers than in the control subjects. FEF and PEF in the exposed men were 81.3% and 89.4% of predicted values and were lower than other indices. FVC in exposed men showed a significant inverse correlation with exposure (expressed in number of years of employment). The FVC was reduced by 26 ml per year of employment. The proportion of men with an FEV1/FVC below 70 was higher in exposed workers than in control subjects and higher in the exposed workers with more years of employment. The exposed workers had more respiratory symptoms than the control subjects, the prevalence, especially of cough and nasal symptoms, increasing with the increase in the number of years of employment. CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to pine and fibre dust have more respiratory symptoms and a greater risk of airflow obstruction. PMID:1549828

  13. Semen quality of workers occupationally exposed to hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    De Celis, R; Feria-Velasco, A; González-Unzaga, M; Torres-Calleja, J; Pedrón-Nuevo, N

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether occupational exposure of men to hydrocarbons has adverse effects on the quality of their semen. Comparative study. The rubber industry in Mexico City. Forty-eight workers who were exposed to hydrocarbons for 2-24 years and 42 unexposed workers. None. Environmental hydrocarbon concentrations were determined by continuous air monitoring in all areas of the factory. Analyses of semen samples were performed in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Hydrocarbon concentrations were as follows: ethylbenzene, 220.7-234 mg/m3; benzene, 31.9-47.8 mg/m3; toluene, 189.7-212.5 mg/m3; and xylene, 47-56.4 mg/m3. The number of subjects with ejaculates that had normal characteristics was greater in the unexposed group (76%) than in the exposed group (17%). More abnormal characteristics were found in the semen of exposed workers than unexposed workers, including alterations in viscosity, liquefaction capacity, sperm count, sperm motility, and the proportion of sperm with normal morphology. Some abnormal characteristics correlated with the number of years of exposure to the hydrocarbons. Damage to the spermatogenic process resulting from hydrocarbon exposure was demonstrated by an increased rate of abnormalities in the semen of exposed workers compared with unexposed workers. This information may be useful for conducting future analyses of reproductive risks related to exposure to high concentrations of hydrocarbons.

  14. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. The analysis of the results shows that 35.4% of workers in the cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p <0.05) and total bilirubin (p <0.05) in the workers of the cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  15. Prevalence of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise and organophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Delecrode, Camila Ribas; de Freitas, Thais Domingues; Frizzo, Ana Claúdia Figueiredo; Cardoso, Ana Claúdia Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Research on the workplace has emphasized the effects of noise exposure on workers' hearing, but has not considered the effects of agrochemicals. Aim: To evaluate and correlate the hearing level and tinnitus of workers exposed simultaneously to noise and organophosphates in their workplace and to measure tinnitus distress on their quality of life. Method: A retrospective clinical study. We evaluated 82 organophosphate sprinklers from the São Paulo State Regional Superintendence who were active in the fight against dengue and who were exposed to noise and organophosphates. We performed pure tone audiometry and applied the translated THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) questionnaire. Results: Of the sample, 28.05% reported current tinnitus or had presented tinnitus, and the workers with tinnitus had an increased incidence of abnormal audiometry. The average hearing threshold for the 4–8-kHz frequency range of the workers with current tinnitus was higher than that of the others, and was most affected at the 4-kHz frequency. The THI score ranged 0–84, with an average score of 13.1. Twelve (52.17%) workers had THI scores consistent with discrete handicap. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of abnormal pure tone audiometry in workers with tinnitus, and its impact on the workers' quality of life was discrete. The correlation between average hearing threshold and tinnitus distress was weak. PMID:25991953

  16. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  17. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.

    1996-05-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repairedmore » normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. [Color vision impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor].

    PubMed

    Jedrejko, Marta; Skoczyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Acquired reversible dyschromatopsia has been associated with occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Early-detected impairments in color discrimination precede adverse permanent effects of mercury, so they may help to monitor the health of the exposed workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color discrimination ability in this group of workers, using Lanthony D-15d test. Employed in a chloralkali plant, 27 male workers exposed to mercury vapor and 27 healthy white-collar workers (control group) were qualified for the study. To assess color discrimination, the Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (Lanthony D-15) was used. In order to investigate quantitative and qualitative results, the Lanthony D-15d scoring software was performed. Urinary mercury was determined using flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. In the workers exposed to mercury vapor, urine mercury concentration was 117.4 +/- 62.6 microg/g creatinine on average compared with 0.279 +/- 0.224 mg/g creatinine in the control group (p < 0.0001). In 18 exposed persons (66.7%), the results of the Lanthony D-15d test showed qualitative changes, which are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III. The quantitative analysis of the test findings indicated a significantly higher value of the Color Confusion Index (CCI) in the right eye in the exposed group compared to the control group (p = 0.01), with no significant difference in the CCI in the left eye. In the exposed group, the CCI in the right eye was significantly higher than the CCI in the left eye (p = 0.0005). There was neither correlation between CCI and the level of urinary mercury, nor between CCI and duration of exposure. The results showed that the Lanthony D-15d test is useful in the detection of early toxic effects in the eyesight of the workers exposed to mercury vapor. The observed color vision impairments are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III.

  19. Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Okolocha, Emmanuel C; Gugong, Victor T; Hambolu, Sunday E

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five (3.50%) of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo.

  20. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust.

    PubMed

    Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grażyna; Szyjkowska, Agata; Szymczak, Wiesław; Koszada-Włodarczyk, Wiesława; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV), 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year) of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year). The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m(3) and the FPD (fine particulate dust) concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m(3). No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038) than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01). Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF) did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF) was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances (parasympathetic predominance) may serve as an early indicator of

  1. Effects of parkinsonism on health status in welding exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rachel C; Lundin, Jessica I; Criswell, Susan R; Hobson, Angela; Swisher, Laura M; Evanoff, Bradley A; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that welders frequently display parkinsonian signs, such as bradykinesia and tremor. Demonstrating that these parkinsonian findings are associated with reductions in quality of life (QoL) or health status could have important repercussions for worker safety and performance. Subjects included 394 active workers exposed to welding fumes and evaluated for parkinsonism by movement disorders experts in a worksite-based epidemiology study. Subjects were diagnosed with parkinsonism if the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score was ≥15. All subjects completed a Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom questionnaire and the PDQ39, a widely used QoL and health status measure for PD. Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL's). The PDQ39 scores for welding exposed workers with parkinsonism were similar to scores seen in a group of early PD patients. Parkinsonism in active, welding exposed workers is associated with reductions in health status and QoL affecting a broad range of categories and within the range seen in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Parkinsonism on Health Status in Welding Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rachel C.; Lundin, Jessica I.; Criswell, Susan R.; Hobson, Angela; Swisher, Laura M.; Evanoff, Bradley A.; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that welders frequently display parkinsonian signs, such as bradykinesia and tremor. Demonstrating that these parkinsonian findings are associated with reductions in quality of life (QoL) or health status could have important repercussions for worker safety and performance. Methods Subjects included 394 active workers exposed to welding fumes and evaluated for parkinsonism by movement disorders experts in a worksite-based epidemiology study. Subjects were diagnosed with parkinsonism if the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score was >15. All subjects completed a Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptom questionnaire and the PDQ39, a widely used QoL and health status measure for PD. Results Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL’s). The PDQ39 scores for welding exposed workers with parkinsonism were similar to scores seen in a group of early PD patients. Conclusion Parkinsonism in active, welding exposed workers is associated with reductions in health status and QoL affecting a broad range of categories and within the range seen in early PD. PMID:21724446

  3. Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Blain, L

    1987-01-01

    Acquired color vision loss has been associated with exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. However, not all tests of chromatic discrimination loss are designed to detect acquired, as opposed to congenital, loss. The Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap color arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia, can be administered rapidly in the field, under standard conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the D-15-d among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant, by comparing the results obtained with the D-15-d to those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of color vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the ten highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed one false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected eight complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. Comparison of D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.

  4. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in themore » exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.« less

  5. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gonzalez, Pedro; Soberanis-Ramos, Orbelin; Martinez-Gamboa, Areli; Chavez-Mazari, Barbara; Barrios-Herrera, Ma Teresa; Torres-Rojas, Martha; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Singh, Mahavir; Gonzalez-Aguirre, Adrian; Ponce de Leon-Garduño, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW) exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9%) by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0%) by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64) and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30) adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  6. [Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides].

    PubMed

    Simoniello, María Fernanda; Kleinsorge, Elisa C; Carballo, Marta A

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45), indirect exposure (n = 50) and controls (n = 50) using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC) and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER). Our results show: a) an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p < 0.001), b) significant increase in the levels of TBARS in direct exposure (p < 0.001), c) the CAT reduction was significant (p < 0.01), d) a significant increase in IDEC and IDER in both exposed groups (p < 0.001). Our results evidence variations in oxidative balance and DNA damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  7. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Systemic complications of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mostafa; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shohrati, Majid; Saburi, Amin; Babaei, Mahmoud; Najafian, Bita

    2013-03-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive. TNT can induce some well-recognized toxic impacts comprising toxic hepatitis, aplastic anemia and cataract. The aim of study was evaluation of TNT exposed workers for systemic complication. In a cross-sectional study, we carried out Liver Function Test (LFT), complete blood count (CBC) and slit lamp biomicroscopy to compare the prevalence and severity of these 3 complications between 47 male TNT exposed workers (with at least one year continuous experience of TNT exposure) and 43 unexposed male hospital worker who hadn't had any previous contacts with TNT. We also performed Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) to assess the probable obstructive/restrictive abnormalities, caused by TNT. Mean alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level of TNT exposed group was significantly higher than the unexposed group (p = 0.023) Forced Expiratory Volume in one second to Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratios of both groups were in the range of restrictive pattern (82.03% and 81.42% for the exposed and unexposed group, respectively) with no meaningful difference. We didn't find out any specific TNT induced cataract and general cortical cataract (CC) and nuclear sclerotic cataract (NSC) prevalence was not significantly different. we haven't found TNT as a chemical, causing toxic hepatitis or aplastic anemia; neither did we find it as a compound, responsible for a meaningful increase in cataract prevalence. However, due to the increased ALP serum levels and FEV1/FVC ratios among TNT workers, safety precautions are advised.

  9. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  10. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  11. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  12. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  13. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  14. Cytogenetic effects in workers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, B; Swarna, M; Padmavathi, P; Jyothi, A; Reddy, P P

    2003-03-03

    Tobacco dust mainly contains nitrosamines, which are readily absorbed by the body tissues like skin, respiratory epithelium, and mucous membrane of mouth, nose and intestines. Exposure to tobacco dust is known to affect the respiratory tracts in humans. In the present study, cytogenetic effects of exposure to tobacco dust are evaluated in 154 male tobacco factory workers and 138 age and sex matched controls by analysing chromosomal aberrations in their peripheral blood lymphocytes. The workers were in the age group of 20-55 years and were employed in the tobacco processing factory for 1-32 years. Heparinised blood samples were collected from workers and control subjects and lymphocyte cultures were carried out by using standard technique. Slides were prepared and 150 metaphases were screened for each sample for various structural and numerical types of abnormalities. A statistically significant increase was observed in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in non-smoking and smoking exposed groups when compared to the respective controls. An increase in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations was also observed with increase in years of service in the exposed subjects.

  15. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, E; Sperati, A; Miceli, M; Forastiere, F; Di Lallo, D; Cavariani, F; Goldsmith, D F; Perucci, C A

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio region as in June 1994 were searched for a match in the regional end stage renal diseases registry, which records (since June, 1994) all patients undergoing dialysis treatment in public and private facilities of the region. Expected numbers of prevalent cases from the cohort were computed by applying the rate of patients on dialysis treatment by the age distribution of the cohort. A total of six cases was detected when 1.87 were expected (observed/expected (O/E) = 3.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 6.98). The excess risk was present among non-smokers (O = 2; O/E = 4.34) and smokers (O = 4; O/E = 2.83), as well as among workers without silicosis (O = 4; O/E = 2.78) and workers with silicosis (O = 2; O/E = 4.54). The risk was higher among subjects with < 20 years since first employment (O = 4; O/E = 4.65) than among those employed > 20 years. These results provide further evidence that exposure to silica dust among ceramic workers is associated with nephrotoxic effects.

  16. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica

    PubMed Central

    Rapiti, E.; Sperati, A.; Miceli, M.; Forastiere, F.; Di, L; Cavariani, F.; Goldsmith, D. F.; Perucci, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. METHODS: On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio region as in June 1994 were searched for a match in the regional end stage renal diseases registry, which records (since June, 1994) all patients undergoing dialysis treatment in public and private facilities of the region. Expected numbers of prevalent cases from the cohort were computed by applying the rate of patients on dialysis treatment by the age distribution of the cohort. RESULTS: A total of six cases was detected when 1.87 were expected (observed/expected (O/E) = 3.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 6.98). The excess risk was present among non-smokers (O = 2; O/E = 4.34) and smokers (O = 4; O/E = 2.83), as well as among workers without silicosis (O = 4; O/E = 2.78) and workers with silicosis (O = 2; O/E = 4.54). The risk was higher among subjects with < 20 years since first employment (O = 4; O/E = 4.65) than among those employed > 20 years. CONCLUSION: These results provide further evidence that exposure to silica dust among ceramic workers is associated with nephrotoxic effects.   PMID:10492655

  17. Cancer occurrence in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N; Hirohata, T; Myers, B C

    1985-08-01

    Because large numbers of persons were employed in United States shipyards during World War II, the long-term risks for cancer associated with asbestos exposure in this setting are of great concern. We report here on the mortality findings after up to 29 years of follow-up on a retrospective cohort of 7971 male Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard workers, which included more than 3000 men whose employment period spanned the World War II years. Compared with the general population of Hawaii, workers in the shipyard cohort had no increase in total mortality or in total cancer mortality irrespective of the duration of their exposure. However, the risk ratio for lung cancer among workers with at least 15 years of asbestos exposure was 1.4 overall (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.0) and 1.7 for those with a latency interval of 30 or more years (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5). In addition, seven mesotheliomas occurred between 1977 and 1982 in a subset of the cohort, consisting of 7029 Hawaii residents who are being followed prospectively for cancer incidence. This represented an incidence of 67.3 per million men per year, compared with a rate of 5.8 for the state as a whole. These results suggest that the long-term relative increase in risk for mesothelioma may be even greater than that for bronchogenic carcinoma in this and other cohorts of United States shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

  18. Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Rosner, Bernard; Smith, Thomas J; Dockery, Douglas W; Speizer, Frank E

    2004-11-01

    Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from coal-fired to diesel-powered locomotives. We obtained work histories from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, and ascertained mortality using Railroad Retirement Board, Social Security, and Health Care Financing Administration records. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index and death certificates. There were 43,593 total deaths including 4,351 lung cancer deaths. Adjusting for a healthy worker survivor effect and age, railroad workers in jobs associated with operating trains had a relative risk of lung cancer mortality of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.51). Lung cancer mortality did not increase with increasing years of work in these jobs. Lung cancer mortality was elevated in jobs associated with work on trains powered by diesel locomotives. Although a contribution from exposure to coal combustion products before 1959 cannot be excluded, these results suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust contributed to lung cancer mortality in this cohort. Key words: diesel exhaust, lung cancer, occupational exposure.

  19. Cancer incidence among boat-building workers exposed to styrene.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Bertke, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    A cancer incidence analysis was conducted on The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health boat-builders cohort exposed to styrene, a possible carcinogen. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and standardized rate ratios (SRR) were calculated using national and Washington State rates and a person-years analysis program. Among 3704 workers living in Washington State after 1991, when cancer registry case accrual began, 516 first primary diagnoses occurred through 2007. While overall cancer incidence was significantly reduced [SIR: 0.83 (0.76, 0.90)], internal comparisons suggest an association with exposure comparing high to low exposed person-time [SRR: 1.28 (1.05, 1.55)]. There is evidence of styrene exposure being linked to cancer incidence, which is notable since the cohort has not yet reached the median age of cancer diagnosis (65) in the United States. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessment of genotoxic effects of lead in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chinde, Srinivas; Kumari, Monika; Devi, Kanapuram Rudrama; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxicological effects in 200 lead acid storage battery recycling and manufacturing industry workers in Hyderabad along with matched 200 controls were studied. The genetic damage was determined by comet, micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The MN test was also carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Pb in ambient air, blood Pb (B-Pb) concentrations, and hematological parameters were measured. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formed were also studied. The results of the present study showed that there was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean percent tail DNA, frequency of CA, and MN in PBL as well as in BEC as compared to controls. Pb in ambient air and B-Pb concentrations were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01). The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell values were significantly lowered in Pb-exposed workers in comparison to controls. SOD, GPx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased while GSH and MDA levels increased in exposed group when compared to control group. The present study suggests that environmental health standards should be enforced to control Pb contamination from battery industries to reduce human health risk.

  1. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  2. Evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alcarás, Patrícia Arruda de Souza; Lüders, Débora; França, Denise Maria Vaz Romano; Klas, Regina Maria; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The otoacoustic emissions test is an essential tool in the evaluation of auditory function, since it allows the early detection of cochlear damage of occupational origin. Objective: To present a review of the literature and analyze the effectiveness of the clinical application of the otoacoustic emissions test in workers exposed to noise. Methods: A bibliographical search covering a period of 10 years was performed in the Virtual Health Library including published articles in national and international journals indexed in the internationally recognized databases for the health sciences, LILACS, SCIELO, and MEDLINE, using the terms “otoacoustic emissions” and “occupational exposure.” The type of published article (national/international), the type and intensity of the stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions, the gender and age of the subjects, and the conclusions from the retrospective studies were all taken into consideration. Results and Conclusions: A total of 19 articles were analyzed, 7 national and 12 international, covering subjects from 17 to 77 years of age, mostly men. The type of stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions was the distortion method (12). Through this review, we have concluded that testing of evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise is an important tool in the early diagnosis of noise-induced cochlear hearing disorders. PMID:25991982

  3. Predictors of lung cancer among former asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2015-09-01

    Despite extensive literature concerning the risk of lung cancer incidence among asbestos workers there is still lack of data specifying the association between the level of exposure and the frequency of cancer occurrence. The aim of the analysis was to assess the influence of smoking and selected factors related to occupational exposure on the risk of the incidence of lung cancer among the workers who were exposed to asbestos dust in the past. The assessment was performed based on the case-control studies carried out within a cohort including 7,374 former workers of asbestos processing plants, examined over the years 2000-2013. Analysis of the material was based on the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusted for cigarette smoking, cumulative exposure, branch and time since last exposure. During the survey period there were 165 cases of lung cancer. Among the individuals who smoked, the relative risk of lung cancer incidence was twice as high in the persons smoking more than 20 pack-years (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.45-3.46) than it was in the case of the non-smokers. Analysis revealed that the risk of lung cancer in the group with the highest exposure was two times higher in comparison with the low cumulative asbestos exposure (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25). The risk continued to increase until 30 years after cessation of asbestos exposure and started to decline many years after the last exposure. Influence of the mentioned above characteristics is particularly visible for tumors located in the lower parts of the lungs. Our findings confirm the strong evidence that the lung cancer risk is associated with asbestos exposure and it increases along with the increasing exposure. A strategy of smoking cessation among the individuals exposed to asbestos dust would potentially have health promoting effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff.

  5. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  6. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    PubMed

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  7. Assessment of central auditory processing in a group of workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Adrian; McPherson, Bradley; Muñoz, Verónica; Pablo Espina, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Despite having normal hearing thresholds and speech recognition thresholds, results for central auditory tests were abnormal in a group of workers exposed to solvents. Workers exposed to solvents may have difficulties in everyday listening situations that are not related to a decrement in hearing thresholds. A central auditory processing disorder may underlie these difficulties. To study central auditory processing abilities in a group of workers occupationally exposed to a mix of organic solvents. Ten workers exposed to a mix of organic solvents and 10 matched non-exposed workers were studied. The test battery comprised pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex measurement, acoustic reflex decay, dichotic digit, pitch pattern sequence, masking level difference, filtered speech, random gap detection and hearing-in-noise tests. All the workers presented normal hearing thresholds and no signs of middle ear abnormalities. Workers exposed to solvents had lower results in comparison with the control group and previously reported normative data, in the majority of the tests.

  8. Long-term study on workers occupationally exposed to ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Bardodĕj, Z; Círek, A

    1988-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is synthesized from benzene; subject to catalytic dehydrogenation it yields styrene, a raw material for the production of synthetic rubber and plastics. Long-term biomonitoring of occupational ethylbenzene exposures, carried out in the past 20 years in some 200 ethylbenzene-production workers, revealed this substance to pose little hazard to human health. As it turned out, mandelic acid concentrations in these workers' urine never exceeded 3.25 mmol.l-1 and none of the exposed showed damage to hematopoiesis and/or liver tissue. Over the last 10 years no case of malignancy has been recorded in this industrial facility belonging to a larger chemical complex where the overall incidence of cancer is about 3 times the national average. Today's low-level ethylbenzene exposures would make it fully justifiable if the present-day MAC limits, both whole-shift (200 mg.m-3) and peak (1,000 mg.m-3), were to be halved, i.e. to be lowered to 100 mg.m3 and 500 mg.m3 respectively. These newly recommended limit values are no more exceeded nowadays.

  9. Spontaneous abortions among nickel-exposed female refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Vaktskjold, Arild; Talykova, Ljudmila V; Chashchin, Valerij P; Odland, Jon Ø; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-01

    A case-control study to investigate whether women employed in nickel-exposed work areas in early pregnancy are at elevated risk of spontaneous abortion (SA). Data about pregnancy outcome and maternal factors were obtained about each delivery and SA from women in selected work places. Each pregnancy record was assigned a categorical nickel (Ni) exposure rating according to the women's occupations at pregnancy onset. The guidelines were the water-soluble Ni subfraction of the inhalable aerosol fraction obtained by personal monitoring for nickel- and copper-refinery workers or/and measured urinary-Ni concentrations. The unadjusted odds ratio for the association between the maternal exposure to Ni and an SA for Ni-exposed women was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.84), and the adjusted was 1.14 (0.95-1.37). In conclusion, there was no statistical association between maternal occupational exposure to water-soluble Ni in early pregnancy and the risk of self-reported SA. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a weak excess risk, or a risk in the first weeks of pregnancy.

  10. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito; Lima, Monica Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Teixeira, Cláudio Eduardo Correa; de Lima, Lauro José Barata; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction. PMID:22220188

  12. Asbestos-related radiographic findings among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite: impact of workers' personal hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Timothy J; Franzblau, Alfred; Dunning, Kari K; Borton, Eric K; Rohs, Amy M; Lockey, James E

    2013-11-01

    To explore the potential impact of worker hygiene by determining the prevalence of radiographic changes consistent with asbestos exposure among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite that contained amphibole fibers. Workers and household contacts had chest radiographs and completed questionnaires regarding hygiene and potential exposure pathways. Participants included 191 household contacts of 118 workers. One household contact (0.5%) had localized pleural thickening, and three (1.6%) had irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater. Worker radiographs demonstrated pleural changes in 45% and irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater in 8%. Libby vermiculite-exposed workers demonstrated an elevated prevalence of pleural and interstitial chest radiographic changes. There was, however, no increased prevalence of similar changes among household contacts, likely because of personal hygiene measures taken by the majority of workers.

  13. Pulmonary function and oxidative stress in workers exposed to styrene in plastic factory: occupational hazards in styrene-exposed plastic factory workers.

    PubMed

    Sati, Prakash Chandra; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Ahmed, Tanzeel; Tripathi, Ashok K; Banerjee, Basu Dev

    2011-11-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound used in factories for synthesis of plastic products. The pneumotoxicity of styrene in experimental animals is known. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of styrene on lung function and oxidative stress in occupationally exposed workers in plastic factory. Thirty-four male workers, between 18 and 40 years of age, exposed to styrene for atleast 8 hours a day for more than a year were studied, while 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects not exposed to styrene served as controls. Assessment of lung functions showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in most of the lung volumes, capacities (FVC, FEV(1), VC, ERV, IRV, and IC) and flow rates (PEFR, MEF(75%), and MVV) in the study group (workers) as compared to controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed to be significantly high (p < 0.05) while ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly low (p < 0.05) in styrene-exposed subjects. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly depleted in exposed subjects as compared to control group. The mean value of serum cytochrome c in styrene-exposed subjects was found to be 1.1 ng/ml (0.89-1.89) while in control its levels were under detection limit (0.05 ng/ml). It shows that styrene inhalation by workers leads to increased level of oxidative stress, which is supposed to be the cause of lung damage.

  14. [Epidemiological study of cytopenia among benzene-exposed workers and its influential factors].

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan-juan; Liu, Mei-xia; Yang, Feng; Guo, Wei-wei; Zhuang, Ran; Jia, Xian-dong

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the benzene exposure level and cytopenia among the benzene exposed workers in Shanghai, China and to analyze the influential factors for the health of benzene-exposed workers. A total of 3314 benzene-exposed workers, who were from 85 benzene-related enterprises selected by stratified random sampling based on enterprise sizes and industries, were included in the study. The time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of benzene in each workshop was measured by individual sampling and fixed point sampling, and the benzene exposure level in workshop was evaluated accordingly. The occupational health examination results and health status of benzene-exposed workers were collected. The median of TW A concentrations of benzene was 0.3 mg/m3. The TWA concentrations measured at 7 ( 1.4%) of the 504 sampling points were above the safety limit. Of the 7 points, 3 were from large enterprises, 2 from medium enterprises, and 2 from small enterprises; 3 were from shipbuilding industry, 1 from chemical industry, and 3 from light industry. Of the 3314 benzene-exposed workers, 451 ( 13.6%) had cytopenia, including 339 males ( 339/2548, 13.3%) and 112 females ( 112/766, 14.6% ). There were significant differences in the incidence rates of leukopenia and neutropenia among the benzene-exposed workers of different sexes and ages (P<0.05); there were significant differences in the incidence rate of cytopenia among the benzene-exposed workers of different ages and working years ( P<0.05 ); there were significant differences in the incidence of neutropenia among the benzene exposed workers of different working years ( P<0.05). Monitoring and intervention measures should be enhanced to protect the benzene-exposed workers in the large enterprises in shipbuilding industry and medium and private enterprises in chemical industry from occupational hazards.

  15. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    PubMed

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  16. Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori, and gastrointestinal symptoms in workers exposed to waste water

    PubMed Central

    Jeggli, S; Steiner, D; Joller, H; Tschopp, A; Steffen, R; Hotz, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Aims: To assess the prevalence of clinical hepatitis E (HE) and peptic ulcer disease as well as the seroprevalence of antibodies to H pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure and to look for symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin. Methods: In the first year of a prospective cohort study 349 sewage exposed workers and 429 municipal manual workers (participation: 61%) underwent a complete medical examination. Travelling to endemic areas, socioeconomic level, age, country in which childhood was spent, and number of siblings were considered as the main confounding factors. Results: Peptic ulcer disease and clinical HE did not occur more often in workers exposed to sewage. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 3.3% and overall prevalence of IgG antibodies to H pylori was 42% with large differences between subgroups. Logistic regression did not show an increased risk of seropositivity or antibodies to parietal cells in sewage exposed workers, but disentangling the effect of exposure from that of confounders was extremely difficult. No increase of symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin was found in sewage workers, with the exception of diarrhoea. Conclusions: No clear increased risk of infection by H pylori or by HEV in workers exposed to sewage was found in this cross-sectional study, but these results need to be confirmed by follow up. PMID:15208379

  17. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  18. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomicmore » Veterans.« less

  19. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vsmore » 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.« less

  20. Evaluation of Dynamic Disulphide/Thiol Homeostasis in Silica Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gündüzöz, Meşide; Bal, Ceylan; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Nadir Öziş, Türkan; İritaş, Servet; Kara, Halil; Erel, Özcan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main molecular mechanism underlying silicosis. Aims: In this study, our aim was to asses the redox status in occupationally silica-exposed workers, by evaluating the dynamic thiol-disulphide homeostasis. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty-six male workers occupationally exposed to silica particles and 30 healthy volunteers, working as office workers were included to the study. Posteroanterior chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests of both groups were evaluated. Also serum thiol disulphide levels were measured using the spectrophotometric method described by Erel and Neşelioğlu. Results: Among the 36 workers that underwent pulmonary function tests 6 (17%) had obstructive, 7 (19%) had restrictive, 6 (17%) had obstructive and restrictive signs whereas 17 (47%) had no signs. The mean PFTs results of silica-exposed workers were significantly lower than control subjects. The serum disulphide levels of silica-exposed workers were significantly higher than control subjects (23.84±5.89 μmol/L and 21.18±3.44 μmol/L, respectively p=0.02). Conclusion: The serum disulphide levels, a biomarker of oxidative stress, are found to be higher in silica-exposed workers. PMID:28418335

  1. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  2. Studies on battery repair and recycling workers occupationally exposed to lead in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Haider, Muhammad Jamal; Qureshi, Naeemullah

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of occupational lead exposure on the hematological and biochemical parameters in occupationally exposed and non exposed inhabitants of Karachi. MATERIAL AND METHODS. In 100 lead exposed subjects recruited from automobile workshops, lead battery repair and recycling units located in Karachi and in 100 control subjects the general health status, hematological parameters and exposure markers for lead were measured. RESULTS. Results indicated that the mean values of blood lead level and delta-aminolevulinic acid were significantly higher (P<0.05) while the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) among battery repair and recycling workers as compared to controls. The abnormalities in the blood lead level, delta-aminolevulinic acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase were more frequent in lead exposed battery repair workers when compared with control subjects. The blood lead levels and deltaaminolevulinic acid were positively correlated while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was found to be negatively correlated with age, years of exposure and years of employment. Blood lead level was positively correlated with hemoglobin and RBC count while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was negatively correlated with hemoglobin concentration. The work related symptoms, droopiness, nasal symptoms and muscular pain were more frequent among battery repair workers as compared to control group. The findings of present study confirmed that occupational exposure to lead is associated with deviation in important hematological parameters and biological markers of exposure to lead among lead exposed workers, and also confirms the impact of lead exposure in the development of adverse effects among lead exposed workers. The study provides the data for risk assessment in lead battery repair workers of Karachi and suggests the need for preventive measures for

  3. Biochemical abnormalities in workers exposed to molybdenum dust.

    PubMed

    Walravens, P A; Moure-Eraso, R; Solomons, C C; Chappell, W R; Bentley, G

    1979-01-01

    Exposure to molybdenum in dust was measured in a molybdenite roasting plant. This exposure was accompanied by large elevations of serum ceruloplasmin and smaller increases in mean serum uric acid levels in the workers. Absorption of molybdenum from the dust was demonstrated by increases in plasma and urinary molybdenum levels. It remains necessary to demonstrate whether such exposure results in long-term health effects.

  4. Chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to tritium.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Riddell, Anthony E

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the findings of an historical chromosome analysis for unstable aberrations, undertaken on 34 nuclear workers with monitored exposure to tritium. The mean recorded β-particle dose from tritium was 9.33 mGy (range 0.25-79.71 mGy) and the mean occupational dose from external, mainly γ-ray, irradiation was 1.94 mGy (range 0.00-7.71 mGy). The dicentric frequency of 1.91 ± 0.53 × 10 -3 per cell was significantly raised, in comparison with that of 0.61 ± 0.30 × 10 -3 per cell for a group of 66 comparable worker controls unexposed to occupational radiation. The frequency of total aberrations was also significantly higher in the tritium workers. Comparisons with in vitro studies indicate that at these dose levels an increase in aberration frequency is not expected. However, the available historical tritium dose records were produced for the purposes of radiological protection and based on a methodology that has since been updated, so tritium doses are subject to considerable uncertainty. It is therefore recommended that, if possible, tritium doses are reassessed using information on historical recording practices in combination with current dosimetry methodology, and that further chromosome studies are undertaken using modern FISH techniques to establish stable aberration frequencies, as these will provide information on a cumulative biological effect.

  5. Color vision impairments among shipyard workers exposed to mixed organic solvents, especially xylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Paek, Domyung; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho; Chae, Hong Jae

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated color vision impairment in workers exposed to organic solvents, especially xylene. Three groups of subjects, comprising 63 workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents, 122 non-exposed workers in the same industry, and 185 subjects from the general population as controls, were evaluated for color vision. Exposure to solvents was indirectly evaluated by measuring the concentration of a urinary metabolite. Color vision was assessed using the Lanthony Desaturated 15-hue (Lanthony D-15) panel. Color confusion index (CCI) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the non-exposed workers or the general population, after adjustment for age and education, and significantly correlated with the concentration of methylhippuric acid. Color vision impairments were detected more frequently among the exposed group, and the most common types were type III and complex impairments. The rate of type III impairments was 9.52% in the exposed group, 1.64% in the non-exposed group, and 1.62% in the general population. Our results support the hypothesis that acquired color vision impairments could be induced by exposure to xylene. Testing for color vision impairment is a relatively simple, non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic method for relatively low-level exposures to xylene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differentiating occupational asthmatics from non-occupational asthmatics and irritant-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Anees, W; Blainey, D; Moore, V C; Robertson, K; Burge, P S

    2011-05-01

    Serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) records have been recommended as a first-line investigation in workers suspected as having occupational asthma (OA). To determine which PEF variability index best differentiates workers with OA from non-occupational asthmatics and unaffected irritant-exposed workers. PEF was measured at least four times daily for at least 3 weeks in three groups of subjects: (i) forty healthy grain-exposed farmers and dockers, (ii) forty-two consecutive workers with independently confirmed OA and (iii) forty-eight non-occupational asthmatics. Indices of PEF variability were compared between groups. The difference in mean PEF between rest and work periods best separated the occupational asthmatic workers from the others. The upper 95% confidence limit of this index for grain-exposed workers was 2.8% of predicted PEF (16 l/min) and 3.3% (15 l/min) for non-occupational asthmatics. Sensitivity for diagnosing OA using this index was 70%. An increase in diurnal variation on workdays of >7% had a sensitivity of only 27% for the diagnosis of OA. The difference between maximum PEF on workdays and minimum PEF on rest days had a sensitivity of <10% against non-occupational asthmatic controls. Difference in mean PEF between workdays and rest days is the best simple index for differentiating subjects with OA from those with non-OA or irritant-exposed healthy subjects. Differences >16 l/min are unlikely to be due to significant irritant exposure in healthy workers.

  7. [Studies on semen quality in workers exposed to manganese and electric welding].

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Zhang, Y; Zhang, F

    1996-09-01

    Three hundred and ten workers were selected to study the effects of manganese and electric welding on male reproductive function, with 211 occupationally exposed to manganess and electric welding fume and 99 controls. Concentrations of manganese and welding fume in the air of the workplace were 0.14-5.5 mg/m3 and 6.5-82.3 mg/m3, respectively. Semen concentrations of manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, and iron in workers employed in electric welding were significantly higher than those in controls. Time from ejaculation to liquefaction of semen in exposed workers was longer than that in controls, and volume of semen, sperm count, viable sperm count and percentage were significantly lower in the exposed workers than in the controls. Stepwise regression analysis suggests a direct toxic effect of manganese on sperm production.

  8. A multicenter study on the audiometric findings of styrene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Morata, Thais C; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Starck, Jukka; Pawlas, Krystyna; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Nylen, Per; Toppila, Esko; Krieg, Edward; Pawlas, Natalia; Prasher, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing loss among workers exposed to styrene, alone or with noise. This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of NoiseChem, a European Commission 5th Framework Programme research project, by occupational health institutes in Finland, Sweden, and Poland. Participants' ages ranged from 18-72 years (n = 1620 workers). Participants exposed to styrene, alone or with noise, were from reinforced fiberglass products manufacturing plants (n = 862). Comparison groups were comprised of workers noise-exposed (n = 400) or controls (n = 358). Current styrene exposures ranged from 0 to 309 mg/m(3), while mean current noise levels ranged from 70-84 dB(A). Hearing thresholds of styrene-exposed participants were compared with Annexes A and B from ANSI S3.44, 1996. The audiometric thresholds of styrene exposed workers were significantly poorer than those in published standards. Age, gender, and styrene exposure met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression for the binary outcome 'hearing loss' (P = 0.0000). Exposure to noise (<85 dBA p = 0.0001; ≥85 dB(A) p = 0.0192) interacted significantly with styrene exposure. Occupational exposure to styrene is a risk factor for hearing loss, and styrene-exposed workers should be included in hearing loss prevention programs.

  9. Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints.

    PubMed

    Dalager, N A; Mason, T J; Fraumeni, J F; Hoover, R; Payne, W W

    1980-01-01

    To evaluate the carcinogenicity of chromium compounds among user industries, the proportionate mortality experience of spray painters exposed to zinc chromate primer paints and electroplaters exposed to chromic acid in the aircraft maintenance industry was examined. Compared to the mortality patterns of U.S. white males, no excess of cancer was found in the 48 deaths among electroplaters. Analysis of the 202 deaths among spray painters revealed a significant excess of cancer, primarily of the respiratory tract. The relative increase of respiratory cancer showed a positive gradient with the length of estimated exposure time, and was confined to painters whose interval from first employment to death was at least 20 years. The findings consistent with occupational exposure to chromium compounds, previously shown to be carcinogenic in manufacturing processes, but the effect of other paint constituents, tobacco smoking, or methodologic limitations could not be discounted.

  10. Asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis in workers exposed to reactive dyes.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Wass, U; Meding, B; Belin, L

    1993-01-01

    A survey was conducted at 15 textile plants with dyehouses in western Sweden. Employees with a history of work related rhinitis, asthma, or skin symptoms were offered a clinical and immunological investigation including skin prick tests, skin patch tests, and radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) to detect specific allergy to reactive dyes. Among the 1142 employees, 162 were exposed to reactive dyes and 10 of these (6%) reported work related respiratory or nasal symptoms. An allergy to reactive dyes could be confirmed in five (3%, 95% confidence interval 1-7%). All but one had been exposed to reactive dyes for one year or less before the onset of symptoms. Positive RASTs could be detected in four of the five patients. All of the RAST positive patients were positive to remazol black B, but six out of eight additional remazol dyes also elicited positive results. RAST and RAST inhibition showed a cross reactivity between some of the dyes. Seven persons with work related dermatitis and three with urticaria or Quincke oedema were found. In one patient contact dermatitis to a monoazo dye was shown, but no positive patch test reactions to reactive dyes. IgE-mediated allergy to reactive dyes seems to be an important cause of respiratory and nasal symptoms among dyehouse employees exposed to dust from reactive dyes. PMID:8431393

  11. Gene expression changes in medical workers exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Elena; Severini, Cinzia; Quercioli, Daniele; Perdichizzi, Stefania; Mascolo, Maria Grazia; Horn, Wolfango; Vaccari, Monica; Nucci, Maria Concetta; Lodi, Vittorio; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Bolognesi, Claudia; Grilli, Sandro; Silingardi, Paola; Colacci, Annamaria

    2009-10-01

    The use of nuclear resources for medical purposes causes considerable concern about occupational exposure. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding the effects of low-dose irradiations protracted over time. We used oligomicroarrays to identify the genes that are transcriptionally regulated by persistent exposure to extremely low doses of ionizing radiation in 28 exposed professionals (mean cumulative effective dose +/- SD, 19 +/- 38 mSv) compared with a matched sample of nonexposed subjects. We identified 256 modulated genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells profiles, and the main biological processes we found were DNA packaging and mitochondrial electron transport NADH to ubiquinone. Next we investigated whether a different pattern existed when only 22 exposed subjects with accumulated doses >2.5 mSv, a threshold corresponding to the natural background radiation in Italy per year, and mean equal to 25 +/- 41 mSv were used. In addition to DNA packaging and NADH dehydrogenase function, the analysis of the higher-exposed subgroup revealed a significant modulation of ion homeostasis and programmed cell death as well. The changes in gene expression that we found suggest different mechanisms from those involved in high-dose studies that may help to define new biomarkers of radiation exposure for accumulated doses below 25 mSv.

  12. Increased leukemia-associated gene expression in benzene-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing; Yang, Caihong; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Yuxia; He, Xiaobo; Li, Fei; Han, Jiayi; Li, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to benzene causes several adverse health effects, including an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia. This study was to identify genetic alternations involved in pathogenesis of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers without clinical symptoms of leukemia. This study included 33 shoe-factory workers exposed to benzene at levels from 1 ppm to 10 ppm. These workers were divided into 3 groups based on the benzene exposure time, 1- < 7, 7- < 12, and 12- < 24 years. 17 individuals without benzene exposure history were recruited as controls. Cytogenetic analysis using Affymetrix Cytogenetics Array found copy-number variations (CNVs) in several chromosomes of benzene-exposed workers. Expression of targeted genes in these altered chromosomes, NOTCH1 and BSG, which play roles in leukemia pathogenesis, was further examined using real-time PCR. The NOTCH1 mRNA level was significantly increased in all 3 groups of workers, and the NOTCH1 mRNA level in the 12- < 24 years group was significantly higher than that in 1- < 7 and 7- < 12 years groups. Compared to the controls, the BSG mRNA level was significantly increased in 7- < 12 and 12- < 24 years groups, but not in the 1- < 7 years group. These results suggest that CNVs and leukemia-related gene expression might play roles in leukemia development in benzene-exposed workers. PMID:24993241

  13. Seroprevalence and occupational risk survey for Coxiella burnetii among exposed workers in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina; Gangemi, Silvia; De Luca, Annamaria; Calimeri, Sebastiano; Lo Giudice, Daniela; Pugliese, Michela; Licitra, Francesca; Alibrandi, Angela; Costa, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in subjects at risk of exposure in Sicily, Southern Italy. Prevalence of IgG antibodies to C. burnetii phase II antigens was evaluated by ELISA in a group of 140 workers at risk of exposure (38 veterinarians, 38 slaughterhouse workers, 44 livestock handlers, 20 laboratory and technical personnel) included in a medical surveillance program and in 42 control subjects. Positive samples were classified as suggestive of prior exposure to C. burnetii. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 88 out of 140 (62.9%) exposed workers and in 6 out of 42 (14.3%) subjects of the control group. The variables evaluated did not seem to have a significant effect on seropositivity to Coxiella with the exception of symptoms in the last 6 months preceding the survey. Our study demonstrated a high seroprevalence of C. burnetii in the group of exposed workers in comparison to non-exposed subjects of the control group. Clinical illness appears to be rare; nevertheless, physicians should consider Q fever in patients with compatible symptoms and occupational exposure to animals and their products. As aerosols represent the main route of infection in animals and humans, these workers are strongly advised to wear respiratory masks. In addition, occupational physicians should consider routine serologic evaluation and vaccination of occupationally exposed workers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. A large, nationwide, longitudinal study of central nervous system diseases among Korean workers exposed to manganese.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2015-03-01

    In occupational epidemiologic studies, the low incidence and chronic process of central nervous system (CNS) diseases has complicated the determination of the relationship between increased morbidity and manganese (Mn) exposure. Therefore, through this large cohort study, we evaluated CNS disease morbidity among Korean workers exposed to Mn Data were collected from Mn-associated specialized medical check-up 2000 and 2004 in Korea. The number of workers admitted to hospital because of clinically diagnosed CNS disease was analyzed in male workers exposed to Mn (n = 104,544). As a control reference population, 2% of Korean men were randomly selected and their hospital admission data were analyzed. For Mn-exposed workers, Standardized admission ratios (SARs) for CNS disease, as determined by ICD-10 classifications, were estimated in reference to the control population During follow up, 64 workers admitted because of CNS diseases. Chronic exposure to Mn (≥ 10 years) was significantly associated with the SAR (95% CI) of extrapyramidal and movement disorders (SAR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.05-3.55), in particular, other extrapyramidal and movement disorders (SAR: 4.81, 95% CI: 1.29-12.32). Also borderline association (SAR = 4.88, 90% CI: 1.05-7.04) was noted for secondary Parkinsonism among workers with chronic Mn exposure. SARs (95% CI) for other degenerative nervous system diseases were significantly higher in Mn-exposed workers compared with the control population (SAR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.16-8.40) CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Mn-exposed workers exhibited significantly elevated SARs for degenerative nervous system diseases and extrapyramidal and movement disorders, compared to the age-matched reference population, suggesting a relatedness with Mn exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury-induced motor and sensory neurotoxicity: systematic review of workers currently exposed to mercury vapor.

    PubMed

    Fields, Cheryl A; Borak, Jonathan; Louis, Elan D

    2017-11-01

    The neurotoxicity of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) is well-recognized, but it is uncertain whether and for how long neurotoxicity persists; among studies that evaluated previously exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure ceased. The aim of this review is to document the type, frequency, and dose-relatedness of objective neurological effects in currently exposed mercury workers and thereby provide first approximations of the effects one would have expected in previously exposed workers evaluated during exposure. We systematically reviewed studies of neurotoxicity in currently exposed mercury workers identified by searching MEDLINE (1950-2015), government reports, textbook chapters, and references cited therein; dental cohorts were not included. Outcomes on physical examination (PE), neurobehavioral (NB) tests, and electrophysiological studies were extracted and evaluated for consistency and dose-relatedness. Forty-five eligible studies were identified, comprising over 3000 workers chronically exposed to a range of Hg 0 concentrations (0.002-1.7 mg/m 3 ). Effects that demonstrated consistency across studies and increased frequency across urine mercury levels (<50; 50-99; 100-199; ≥200 μg/L) included tremor, impaired coordination, and abnormal reflexes on PE, and reduced performance on NB tests of tremor, manual dexterity and motor speed. The data suggest response thresholds of U Hg ≈275 μg/L for PE findings and ≈20 μg/L for NB outcomes. These results indicate that PE is of particular value for assessing workers with U Hg >200 μg/L, while NB testing is more appropriate for those with lower U Hg levels. They also provide benchmarks to which findings in workers with historical exposure can be compared.

  16. Cataracts in retired actinide-exposed radiation workers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Baruch S

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced cataracts are predominantly of the posterior sub-capsular (PSC) type, whereas about 90% of age-related cataracts are of other types. Retired workers, likely to have transuranic body burdens, from three DOE-supported installations were questioned regarding their eye-care history and asked for permission to contact their eye-care providers regarding any cataracts. In 97 cases with lifetime exposure records 20 cases (20.6%) were reported to have PSC cataracts. However, of 24 individuals with recorded lifetime doses of 200-600 mSv, nine (37.5%) had PSC cataracts, compared with 15.1% of 73 cases with doses of less than 200 mSv. This difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

  17. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  18. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick; Eduard, Wijnand; van Wendel de Joode, Berna

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departments at one refinery before the harvesting season, and repeated for 77 of the workers at the end of the season. Information on the prevalence of respiratory and other symptoms was collected with a standardised questionnaire. During the harvesting season, inhalable dust, endotoxin and mould levels were measured among 74 randomly selected sugar cane workers across departments. During the harvesting season, dust levels were relatively high in some departments, while endotoxin and mould levels were around background levels. Workers' ventilatory lung function differed between departments before, but not during the harvesting season or between seasons. During the harvesting season, the prevalence of wheeze and eye problems almost doubled in workers exposed to bagasse and other types of dust, whereas shortness of breath and rhinitis increased only in bagasse-exposed workers. Reporting wheeze and shortness of breath was positively associated with the number of years working at the refinery, suggesting a long-term health effect. In this refinery, the differences in workers' ventilatory lung function before the harvesting season are unlikely to be explained by bagasse exposure. However, the increase in reported symptoms (wheeze, shortness of breath, eye problems and rhinitis) over the season is likely due to irritation by dust, in particular bagasse, rather than microbiological agents.

  19. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels in female workers exposed to urban pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocca, Manuela; Caciari, Tiziana; Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tomei, Gianfranco; Sancini, Angela; Schifano, Maria Pia; Palermo, Paola; Nardone, Nadia; Scimitto, Lara; Fiaschetti, Maria; Tomei, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if there were alterations in FSH plasma levels in female outdoor workers (traffic policewomen and drivers) exposed to chemical urban stressors vs. control group. After excluding subjects with main confounding factors, traffic policewomen, drivers and indoor workers were matched by age, working life, socioeconomic status, marital status, menstrual cycle day, age of menarche, habitual consumption of Italian coffee and soy. A total of 129 female subjects were included in the study: some 63 workers studied during proliferative phase and 66 during secretory phase of menstrual cycle. Proliferative phase of menstrual cycle: FSH mean values were significantly higher in traffic policewomen compared to controls (p < 0.05). Results suggest that in outdoor workers exposed to urban chemical stressors there are alterations in FSH levels; therefore FSH may be used as an early biological marker, valuable for the group, used in occupational set.

  20. n-Hexane metabolism in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, A; Falzoi, M; Lucertini, S; Arfini, G; Zignani, M; Lombardi, S; Franchini, I

    1984-01-01

    Lung uptake and excretion of n-hexane were studied in ten workers in a shoe factory. Simultaneous samples of inhaled and alveolar air were collected with the aid of a Rhan-Otis valve, personal samplers, and charcoal tubes. Alveolar excretion was monitored during a six hour postexposure period. Uptake was calculated from lung ventilation, the retention coefficient, and environmental concentrations. The amount of exhaled n-hexane was calculated from the decay curve. According to the experimental data, alveolar retention was about 25% of the inhaled n-hexane, corresponding to a lung uptake of about 17%. The postexposure alveolar excretion was about 10% of the total uptake. The main metabolites of n-hexane were identified and measured by capillary GC/MS in spot urine samples collected before, at the end, and 15 hours after the same working shift. Urinary concentrations were low, though related to n-hexane in the air. 2,5-Hexanedione in the end of shift samples gave the best estimate of overall exposure. About 3 mg/g creatinine of 2,5-hexanedione would correspond to about 50 ppm of n-hexane in the air (mean daily exposure). PMID:6498115

  1. [Features of peripheral nerve injuries in workers exposed to vibration: an analysis of 197 cases].

    PubMed

    Situ, J; Lin, C M; Qin, Z H; Zhu, D X; Lin, H; Zhang, F F; Zhang, J J

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the features of peripheral nerve injuries in workers exposed to vibration. Methods: A total of 197 male workers [median age: 34 years (21 - 50 years) ; median working years of vibration exposure: 7.3 years (1 - 20 years) ] engaged in grinding in an enterprise were enrolled. Their clinical data and electromyography results were analyzed to investigate the features of peripheral nerve impairment. Results: Of all workers, 96 (48.73%) had abnormal electromyography results. Of all workers, 88 (44.7%) had simple mild median nerve injury in the wrist, who accounted for 91.7% (88/96) of all workers with abnormal electromy-ography results. Six workers had ulnar nerve injury, superficial radial nerve injury, or/and superficial peroneal nerve injury and accounted for 6.3% of all workers with abnormal electromyography results. Of all workers, 88 had a reduced amplitude of median nerve sensory transduction, and 28 had slowed median nerve sensory transduction. A total of 46 workers were diagnosed with occupational hand-arm vibration disease and hospitalized for treatment. They were followed up for more than 4 months after leaving their jobs, and most of them showed improvements in neural electromyography results and returned to a normal state. Conclusion: Workers exposed to vibration have a high incidence rate of nerve injury in the hand, mainly sensory function impairment at the distal end of the median nerve, and all injuries are mild peripheral nerve injuries. After leaving the vibration job and being treated, most workers can achieve improvements and return to a normal state.

  2. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  3. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-02-18

    Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Cross-sectional study. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.A.; Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnessesmore » and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.« less

  5. Respiratory-function changes in textile workers exposed to synthetic fibers.

    PubMed

    Valic, F; Zuskin, E

    1977-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and acute and chronic changes in ventilatory function were studied in three groups of textile workers: 68 workers with exposure to synthetic fibers only, 30 with previous exposure to cotton, and 77 with previous exposure to hemp. The prevalence of dyspnea, grade 3 to 4, was significantly lower (P less than .01) in workers with a history of exposure to synthetic fibers only than in those previously exposed to hemp or cotton. No case of byssinosis was found in any of the workers studied. Values in ventilatory-function tests (FEV 1.0, FVC and MEF 50%) were significantly reduced during the work shift on Monday and Thursday. The Monday MEF 50% preshift values were significantly lower than expected in all three groups of workers. A comparison of the 1963-1973 data on the 77 workers previously exposed to hemp showed a lower prevalence of most chronic respiratory symptoms and smaller acute FEV1.0 and FVC reductions when they worked with synthetic fibers (1973) than when they were exposed to hemp (1963).

  6. [Medical and biological assessment of preventive drinks use among workers exposed to adverse working conditions].

    PubMed

    Nikanov, A N; Markova, O L; Frolova, N M; Kulikova, K S

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of the effect of treatment-and-preventive drinks, i.e. "Leovit" dietary kissels, and "Zosterin-Ultra" biologically active food additive, on copper, nickel and cobalt ion concentrations in urine and on lead blood concentrations in workers employed at the "Kola Mining Company" limited liability joint-stock company and exposed to long-term metal aerosol effects, were carried out. Dependence of ion concentrations of these metals in biological media on exposure duration was reported. The study findings reveal the advisability of use of the above-mentioned food additives, having detoxication properties, while carrying out preventive measures among workers exposed to heavy metals.

  7. Biochemical effects of vinyl chloride monomer on the liver of occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Saad, A A; el-Sewedy, S M; Bader, G A; Mousa, S M; Mahdy, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vinyl chloride monomer exposure on the liver of 86 workers by measuring beta-glucuronidase, arylsulfatase A, adenosine deaminase, 5'-nucleotidase and routine liver function enzymes in the sera of the workers. In 21 of them, three or more of these parameters were raised, with a significant decrease in the level of blood glutathione and a significant increase in the enzyme activity level of glutathione S-transferase. Of these 21 workers, 14 had fatty liver infiltration, 8 of whom were also suffering from liver enlargement. Also, 4 workers had liver enlargement without fatty infiltration and 3 had enlarged spleens. The study highlights the need for vigilance in environmental monitoring and medical surveillance of workers exposed to this chemical.

  8. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead.

  9. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C

    2005-08-01

    It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.

  10. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in electroplating workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants. Both the geometric mean personal concentrations of Cr(VI) of the Cr-exposed workers and the total Cr concentrations in the air to which they were exposed significantly exceeded those for the control subjects. The geometric mean concentrations of Cr in urine, hair and fingernails, and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the Cr(VI) exposed workers exceeded those in the control subjects. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr were significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr level was associated with a 1.73-fold increase in urinary 8-OHdG level. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr level were significantly correlated with urinary MDA level following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr was associated with a 1.45-fold increase in urinary MDA. Exposure to Cr(VI) increased oxidative DNA injury and the oxidative deterioration of lipids in electroplating workers.

  11. MGMT hypomethylation is associated with DNA damage in workers exposed to low-dose benzene.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Xinjie; He, Zhini; Sun, Qing; Qin, Fei; Huang, Zhenlie; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Liu, Linhua; Chen, Liping; Gao, Chen; Wang, Shan; Wang, Fangping; Li, Daochuan; Zeng, Xiaowen; Deng, Qifei; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Bo; Tang, Huanwen; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Yongmei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of low-dose benzene on DNA damage and O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation in occupational workers. We recruited 96 nonsmoking male petrochemical industry workers exposed to low-dose benzene and 100 matched control workers. Urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and S-benzylmercapturic acid (SBMA) were measured for indicating internal exposure of benzene and toluene. The degree of DNA damage was determined by the Comet assay. The levels of MGMT methylation were detected quantitatively by bisulphite-PCR pyrosequencing assay. The benzene-exposed workers had significantly higher levels of urinary SPMA, degree of DNA damage but decreased MGMT methylation than the controls (all p < 0.05). In contrast, the level of urinary SBMA does not differ between benzene-exposed workers and the controls. In all participants, MGMT methylation was negatively associated with the urinary SPMA and the degree of DNA damage, indicating that epigenetic regulation might be involved in response to low-dose benzene exposure-induced genetic damage. MGMT methylation could be a potent biomarker associated with low-dose benzene exposure and benzene-induced DNA damage.

  12. Exposure to particles, elemental carbon and nitrogen dioxide in workers exposed to motor exhaust.

    PubMed

    Lewné, Marie; Plato, Nils; Gustavsson, Per

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the personal exposure to diesel and petrol exhaust fumes in occupations when exposure is prevalent and/or high. We also investigated the correlation between the five particle fractions [particles with an aerodynamic diameter <1 microm (PM(1)), particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm (PM(2.5)), particles in size 0.1-10 microm, elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC)] and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), in the various occupational environments. Seventy-one workers were included in the study. They were subdivided into seven groups depending on working area, working indoors, out of doors or in vehicles and type of exposure (diesel or petrol exhaust). Personal measurements were performed during 3 days per worker. We used five indicators of the particle fraction: PM(1), PM(2.5), particle measured with a real-time monitoring instrument for particles in sizes 0.1 and 10 microm (DataRAM), EC and TC. We used NO(2) as an indicator of the gas phase. Tunnel construction workers showed the highest levels of exposure for all indicators, followed by diesel-exposed garage workers. For the other five groups, the levels were statistically significantly lower, and the differences between the groups were small. The full-shift geometric average of PM(1) varied between 119 microg m(-3) (tunnel construction workers) and 11 microg m(-3) (taxi drivers). For PM(2.5), the levels varied between 231 microg m(-3) (tunnel construction workers) and 16 microg m(-3) (bus and lorry drivers). For the measurements with the real-time monitoring instrument DataRAM, the levels varied between 398 microg m(-3) (tunnel construction workers) and 14 microg m(-3) (taxi drivers). For EC, the levels varied between 87 microg m(-3) (tunnel construction workers) and 4 microg m(-3) (other outdoor workers exposed to diesel exhaust), and for TC, the levels varied between 191 microg m(-3) (tunnel construction workers) and 10 microg m(-3) (taxi drivers). Finally, for

  13. SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

  14. Mortality of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons and chemicals: extended follow up

    PubMed Central

    Radican, Larry; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To extend follow-up of 14,455 workers from 1990 to 2000, and evaluate mortality risk from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals. Methods Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate relative risk for exposed vs. unexposed workers based on previously developed exposure surrogates. Results Among TCE exposed workers, there was no statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR=1.04) or death from all cancers (RR=1.03). Exposure-response gradients for TCE were relatively flat and did not materially change since 1990. Statistically significant excesses were found for several chemical exposure subgroups and causes, and were generally consistent with the previous follow up. Conclusions Patterns of mortality have not changed substantially since 1990. While positive associations with several cancers were observed, and are consistent with the published literature, interpretation is limited due to the small numbers of events for specific exposures. PMID:19001957

  15. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index.

  16. Occupational health risks among trichloroethylene-exposed workers in a clock manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2014-08-22

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of subjective symptoms in the exposed group was 9.61-11.76 times higher than the rate of the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). It was found that skin (29.6%) and respiratory symptoms (21.1%) were the most frequent among the exposed workers. In conclusion, these results indicate that increased micronucleus frequency is associated with

  17. [The combined use of capillaroscopy and skin thermometry in health surveillance of workers exposed to hand-arm vibration].

    PubMed

    Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2010-01-01

    The use of nailfold capillaroscopy combined with skin thermometry in the study of microcirculation of the hands in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration is assessed. Fifty-eight subjects were studied; 40 asymptomatic forestry workers exposed to hand-arm vibration, 13 forestry workers exposed to hand-arm vibration with Raynaud-like symptoms confirmed by skin thermometry; 5 controls. Reduction of capillary density was observed in workers exposed to vibrating tools with respect to controls. Tortuosity of capillary loops was significantly more frequent in subjects exposed to vibrating tools than in controls. No statistically significant difference in capillary vessels of the hands was found between asymptomatic exposed subjects and workers affected by Raynaud-like symptoms. In our sample nailfold capillaroscopy shows good sensibilty and specificity in detecting capillary modifications secondary to exposure to hand-vibration. Weaker evidence is instead given in order to actual disturbances of hands circulation in chronic exposure to vibrating tools.

  18. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group I<35 years and group II ≥35 years). The exposed subjects were further classified into two groups based on the exposure period (<12 years and ≥12 years). The frequencies of CA and MN in exposed subjects are relatively high with respect to controls. The XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism showed a substantial smaller difference in allele frequencies between exposed and control subjects. Based on present data, it was concluded that coke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure.

  19. Occupational Health Risks Among Trichloroethylene-Exposed Workers in a Clock Manufacturing Factory

    PubMed Central

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of subjective symptoms in the exposed group was 9.61-11.76 times higher than the rate of the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). It was found that skin (29.6%) and respiratory symptoms (21.1%) were the most frequent among the exposed workers. In conclusion, these results indicate that increased micronucleus frequency is associated with

  20. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-18

    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Rosner, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    An association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer mortality in a large retrospective cohort study of US railroad workers has previously been reported. However, specific information regarding cigarette smoking was unavailable. Birth cohort, age, job, and cause of death specific smoking histories from a companion case-control study were used to impute smoking behavior for 39,388 railroad workers who died 1959-1996. Mortality analyses incorporated the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk. The smoking adjusted relative risk of lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust compared to unexposed workers was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.12-1.32), and unadjusted for smoking the relative risk was 1.35 (95% CI = 1.24-1.46). These analyses illustrate the use of imputation in record-based occupational health studies to assess potential confounding due to smoking. In this cohort, small differences in smoking behavior between diesel exposed and unexposed workers did not explain the elevated lung cancer risk.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxic and oxidative effects in workers exposed to jet propulsion fuel.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Onur; Sayal, Ahmet; Eken, Ayşe; Akay, Cemal; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-05-01

    Jet fuel is a common occupational exposure risk among military and civilian populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and oxidative effects in workers occupational exposure to jet propulsion fuel (JP-8). In this study, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), high frequency of SCE cells (HFCs), and micronuclei (MN) were determined for 43 workers exposed to JP-8 and 38 control subjects. We measured the antioxidant enzyme activities including that of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were also studied. Urinary 1- and 2-naphthol excretion was used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to JP-8. The results obtained from cytogenetic analysis show a statistically significant increase in frequency of SCE in the exposed workers when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the mean value of the frequency (%o) of MN and HFCs for workers and controls did not show any statistical differences (P > 0.05). Oxidative stress parameters were not statistically different between exposed and control groups except for TBARS levels. Urinary 1-and 2-naphthol levels of exposed workers were found to be significantly higher than those of control subjects. Occupational exposure to JP-8 resulted in no significant genotoxic and oxidative effects, while smoking is the principal confounding factor for the some parameters. To understand the genotoxic and oxidative effects of JP-8 exposure, further studies should be planned to find out whether human populations may be at increased risk for cancer because of the exposures related to occupation and lifestyle.

  3. Reduced expression of PARK2 in manganese-exposed smelting workers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ximin; Luo, Ying; Fan, Qiyuan; Zheng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is widely used in modern industries. Occupational exposure to Mn is known to cause clinical syndromes similar, but not identical to, Parkinson's disease. This human cohort study was designed to investigate if workers exposed to Mn altered the PARK2 gene expression, leading to Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Workers (n=26) occupationally exposed to Mn were recruited from a Mn-iron (Fe) alloy smelter, and control workers (n=20) without Mn-exposure were from an Fe smelter from Zunyi City in China. Subjects were matched with socioeconomic status and background for environmental factors. Metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Total RNA from the blood samples was isolated and analyzed by RT-PCR to quantify PARK2. The data showed that Mn concentrations in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) and saliva, and the cumulative Mn-exposure were about 2.2, 2.0, 1.7 and 3.0 fold higher, respectively, in Mn-exposed workers than those in control subjects (p<0.01). The expression of PARK2 in Mn-exposed workers was significantly decreased by 42% as compared to controls (p<0.01). Linear regression analysis further established that the expression of PARK2 mRNA was inversely correlated with Mn levels in plasma, RBC and saliva, as well as the cumulative Mn exposure (p<0.01). Taken together, it seems likely that Mn exposure among smelters may lead to a reduced expression of PARK2, which may partly explain the Mn-induced Parkinsonian disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Exposed workers to lung cancer risk. An estimation using the ISPESL database of enterprises].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Nesti, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    lung cancer is the first cause of death in the industrialized country among males and is increasing among females. In 2001 a uniform and standardised list of occupations or jobs known or suspected to be associated with lung cancer has been prepared. The aim of this study is to set up a database of Italian enterprises corresponding to activities related to this list and to assess the number of potentially exposed workers. a detailed and unique list of codes, referred to Ateco91 ISTAT classification with exclusion of the State Railways and the public administration sectors, has been developed. The list is divided into two categories: respectively for occupations or jobs definitely entailing carcinogenic risk and for those which probably/possibly entail a risk. Firms have been selected from the ISPESL database of enterprises and the number of workers has been estimated on the basis of this list. Italy. assessment of the number of workers potentially exposed to lung cancer risk and creation of a register of involved firms. the number of potentially exposed workers in the industrial and services sector related to lung cancer risk is 650,886 blue collars and the number of firms censused in Italy is 117,006 units. Corresponding figures in the agriculture sector are 163,340 and 84,839. This type of evaluation, being based on administrative sources rather then on direct measures of exposure, certainly includes an overestimation of exposed workers. the lists based on a standard classification which have been created allow for the creation of databases which can be used to control occupational exposure to carcinogens and to increase comparability between epidemiologic studies based on job-exposure matrix.

  5. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 among Chinese factory workers exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Roel; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with renal cancer. The biological mechanisms involved are not exactly known although nephrotoxicity is believed to play a role. Studies on TCE nephrotoxicity among humans, however, have been largely inconsistent. We studied kidney toxicity in Chinese factory workers exposed to TCE using novel sensitive nephrotoxicity markers. Eighty healthy workers exposed to TCE and 45 comparable unexposed controls were included in the present analyses. Personal TCE exposure measurements were taken over a 2-week period before urine collection. Ninety-six percent of workers were exposed to TCE below the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (100 ppm 8h TWA), with a mean (SD) of 22.2 (35.9) ppm. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Pi-glutathione S transferase (GST) alpha were elevated among the exposed subjects as compared with the unexposed controls with a strong exposure-response association between individual estimates of TCE exposure and KIM-1 (P < 0.0001). This is the first report to use a set of sensitive nephrotoxicity markers to study the possible effects of TCE on the kidneys. The findings suggest that at relatively low occupational exposure levels a toxic effect on the kidneys can be observed. This finding supports the biological plausibility of linking TCE exposure and renal cancer. Abbreviations:GSTglutathione-S-transferaseKIM-1kidney injury molecule-1NAGN-acetyl-beta-(d)-glucosaminidaseOVMorganic vapour monitoringTCEtrichloroethyleneVEGFvascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:22665366

  7. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Tests among Galvanized Workers Exposed To Zinc Oxide.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Omid; Zeinodin, Hamidreza; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Izadi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with a thin layer of zinc allowing protection against corrosion. One of the important hazards in this industry is exposure to zinc compounds specially zinc oxide fumes and dusts. In this study, we evaluated chronic effects of zinc oxide on the respiratory tract of galvanizers. Overall, 188 workers were selected from Arak galvanization plant in 2012, 71 galvanizers as exposed group and 117 workers from other departments of plants as control group. Information was collected using American Thoracic Society (ATS) standard questionnaire, physical examination and demographic data sheet. Pulmonary function tests were measured for all subjects. Exposure assessment was done with NIOSH 7030 method. The Personal Breathing Zone (PBZ) air sampling results for zinc ranged from 6.61 to 8.25 mg/m³ above the permissible levels (Time weighted average; TWA:2 mg/m³). The prevalence of the respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, throat and nose irritation in the exposed group was significantly (P<0.01) more than the control group. Decreasing in average percent in all spirometric parameters were seen in the galvanizers who exposed to zinc oxide fumes and dusts. The prevalence of obstructive respiratory disease was significantly (P=0.034) higher in the exposed group. High workplace zinc levels are associated with an increase in respiratory morbidity in galvanizers. Therefore administrators should evaluate these workers with periodic medical examinations and implement respiratory protection program in the working areas.

  8. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin

    2011-04-15

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The resultsmore » revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 {+-} 39.36 vs. 241.52 {+-} 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 {+-} 17.37 vs. 134.28 {+-} 25.49 {mu}mol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1{sub 192}QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p < 0.001). For PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs

  9. Effects of Formaldehyde on Lymphocyte Subsets and Cytokines in the Peripheral Blood of Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weimin; Zhang, Xianan; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Feng, Bin; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Dai, Yufei; Jia, Zhongwei; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a well-known irritant, and it is suggested to increase the risk of immune diseases and cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the distribution of major lymphocyte subsets and cytokine expression profiles in the peripheral blood of FA-exposed workers. A total of 118 FA-exposed workers and 79 controls were enrolled in the study. High performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and cytometric bead array were used to analyze FA in air sample and formic acid in urine, blood lymphocyte subpopulations, and serum cytokines, respectively. The FA-exposed workers were divided into low and high exposure groups according to their exposure levels. The results showed that both the low and high FA-exposed groups had a significant increase of formic acid in urine when compared to the controls. Both the low and high exposure groups had a significant increase in the percentage of B cells (CD19+) compared to the control group (p<0.01). A significant increase in the percentage of the natural killer (NK) cells (CD56+) was observed in the low exposure group compared to the control (p = 0.013). Moreover, the FA-exposed workers in both exposure groups showed a significant higher level of IL-10 but lower level of IL-8 than the control (p<0.01). Subjects in the high exposure group had a higher level of IL-4 but a lower level of IFN-γ than the control (p<0.05). Finally, there is a significant correlation between the levels of IL-10, IL-4, and IL-8 and formic acid (p<0.05). The findings from the present study may explain, at least in part, the association between FA exposure and immune diseases and cancer. PMID:25157974

  10. Exploring a new method for the biological monitoring of plastic workers exposed to the vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana; Jafari, Mohamad Javad; Souri, Hamid; Shokoohi, Yasser; Tavakol, Alaheh; Yazdanbakhsh, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. VCM is recognized as a confirmed human and animal carcinogenic compound. Recent studies have reported poor health of plastic workers, even having exposure at concentrations below the permissible limit to VCM. There has not been any study regarding exposed workers to VCM in Iran. Similarly, no information exists as to the biological monitoring of such workers. The main purpose of this study was to conduct a thorough occupational and biological monitoring of Iranian plastic workers exposed to VCM.A total of 100 workers from two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) in Tehran along with 25 unexposed workers as controls were studied. The personal monitoring of all nonsmoking workers exposed to VCM at two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) was performed in the morning shift (8 a.m. to 4 p.m.) according to the National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health method no. 1007.Biological monitoring of workers was carried out through collection of exhaled breath of all exposed and control workers in Tedlar bags and with a subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.Not only the mean occupational exposure of workers to VCM at plant A was higher than the respective threshold limit value but also the statistical significance was higher than workers at plant B. Similarly, VCM concentration in exhaled breath of workers at plant A was also statistically significantly higher than at plant B. Correlation of occupational exposure of all workers to vinyl chloride with its concentration in exhaled breath was statistically significant.This is the first study on biological monitoring for exposed plastic workers to VCM using exhaled breath. On the basis of the results in this study, a novel method of biological monitoring of plastic workers was proposed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Increase of olfactory threshold in plating factory workers exposed to chromium in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Araki, Shunichi; Nishikitani, Mariko; Choi, Jae-Wook; Yum, Youg-Tae; Park, Hee-Chan; Park, Sang-Hwoi; Sato, Hajime

    2003-07-01

    To disclose the effects of chromium (Cr) on olfactory function, olfactory threshold tests were conducted on 27 male plating workers (Cr workers) with signs and symptoms of olfactory irritation but without nasal septum perforation or ulcer and on 34 male control subjects in Korean plating factories. The Cr workers had been exposed to Cr fume for 0.9 to 18.2 (mean 7.9) years; their blood Cr concentrations (0.16-3.69, mean 1.29 microg/dl) were significantly higher than those of the 34 control subjects (0.04-1.95, mean 0.55 microg/dl). Scores on recognition thresholds among the Cr workers were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (p < 0.05) and related positively and significantly to the exposure periods of the 27 Cr workers (p < 0.05). Olfactory thresholds were not significantly different between the Cr workers with and without nasal signs or symptoms, except that the scores on the recognition threshold were significantly higher in those experiencing difficulty with smell (p < 0.05). It is suggested that olfactory threshold is affected by Cr without development of nasal septum perforation or ulceration.

  12. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Kręcisz, Beata

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons). Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers). Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  13. A neurological evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Whitehead, L; Langolf, G D

    1987-01-01

    Workers with long term exposure to mixtures of organic solvents below regulatory limits have been reported to experience mild, but clinically detectable, sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathies. In conjuction with a cross sectional study of behavioural performance a clinical neurological evaluation was conducted among printers and spray painters to examine dose response relations. All 240 subjects completed an occupational history and symptom questionnaire and underwent a clinical neurological examination. On average, subjects had been employed on their current job for six years. Classification of solvent exposure for each subject was based on exposed versus non-exposed job titles and observations during an industrial hygiene walk-through or on the measured concentration of solvents in full shift personal air samples. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major constituents. Neurological abnormalities consistent with mild polyneuropathy were found in 16% of subjects; none was clinically significant. Exposed/non-exposed comparisons showed slightly higher frequency of symptoms in the exposed subjects which was not related to solvent level. Subjects categorised as exposed during the walk- through survey also had poorer vibratory sensation measured at the foot and diminished ankle reflexes. In multiple linear regression models, however, controlling for age, sex, alcohol intake, and examiner, no significant (p less than 0.05) relation was found between solvent concentration and poor neurological function except for two point discrimination measured at the foot. This investigation has not provided evidence for dose related adverse neurological effects from exposure to moderately low levels of solvent mixtures for a relatively short duration, although this may be due to the shortness of exposure duration, the type of solvent exposure, or to selection

  14. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF 25-75% ) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV 1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF 25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  16. Cancer risk in nuclear workers occupationally exposed to uranium-emphasis on internal exposure.

    PubMed

    Canu, Irina Guseva; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Tirmarche, Margot

    2008-01-01

    Workers involved in the nuclear fuel cycle have a potential for internal exposure to uranium. The present review of epidemiological studies of these workers aims to elucidate the relationship between occupational internal uranium exposure and cancer risk. Eighteen cohort and 5 nested case-control studies published since 1980 are reviewed. Workers occupationally exposed to uranium appear to be at increased risk of mortality from neoplasms of the lung, larynx, and lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue. Currently available evidence for a positive association between internal exposure to uranium and the risk of cancer is limited. The common weaknesses in reviewed studies include low statistical power and inaccurate assessment of internal exposure to uranium. Further investigations should focus on precise assessment of occupational exposure and address the issue of potential confounders.

  17. Biological alterations and self-reported symptoms among insecticides-exposed workers in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Toe, Adama M.; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2012-01-01

    Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health. PMID:22783149

  18. Biological alterations and self-reported symptoms among insecticides-exposed workers in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Toe, Adama M; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I

    2012-03-01

    Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.

  19. [Comparative evaluation of heat state in workers exposed to heating microclimate during cold and warm seasons].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V; Kiladze, N A; Konstantinov, E I

    2009-01-01

    The authors demonstrated differences in heat state among workers exposed to heating microclimate during cold and warm seasons. Same external thermal load in cold season induces more humidity loss, lower weighted average skin temperature, higher pulse rate, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. With that, heat discomfort was more in cold season, than in warm one, this necessitates decrease of thermal load in cold season vs. the warm one.

  20. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Paula Morisco; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers. Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001) and a reduced compliance (p<0.001), with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001). Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987) using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001) and InOr (p<0.001) model parameters. The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of early respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed

  1. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Loreti, Beatrice; Sancini, Angela; Riservato, Roberto; Nieto, Hector A; Frati, Paola; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The technological and industrial progress together with the intensification of vehicular traffic and the adoption of new social habits are the cause of an increasing noise pollution with possible negative effects on the auditory system. This study aims to assess the noise exposure levels and the effects on the hearing threshold in outdoor and indoor male workers of a big Italian city. The study was carried out on 357 outdoor male workers, exposed to urban noise and on a control group of 357 unexposed indoor workers. Noise levels were measured in 30 outdoor and indoor areas. The subjects underwent tonal liminal audiometry in order to determine the value of their hearing threshold. During their working activity, outdoor and indoor workers are exposed to different noise levels LEX<80 dB(A). At mid-low frequencies (250-2000 Hz), the results show significant differences in the average values of hearing threshold between the two groups in both ears and for all age classes; there are no significant differences between the two groups at higher frequencies. The outdoor noise levels measured are not usually ototoxic and the hearing loss at mid-low frequencies is not characteristic of the exposure to industrial noise. For these reasons the Authors hypothesize that the results may be due to the combined effect of the exposure to noise and to ototoxic air pollutants. The impairment of speech frequencies is disabling and involves the risk of missed forensic recognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of isocyanate specific albumin-adducts in workers exposed to toluene diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Gu, Qi; Vanimireddy, Lakshiminiranjan Reddy

    2012-03-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI) are important intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main damages after low levels of TDI exposure are lung sensitization and asthma. It is therefore necessary to have sensitive and specific methods to monitor isocyanate exposure of workers. Urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to TDI. However, with these methods it was not possible to determine if the biomarkers result from exposure to TDI or to the corresponding toluene diamines (TDA). This work presents a new procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in albumin present in workers exposed to TDI. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI formed adducts with lysine: N(ϵ)-[({3-amino-4-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, N(ϵ)-[({5-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, and N(ϵ)- [({3-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine. In future studies, this new method can be applied to measure TDI-exposures in workers.

  4. [The use of the antioxidant drink by healthy workers exposed to chemical factors].

    PubMed

    Bakirov, A B; Badamshina, G G; Timasheva, G V; Karimova, L K; Valeeva, E T; Galimova, R R; Daukaev, R A; Grigoryeva, L M

    2016-01-01

    In chemical manufacturing along with alimentary factors, workers are exposed to occupational hazards resulting in reduced antitoxic protective properties of the organism. The purpose of the present work was to develop a preventive method for reducing antitoxic functions of the body of healthy workers exposed to chemical factors. We have produced the drink containing carrot juice, honey, olive oil. The study involved 50 employees (the average age was 37.4±5.5 years) with experience of over 15 years. The main group (25 people) were workers with reduced antitoxic function who received the drink before each day's work shift for 10 days, the control group - workers with normal anti-toxic function, which did not take a drink. It was found that antioxidant drink intake by healthy employees of a chemical complex lead to the decrease of the level of molecules of average mass at λ=254 nm and at λ=280 nm by 15.1±7.2%, the activity of gammaglutamyl transferase - by 19.1%, alaninaminotransferase - by 44.1%, aspartataminotrans-ferase - by 34.7% (indicators of the syndrome of endogenous intoxication), the decrease of the content of malondialdehyde (as an indicator of an excessive accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation) - by 43.8%, while the activity of catalase, that indicates an increase in the antitoxic functions of the organism, increased by 37.5%.

  5. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P

    1986-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  6. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Edelheit, Rinat; Stark, Moshe; Shai, Amir Bar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM. The aim of the present study is to assess UFP in induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as possible biomarkers for assessing lung function impairment. Sputum induction and EBC testing were performed by conventional methods. UFP particles were assessed with the NanoSight LM20 (NanoSight Ltd, London, UK). The subjects included 35 exposed and 25 non-exposed workers. There were no group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content ( r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content ( r = -0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  7. Fiber size and number in workers exposed to processed chrysotile asbestos, chrysotile miners, and the general population

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed chrysotile and chrysotile-associated amphibole (largely tremolite) asbestos fibers in 21 workers exposed to various types of processed (milled) chrysotile ore, 20 long-term chrysotile miners, and 20 members of the general population (controls). Significantly greater amounts of both chrysotile and tremolite were found in processed-ore workers and miners than in controls. On average, the mean fiber lengths and aspect ratios for the mining and processed-ore-exposed workers were similar and were significantly greater than the values seen in the controls; within the processed-ore group, there was a marked variation in these parameters, and some workers appeared to be exposed tomore » fairly long, thin fibers. It was found empirically that the fiber size data, and to a lesser extent the concentration data, could be used to classify workers accurately into those with processed-ore exposure and controls. We conclude that fiber sizes in the lungs of processed-ore-exposed workers are similar to those of chrysotile miners and are considerably longer than those found in the general population; some processed-ore workers have longer fibers which might be responsible for higher disease incidences in certain working groups; tremolite accompanies chrysotile in a variable proportion of workers exposed to processed chrysotile products and might be important in the genesis of mesothelioma in such workers; and mineralogic analysis will usually detect exposure even when chrysotile has largely disappeared from lung tissue.« less

  8. Inventory of MRI applications and workers exposed to MRI-related electromagnetic fields in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-De Vries, Yvette; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to characterise and quantify the population that is occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices and to identify factors that determine the probability and type of exposure. A questionnaire survey was used to collect information about scanners, procedures, historical developments and employees working with or near MRI scanners in clinical and research MRI departments in the Netherlands. Data were obtained from 145 MRI departments. A rapid increase in the use of MRI and field strength of the scanners was observed and quantified. The strongest magnets were employed by academic hospitals and research departments. Approximately 7000 individuals were reported to be working inside an MRI scanner room and were thus considered to have high probability of occupational exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF). Fifty-four per cent was exposed to SMF at least one day per month. The largest occupationally exposed group were radiographers (n ~ 1700). Nine per cent of the 7000 involved workers were regularly present inside a scanner room during image acquisition, when exposure to additional types of EMF is considered a possibility. This practice was most prevalent among workers involved in scanning animals. The data illustrate recent trends and historical developments in magnetic resonance imaging and provide an extensive characterisation of the occupationally exposed population. A considerable number of workers are potentially exposed to MRI-related EMF. Type and frequency of potential exposure depend on the job performed, as well as the type of workplace. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of intake and internal dose from iodine-131 for exposed workers handling radiopharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Bitar, A; Maghrabi, M; Doubal, A W

    2013-12-01

    Two methods for determination of internal dose due to (131)I intake during the preparation and handling of iodine radiopharmaceutical products have been compared. The first method was based on the measurement of (131)I in 24-hour urine samples while the second method was based on the measurement in vivo of (131)I in thyroid. The results have shown that urine analysis method can be used as a screening test but not for internal dose assessment of exposed workers. Thyroid monitoring method was found to be more reliable and accurate method for assessing internal dose from (131)I intake. In addition, the assessed internal dose showed that the annual internal effective dose for some workers was below 1 mSv with no risk classification, whereas the results of other group of workers were between 1 and 6 mSv with low risk classification. Only one worker reached 7.66 mSv with high risk classification; and this worker must be monitored individually. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sister chromatid exchange analysis in workers exposed to noise and vibration.

    PubMed

    Silva, M J; Carothers, A; Castelo Branco, N A; Dias, A; Boavida, M G

    1999-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in the combined effects of noise and vibration. In a population of aeronautical workers diagnosed with vibroacoustic disease (VAD), a large incidence of malignancy was detected. These workers were exposed to large pressure amplitude (LPA) (> or = 90 dB SPL) noise, with energy content concentrated within the low frequency (LF) bands (< or = 500 Hz) and whole-body vibration (WBV). To our knowledge, there are no studies conducted in humans or animals that address the issue of the potential genotoxic effects of vibration combined with noise. In the present study, the levels of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and of cells with high frequencies of SCE (HFC) were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers employed in various occupations within the aeronautical industry. SCE and HFC were analyzed in lymphocytes of 50 workers occupationally exposed to noise and vibration and of 34 office-worker controls (G0). The exposed group included: 10 hand-vibrating tool operators (G1), 15 engine test cell technicians (G2), 12 aircraft run-up technicians (G3) and 13 Portuguese Air Force helicopter pilots (G4). Groups 2-4 were exposed to WBV and LPALF noise; group 1 was exposed to LPA high frequency noise and local vibration. Statistical analysis of the mean SCE count per cell was carried out by multiple regression analysis comparing various predictor variables: type of exposure, duration of exposure, age, and cigarette consumption. Only cigarette consumption and type of exposure were found to be significantly correlated with the mean SCE frequency. After allowing for the effects of smoking, the analysis indicates that: 1) there was no significant difference between G1 and G0 (p > 0.05); 2) the differences between G2 and G0, G3 and G0, G4 and G0 were all highly significant (p < 0.001); 3) there was no significant difference between G2 and G3 (p > 0.05), nor between G2 and G3 combined and G4 (p > 0.05); and 4) G2 and G4 combined had a

  11. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  12. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in workers exposed to PCDD/Fs of metal recovery plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2006-12-15

    Secondary copper smelters, which primarily utilize the waste materials that contain organic impurities, and the zinc recovery plant, which handles mostly fly ash and slag from the iron and steel industry, are major emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Taiwan. In this study, we compared the levels of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in workers at a secondary copper smelting plant and a zinc recovery plant who may have been exposed to PCDD/Fs. Though the PCDD/F levels were higher in workers of zinc recovery plant than those of secondary copper smelting plant, no significant difference was found for serum PCDD/F levels between the two kinds of plants. We observed a significant difference in plasma MDA levels between workers at the zinc recovery plant (2.54 microM) and those at the copper smelting plant (1.79 microM). There was and a significant positive correlation between plasma MDA levels and the PCDD/Fs levels. In addition, we observed that the MDA levels were not affected by smoking and exercise status. Therefore, the data suggest that the MDA levels of the metal recovery workers are influenced by their PCDD/F exposure. The erythrocyte SOD activity in workers from the zinc recovery plant was marginally higher than that from the secondary copper plant (196 vs. 146 units/ml, p<0.06). In both plants, large variations in the MDA and SOD levels were found, especially in the high-PCDD/Fs-exposure group, which may be attributed, at least partially, to the differences in smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked. Overall, our results indicate a higher oxidative stress in workers of the zinc recovery plant than in workers of the secondary copper smelting plant in Taiwan.

  13. Speech recognition index of workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental or occupational noise: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise. Methodology 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at α=5%. Findings There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. Conclusion Studied group’s high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients’ own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:23259813

  14. [Dynamics of vegetative indicators induced by low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF-puncture in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Efremov, A V; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I

    2002-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetic fields and EHF-therapy have been used in correction of autonomic homeostasis in workers exposed to vibration for different periods of time. The workers suffered from early arterial hypertension. Vegetative status and central hemodynamics improved best in workers exposed to vibration for less than 5 years. If the exposure was 6-15 years, a positive trend occurred in the tension of regulatory mechanisms. Workers with long exposure to vibration suffering from vagotonia showed an inadequate response of the autonomic parameters to treatment. This necessitates enhancement of therapeutic measures with medicines.

  15. [Analysis on occupational health surveillance to workers exposed to toxic environment in a city].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, M L; Tang, H J; Zeng, Q

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To understand the status of occupational health surveillance to workers exposed to toxic environment in a city, so as to provide scientific basis for strategy of occupational diseases prevention. Methods: In January 2017, collecting the data of on-the-job poisonous and harmful workers occupational health surveillance in the city from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016 in China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, the trend of occupational health monitoring in the city was analyzed, and the differences between diverseeconomic types, enterprise scale, industry nature and hazard factors were analyzed and compared. Results: The occupational health examination rate showed an overall upward trend in workers exposed to dust in the city from 2010-2016 ( t =3.607, P <0.05) , and the detection rate of occupational contraindications was on the rise in workers exposed to chemical factors ( t =3.071, P <0.05). The detection rate of occupational contraindications and suspected occupational diseaseswere significant in different economic types, enterprise scale, industry nature and hazard factors ( P <0.05). The detection rate of occupational contraindications was the highest among the large enterprises (1.24%) , the manufacturing industry (0.84%) and the state-owned economy (1.49%). The detection rate of suspected occupational diseases (0.04%) and occupational contraindications (1.15%) were the highest in the physical factors. Conclusion: Occupational health monitoring in the city is not optimistic. It is necessary to focuson the occupational health care of manufacturing practitioners, raise the detection rate of suspected occupational diseases, and standard the occupational health check work to protect the occupational health.

  16. Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of 1,3-butadiene in occupationally low exposed Italian workers and a few diesel-exposed miners.

    PubMed

    Begemann, P; Upton, P B; Ranasinghe, A; Swenberg, J A; Soleo, L; Vimercati, L; Gelormini, A; Fustinoni, S; Zwirner-Baier, I; Neumann, H G

    2001-06-01

    Hemoglobin adducts were determined as biomarkers of 1,3-butadiene (BD) in 30 workers and 10 controls from an Italian BD plant and in 14 diesel-exposed miners. N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine (THBVal), an N-terminal valine globin adduct of reactive butadiene metabolites, was analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry after a modified Edman degradation and further acetylation. The BD exposure for the plant workers was 31 microg/m(3) (personal sampling). Whereas there was no detectable difference in hemoglobin adduct levels (range 17.7-61.4 pmol/g globin) between the total group of exposed and controls, slight but significant differences could be found between two subgroups of workers from different production units as well as one subgroup and controls (P<0.05), between smoking (n=13) and non-smoking exposed workers (n=17; P=0.066) as well as between smoking exposed workers and controls (P=0.055). Adduct levels of the miners (all non-smokers) were in the same range as those of the Italian BD-workers and controls. The internal exposure and strain measured by THBVal levels resulting from a very low occupational BD exposure was in the range of the contribution of moderate smoking.

  17. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in chromium-exposed tannery workers in North India.

    PubMed

    Ambreen, Khushboo; Khan, Faizan Haider; Bhadauria, Smrati; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr) is an environmental contaminant, which is extensively used in tanning industries throughout the world and causes various forms of health hazards in tannery workers. Therefore, a cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate the DNA damage and oxidative stress condition in tannery workers exposed to Cr in North India. The study population comprised 100 male tanners in the exposed group and 100 healthy males (no history of Cr exposure) in the comparable control group. Baseline characteristics including age, smoking, alcohol consumption habits and duration of exposure were recorded via interviewing the subjects. Blood Cr level (measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry), DNA damage (measured by comet assay) and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were estimated in both the groups. As a result of statistical analysis, exposed group showed significantly higher level of Cr (p < 0.0001), DNA damage (p < 0.0001), MDA (p < 0.0001), SOD (p < 0.05) and lower level of GSH (p < 0.001) when compared with controls. Smoking, alcohol consumption habits and age had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters in both the groups. In simple and multiple correlation analysis, DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters showed significant correlation with Cr level and duration of exposure in exposed group. The findings of the present study revealed that chronic occupational exposure to trivalent Cr may cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in tannery workers. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Respiratory and ocular symptoms in workers exposed to potassium aluminium-tetrafluoride soldering flux.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Britt; Karlsson, Jan-Eric; Nielsen, Jörn

    2007-07-01

    Exposure to aluminium compounds, such as fluorides in gaseous and particulate form, places people who work in potrooms at risk for respiratory symptoms. Workers in potrooms, however, also are exposed to a number of other air contaminants. In this study, we present the first report of a dose-response relationship after exposure to potassium aluminium tetrafluoride (KAlF(4)) and the influence of smoking and atopy. All workers (308) from an industrial plant that used KAlF as soldering flux were invited to participate in the study. In all, 289 workers participated and 118 employees not exposed to chemicals in their professional work served as an unexposed group. In the first step, all subjects answered a questionnaire concerning respiratory symptoms and work history, and participated in a lung function examination. In a second step, all workers who reported work-related complaints from lower respiratory airways were invited to participate in medical examination, methacholine test, screening test of respiratory allergy, and skin prick test against KAlF(4). The exposed subjects had more symptoms than the unexposed group; dry cough odds ratio (OR): 5.17 (confidence interval 1.79-15.0), stuffy nose: 2.3 (1.25-4.22), nose bleeding: 10.7 (3.26-35.3) and ocular symptoms 5.01 (1.92-13.1) except for chest tightening and wheezing, and shortness of breath. The symptoms appeared in a dose response-like manner although the ORs between high and low exposed were significant for only chest tightening and wheezing, 2.62 (1.30-5.26) and stuffy nose 2.1 (1.22-3.66). Smokers and atopics did not report more frequent work-related symptoms. Smokers were significantly less hyperreactive than non-smokers, indicating a healthy-worker effect. No one showed a positive skin prick test against KAlF(4). In spite of exposure levels of KAlF(4 )well below the new Swedish threshold limit, value frequent respiratory and ocular symptoms were reported. No evidence of IgE mediated allergy was found.

  19. [Detection rate analysis on neurological sign of workers exposed to different concentrations of carbon disulfide].

    PubMed

    Li, Kuirong; Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Zhou, Shiyi; Zheng, Yuxin; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-10-01

    To study the effects of exposed to different concentrations of carbon disulfide on neurological signs of workers. Collection the information of concentration of carbon disulfide in the workplace or workers individuals exposed of a chemical fiber industry from 2004 to 2011, a total of 3 537 workers exposed to carbon disulfide were detected muscle strength and muscle tone, knee reflex, Achilles tendon reflex, trembling limbs, sensory function, and three chatter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis on abnormal neurological signs of workers. Eight hours time-weighted average concentration range of workers exposed to carbon disulfide in this chemical fiber industry was 0.2-41.0 mg/m(3), geometric mean was 2.38 mg/m(3). Concentration of carbon disulfide exposure of 1 771 workers was from 0.2 to 2.5 mg/m3( ≤ 2.5 mg/m(3)), 642 workers was 2.6-4.8 mg/m(3) (< 5.0 mg/m(3)), other 1 051 workers was from 5.1 to 41.0 mg/m(3) ( > 5.0 mg/m(3)) in all subjects. The different detection rates of knee reflex were 3.0% (31/1 045), 3.7% (21/574), 4.8% (16/331), 3.3% (10/305), 5.9% (11/187), 6.7% (68/1 022), the different detection rates of Achilles tendon reflex were 2.2% (23/1 045), 3.7% (21/574), 2.7% (9/331), 2.3% (7/305), 2.1% (4/187), 5.6% (57/1 022), the different detection rates of sensory dysfunction were 0.4% (4/1 045), 0.5% (3/574), 0.6% (2/331), 0.0% (0/305), 2.1% (4/187), 1.7% (17/1 022) in different cumulative amount of contact groups ( ≤ 10.0, 10.1-20.0, 20.1-30.0, 30.1-40.0, 40.1-50.0, >50.0 mg/m(3) per year), and the differences were statistically significant (χ(2) = 19.53, 21.27 and 15.89, all P values were <0.01) . Stratified according to age and gender, in addition to the ≤ 25 years group the difference of detection rate analysis on Achilles tendon reflex was statistically significant in the different concentration group (the ratio of on Achilles tendon reflex in the different groups of concentration of carbon disulfide exposure of 2.5, 2.6-5.0,

  20. Evaluation of genotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of formaldehyde in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Peteffi, Giovana Piva; da Silva, Luciano Basso; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Wilhelm, Camila; Valandro, Eduarda Trevizani; Glaeser, Jéssica; Kaefer, Djeine; Linden, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical widely used in the furniture industry and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers to FA at a furniture manufacturing facility and the relationship between environmental concentrations of FA, formic acid concentration in urine, and DNA damage. The sample consisted of 46 workers exposed to FA and a control group of 45 individuals with no history of occupational exposure. Environmental concentrations of FA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary formic acid concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. DNA damage was evaluated by the micronucleus (MN) test performed in exfoliated buccal cells and comet assay with venous blood. The 8-h time-weighted average of FA environmental concentration ranged from 0.03 ppm to 0.09 ppm at the plant, and the control group was exposed to a mean concentration of 0.012 ppm. Workers exposed to higher environmental FA concentrations had urinary formic acid concentrations significantly different from those of controls (31.85 mg L(-1) vs. 19.35 mg L(-), p ≤ 0.01 Mann-Whitney test). Significant differences were found between control and exposed groups for the following parameters: damage frequency and damage index in the comet assay, frequency of binucleated cells in the MN test, and formic acid concentration in urine. The frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds, and karyorrhexis did not differ between groups. There was a positive correlation between environmental concentrations of FA and damage frequency (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [r s] = 0.24), damage index (r s = 0.21), binucleated cells (r s = 0.34), and urinary formic acid concentration (r s = 0.63). The results indicate that, although workers in the furniture manufacturing facility were exposed to low environmental levels of FA, this agent contributes to the observed increase in

  1. Medical management of lead-exposed workers: results of physician interviews in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Roché, L M; Gerwel, B; Ramaprasad, R; Udasin, I G

    1995-02-01

    Between July 1990 and April 1992, a questionnaire was administered to the physicians who saw 62 individuals with a blood lead (PbB) level equal to or higher than 2.40 mumol/liter with occupational inorganic lead exposure, to ascertain the medical management of workers with elevated PbB levels. Most of the 62 cases were seen by their personal physician (50%) or a private physician under contract with the company for which the patient worked (40%). Only eight (13%) patients were seen by a physician in a medical specialty assumed to include training relevant to occupational lead exposure. Fifteen percent of the patients' physicians reported taking no action for the elevated PbB level. Twenty-nine percent did not report retesting the patient (all should have been retested). Twenty-one percent of the 62 patients' physicians reported informing no one, including the patient, of the elevated PbB level. The majority of the physicians did not know the answer or declined to answer a question about what PbB level would prompt them to take six follow-up actions. The results of the physician interviews indicate that medical follow-up on workers with elevated PbB levels may not be adequate to prevent lead poisoning of the workers and their co-workers. Recommendations include methods to increase physician and employer knowledge of the medical management of workers with elevated PbB levels and to increase employer compliance with OSHA standards regarding medical surveillance of lead-exposed workers.

  2. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, P A; Gray, S; Gilmore, A B; Daykin, N

    2006-06-01

    To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. Postal survey of 1568 London casino workers in 25 casinos who were members of the TGWU or GMB Trade Unions. Of the workers, 559 responded to the survey (36% response), 22% of whom were current smokers. Of the respondents, 71% report being nearly always exposed to heavy levels of SHS at work, and most (65%) want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. The majority (78%) are bothered by SHS at work, while 91% have wanted to move away from where they are working because of it. Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. Of the workers who smoke at work, 59% believe that they would try to quit smoking if no one was allowed to smoke in the casino. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.

  3. Latently and uninfected healthcare workers exposed to TB make protective antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Xing-Xing; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Liu, Guan; Lu, Yu; Cao, Min; Huang, Hairong; Javid, Babak

    2017-05-09

    The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb. We tested antibodies isolated from 48 healthcare workers and compared these with 12 patients with active TB. We found that antibodies from 7 of 48 healthcare workers but none from active TB patients showed moderate protection against Mtb in an aerosol mouse challenge model. Intriguingly, three of seven healthcare workers who made protective antibody responses had no evidence of prior TB infection by IFN-γ release assay. There was also good correlation between protection observed in vivo and neutralization of Mtb in an in vitro human whole-blood assay. Antibodies mediating protection were directed against the surface of Mtb and depended on both immune complexes and CD4+ T cells for efficacy. Our results indicate that certain individuals make protective antibodies against Mtb and challenge paradigms about the nature of an effective immune response to TB.

  4. Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P; Shapiro, S; Dales, R E; Becklake, M R

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of respiratory symptoms were studied in an active workforce of insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres. Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed using logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure (estimated by number of hours worked in the trade) in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used. PMID:3814550

  5. Biomonitoring of a worker population exposed to platinum dust in a catalyst production plant

    PubMed Central

    Petrucci, F; Violante, N; Senofonte, O; Cristaudo, A; Di, G; Forte, G; Alimonti, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the occupational exposure to platinum in an industrial plant engaged in the production, recovery, and recycling of catalytic converters for the automotive traction and chemical industries. Methods: Pt was determined in airborne particulate matter, and blood, urine, and hair of 106 exposed workers, 21 controls from the plant's administrative offices, and 25 unexposed subjects. Results: The highest air Pt level was found in the department of the plant in which supports are coated with acid metal solutions, where values of 2.39 and 4.83 µg/m3 respectively were found in environmental airborne particulate matter and in air collected using personal sampler devices. The percentage of soluble Pt was also highest in this area, varying from 24% to 44% of the total. The biological data confirmed this trend, with mean concentrations in this site being higher than in other working areas: 1.86 µg/l (urine), 0.38 µg/l (blood), and 2.26 µg/kg (hair). The workers employed in the administrative sector, who were not directly exposed to Pt, had levels of contaminant lower than those of other workers, albeit 2–20 times higher than those of external controls. High correlations were obtained between Pt levels detected in airborne samples using personal devices and those found in urine and hair, but not in blood. Conclusions: The background level of Pt in all areas of the factory implies widespread exposure for the workers. The most reliable biomarker was urine. Hair cannot be considered a good index of time related exposure, at least until more reliable methods of washing can be found that are able to remove exogenous Pt completely. PMID:15613605

  6. Micronucleus, Nucleoplasmic Bridge, and Nuclear Budding in Peripheral Blood Cells of Workers Exposed to Low Level Benzene.

    PubMed

    Jamebozorgi, I; Mahjoubi, F; Pouryaghoub, G; Mehrdad, R; Majidzadeh, T; Saltanatpour, Z; Nasiri, F

    2016-10-01

    Benzene is one of the important occupational pollutants. There are some reports about the leukemogenic effects related to low-level exposure to benzene. To study the frequency of micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NB), and nuclear budding (NBUD) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of petrochemical workers with low level exposure to benzene. We enrolled 50 workers exposed to low-level benzene and 31 unexposed workers of a petrochemical industry. After exclusion of 3 samples, peripheral blood lymphocytes of the remaining 47 exposed and 31 unexposed workers were analyzed for the frequency of MN, NB, and NBUD by cytochalasin-blocked MN technique. MN was present in 28 (60%) exposed and 18 (58%) unexposed workers. NB was observed in 6 (13%), and 2 (7%) exposed and unexposed workers, respectively; the frequency for NBUD was 20 (43%), and 13 (42%), respectively. No significant difference was found in the observed frequencies of MN, NB, and NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes between the exposed and unexposed group workers. Occupational exposure to low-level benzene does not increase the frequency of MN, NB, and NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, biomarkers for DNA damage.

  7. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prevalence and Antibiogram Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus in Beef at Municipal Abattoir and Butcher Shops in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Adugna, Feben; Pal, Mahendra

    2018-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2013 to April 2014 to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from beef of Addis Ababa Abattoir and butcher shops in Addis Ababa. Seven hundred sixty-eight swab samples were taken from the abattoir and butcher carcasses using a systematic random sampling. One hundred twenty swab samples were also taken from hooks, cutting tables, and knives from the abattoir. Staphylococcus aureus positive isolates were taken for antibiotic susceptibility test. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the abattoir and butcher workers to assess the hygienic practice and possible risk factors regarding the contamination of meat. Results The prevalence of S. aureus in the abattoir, butcher, cutting table, hook, and knife was 9.4%, 19.8%, 15%, 15%, and 22.5%, respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus in the knife and butcher was found to be 2.8 (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.2–6.4) and 2.4 (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.6–3.6) times that of the abattoir results (p < 0.01). The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also conducted on 133 isolates of S. aureus using the disc diffusion susceptibility method. Bacitracin, neomycin, and methicillin were found to be 100% resistant to S. aureus. To avoid the presence of pathogenic Staphylococcus isolates, preventive measures using good hygienic practices during slaughtering and handling of the beef carcasses are recommended. PMID:29854759

  9. Prevalence and Antibiogram Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus in Beef at Municipal Abattoir and Butcher Shops in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Feben; Pal, Mahendra; Girmay, Gebrerufael

    2018-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2013 to April 2014 to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from beef of Addis Ababa Abattoir and butcher shops in Addis Ababa. Seven hundred sixty-eight swab samples were taken from the abattoir and butcher carcasses using a systematic random sampling. One hundred twenty swab samples were also taken from hooks, cutting tables, and knives from the abattoir. Staphylococcus aureus positive isolates were taken for antibiotic susceptibility test. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the abattoir and butcher workers to assess the hygienic practice and possible risk factors regarding the contamination of meat. The prevalence of S. aureus in the abattoir, butcher, cutting table, hook, and knife was 9.4%, 19.8%, 15%, 15%, and 22.5%, respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus in the knife and butcher was found to be 2.8 (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.2-6.4) and 2.4 (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.6-3.6) times that of the abattoir results ( p < 0.01). The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also conducted on 133 isolates of S. aureus using the disc diffusion susceptibility method. Bacitracin, neomycin, and methicillin were found to be 100% resistant to S. aureus . To avoid the presence of pathogenic Staphylococcus isolates, preventive measures using good hygienic practices during slaughtering and handling of the beef carcasses are recommended.

  10. [Influence of low-frequency magnetotherapy and HF-puncture on the heart rhythm in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I

    2001-01-01

    The authors present results concerning use of low-frequency magnetic fields and HF-therapy for correction of vegetative homeostasis in workers with variable length of service, exposed to vibration, having early forms of arterial hypertension. The most positive changes of vegetative status and central hemodynamics are seen in workers with low length of service.

  11. [Effects of 1-bromopropane on neurological and hematological changes of female exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiang-Yi; Ichihara, Gaku; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ding, Xun-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on female exposed workers. Four 1-BP manufacturing plants were investigated. Workers were interviewed with questionnaire and examined with neurobehavioral core test battery, nerve conduction velocity tests of nervus tibialis and nervus suralis, vibration sensation test, hematological and biochemical tests. Ambient 1-BP concentration was measured with detection tube, and time-weighed average levels of individual workers were estimated with passive samplers. 1-BP concentration in the plants ranged from 0 to 402.40 mg/m3 (Geomean 32.19 mg/m3). Time-weighted average exposure levels (TWA-8 h) ranged from 0.35 to 535.19 mg/m3 (Geomean 14.08 mg/m3). Compared with the control group, 1-BP exposed workers showed reduced motor nerve conduction velocity [(44.8 +/- 8.7) m/s] and sensory nerve conduction velocity [(45.5 +/- 4.9) m/s], prolonged distal latency [(7.5 +/- 2.1) ms], reduced toe vibration perception, and altered neurobehavior parameters(POMS vigor, tension, anxiety, confusion) significantly (P < 0.05). As to hematological and biochemical indicators, the exposed workers showed decreased white blood cell count [(5.6 +/- 2.17) x 10(3)/microl], red blood cell count [(3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(6)/microl], hemoglobin [(121.1 +/- 14.5) g/L] and creatine kinase [(82.0 +/- 27.5) IU/L] (P < 0.05), and increased serum total protein (8.0 +/- 0.5 g/dl), lactate dehydrogenase [(335.2 +/- 356.6) IU/L], thyroid-stimulating hormone [(3.6 +/- 2.3) microIU/ml] and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (18.7 +/- 24.4 mIU/ml) (P < 0.05). 1-BP exposure may affect peripheral nerves and central nervous system, and lead to abnormal hematological and biomedical indicators.

  12. Central nervous system diseases of organic solvents exposed workers based on nationwide medical surveillance-data in Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Young-Sun; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2016-05-01

    New light is being shed on the relationship between chronic neurotoxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and exposure to low-level organic solvents (OS). However, there are few longitudinal studies with a large sample size. A cohort of OS-exposed male workers was selected who had undergone an OS-associated specialized medical check-up at least once between 2000 and 2004 in Korea. The standardized admission ratios (SAR) for CNS diseases were calculated with reference to the Korean adult male population. Adjusted relative risks (ARR) were also estimated in comparison to noise-exposed male workers. There were 238,574 OS-exposed workers, yielding 954,772 person-years of exposure. OS-exposed workers were at elevated risk of "other extrapyramidal and movement disorders" (G25) with a SAR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.41-5.42) and "systemic atrophies primarily affecting the CNS" (G10-G13) SAR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.03-3.74). There were no significant differences between the OS-exposed workers and noise-exposed workers. A limited number of CNS diseases identified through hospital admissions data and short observation periods reduced statistical power to determine effect size. OS exposure was positively associated with "other extrapyramidal and movement disorder and systemic atrophies primarily affecting the CNS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Effect of N, N-dimethylformamide on oxidation or antioxidation status among occupational exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Juan; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Bo; Wu, Zhijun; Ye, Meng; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Chunmin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) on oxidation or antioxidation status among occupational exposed workers. A total of 104 DMF exposed workers and 101 controls were recruited in this study in May 2012. The information of occupational history, age, gender, smoking and alcohol habits of all subjects were collected by questionnaire. DMF concentration in the air of workplace was tested. N-methyl-carbamoylated haemoglobin adduct (NMHb) in blood was chosen as an inner-dose biomarker, which was expressed as 3-methyl-5-isopropylhydantoin(MVH), the degeneration product of NMHb. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were detected to reflect liver function. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, 3- nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels were detected to reflect oxidative/antioxidative status. DMF concentration in workplace air was within the range of 3.3-12.4 mg/m(3), which did not exceed our national standard. The MVH level in exposed workers was (19.69 ± 12.52) mg/kg, but was not detectable in control group. The activity of SOD in exposed workers ((125.30 ± 21.23) U/ml) was significantly higher than the control group ((118.35 ± 18.48) U/ml, t = -2.47, P = 0.014). However, the activity of SOD showed different trends with the increasing of MVH level. When MVH ≤ 24 mg/kg, the SOD activity increased with the increasing of MVH level (r = 0.356, P = 0.002). However, when MVH> 24 mg/kg, SOD activity expressed decreasing trend with the increasing of MVH level (r = -0.260, P = 0.150). No significant differences were observed in GST, MDA, 3-NT, ALT, AST levels among the two groups. DMF exposure might have stimulatory effect on antioxidation system of the body under low concentration; within the range of compensatory defense, DMF exposure did not cause obvious lipid and/or protein peroxidative damage.

  14. Airway disease in highway and tunnel construction workers exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L Christine; Miracle-McMahill, Heidi

    2006-12-01

    Construction workers employed in a unique type of tunnel construction known as tunnel jacking were exposed over an 18-month period to respirable crystalline silica at concentrations that exceeded the OSHA permissible exposure limit. The present study examines workplace exposures and occurrence of airway disease in these workers. Medical and occupational histories and chest radiographs were obtained on 343 active construction workers who had worked on the site during the period in question. Chest radiographs were interpreted according to the ILO-1980 system of classification. Standardized questions were used to develop an algorithm to define symptoms consistent with asthma (SCA) and to determine these respiratory outcomes: chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath (SOB), and physician-diagnosed asthma (current vs. not current). Relationships with each of three work activities were examined: slurry wall breakthrough (SWB), chipping caisson overpour, and tunneling/mining. Participants included laborers, carpenters, tunnel workers, ironworkers, operating engineers, and electricians. No cases of silicosis were found on chest X-ray. Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis, SCA, SOB, and physician-diagnosed asthma was 10.7%, 25%, 29%, and 6.6%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) for carpenters compared to laborers were significantly elevated for chronic bronchitis, SCA, and SOB. SWB was associated with chronic bronchitis and SCA (OR 4.93, 95% CI = 1.01, 24.17; OR 3.32, 95% CI = 1.25, 8.84, respectively). The interaction between SWB, SCA, and trade was significant for carpenters (OR 6.87, 95% CI = 1.66, 28.39). Inverse trends were observed for months on the site and chronic bronchitis, SCA, and SOB (P = 0.0374, 0.0006, and 0.0307, respectively). Tunnel construction workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and cement dust are at increased risk for airway disease. Extent of risk varies by trade and work activity. Our data indicate the importance of bystander exposures and

  15. [Clinical treatment adherence of health care workers and students exposed to potentially infectious biological material].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Cristina Mendes de; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Reis, Renata Karina; Toffano, Silmara Elaine Malaguti; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2015-04-01

    To assess adherence to clinical appointments by health care workers (HCW) and students who suffered accidents with potentially infectious biological material. A retrospective cross-sectional study that assessed clinical records of accidents involving biological material between 2005 and 2010 in a specialized unit. A total of 461 individuals exposed to biological material were treated, of which 389 (84.4%) were HCWs and 72 (15.6%) students. Of the 461 exposed individuals, 307 (66.6%) attended a follow-up appointment. Individuals who had suffered an accident with a known source patient were 29 times more likely to show up to their scheduled follow-up appointments (OR: 29.98; CI95%: 16.09-55.83). The predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses for adherence to clinical follow-up appointment was having a known source patient with nonreactive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B and C.

  16. Estimates of the Number of Workers Exposed to Diesel Engine Exhaust in South Korea from 1993 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Park, Donguk; Kim, Seung Won; Ha, Kwonchul; Jung, Hyejung; Yi, Gwangyong; Koh, Dong-Hee; Park, Deokmook; Sun, Oknam; Uuksulainen, Sanni

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) by industry and year in the Republic of Korea. The estimates of workers potentially exposed to DEE in the Republic of Korea were calculated by industry on the basis of the carcinogen exposure (CAREX) surveillance system. The data on the labor force employed in DEE exposure industries were obtained from the Census on Establishments conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office from 1993 to 2013. The mean values of prevalence rates adopted by EU15 countries were used as the primary exposure prevalence rates. We also investigated the exposure prevalence rates and exposure characteristics of DEE in 359 workplaces representing 11 industries. The total number of workers exposed to DEE were estimated as 270,014 in 1993 and 417,034 in 2013 (2.2% of the total labor force). As of 2013, the industry categorized as "Land transport" showed the highest number of workers exposed to DEE with 174,359, followed by "Personal and household services" with 70,298, "Construction" with 45,555, "Wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels" with 44,005, and "Sanitation and similar services" with 12,584. These five industries, with more than 10,000 workers exposed to DEE, accounted for 83% of the total DEE-exposed workers. Comparing primary prevalence rates used for preliminary estimation among 49 industries, "Metal ore mining" had the highest rate at 52.6%, followed by "Other mining" with 50.0%, and "Land transport" with 23.6%. The DEE prevalence rates we surveyed (1.3-19.8%) were higher than the primary prevalence rates. The most common emission sources of DEE were diesel engine vehicles such as forklifts, trucks, and vans. Our estimated numbers of workers exposed to DEE can be used to identify industries with workers requiring protection from potential exposure to DEE in the Republic of Korea.

  17. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Guo, Weihong; Hubbard, Alan E.; Li, Guilan; Rappaport, Stephen M.; McHale, Cliona M.; Shen, Min; Ji, Zhiying; Vermeulen, Roel; Yin, Songnian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes. Aneuploidy of specific chromosomes has been detected in benzene-related leukemia patients as well as in healthy benzene-exposed workers, suggesting that aneuploidy precedes and may be a potential mechanism underlying benzene-induced leukemia. Here, we analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 47 exposed workers and 27 unexposed controls using a novel OctoChrome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that simultaneously detects aneuploidy in all 24 chromosomes. Through this chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) approach, we found heterogeneity in the monosomy and trisomy rates of the 22 autosomes when plotted against continuous benzene exposure. In addition, statistically significant, chromosome-specific increases in the rates of monosomy [5, 6, 7, 10, 16 and 19] and trisomy [5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 21 and 22] were found to be dose dependently associated with benzene exposure. Furthermore, significantly higher rates of monosomy and trisomy were observed in a priori defined ‘susceptible’ chromosome sets compared with all other chromosomes. Together, these findings confirm that benzene exposure is associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies in hematopoietic cells, which suggests that such aneuploidies may play roles in benzene-induced leukemogenesis. PMID:21216845

  18. [Genotoxic damage among artisanal and small-scale mining workers exposed to mercury].

    PubMed

    Rosales-Rimache, Jaime A; Elizabeth Malca, Nancy; Alarcón, Jhonatan J; Chávez, Manuel; Gonzáles, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genotoxic damage among artisanal and small-scale mining workers exposed to mercury. Observational cross-sectional study which evaluated mercury-exposed workers (n=83), whose cells were collected by mouth swab for further staining, microscopic observance, micronuclei count, and other nuclear alterations. 24-hour urine was also collected for the determination of inorganic mercury. 68.7% of participants were male, the mean age being 43 ± 12,4 years (range: 16-76). The average time of occupational exposure to mercury was 12,1 ± 6,7 years, and the contact with mercury was 4,1 ± 3,6 kg per person per day. 93% of participants failed to wear personal protection gear while handling mercury. Results of biological monitoring showed that 17% of participants had concentrations of mercury in urine higher than 2,5 µg/L, this value being the detection limit of the measurement technique used. Results of the genotoxic evaluation evidenced that 15% of people with labor exposure to mercury presented micronuclei in mouth epithelial cells, and other indicators of nuclear alteration such as nucleoplasmic bridges, gemmation and binucleation were found, which are also considered genotoxic events associated to the exposure of physical or chemical risk agents. The finding of micronuclei in mouth epithelial cells reflects genotoxic damage associated to the labor exposure of mercury used in artisanal and small-scale mining activities.

  19. Difficulties of attribution of effect in workers exposed to fiberglass and asbestos.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1991-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers have many properties of asbestos that raise concern about their safety. We studied 175 fiberglass production workers, using chest radiographs, measurement of total lung capacity, chest examinations, and occupational and medical histories. Pulmonary volumes and flows were calculated as percent of predicted, adjusted for height, age, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking. Thirty-one men with radiographically evident small irregular opacities of profusion of 1/0 or greater and/or pleural abnormalities were observed. Eight of 38 men with such changes said they had been exposed only to fiberglass; the other 23 with radiologically detectable pleural and/or pulmonary changes were among the 137 whose histories indicated that they had been exposed to asbestos and to fiberglass. Pulmonary function measurements as group means were reduced in the 175: FVC was 94.8% predicted, FEV1 was 91.3% predicted, FEF25-75 was 80.7% predicted, FEF75-85 was 73.1% predicted and FEV1/FVC was 0.73. Total lung capacity (TLC) was elevated to 114.2% predicted (mean) and RV/TLC (mean 0.46) was also elevated. Although only 78% of fiberglass production workers gave histories of asbestos exposure, all had shared the air in a manufacturing plant where ovens insulated with asbestos were continuously cleaned, repaired, dismantled, and rebuilt. It appears that attribution of the effects of their exposure to fiberglass could not be estimated independently of the effects of asbestos exposure.

  20. Bladder cancer mortality of workers exposed to aromatic amines: a 58-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pira, Enrico; Piolatto, Giorgio; Negri, Eva; Romano, Canzio; Boffetta, Paolo; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-07-21

    We previously investigated bladder cancer risk in a cohort of dyestuff workers who were heavily exposed to aromatic amines from 1922 through 1972. We updated the follow-up by 14 years (through 2003) for 590 exposed workers to include more than 30 years of follow-up since last exposure to aromatic amines. Expected numbers of deaths from bladder cancer and other causes were computed by use of national mortality rates from 1951 to 1980 and regional mortality rates subsequently. There were 394 deaths, compared with 262.7 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 1.66). Overall, 56 deaths from bladder cancer were observed, compared with 3.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 16.5, 95% confidence interval = 12.4 to 21.4). The standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure and increasing duration of exposure. Although the standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer steadily decreased with time since exposure stopped, the absolute risk remained approximately constant at 3.5 deaths per 1000 man-years up to 29 years after exposure stopped. Excess risk was apparent 30 years or more after last exposure.

  1. Prediction of mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of asbestos exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Pizzo, Anna Maria; Gorini, Giuseppe; Seniori Costantini, Adele; Silvestri, Stefano; Ciapini, Cesare; Innocenti, Andrea; Berry, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Several papers have reported state-wide projections of mesothelioma deaths, but few have computed these predictions in selected exposed groups. To predict the future deaths attributable to asbestos in a cohort of railway rolling stock workers. The future mortality of the 1,146 living workers has been computed in term of individual probability of dying for three different risks: baseline mortality, lung cancer excess, mesothelioma mortality. Lung cancer mortality attributable to asbestos was calculated assuming the excess risk as stable or with a decrease after a period of time since first exposure. Mesothelioma mortality was based on cumulative exposure and time since first exposure, with the inclusion of a term for clearance of asbestos fibres from the lung. The most likely range of the number of deaths attributable to asbestos in the period 2005-2050 was 15-30 for excess of lung cancer, and 23-35 for mesothelioma. This study provides predictions of asbestos-related mortality even in a selected cohort of exposed subjects, using previous knowledge about exposure-response relationship. The inclusion of individual information in the projection model helps reduce misclassification and improves the results. The method could be extended in other selected cohorts.

  2. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  3. Mortality rates among workers exposed to dioxins in the manufacture of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Collins, James J; Bodner, Kenneth; Aylward, Lesa L; Wilken, Michael; Swaen, Gerard; Budinsky, Robert; Rowlands, Craig; Bodnar, Catherine M

    2009-10-01

    We sought to determine if workers exposed to dioxins in pentachlorophenol (PCP) manufacturing were at increased risk of death from specific causes. We examined death rates among 773 workers exposed to chlorinated dioxins during PCP manufacturing from 1937 to 1980 using serum dioxin evaluations to estimate exposures to five dioxins. Deaths from all causes combined, all cancers combined, lung cancer, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease were near expected levels. There were eight deaths from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (standardized mortality ratios = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.0 to 4.8). We observed no trend of increasing risk for any cause of death with increasing dioxin exposure. However, the highest rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were found in the highest exposure group (standardized mortality ratios = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.2 to 11.5). Other than possibly an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, we find no other cause of death related to the mixture of the dioxin contaminants found in PCP.

  4. [The health condition of forest workers exposed to noise and vibration produced by chain saws].

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Socholik, Violetta; Harazin, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Lumberjacks' working conditions are difficult due to the presence of numerous occupational hazards. Physical factors that pose a health risk are noise and vibration produced by chain saws. Excessive exposure of lumberjacks to noise and vibration can lead to the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome and hearing loss. The aim of the work was to analyze the health condition of forestry workers exposed to occupational physical hazards. A preliminary, questionnaire-based assessment of health status was conducted in 22 chain saw operators. In a group of 15 forestry workers audiometry, vibrotactile perception thresholds and cold provocation test were performed. X-ray diagnostic imaging of upper limbs was also done. At the same time noise and vibration produced by chain saws used in forestry was measured. Vascular or neurological disorders were found in nearly half of tested workers with seniority from 2 to 20 years; 40% of the surveyed was diagnosed with hearing impairment. An 8-hour energy equivalent vibration level measured on chain saws was 4.6 m/s2. An 8-hour equivalent sound pressure level was 99.1 dB(A). The threshold limit values for noise and vibration are exceeded at woodcutters' posts. There are changes in lumberjacks' health resulting from exposure to harmful physical agents. Preventive actions are urgently needed to be addressed, especially to people employed in single-handed forestry companies.

  5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mortality in Diesel-Exposed Railroad Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Schenker, Marc B.; Garshick, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is a mixture of combustion gases and ultrafine particles coated with organic compounds. There is concern whether exposure can result in or worsen obstructive airway diseases, but there is only limited information to assess this risk. U.S. railroad workers have been exposed to diesel exhaust since diesel locomotives were introduced after World War II, and by 1959, 95% of the locomotives were diesel. We conducted a case–control study of railroad worker deaths between 1981 and 1982 using U.S. Railroad Retirement Board job records and next-of-kin smoking, residential, and vitamin use histories. There were 536 cases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 1,525 controls with causes of death not related to diesel exhaust or fine particle exposure. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, U.S. Census region of death, vitamin use, and total years off work, engineers and conductors with diesel-exhaust exposure from operating trains had an increased risk of COPD mortality. The odds of COPD mortality increased with years of work in these jobs, and those who had worked ≥ 16 years as an engineer or conductor after 1959 had an odds ratio of 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.12–2.30). These results suggest that diesel-exhaust exposure contributed to COPD mortality in these workers. Further study is needed to assess whether this risk is observed after exposure to exhaust from later-generation diesel engines with modern emission controls. PMID:16835052

  6. Modulatory role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in Punjabi agricultural workers exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Meenakshi; Kaur, Anupam

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are important detoxification enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous as well as exogenous compounds. Individuals differ in metabolic capacity due to inherited genetic variations. Due to the polymorphism exhibited by GSTT1 and GSTM1 that results in the complete loss of function, the present study was aimed towards the determination of the frequency distribution of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in agricultural workers in Punjab, India. The study aimed to investigate their contribution in susceptibility to increased disease risk. A total of 513 subjects were included in this study, out of which 250 were agriculture workers and 263 were non-exposed occupationally. GSTT1 and GSTM1 null-genotype distribution was analyzed through multiplex-PCR method. Complete gene deletion in either of the genes was strongly associated with an increased risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0008) of DNA/cytogenetic damage, cancer, infertility, and many other serious health effects. Therefore, homozygous deletion in GSTT1 or GSTM1 could play a modulatory role in health of workers with long-term exposure to pesticides.

  7. Radiographic abnormalities and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to silica dust in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether workers in Ontario who had been exposed to silica dust and who have radiographic abnormalities are at increased risk of lung cancer. DESIGN: Cohort and case-control studies of rates of death from lung cancer and cancer incidence rates; data were obtained from the Ontario Silicosis Surveillance Registry. Follow-up was through linkage to the Ontario mortality and cancer registries. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 523 workers with radiographic abnormalities and 1568 control subjects with normal radiographic findings who had been exposed to silica dust. Matching criteria were year of birth and the requirement that the control subject have a normal radiographic finding either later than or in the same year that the radiographic abnormality was identified in the silicosis subject. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and odds ratios for lung cancer. RESULTS: In the cohort analysis, with the Ontario population rates as reference, the all-cause SMR was 0.96 among the workers with radiographic abnormalities and 0.51 among the control subjects. The corresponding SIRs for lung cancer were 2.49 and 0.87 (p < 0.001). In the case-control analysis the workers with silicosis were more likely than the control subjects to have been smokers, but this difference likely accounted for only a small part of the difference in the incidence of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer was elevated among the workers with silicosis from the foundry, mining and nonmetallic-minerals industries; however, the number of subjects was too small for a significant difference to be detected. Among the miners exposure to radon daughters did not affect the risk of lung cancer attributable to radiographic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographic abnormalities suggestive of exposure to silica dust are markers for increased risk of lung cancer. Physicians might thus wish to warn their patients with silica

  8. Respiratory health of workers exposed to metal dusts and foundry fumes in a copper refinery.

    PubMed Central

    Ostiguy, G; Vaillancourt, C; Bégin, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess airflow limitation in workers exposed long term to metal dust, the prevalence of pleural plaques in those workers exposed in the past to asbestos, the influence of pleural plaques on lung function, and the possible association with airway disease caused by asbestos. METHODS--A cross sectional and longitudinal (seven year) survey of 494 long term (mean (SEM) 21(1) years) workers in a copper refinery was carried out from medical questionnaires, chest radiographs, and forced spirometry. RESULTS--The prevalence of lifetime non-smokers was 19%, current smokers 39%, and ex-smokers 42%. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 80% predicted) was 5%, small airway dysfunction (SAD) (maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) < 60% predicted) was 7%, and this did not differ from the control population. The COPD and SAD were associated with cumulative smoking index but not with the cumulative work years at the plant or with any type of work at the plant. The mean (SEM) reduction of FEV1 was 20(7) ml in non-smokers, 26(4) ml in smokers, and 26(5) ml in ex-smokers (P > 0.05). In the smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, the loss of FEV1 was 53(10) (P < 0.02). The prevalence of pleural plaques was 11% (P < 0.0001); pleural plaques were found in older workers with known exposure to asbestos. The pleural plaques were circumscribed and associated with a non-significant 196 ml reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and non-significant reduction of FVC over time. The pleural plaques were not associated with COPD or SAD. The cumulative smoking index obtained by a technician did not differ from that by a chest physician. CONCLUSIONS--Despite exposures to asbestos that produced pleural plaques and exposures to metal dusts and foundry fumes the long term workers of this plant did not have excessive prevalence of COPD or SAD. The data suggest that low level long term exposure to metal dusts, gases, and

  9. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the urine of mining workers occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Albrecht; Dahmann, Dirk; Krekeler, Horst; Jacob, Juergen

    2002-02-01

    Diesel exhaust is considered a probable human carcinogen by the IARC. Biomonitoring of workers occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust was performed to determine their internal burden of diesel associated aromatic compounds. Personal air sampling also allowed to determine the exposure of the miners at their work place towards several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-arenes, the latter of which are thought to be specific constituents of diesel exhaust. For biomonitoring the urine of 18 underground salt miners was collected during and after their shift for 24-hours. half of the 18 miners were smokers. The urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxylated phenanthrene metabolites were determined as biomarkers of PAH exposure, whereas urinary levels of some aromatic amines were chosen to monitor exposure towards specific nitro-arenes from diesel exhaust like 1-nitropyrene and 3-nitrobenzanthrone and to monitor the human burden by these compounds from inhaled cigarette smoke. Non-smoking workers exposed to diesel exhaust excrete an average level of about 4 micrograms phenanthrene metabolites, whereas the urinary levels in smokers were up to 3-fold higher. In summary the results indicate that (i) diesel exposure led to an increase of PAH metabolism in the workers examined, most probably by an induction of cytochrome P450 (ii) smokers could be identified in accordance with earlier studies by their increased ratio of phenanthrene metabolites derived from 1,2- and 3,4-oxidation and their higher amounts of excreted 1-naphthylamine, and (iii) the excreted amounts of aromatic amines found as metabolites of the nitro-arenes were about 5- to 10-fold higher as one might expect from the levels determined by personal air sampling at the workplace of the individuals.

  10. Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Babu, Kalahasthi Ravi; Rajmohan, Hirehal Raghavendra Rao; Rajan, Bagalur Krishna Murthy; Kumar, Karuna M

    2006-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a corrosion-resistant metal, used extensively for electroplating in the automobile, electronic and aerospace industry. Only a few studies are available regarding Cd-induced oxidative stress in animals, but no reports are available regarding the effects of Cd on oxidative stress during occupational exposure. The present study was carried out to determine the plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to Cd during electroplating. 50 subjects exposed to Cd during electroplating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects, working in the administrative section, formed the control group. Urinary Cd levels were determined using the flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were determined using spectrophotometric methods. A significant increase of plasma lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were noted in the study group compared with the control group. The level of plasma lipid peroxidation was positively and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were negatively and significantly associated with Cd levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis assessed the oxidative stress associated with Cd and other lifestyle confounding factors, such as age, body mass index, the consumption of vegetables, coffee, tea, smoking and alcohol. Analysis showed that the lifestyle confounding factors viz; smoking, body mass index and urinary Cd levels > 5 microg/g of creatinine, were significantly associated with oxidative stress. The results of the present study suggest that increased plasma lipid peroxidation and decreased superoxide dismutase levels could be used as biomarkers of oxidative stress in cadmium-exposed workers.

  11. Visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries

    PubMed Central

    Indhushree, R.; Monica, R.; Coral, K.; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy; Punitham, R.; Subburathinam, B. M.; Krishnakumar, R.; Santanam, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries. Materials and Methods: Thirty workers from the petroleum refinery and 30 age-matched controls (mean age) were recruited. Visual functions and occupational exposure levels were assessed among both the groups. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual fields were evaluated at the workplace. The biological samples, namely blood and urine, were collected at the workplace and transported to the laboratory for analysis. The urinary excretion of hippuric and methylhippuric acid as well as creatinine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean age of the workers and controls were 39.7 ± 7.6 years and 38.6 ± 8.1, years respectively. The mean years of experience of the workers were 15.6 ± 6.8 years. Visual acuity was >0.01 LogMAR among both the control and case groups. The contrast sensitivity was reduced at 12cpd among workers. Comparison between groups was done using independent sample t-test. The mean difference in color confusion index was 0.11 ± 0.05 (P = 0.037*). The mean difference in visual fields was −0.31 ± 0.36 dB (P = 0.933). The mean difference in urinary hippuric acid level (urinary metabolite of toluene) between the groups was 0.19 ± 0.96 g/g creatinine (P = 0.049FNx01). The mean difference in the excretion of methylhippuric acid (urinary metabolite of xylene) was 0.06 ± 0.04g/g creatinine (P = 0.154). We also found that exposure was a significant risk factor for color vision defect with an odds ratio of 4.43 (95% CI: 1.36–14.4); P = 0.013. Conclusion: The study results showed that contrast sensitivity and color vision were affected among workers in petrochemical industry. PMID:28446838

  12. Fertility and semen quality of workers exposed to high temperatures in the ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Figà-Talamanca, I; Dell'Orco, V; Pupi, A; Dondero, F; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Lombardo, F; Scavalli, P; Mancini, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic occupational exposure to high temperatures may be detrimental to male reproduction. The study was based on 92 healthy ceramics oven operators with a long exposure to high temperatures, and 87 controls, recruited from the shipment department of the same industry. Interviews with all subjects provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and fertility problems. Semen analysis was carried out on 46 of the workers exposed to high temperatures, and 14 of the controls, and included evaluation of the sperm concentration, morphology, and motility, including computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (velocity, linearity, ALH, BCF). The results of the questionnaire showed that exposed individuals had a higher incidence of childlessness and of self-reported difficulty in conceiving than controls. The semen analysis showed no significant differences except in sperm velocity. Although differences in semen parameters, taken singly, were not statistically significant, the overall evaluation of the sperm parameters indicated a higher prevalence of pathologic sperm profiles among the exposed compared to the controls.

  13. Mortality in a cohort of asbestos-exposed workers undergoing health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Fabiano; Zanin, Tina; Pisa, Federica Edith; Casetta, Anica; Rosolen, Valentina; Giangreco, Manuela; Negro, Corrado; Bovenzi, Massimo; Barbone, Fabio

    2018-02-06

    The coastal area of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region, north-eastern Italy, was characterized by work activities in which asbestos was used until the early 1990s, particularly in shipbuilding. A public health surveillance program (PHSP) for asbestos-exposed workers was established, although limited evidence exists about the efficacy of such programs in reducing disease occurrence and mortality. To compare mortality in a cohort of 2,488 men occupationally exposed to asbestos, enrolled in a PHSP in FVG between the early 1990s and 2008, with that of the general population of FVG and Italy. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR), with 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), for all causes, all cancers, lung (LC) and pleural cancer (PC) were estimated in the cohort and in subgroups of workers with the first hire in shipbuilding that caused asbestos exposure (<1974, 1974-1984, 1985-1994). A strong excess in mortality for PC with reference to FVG (SMR=6.87, 95% CI 4.45-10.17) and Italian population (SMR=13.95, 95% CI 9.02-20.64) was observed. For LC, the FVG-based SMR was 1.49 (95% CI 1.17-1.89) and the Italy-based 1.43 (95% CI 1.12-1.81). Mortality among workers with the first hire in shipbuilding before 1974 was high for PC (FVG-based SMR=8.98, 95% CI 5.56-13.75; Italy-based SMR=18.41, 95% CI 11.40-28.17) and for LC (FVG-based SMR =1.60, 95% CI 1.18-2.11; Italy-based SMR=1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.03). Further, for LC between 1974 and 1984, the FVG-based SMR was 2.45 (95% CI 1.06-4.82), and the Italy-based SMR was 2.33 (95% CI 1.01-4.60). This cohort experienced an excess mortality for pleural and lung cancer, compared with regional and national populations. For lung cancer, the excess was stronger in workers with the first hire in shipbuilding before 1985, suggesting a key role of asbestos exposure.

  14. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by chromium in workers exposed from different occupational settings around the globe: A review.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Pei, De-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    The present review focused on the levels and toxicological status of heavy metals especially chromium (Cr) in the exposed workers from different occupational settings around the globe and in Pakistan. It was found that exposed workers from leather tanning and metal plating units showed elevated levels of Cr than the workers from other occupational settings. Cr and other heavy metals level in biological matrices of the exposed workers in different occupational settings revealed that developing countries are severely contaminated. Occupational settings from the Sialkot district, Pakistan exhibited elevated level of Cr in biological entities of the exposed workers. Review suggested that higher level of Cr exposure to the workers enhance the oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl (OH) radical generation) which may cause; cellular and molecular damage such as genotoxicity and chromosomal aberration formations, and carcinogenic effects. This review will help to understand the Cr contamination mechanisms and associated health implications in different occupational settings around the globe in general and particularly to Pakistan. This study will also assist occupational health and safety management authorities to devise or change the Cr recommended exposure limits (REL) for different occupational settings.

  15. Relationship between arsenic and selenium in workers occupationally exposed to inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Janasik, Beata; Zawisza, Anna; Malachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Kuras, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) has been one of the most extensively studied. The antagonism between As and Se suggests that low Se status plays an important role in aggravating arsenic toxicity in diseases development. The objective of this study was to assess the Se contents in biological samples of inorganic As exposed workers (n=61) and in non-exposed subjects (n=52). Median (Me) total arsenic concentration in urine of exposed workers was 21.83μg/g creat. (interquartile range (IQR) 15.49-39.77) and was significantly higher than in the control group - (Me 3.75μg/g creat. (IQR 2.52-9.26), p<0.0001). The median serum Se concentrations in the study group and the control were: 54.20μg/l (IQR 44.2-73.10μg/l) and 55.45μg/l (IQR 38.5-69.60μg/l) respectively and did not differ significantly between the groups. In the exposed group we observed significantly higher urine concentrations of selenosugar 1 (SeSug 1) and selenosugar 3 (SeSug3) than in the control group Me: 1.68μg/g creat. (IQR 1.25-2.97 vs Me: 1.07μg/g creat. (IQR 0.86-1.29μg/g), p<0.0001 for SeSug1; Me: 0.45μg/g creat. (IQR 0.26-0.69) vs Me: 0.28μg/g creat. (IQR 0.17-0.45μg/g), p=0.0021). In the multivariate model, after adjusting to cofounders (age, BMI, job seniority time, consumption of fish and seafood and smoking habits) the high rate of arsenic urine wash out (measured as a sum of iAs+MMA+DMA) was significantly associated with the high total selenium urine excretion (B=0.14 (95%CI (confidence interval) 0.05-0.23)). Combination of both arsenic and selenium status to assess the risk of arsenic-induced diseases requires more studies with regard to both the analysis of speciation, genetics and the influence of factors such as nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  17. Cohort mortality study of garment industry workers exposed to formaldehyde: update and internal comparisons.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Alysha R; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Hein, Misty J

    2013-09-01

    To further evaluate the association between formaldehyde and leukemia, we extended follow-up through 2008 for a cohort mortality study of 11,043 US formaldehyde-exposed garment workers. We computed standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios stratified by year of first exposure, exposure duration, and time since first exposure. Associations between exposure duration and rates of leukemia and myeloid leukemia were further examined using Poisson regression models. Compared to the US population, myeloid leukemia mortality was elevated but overall leukemia mortality was not. In internal analyses, overall leukemia mortality increased with increasing exposure duration and this trend was statistically significant. We continue to see limited evidence of an association between formaldehyde and leukemia. However, the extended follow-up did not strengthen previously observed associations. In addition to continued epidemiologic research, we recommend further research to evaluate the biological plausibility of a causal relation between formaldehyde and leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Male hormonal profile in workers exposed to toluene in an industrial packaging plant].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Figueroa, Genezareth; Paz-Román, María del Pilar; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes; Haro-García, Luis

    2013-01-01

    to identify changes in the male hormonal profile (MHP), consisting of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, in workers exposed to toluene. cross-sectional study that included 42 workers, formed in two groups: with high and low exposure to toluene (HET and LET, respectively); the hippuric acid in urine, and the serum concentration in FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured. hippuric acid in subjects with LET was 2.53 ± 1.20 g/g creatinine, and with HET: 6.31 ± 3.83 g/g creatinine (p = 0.02). Seric FSH concentration was 5.12 ± 0.77 and 3.55 ± 0.3 mU/mL (p = 0.02) in LET and HET, respectively; LH: 2.66 ± 0.45 and 2.77 ± 0.21 (p = 0.81), and testosterone 3.91 ± 0.34 and 4.86 ± 0.23 ng/mL (p = 0.04). By regression analysis, the correlation coefficient of FSH with hippuric acid was r = -0.33 (p = 0.031), with coefficient of determination of 11 %; the LH correlation coefficient was r = -0.037 (p = 0.88) and 0.05 %, respectively; and the one for testosterone was r = 0.61 (p = 0.0001) and 34 %. in HET group, FSH and LH serum levels diminished; testosterone shows an opposite response, perhaps explained by a different sensitivity of the male gonads exposed to toluene.

  19. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pesatori, Angela-C; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyńska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Bertazzi, Pier-Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) is predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens that cause chromosome instability. Whether PAH exposure and its molecular effects are linked with shorter TL has never been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on TL measured in PBLs of Polish male non-current smoking cokeoven workers and matched controls. PAH exposure and molecular effects were characterized using measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), effective dose [anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)-DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei, MN) and DNA methylation [p53 promoter and Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, as surrogate measures of global methylation] in PBLs. TL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cokeoven workers were heavily exposed to PAHs (79% exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index) and exhibited lower TL (P = 0.038) than controls, as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal alterations [i.e. anti-BPDE-DNA adduct and MN (P < 0.0001)] and epigenetic changes [i.e. p53 gene-specific promoter and global methylation (P worker (P = 0.039) and in all subjects with higher levels of anti-BPDE-DNA adduct (P = 0.042), p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.005) and MN (P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, years of work in cokery (P = 0.008) and p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.001) were the principal determinants of shorter TL. Our results indicate that shorter TL is associated with chronic PAH exposure. The interrelations with other genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in our data suggest that shorter TL could be a central event in PAH carcinogenesis.

  20. [The register of exposed workers to carcinogens: legislative framework and data analysis].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, A; Di Marzio, D; Marinaccio, A; Iavicoli, S

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the law which introduced the registration of occupational exposures to carcinogens (Legislative Decree 626/94), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention designed and implemented an information system for collecting and recording such information. The Ministry of Health Decree No 155/2007, which established the procedures for record keeping and transmission of registers of exposed workers, regulated the legislative fJamework in this field. The aim of the study was to illustrate some of the major legislative issues and toprovide summary statistics, after one year of entry into force of this Decree. The main information to record is: the carcinogenic agents used, the type of occupational exposure and data on the environmental measurements. Descriptive statistical analysis were carried out, by sector of economic activity, carcinogen agent and worker's occupation. As at 31 December 2008 the information recorded, altogether, covered: 6000 firms, 79,000 workers, 164,000 exposures and 100,000 measurements. Most of the exposures occurred in the manufacturing and construction industries and in commercial activities. Such surveillance system, established as a result of the institution of exposure registers, makes it possible to plan analytical studies, both for monitoring the effects of exposure, even at low doses, and for assessing the prevention and protection measures. It is hoped that the recent readjustment law (Legislative Decree 81/2008) will promote awareness of all subjects involved in the recording procedures (employers, physicians, local health units, research institutes, etc.), thus increasing the quality and coverage of data transmission.

  1. Investigation of PAH Biomarkers in the Urine of Workers Exposed to Hot Asphalt

    PubMed Central

    Sobus, Jon R.; Mcclean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Onyemauwa, Frank; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Airborne emissions from hot asphalt contain mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including several carcinogens. We investigated urinary biomarkers of three PAHs, namely naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe), and pyrene (Pyr) in 20 road-paving workers exposed to hot asphalt and in 6 road milling workers who were not using hot asphalt (reference group). Our analysis included baseline urine samples as well as postshift, bedtime, and morning samples collected over three consecutive days. We measured unmetabolized Nap (U-Nap) and Phe (U-Phe) as well as the monohydroxylated metabolites of Nap (OH-Nap), Phe (OH-Phe), and Pyr (OH-Pyr) in each urine sample. In baseline samples, no significant differences in biomarker levels were observed between pavers and millers, suggesting similar background exposures. In postshift, bedtime, and morning urine samples, the high pairwise correlations observed between levels of all biomarkers suggest common exposure sources. Among pavers, levels of all biomarkers were significantly elevated in postshift samples, indicating rapid uptake and elimination of PAHs following exposure to hot asphalt (biomarker levels were not elevated among millers). Results from linear mixed-effects models of levels of U-Nap, U-Phe, OH-Phe, and OH-Pyr across pavers showed significant effects of work assignments with roller operators having lower biomarker levels than the other workers. However, no work-related effect was observed for levels of OH-Nap, apparently due to the influence of cigarette smoking. Biological half-lives, estimated from regression coefficients for time among pavers, were 8 h for U-Phe, 10 h for U-Nap, 13 h for OH-Phe and OH-Pyr, and 26 h for OH-Nap. These results support the use of U-Nap, U-Phe, OH-Phe, and OH-Pyr, but probably not OH-Nap, as short-term biomarkers of exposure to PAHs emanating from hot asphalt. PMID:19602500

  2. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Smit, Lidwien A M; Samadi, Sadegh; Omland, Oyvind; Hjort, Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette; Skov, Simon; Wouters, Inge M

    2012-02-01

    To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach. Data were pooled from four epidemiological studies including 3883 Dutch and Danish employees in veterinary medicine, agriculture and power plants using biofuel. Endotoxin exposure was estimated by quantitative job-exposure matrices specific for the study populations. Dose-response relationships between exposure, IgE-mediated sensitisation to common allergens and self-reported health symptoms were assessed using logistic regression and generalised additive modelling. Adjustments were made for study, age, sex, atopic predisposition, smoking habit and farm childhood. Heterogeneity was assessed by analysis stratified by study. Current endotoxin exposure was dose-dependently associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic sensitisation (ORs of 0.92, 0.81 and 0.66 for low mediate, high mediate and high exposure) and hay fever (ORs of 1.16, 0.81 and 0.58). Endotoxin exposure was a risk factor for organic dust toxic syndrome, and levels above 100 EU/m(3) significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis (p<0.0001). Stratification by farm childhood showed no effect modification except for allergic sensitisation. Only among workers without a farm childhood, endotoxin exposure was inversely associated with allergic sensitisation. Heterogeneity was primarily present for biofuel workers. Occupational endotoxin exposure has a protective effect on allergic sensitisation and hay fever but increases the risk for organic dust toxic syndrome and chronic bronchitis. Endotoxin's protective effects are most clearly observed among agricultural workers.

  3. A cohort mortality study of lead-exposed workers in the USA, Finland and the UK.

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Barry, Vaughn; Anttila, Ahti; Sallmén, Markku; McElvenny, Damien; Todd, A C; Straif, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    To investigate further whether inorganic lead is a carcinogen among adults, or associated with increased blood pressure and kidney damage, via a large mortality study. We conducted internal analyses via Cox regression of mortality in three cohorts of lead-exposed workers with blood lead (BL) data (USA, Finland, UK), including over 88 000 workers and over 14 000 deaths. Our exposure metric was maximum BL. We also conducted external analyses using country-specific background rates. The combined cohort had a median BL of 26 µg/dL, a mean first-year BL test of 1990 and was 96% male. Fifty per cent had more than one BL test (mean 7). Significant (p<0.05) positive trends, using the log of each worker's maximum BL, were found for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), stroke and heart disease, while borderline significant trends (0.05≤p≤0.10) were found for bladder cancer, brain cancer and larynx cancer. Most results were consistent across all three cohorts. In external comparisons, we found significantly elevated SMRs for those with BLs>40 µg/dL; for bladder, lung and larynx cancer; and for COPD. In a small subsample of the US cohort (n=115) who were interviewed, we found no association between smoking and BL. We found strong positive mortality trends, with increasing BL level, for several outcomes in internal analysis. Many of these outcomes are associated with smoking, for which we had no data. A borderline trend was found for brain cancer, not associated with smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The metabolism of carbohydrates and lipid peroxidation in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michal; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood concentration of glucose and several enzymes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To estimate the degree of lipid peroxidation, the concentrations of conjugated dienes were determined. The examined group included 145 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. Taking into account the mean blood lead levels, the examined group was divided into two subgroups. The control group was composed of 36 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure were significantly elevated in both subgroups when compared with the controls. There were no significant changes in fasting glucose concentration and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity in the study population. The concentration of conjugated dienes was significantly higher in both subgroups, whereas the activity of malate dehydrogenase was significantly higher only in the group with higher exposure. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly decreased in the examined subgroups. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly in the group with higher exposure and could be the cause of the elevated concentrations of conjugated dienes. It is possible to conclude that lead interferes with carbohydrate metabolism, but compensatory mechanisms seem to be efficient, as glucose homeostasis in lead-exposed workers was not disturbed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Health surveillance for former asbestos exposed worker: a specific programme developed in an Italian region

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, Francesca; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Sartorelli, Pietro; Calà, Piergiuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases usually have a long latency since first exposure and this legitimates a health surveillance programme addressed to asbestos workers after the cessation of their occupational exposure. After a brief history of health surveillance initiatives performed in Italy as well as in other countries, we describe a regional programme for former asbestos-exposed workers, focusing on organizational features. A regional group of experts defined its operational and economical aspects. The Regional Council supported the whole programme, making it free of charge for all subjects who fulfil the predefined enrolment criteria (being resident in the region, being younger than 80 years old with cessation of occupational asbestos exposure within the last 30 years). The programme activities are classified in two levels: a first level for a basic health evaluation and a second level for in-depth analyses. In order to guarantee an homogeneous delivery in the whole region, the programme has to be performed by public health services with a quality control of activities. The involvement of specific public health services and the cooperation of social stakeholders are expected to play a major role in overcoming still open critical issues, such as the lack of programme existence awareness and adhesion, the correct stratification of subjects for the follow-up, and the real homogeneous delivery of the health surveillance in whole region. PMID:29507808

  6. Ischemic cardiovascular disease in workers occupationally exposed to urban air pollution - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Paola; Verso, Maria Gabriella; Tramuto, Fabio; Amodio, Emanuele; Picciotto, Diego

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among several known risk factors, researchers also focus their attention on the chronic exposure to air pollution. There is much evidence that exposure to air pollution, especially to ultrafine particles, can damage the endothelium and can favour cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Occupational exposition could be an additive risk factor for the cardiovascular system. This article presents a scientific review of the linkage between occupational exposure to air pollution and ischemic heart disease. A scientific review was undertaken, followed by PRISMA Statements. Observational studies were selected from several scientific databases, likesuch as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Nioshtic-2 and Reserchgate, searching for selected key words: police workers, professional drivers, mail carriers, filling station attendants, road cleaners, garage workers, motor vehicles and engine maintenance. All the key words were combined with "Boolean Operators" with the following words: cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease, cardiovascular function, cardiovascular system, ischemic heart disease, coronary disease, myocardial infarction. During the systematic research, the focus was on retrospective and prospective studies from January 1990 - December 2014. Both the retrospective and prospective studies showed an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in occupationally occupied people exposed to air pollution. Only one study presented a ly minor risk. The findings of this systematic review suggest a possible linkage between occupational exposure to urban air pollution, especially to motor exhaust and particulate, and ischemic heart disease.

  7. Quantitatively measured tremor in hand-arm vibration-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Maria; Burström, Lage; Hagberg, Mats; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr; Sandén, Helena; Wastensson, Gunilla

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible increase in hand tremor in relation to hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure in a cohort of exposed and unexposed workers. Participants were 178 male workers with or without exposure to HAV. The study is cross-sectional regarding the outcome of tremor and has a longitudinal design with respect to exposure. The dose of HAV exposure was collected via questionnaires and measurements at several follow-ups. The CATSYS Tremor Pen(®) was used for measuring postural tremor. Multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze associations between different tremor variables and HAV exposure, along with predictor variables with biological relevance. There were no statistically significant associations between the different tremor variables and cumulative HAV or current exposure. Age was a statistically significant predictor of variation in tremor outcomes for three of the four tremor variables, whereas nicotine use was a statistically significant predictor of either left or right hand or both hands for all four tremor variables. In the present study, there was no evidence of an exposure-response association between HAV exposure and measured postural tremor. Increase in age and nicotine use appeared to be the strongest predictors of tremor.

  8. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P < 0.05). Among all study subjects, increasing levels of all 4 urinary OH-PAHs, on both quartile and continuous scales, were associated with increased MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies (all P < 0.05). When the associations were analyzed separately in DEE-exposed and non-DEE-exposed workers, we found that the association between increasing quartiles of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPh) and MN frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt valuemore » in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed

  10. Dose-dependent increase in subjective symptoms among toluene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ukai, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo

    1993-02-01

    A factory survey on dose-response relationship in toluene toxicity was conducted in 1985-1989 in four cities in China. The examination items consisted of personal diffusive sampling for TWA exposure measurement, questionnaires on subjective symptoms, hematology and serum biochemistry, and clinical examination including simple neurology tests. Hippuric acid was also determined in urine samples collected at the end of the shift. With selection criteria that (1) complete results were available on all study items and (2) valid toluene exposure data (i.e., toluene shared 90% or more of the exposure) were obtained for the exposed, 452 toluene-exposed workers (206 men and 246more » women; toluene exposure at 24.7 ppm as GM) and 517 nonexposed controls (246 men and 271 women) were selected. The subjective symptoms increased in close association with the intensity of exposure to toluene; the threshold concentration appeared to exist at 100 ppm in the case of symptoms during work, and it might be at 50-100 ppm when symptoms off work were evaluated. During the work with exposure at higher concentrations, various symptoms possibly related to CNS or local effects (e.g., eyes, nose, and throat) were complained, and dizziness and floating sensations were identified as typical symptoms with significant dose-response relationship. Several symptoms persisted off work, most of which were apparently related but not necessarily limited to CNS effects. Hematology and serum biochemistry were essentially negative. 46 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  11. Haemolytic episode in G6 PD deficient workers exposed to TNT.

    PubMed Central

    Djerassi, L S; Vitany, L

    1975-01-01

    This is a report on three cases of acute haemolytic disease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient workers exposed to trinitroluene (TNT). The courses of the haemolytic crises have several features in common, the most striking being the onset of the disease within two to four days after the start of exposure, and the fact that this has been the first and so far the only haemolytic episode in their lives in spite of detailed medical records of past diseases, injuries, and medications during 12 to 16 years preceding the haemolytic crisis and five to nine years following the disease. The lowest haemoglobin levels for the three patients were 4-0, 6-8, and 8-2 g/dl respectively; haematocrit values were 17 and 24%; reticulocytes rose in case 1 to 26-2%, in case 2 to 26%, and in case 3 to 10%. Indirect bilirubinaemia was increased in two patients (5-1 and 2-6 mg/100 ml) and stercobilinogen was as high as 2150 mg/24 hr in one patient. The presence of the metabolite monoamino 2-6 dinitrotoluene was proved in the urine of case 3 and reached 21 gamma%. The possibility of a dose-response relationship is briefly discussed and the risk of exposing G6 PD individuals in chemical processes is mentioned. PMID:1125128

  12. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: cellison@buffalo.edu; Crane, Alice L., E-mail: alcrane@buffalo.edu; Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: mrbonner@buffalo.edu

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase)more » and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.« less

  13. Chromium in urine, serum and red blood cells in the biological monitoring of workers exposed to different chromium valency states.

    PubMed

    Minoia, C; Cavalleri, A

    1988-06-01

    Using personal air sampling exposure to hexavalent and trivalent chromium was measured in 22 workers mainly exposed to Cr(VI) and in 15 workers mainly exposed to Cr(III) as basic chromium sulphate. Determination of Cr(VI) in the urine of all the subjects using a selective technique by ETA-AAS and liquid anion exchangers failed to show detectable amounts of the hexavalent form, the detection limit of the technique being 0.05 micrograms/L. A clear relationship between exposure and postshift urinary total chromium was found in subjects exposed to Cr(VI), while urinary levels in workers exposed to chromic sulphate high concentration proved lower. Determination of total chromium in serum and red blood cells showed a significant increase of chromium levels in erythrocytes of workers exposed to Cr(VI) while in subjects mainly exposed to Cr(III) an increase of the serum fraction was observed. The results demonstrate that Cr(III) is absorbed through the respiratory tract, but its kinetics and distribution in the body are not the same as for Cr(VI), and are not adequately monitored by short-term urinary determinations. Oxidation states of chromium largely influence uptake, mechanism of absorption, transport and organ distribution as well as toxicity of chromium-containing compounds. In particular, hexavalent derivatives are known to induce adverse effects, both acute and chronic, in occupationally exposed subjects, while there is little conclusive evidence for toxic effects caused by trivalent chromium compounds. Biological monitoring of exposure to chromium(VI) has usually been performed by determining total chromium levels in urine, whereas biological monitoring data in subjects occupationally exposed to Cr(III) are still scanty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Mutagenic activity and metabolites in the urine of workers exposed to trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    PubMed Central

    Ahlborg, G; Einistö, P; Sorsa, M

    1988-01-01

    Urine samples taken after work and after a free weekend from 50 workers employed in various activities in a chemical plant manufacturing explosives were analysed. On the basis of hygienic surveys, the subjects were divided into three categories of exposure to trinitrotoluene (TNT). The urine analyses consisted of gas chromatographic identification of TNT and its two metabolites, 4-ADNT and 2-ADNT, and a determination of the mutagenic activity. Two frame shift detector strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used, TA 98 and TA 98 NR, the latter being deficient in endogenous nitroreductase activity. On the basis of previous results on TNT mutagenicity, no exogeneous metabolic system was used to test the urine concentrates. Both tester strains showed that the mean urinary mutagenic activity was higher in the after work samples than in post weekend samples from the same subjects, showing that bacterial nitroreductase activity was not significantly responsible for the mutagenicity, although the response was higher with strain TA 98 than with TA 98 NR. The interindividual variation in urine mutagenicity was high, however, and the difference between the two sampling times was statistically significant (p less than 0.05) only for the high exposed group (workers in trotyl foundry and sieve house). Correlation between urinary mutagenicity and concentration of TNT in urine was poor; correlation was significant only with the urinary concentration of 4-ADNT. The correlation between urinary TNT and both metabolites was good (p less than 0.001). These results suggest that analysis of 4-ADNT in urine would be a sufficient biological measure for controlling exposure to TNT. PMID:3378017

  15. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  16. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and lung cancer among Chinese workers exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Cocco, P; Rice, C H; Chen, J Q; McCawley, M; McLaughlin, J K; Dosemeci, M

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether a medical history for non-malignant respiratory disease contributes to an increased lung cancer risk among workers exposed to silica. We analyzed data from a nested case-control study in 29 dusty workplaces in China. The study population consisted of 316 lung cancer cases and 1356 controls matched to cases by facility type and decade of birth who were alive at the time of diagnosis of the index case and who were identified in a follow-up study of about 68,000 workers. Age at first exposure and cigarette smoking were accounted for in the analysis. Smoking was the main risk factor for both lung cancer and chronic bronchitis. Lung cancer risk showed a modest association with silicosis and with cumulative silica exposure, which did not vary by history of previous pulmonary tuberculosis. Among subjects without a medical history for chronic bronchitis or asthma, lung cancer risk was associated with silicosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.2), and it was increased in each quartile of cumulative silica exposure. However, risk was not elevated in the highest quartile (OR, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 1.4). Among subjects with a medical history for chronic bronchitis or asthma, lung cancer risk was associated with neither silicosis (subjects with chronic bronchitis: OR, 0.6; subjects with asthma: OR, 0.4) nor with silica exposure. In this study population, we observed a modest association of both silicosis and cumulative exposure to silica with lung cancer among subjects who were not previously diagnosed with chronic bronchitis or asthma, but not among subjects who had a medical history for either disease. Risk of lung cancer associated with silicosis or cumulative exposure to silica did not vary by previous medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  17. Cancer incidence in a cohort of asbestos-exposed workers undergoing health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Fabiano; Zanin, Tina; Pisa, Federica E; Casetta, Anica; Rosolen, Valentina; Giangreco, Manuela; Negro, Corrado; Bovenzi, Massimo; Barbone, Fabio

    2018-06-05

    To compare a local cohort of 2488 men occupationally exposed to asbestos and enrolled in a public health surveillance program with the 1995-2009 cancer incidence of the general population of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region, Northeast Italy, we conducted a historical cohort study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), for specific cancer sites were estimated in the cohort and in subgroups of workers employed in shipbuilding between 1974 and 1994. For internal comparisons, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for all cancers, lung cancer and mesothelioma, by level of exposure to asbestos and sector of employment adjusted for smoking habits and age at start of follow-up. Among cohort members the SIR was 8.82 (95% CI 5.95-12.61) for mesothelioma and 1.61 (95% CI 1.26-2.04) for lung cancer. In subgroup analyses, the SIR for lung cancer in subjects hired in shipbuilding between 1974 and 1984 was 2.09 (95% CI 1.32-3.13). In the overall cohort, a borderline increased incidence was also found for stomach cancer (SIR = 1.53 95% CI 0.96-2.31). Internal comparisons within the cohort show that among men with high asbestos exposure level the relative risk was almost threefold for lung cancer (IRR = 2.94 95% CI 1.01-8.57). This cohort experienced an excess in the incidence of both mesothelioma and lung cancer, showing increasing incidence rates at higher level of asbestos exposure. For lung cancer, the relative incidence was highest among workers hired in shipbuilding between 1974 and 1984.

  18. Cancer mortality in an international cohort of reinforced plastics workers exposed to styrene: a reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Guha, Neela; Kogevinas, Manolis; Fontana, Vincenzo; Gennaro, Valerio; Kolstad, Henrik A; McElvenny, Damien Martin; Sallmén, Markku; Saracci, Rodolfo

    2018-04-17

    To investigate the carcinogenicity of styrene by reanalysing data from a previous international cohort study of workers in the reinforced plastics industry. Mortality from cancers of prior interest was analysed with more detailed consideration of exposure-response relations and an updated classification of leukaemias and lymphomas in data from a previous international cohort study of 37 021 reinforced plastics workers exposed to airborne styrene. Increased mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was associated with the mean level of exposure to styrene in air (relative risk (RR) 2.31, 95% CI 1.29 to 4.12 per 100 ppm), but not with cumulative styrene exposure. Similar associations with mean exposure were observed for the oesophagus (RR 2.44, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.36 per 100 ppm) and pancreas (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.09). Oesophageal cancer mortality was also associated with cumulative styrene exposure lagged 20 years (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.31). No other cancer, including lung cancer, was associated with any indicator of styrene exposure. This reanalysis does not substantially change the conclusions of the original study with respect to NHL or lung cancer but new evidence concerning cancers of the oesophagus and pancreas merits further investigation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers withmore » three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.« less

  20. Mortality among styrene-exposed workers in the reinforced plastic boatbuilding industry.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Meyers, Alysha R; Bertke, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    We updated mortality through 2011 for 5203 boat-building workers potentially exposed to styrene, and analysed mortality among 1678 employed a year or more between 1959 and 1978. The a priori hypotheses: excess leukaemia and lymphoma would be found. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs and standardised rate ratios (SRRs) used Washington State rates and a person-years analysis programme, LTAS.NET. The SRR analysis compared outcomes among tertiles of estimated cumulative potential styrene exposure. Overall, 598 deaths (SMR=0.96, CI 0.89 to 1.04) included excess lung (SMR=1.23, CI 0.95 to 1.56) and ovarian cancer (SMR 3.08, CI 1.00 to 7.19), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (SMR=1.15, CI 0.81 to 1.58). Among 580 workers with potential high-styrene exposure, COPD mortality increased 2-fold (SMR=2.02, CI 1.08 to 3.46). COPD was more pronounced among those with potential high-styrene exposure. However, no outcome was related to estimated cumulative styrene exposure, and there was no change when latency was taken into account. We found no excess leukaemia or lymphoma mortality. As in most occupational cohort studies, lack of information on lifestyle factors or other employment was a substantial limitation although we excluded from the analyses those (n=3525) who worked <1 year. Unanticipated excess ovarian cancer mortality could be a chance finding. Comparing subcohorts with potential high-styrene and low-styrene exposure, COPD mortality SRR was elevated while lung cancer SRR was not, suggesting that smoking was not the only cause for excess COPD mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Tracheal wheezes during methacholine airway challenge (MAC) in workers exposed to occupational hazards.

    PubMed

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Teculescu, D; Peslin, R

    1994-09-01

    Methacholine airway challenge (MAC) is a simple and useful means to assess bronchial hyperreactivity in workers exposed to various occupational hazards. Recently, wheeze detection by tracheal auscultation has been proposed as an indicator of bronchial responsiveness during bronchial provocation test in children. Our aim was to examine the relationship between the appearance of wheezes and the concurrent changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) observed during MAC test in adults. Three cumulative doses of a methacholine solution (100 micrograms, 500 micrograms and 1500 micrograms) were inhaled by 45 workers with occupational exposure to flour dust. Spirometry was done using an electronic spirometer. Tracheal sounds were recorded with an electronic stethoscope placed over the anterior cervical triangle, 2 cm above the sternal notch. The amplified sounds were stored on magnetic tape, band-pass filtered (50-2000 Hz), and digitized at a sampling rate of 4096 Hz into a GenRad Vibration Control System. Wheezes were detected by fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and their presence compared to a 20% fall in FEV1. A positive MAC test by spirometry was found in 12 subjects whereas wheezes were identified in 14 subjects. Among the wheezing subjects, nine had a positive MAC test (range of fall in FEV1 = 20.6 to 42.3%) and five had a negative one (range of fall in FEV1 = 3.6 to 16.9%). Moreover, no wheezes were found in the remaining three subjects with a positive MAC test (range of fall in FEV1 = 20.7 to 27.4%). Taking a 20% fall in FEV1 as reference, wheezes were 75% sensitive and 84.8% specific to detect airflow obstruction. In conclusion, since it carries a significant although small false-negative rate, the acoustic technique based upon wheeze detection cannot, at the present time, fully replace spirometry during airway challenge testing in subjects with suspected asthma.

  2. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-01-01

    Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16). This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74). Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos. PMID:17888155

  3. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-09-21

    Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16). This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74). Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  4. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pesatori, Angela-C.; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyńska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Bertazzi, Pier-Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) is predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens that cause chromosome instability. Whether PAH exposure and its molecular effects are linked with shorter TL has never been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on TL measured in PBLs of Polish male non-current smoking cokeoven workers and matched controls. PAH exposure and molecular effects were characterized using measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), effective dose [anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)–DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei, MN) and DNA methylation [p53 promoter and Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, as surrogate measures of global methylation] in PBLs. TL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cokeoven workers were heavily exposed to PAHs (79% exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index) and exhibited lower TL (P = 0.038) than controls, as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal alterations [i.e. anti-BPDE–DNA adduct and MN (P < 0.0001)] and epigenetic changes [i.e. p53 gene-specific promoter and global methylation (P ≤ 0.001)]. TL decreased with longer duration of work as cokeoven worker (P = 0.039) and in all subjects with higher levels of anti-BPDE–DNA adduct (P = 0.042), p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.005) and MN (P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, years of work in cokery (P = 0.008) and p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.001) were the principal determinants of shorter TL. Our results indicate that shorter TL is associated with chronic PAH exposure. The interrelations with other genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in our data suggest that shorter TL could be a central event in PAH carcinogenesis. PMID:19892797

  5. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  7. Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants. Methods Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5) and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model. Conclusions This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis. PMID:21896193

  8. DNA damage and repair capacity in workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, Piero; Doria, Denise; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Barbieri, Anna; Sabatini, Laura; Drago, Ignazio; Violante, Francesco S; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    DNA damage and cellular repair capacity were studied in 18 male fuel tanker drivers and 13 male filling-station attendants exposed to low and very low concentrations of benzene, respectively, and compared to 20 males with no occupational exposure (controls). Exposure to airborne benzene was measured using passive personal samplers, and internal doses were assayed through the biomarkers t,t-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and urinary benzene. DNA damage was evaluated using tail intensity (TI) determined by the comet assay in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative damage. DNA repair kinetics were assessed using the comet assay in lymphocytes sampled 20 and 60 min post H2O2 exposure. Benzene exposure differed significantly between the drivers (median 246.3 µg/m(3)), attendants (median 13.8 µg/m(3)), and controls (median 4.1 µg/m(3)). There were no differences in TI and 8-oxodG among the three groups, or between smokers and non-smokers. DNA repair kinetics were similar among the drivers, attendants and controls, although the comet assay on H2 O2 -damaged lymphocytes after 60 min revealed significantly lower levels of TI only in drivers. The DNA repair process in smokers was similar to that observed in drivers. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between low levels of benzene exposure and DNA damage, although there was evidence that exposure interferes with DNA repair kinetics. The biological impact of this finding on the onset of genotoxic effects in exposed workers has still to be ascertained. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Immunological pattern alteration in shoe, hide, and leather industry workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Vitali, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Baldoni, Emilia; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on shoe, leather, and hide industry workers, based on the assumption that Cr(VI) can behave as an environmental immunological "stressor." The immunological patterns of 84 male subjects were studied in relation to Cr(VI) hematic and urinary levels. Cr(VI) was measured through atomic absorption. Lymphocyte subsets, mitogen-mediated lymphocyte-proliferation, cytokine levels, and natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity were also assayed. The urinary levels of the total amount of Cr(VI) were significantly higher in a subgroup of exposed subjects (group B) than in the control or in the lower exposed (group A). In group B, Cr(VI) caused a decrease in the density of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a increase of IL-6. Cr(VI) did not modify NK-mediated cytotoxicity, the plasmatic levels of inflammatory cytokines and related soluble receptors, and prostaglandin levels, while it tended to increase lymphocyte sensitivity to mitogens and the production of immunomodulant cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-2). The experimental addition of Cr(VI) to the in vitro lymphocyte culture determined a significant inhibition of phagocytosis percentage, index, and killing percentage. These effects were neutralized by exogenous IFN-gamma. Cr(VI) could represent an environmental immunological stressor whose effects can be evaluated through laboratory surveys. The lymphocyte mitogen-induced proliferation, GR receptor on PBMC, and IL-6 plasma levels may represent a discriminating element between Cr(VI)-induced stress and other kinds of stress.

  10. A cohort mortality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides.

    PubMed Central

    Green, L M

    1991-01-01

    A cohort mortality study was undertaken of forestry workers at a public electrical utility who had worked for six months or more during 1950-82 and who were routinely exposed to herbicides including phenoxy acids. A total of 1222 men with 25 274 years at risk experienced 80 deaths. Ascertainment of vital state at the end of follow up was 95.5%. The male population of the province (Ontario) was used as the reference group. Overall, no excess mortality was found in this cohort relative to the reference population. A statistically significant increase in deaths occurred, however, due to suicide (SMR = 210, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 105-376) for the cohort as a whole. No deaths were seen due to cancers such as soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that have been cited by other authors as being associated with exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides. Although the cohort is not large, the absence of deaths due to these cancers is consistent with findings from other studies with sufficient numbers to allow examination of specific risks. The cohort is still young, however, and at the end of follow up most had not reached an age when increased incidence of cancer would normally be expected. PMID:2025588

  11. Oxidative stress and genetic damage among workers exposed primarily to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Arce, Rigoberto; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Benitez-Trinidad, Alma; Herrera-Moreno, José Francisco; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia S; Villegas, Germán Pier; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Sólis Heredia, María de Jesús; Bernal-Hernández, Yael Y

    2017-06-01

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture and public health campaigns has been associated with an increase of oxidative stress and DNA damage, resulting in health outcomes. Some defense mechanisms against free radical-induced oxidative damage include the antioxidant enzyme systems. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and the relationship of antioxidant enzyme levels with DNA damage among sprayers (workers) occupationally exposed to pesticides. The determinations of MDA and antioxidant enzymes were performed spectrophotometrically. The genotoxic effects were evaluated using the comet assay. The results showed a marginally significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities in the high exposure group compared to the control group. For MDA, statistically significant differences were found among people working long term vs. those working temporarily (P = 0.02) as sprayers. In the moderate exposure group, a positive correlation was observed between MDA levels and GPx activity. In the high exposure group, a negative correlation was observed between GR and CAT activities, and between MDA levels and GPx activities. Furthermore, in the high exposure group, a positive correlation between DNA damage parameters and MDA levels was observed. The results suggest an important role of antioxidant enzymes for the protection of DNA damage caused by occupational exposure to pesticides. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sequential development of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver angiosarcoma in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker.

    PubMed

    Guido, Maria; Sarcognato, Samantha; Pelletti, Guido; Fassan, Matteo; Murer, Bruno; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-11-01

    Strong experimental and clinical evidences have definitely linked occupational vinyl chloride exposure to development of angiosarcoma of the liver. In contrast, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer having included vinyl chloride among the causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, the association between vinyl chloride exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma remains debated. This issue is relevant, because occupational exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride may still occur. We report a unique case of sequential occurrences of hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma of the liver, in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker without cirrhosis and any known risk factor for chronic liver disease. Both the hepatocellular carcinoma and the surrounding normal liver showed micronucleus formation, which reflects genotoxic effect of vinyl chloride. Angiosarcoma showed a KRAS G12D point mutation, which is considered to be characteristic of vinyl chloride-induced angiosarcoma. This case supports the pathogenic role of vinyl chloride in both hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon nanotubes: Properties, biomedical applications, advantages and risks in patients and occupationally-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, M; Pedata, P; Sannolo, N; Porto, S; De Rosa, A; Caraglia, M

    2015-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, carbon-based nanomaterials (CNTs) have been introduced in pharmacy and medicine for drug delivery system in therapeutics. CNTs have proved able to transport a wide range of molecules across membranes and into living cells; therefore, they have attracted great interest in biomedical applications such as advanced imaging, tissue regeneration, and drug or gene delivery. Although there are many data on the advantages in terms of higher efficacy and less adverse effects, several recent findings have reported unexpected toxicities induced by CNTs. The dose, shape, surface chemistry, exposure route, and purity play important roles in these differential toxicities. Mapping these risks as well as understanding their molecular mechanisms is a crucial step in the development of any CNT-containing nanopharmaceuticals. This paper seeks to provide a comprehensive review of all articles published on cellular response to CNTs, underlining their therapeutic applications and possible toxicity in patients and occupationally exposed workers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers

    PubMed Central

    Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”, Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100–200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  15. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A.P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R.; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001). In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work. PMID:23413045

  16. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Aghakhani, Kamran; Salimi, Ahmad; Kumar, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Review of other epidemiological studies reveal inconsistent results of relationships between high blood lead level and risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. In this study we wanted to find if there is a relationship between blood lead level and these ischemic heart disease risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a battery recycling plant, and 497 male workers with the mean age of 41.7 (±6.50) years were recruited from all over the plant (those from the products and maintenance sections were classed as "high lead exposed group" and those from amongst the office, laboratory, security services and food services sections as "low lead exposed group"). Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. Mean (±Standard deviation) for quantitative variables, Frequency (Percent) for qualitative variables, and Odd's ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for estimating the effect of blood lead level on lipid profile[triglyceride (TG), cholesterol(CHOL), low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol(LDL-C),high density lipoprotein -Cholesterol(HDL-C)], hypertension(HTN) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) level. Logistic regression modeling was used for multivariate analysis and adjusting the effect of different variables (age, body mass index(BMI), eating habits, cigarette smoking). The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL) was >40 μg/dl in 281 (56.6%) subjects, ≤40 μg in 216 (43.4%) subjects and the mean BLL was 43.3 μg/dl (n = 497). The mean job experience involving lead exposure was 13 years. There was no significant correlation between BLL and FBS (p = 0.68), between BLL and TG (P = 0.32), between BLL and HDL-C (p = 0.49), between BLL and LDL-C (p = 0.17), between BLL and CHOL(p = 0.96), between BLL and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.12). The adjusted Odd's ratio for the effect of BLL >40.0 μg/dl on diastolic blood pressure was1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.05) with p

  17. Neuropsychological Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Toluene and Xylene in Two Paint Manufacturing Factories in Eastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Jaidee, Wanlop; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed the exposure factors that may lead to neuropsychological symptoms among 92 workers who were exposed to xylene and toluene and 100 workers who were not exposed to the solvents. The airborne concentration of xylene and toluene was evaluated with personal passive badges. The levels of methyl hippuric acid and hippuric acid in urine were assessed, and interviews were performed to observe the neuropsychological symptoms that may result from exposure to the solvents. The result showed that the average concentration for the exposed group of xylene in the paint company working environment was 2.7 (SD = 2.4) ppm and the average concentration of toluene was 9.5 (SD = 10.4) ppm. The average level of methyl hippuric acid in urine was 78 (SD = 74.7) mg/g creatinine. Factors that affected the neuropsychological symptoms included the following. (1) The impact of age: the risk (adjusted odds ratio) for getting psychosomatic symptoms in persons over 40 and exposed to xylene was 9.5 and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 8.3. (2) The impact of not providing personal protective equipment was found to be sleep disturbance; it was found that the aOR of those exposed to xylene was 3.9, and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 4.4. In summary, periodic examination of workers by occupational physician is needed for detection of early neuropsychological effects, especially psychosomatic symptoms, and sleep disturbances. PMID:26290757

  18. Workers exposed to wood dust have an increased micronucleus frequency in nasal and buccal cells: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Hopf, Nancy B; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Charriere, Nicole; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Wood dust is recognised as a human carcinogen, based on the strong association of wood dust exposure and the elevated risk of malignant tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [sino-nasal cancer (SNC)]. The study aimed to assess genetic damage in workers exposed to wood dust using biomarkers in both buccal and nasal cells that reflect genome instability events, cellular proliferation and cell death frequencies. Nasal and buccal epithelial cells were collected from 31 parquet layers, installers, carpenters and furniture workers (exposed group) and 19 non-exposed workers located in Switzerland. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies were scored in nasal and buccal cells collected among woodworkers. Other nuclear anomalies in buccal cells were measured through the use of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. MN frequencies in nasal and buccal cells were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group; odds ratio for nasal cells 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.1] and buccal cells 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4). The exposed group had higher frequencies of cells with nuclear buds, karyorrhectic, pyknotic, karyolytic cells and a decrease in the frequency of basal, binucleated and condensed cells compared to the non-exposed group. Our study confirms that woodworkers have an elevated risk for chromosomal instability in cells of the aerodigestive tract. The MN assay in nasal cells may become a relevant biomonitoring tool in the future for early detection of SNC risk. Future studies should seek to standardise the protocol for MN frequency in nasal cells similar to that for MN in buccal cells.

  19. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Kripa, S K; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.05). A significant difference in NA was observed in workers exposed to chromium for longer duration. In addition to this, a higher degree of NA was observed among smokers. MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures.

  20. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, S; Kripa, SK; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.05). A significant difference in NA was observed in workers exposed to chromium for longer duration. In addition to this, a higher degree of NA was observed among smokers. Conclusion MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:26328050

  1. Urinary β2 microglobulin in workers exposed to arc welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Omid; Eftekhari, Saeid; Mazaheri, Maria; Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro

    2011-01-01

    Welding is a process in which two or more metals are attached by the use of heat and, in some cases, pressure. Direct exposure and inhalation of welding fumes causes acute and chronic side effects in humans. Kidney damage is one of these important side effects. β(2) microglobulin is an 11.8 kilodalton protein and levels increase in the case of some inflammatory and viral diseases, or kidney malfunction and autoimmune diseases. In this study measurements of β(2) microglobulin were used as a criterion for assessing effects on the kidneys of workers exposed to welding fumes. The study population were electric arc welders in an industrial plant in Tehran, Iran. For control we selected workers who did not have any exposure to welding fumes. Both groups were selected on the basis of a questionnaire and the consideration of criteria for inclusion and exclusion. In the end 50 cases and 50 controls were chosen. A urine sample was collected from all participants and urinary pH was set to between 6-8 using NaOH (1M). Sample transportation to the laboratory complied with the related standards. The samples were assessed using the ORG 5BM kit. For quantitative assessment of β(2) microglobulin we used the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The ages of the welders ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean=30.5 ± 5.9 yrs) and of controls from 23 to 56 years (mean=31.8 ± 5.9 yrs). Mean employment duration was 7.86 ± 5.01 years (range 2 to 27 years) for welders. Mean β(2) microglobulin level was 0.10 ± 0.096 μg/ml in welders and 0.11 ± 0.06 in controls. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.381). In conclusion we don't find that exposure to electric arc welding fumes cause a significant change in urinary β(2) microglobulin compared to the control group.

  2. Effect of different exposure compounds on urinary kinetics of aluminium and fluoride in industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, F; Baruthio, F; Diebold, F; Biette, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To conduct a field study to obtain information on the urinary concentrations of aluminium (Al) and fluoride (F-) depending on the different compounds exposed to in the aluminum industry. METHODS--16 workers from one plant that produced aluminium fluoride (AlF3), and from two plants that produced aluminium electrolytically by two different processes participated in the study for one working week. Pollutants were monitored by eight hour personal sampling every day, and urine samples were collected during the week. Al and F- were analysed in both atmospheric and urine samples by atomic absorption spectrometry and an ion selective electrode. RESULTS--The principal results show different characteristics of kinetic curves of Al and F- excretion in workers with different exposures. Some characteristics of excretory peaks were linked to specific exposures--for instance, after exposure to AlF3 there was one delayed Al peak associated with one delayed F- peak about eight hours after the end of the daily shift, and after mixed exposure to HF and AlF3, two F- peaks were noted, one fast peak at the end of the shift and another delayed peak at 10 hours synchronised with an Al peak. In one of the electrolysis plants, the exposure to Al and F- compounds led to the simultaneous excretion of Al and F- peaks, either as a single peak or two individual ones depending on the type of technology used on site (open or enclosed potlines). The average estimated half life of Al was 7.5 hours, and of F- about nine hours. Quantitative relations between excretion and exposure showed an association between the F- atmospheric limit value of 2.5 mg/m3 with a urinary F- concentration of 6.4 mg/g creatinine at the end of the shift, a peak of 7.4 mg/g creatinine, and 7.4 mg excreted a day. For Al, the exposure to 1.36 mg/m3 during the shift corresponded to a urinary concentration at the end of the shift of 200 microgram/g creatinine. Daily excretion of 200 micrograms corresponded to an

  3. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Janusz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels ofmore » malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.« less

  4. Mortality and cancer incidence of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other organic solvents and chemicals: extended follow up

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hartge, P.; Stewart, P. A.; McAdams, M.; Lubin, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To extend the follow up of a cohort of 14,457 aircraft maintenance workers to the end of 1990 to evaluate cancer risks from potential exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals. METHODS: The cohort comprised civilians employed for at least one year between 1952 and 1956, of whom 5727 had died by 31 December 1990. Analyses compared the mortality of the cohort with the general population of Utah and the mortality and cancer incidence of exposed workers with those unexposed to chemicals, while adjusting for age, sex and calendar time. RESULTS: In the combined follow up period (1952-90), mortality from all causes and all cancer was close to expected (standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) 97 and 96, respectively). Significant excesses occurred for ischaemic heart disease (SMR 108), asthma (SMR 160), and cancer of the bone (SMR 227), whereas significant deficits occurred for cerebrovascular disease (SMR 88), accidents (SMR 70), and cancer of the central nervous system (SMR 64). Workers exposed to trichloroethylene showed non-significant excesses for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (relative risk (RR) 2.0), and cancers of the oesophagus (RR 5.6), colon (RR 1.4), primary liver (RR 1.7), breast (RR 1.8), cervix (RR 1.8), kidney (RR 1.6), and bone (RR 2.1). None of these cancers showed an exposure- response gradient and RRs among workers exposed to other chemicals but not trichloroethylene often had RRs as large as workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Workers exposed to solvents other than trichloroethylene had slightly increased mortality from asthma, non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These findings do not strongly support a causal link with trichloroethylene because the associations were not significant, not clearly dose-related, and inconsistent between men and women. Because findings from experimental investigations and other epidemiological studies on solvents other than trichloroethylene provide some biological

  5. Oxidatively damaged DNA in the nasal epithelium of workers occupationally exposed to silica dust in Tuscany region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Marco E M; Munnia, Armelle; Giese, Roger W; Chellini, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Marcello; Capacci, Fabio

    2015-07-01

    Chronic silica exposure has been associated to cancer and silicosis. Furthermore, the induction of oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species have been indicated to play a main role in the carcinogenicity of respirable silica. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and peroxidation of lipids, in the nasal epithelium of 135 silica-exposed workers, employed in pottery, ceramic and marble manufacturing plants as well as in a stone quarry, in respect to 118 controls living in Tuscany region, Italy. The M1dG generation was measured by the (32)P-postlabelling assay. Significant higher levels of M1dG adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides were observed in the nasal epithelium of smokers, 77.9±9.8 (SE), and in those of former smokers, 80.7±9.7 (SE), as compared to non-smokers, 57.1±6.2 (SE), P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively. Significant increments of M1dG adducts were found in the nasal epithelium of workers that handle artificial marble conglomerates, 184±36.4 (SE), and in those of quarry workers, 120±34.7 (SE), with respect to controls, 50.6±2.7 (SE), P = 0.014 and P < 0.001, respectively. Null increments were observed in association with the pottery and the ceramic factories. After stratification for different exposures, silica-exposed workers that were co-exposed to organic solvents, and welding and exhaust fumes have significantly higher M1dG levels, 90.4±13.4 (SE), P = 0.014 vs. Our data suggested that silica exposure might be associated with genotoxicity in the nasal epithelial cells of silica-exposed workers that handle of artificial marble conglomerates and quarry workers. Importantly, we observed that co-exposures to other respiratory carcinogens may have contributed to enhance the burden of M1dG adducts in the nasal epithelium of silica-exposed workers. © The

  6. Oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, M; Pawlas, N; Kasperczyk, A; Kozłowska, A; Olewińska, E; Machoń-Grecka, A; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-07-01

    There are many discrepancies among the results of studies on the genotoxicity of lead. The aim of the study was to explore lead-induced DNA damage, including oxidative damage, in relation to oxidative stress intensity parameters and the antioxidant defense system in human leukocytes. The study population consisted of 100 male workers exposed to lead. According to the blood lead (PbB) levels, they were divided into the following three subgroups: a group with PbB of 20-35 μg/dL (low exposure to lead (LE) group), a group with a PbB of 35-50 µg/dL (medium exposure to lead (ME) group), and a group with a PbB of >50 μg/dL (high exposure to lead (HE) group). The control group consisted of 42 healthy males environmentally exposed to lead (PbB < 10 μg/dL). A comet assay was used to measure the DNA damage in leukocytes. We measured the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the value of the total antioxidant capacity. The level of PbB was significantly higher in the examined subgroups than in the control group. The percentage of DNA in the tail was significantly higher in the LE, ME, and HE subgroups than in the control group by 10% ( p = 0.001), 15% ( p < 0.001), and 20% ( p < 0.001), respectively. The activity of GR was significantly lower in the LE and ME subgroups than in the control group by 25% ( p = 0.007) and 17% ( p = 0.028), respectively. The activity of G6PD was significantly lower in the ME subgroup by 25% ( p = 0.022), whereas the activity of GST was significantly higher in the HE subgroup by 101% ( p = 0.001) than in the control group. Similarly, the activity of SOD was significantly higher in the LE and ME subgroups by 48% ( p = 0.026) and 34% ( p = 0.002), respectively. The concentration of MDA was significantly higher in the LE, ME, and HE subgroups than in the control group by 43

  7. Pleural mesothelioma in household members of asbestos-exposed workers in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy.

    PubMed

    D' Agostin, Flavia; de Michieli, Paola; Negro, Corrado

    2017-05-08

    Malignant mesothelioma is closely associated to asbestos exposure. One such exposure may occur through contact with occupationally exposed household members and their belongings. This study examines the features of pleural mesothelioma attributable only to asbestos brought home by another family member. The data sources were 1063 mesothelioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014, from the Friuli Venezia Giulia Mesothelioma Register. In all cases the diagnosis of mesothelioma was based on the pathology report. Exposure information and demographic data were acquired by an occupational medical standardized questionnaire/interview. Household-exposure mesothelioma cases included 33 women and 2 men. Relationships were: wives (N = 22), daughters (N = 9), sons (N = 2), and mothers (N = 2). Asbestos exposure in the workers predominantly occurred in shipyards. Out of the 35 pleural cases, 19 were epithelial, 9 biphasic, 3 sarcomatoid, and 4 not specified. The mean age at diagnosis was 77 years old. The mean latency was 59 years, with wives having a significant shorter latency than offspring. Latency was not significantly related to morphology and asbestosis. The overall mean survival was 16 months (median 11 months) but treatment was beneficial (mean 16 months vs. 7 months). Biphasic/sarcomatoid histology and presence of asbestosis were associated with a decreased survival, although not with statistical significance. Our data confirms that household exposure increases the risk for pleural mesothelioma amongst women with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. This is an ongoing problem in many countries, as well as in Italy, where the evaluation of a framework for the compensation of these cases is under debate. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):419-431. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Genomic characterization of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in radiation-exposed Chornobyl cleanup workers.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Juhi; Dyagil, Iryna; Finch, Stuart C; Reiss, Robert F; de Smith, Adam J; Gonseth, Semira; Zhou, Mi; Hansen, Helen M; Sherborne, Amy L; Nakamura, Jean; Bracci, Paige M; Gudzenko, Nataliya; Hatch, Maureen; Babkina, Nataliya; Little, Mark P; Chumak, Vadim V; Walsh, Kyle M; Bazyka, Dimitry; Wiemels, Joseph L; Zablotska, Lydia B

    2018-05-02

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was the predominant leukemia in a recent study of Chornobyl cleanup workers from Ukraine exposed to radiation (UR-CLL). Radiation risks of CLL significantly increased with increasing bone marrow radiation doses. Current analysis aimed to clarify whether the increased risks were due to radiation or to genetic mutations in the Ukrainian population. A detailed characterization of the genomic landscape was performed in a unique sample of 16 UR-CLL patients and age- and sex-matched unexposed general population Ukrainian-CLL (UN-CLL) and Western-CLL (W-CLL) patients (n = 28 and 100, respectively). Mutations in telomere-maintenance pathway genes POT1 and ATM were more frequent in UR-CLL compared to UN-CLL and W-CLL (both p < 0.05). No significant enrichment in copy-number abnormalities at del13q14, del11q, del17p or trisomy12 was identified in UR-CLL compared to other groups. Type of work performed in the Chornobyl zone, age at exposure and at diagnosis, calendar time, and Rai stage were significant predictors of total genetic lesions (all p < 0.05). Tumor telomere length was significantly longer in UR-CLL than in UN-CLL (p = 0.009) and was associated with the POT1 mutation and survival. No significant enrichment in copy-number abnormalities at CLL-associated genes was identified in UR-CLL compared to other groups. The novel associations between radiation exposure, telomere maintenance and CLL prognosis identified in this unique case series provide suggestive, though limited data and merit further investigation.

  9. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Asuquo, Asuquo E

    2017-02-21

    The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase) activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant enzyme activities, etc.), conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental effects. Int J

  10. Abattoir based survey of bovine cystic echinococcosis in selected commercial abattoir in Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydatidosis is a widespread parasitic disease posing a significant public health and economic burden in developing countries. Abattoir survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle, its organ distribution and to estimate financial loss due to organ condemna...

  11. [Relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-quan; Zhang, Zhong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 3 (XRCC3) and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers. Peripheral venous blood and morning urine samples were collected from 326 male lead-exposed workers in a storage battery factory in Fuzhou. Blood lead, urine lead, blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood calcium, and blood iron were measured. The genotype of XRCC3 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers was analyzed. Genetic polymorphism of XRCC3 was seen in the 326 subjects. The frequency distribution of XRCC3 genotypes, XRCC3-241CC (wild type), XRCC3-241CT (heterozygous mutation), and XRCC3-241TT (homozygous mutation), was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in urine lead, blood ZPP, blood calcium, and blood iron between the lead-exposed workers with different XRCC3 genotypes (P > 0.05). The workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had a significantly higher mean blood lead level than those with XRCC3-241CC (P < 0.05). With a blood lead level of 1.90 µmol/L as the cutoff value, the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT was significantly higher than that of workers with XRCC3-241CC in the subjects with high blood leads (P < 0.05) and that the risk of high blood lead was significantly higher in the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT than in those with XRCC3-241CC (OR = 2.34, 95%CI = 1.61 ∼ 5.13); the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had high blood lead levels (β = 0.116, P < 0.05), the workers with smoking habit demonstrated marked lead absorption (β = 0.188, P < 0.05), good individual protection could reduce lead absorption (β = -0.247, P < 0.05), and the

  12. Biomarkers for Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis and Lung Ventilation Function in Chinese Occupational Refractory Ceramic Fibers-Exposed Workers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Gu, Yishuo; Ma, Wenjun; Gao, Panjun; Liu, Mengxuan; Xiao, Pei; Wang, Hongfei; Chen, Juan; Li, Tao

    2017-12-27

    Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) can cause adverse health effects on workers' respiratory system, yet no proper biomarkers have been used to detect early pulmonary injury of RCFs-exposed workers. This study assessed the levels of two biomarkers that are related to respiratory injury in RCFs-exposed workers, and explored their relations with lung function. The exposure levels of total dust and respirable fibers were measured simultaneously in RCFs factories. The levels of TGF-β1 and ceruloplasmin (CP) increased with the RCFs exposure level ( p < 0.05), and significantly increased in workers with high exposure level (1.21 ± 0.49 ng/mL, 115.25 ± 32.44 U/L) when compared with the control group (0.99 ± 0.29 ng/mL, 97.90 ± 35.01 U/L) ( p < 0.05). The levels of FVC and FEV₁ were significantly decreased in RCFs exposure group ( p < 0.05). Negative relations were found between the concentrations of CP and FVC (B = -0.423, p = 0.025), or FEV₁ (B = -0.494, p = 0.014). The concentration of TGF-β1 (B = 0.103, p = 0.001) and CP (B = 8.027, p = 0.007) were associated with respirable fiber exposure level. Occupational exposure to RCFs can impair lung ventilation function and may have the potential to cause pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. TGF-β1 and CP might be used as sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers to detect lung injury in occupational RCFs-exposed workers. Respirable fiber concentration can better reflect occupational RCFs exposure and related respiratory injuries.

  13. Activity and determinants of cholinesterases and paraoxonase-1 in blood of workers exposed to non-cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Paniagua, David; Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Gil, Fernando; Parrón, Tesifón; Alarcón, Raquel; Requena, Mar; Lacasaña, Marina; Hernández, Antonio F

    2016-11-25

    Pesticide exposure has been associated with different adverse health effects which may be modulated to some extent by paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and genetic polymorphisms. This study assessed seasonal variations in PON1 activity (using paraoxon -POase-, phenylacetate -AREase-, diazoxon -DZOase- and dihydrocoumarin -DHCase- as substrates), erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma cholinesterase (using butyrylthiocholine -BuChE- and benzoylcholine -BeChE- as substrates. The study population consisted of intensive agriculture workers regularly exposed to pesticides other than organophosphates and non-exposed controls from Almería (Southeastern Spain). The effect of common genetic polymorphisms of PON1 and BCHE on paraoxonase-1 and cholinesterase activities toward different substrates was also assessed. Linear mixed models were used to compare esterase activities in agricultural workers and control subjects over the two study periods (high and low exposure to pesticides). The significant decrease in AChE and increase in BuChE and BeChE activities observed in workers with respect to control subjects was attributed to pesticide exposure. Workers also had higher levels of AREase, DZOase and, to a lesser extent, of POase, but showed decreased DHCase activity. While PON1 Q192R and PON1 -108C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with all PON1 activities, PON1 L55M showed a significant association with AREase, DZOase and DHCase. BCHE-K (Karlow variant) was significantly associated with lower BeChE activity (but not with BuChE) and BCHE-A (atypical variant) showed no significant association with any cholinesterase activity. These findings suggest that increased PON1, BuChE and BeChE activities in exposed workers might result from an adaptive response against pesticide exposure to compensate for adverse effects at the biochemical level. This response appears to be modulated by PON1 and BCHE gene polymorphisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  14. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in 19 French polyurethane industries.

    PubMed

    Robert, A; Ducos, P; Francin, J M; Marsan, P

    2007-04-01

    To study the range of urinary levels of 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), a metabolite of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), across factories in the polyurethane industries and to evaluate the validity of this biomarker to assess MDI occupational exposure. Workers exposed to MDI, as well as non-occupationally exposed subjects, were studied and pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from 169 workers of 19 French factories and 120 controls. Details on work activities and practices were collected by a questionnaire and workers were classified into three job categories. The identification and quantification of the total urinary MDA were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC/EC). For all the factories, MDA was detectable in 73% of the post-shift urine samples. These post-shift values, in the range of <0.10 (detection limit)-23.60 microg/l, were significantly higher than those of the pre-shift samples. Urinary MDA levels in the control group were in the range of < 0.10-0.80 microg/l. The degree of automation of the mixing operation (polyols and MDI) appears as a determinant in the extent of exposure levels. The highest amounts of MDA in urine were found in the spraying or hot processes. The excretion levels of the workers directly exposed to the hardener containing the MDI monomer were significantly higher than those of the other workers. In addition, skin exposure to MDI monomer or to polyurethane resin during the curing step were always associated with significant MDA levels in urine. Total MDA in post-shift urine samples is a reliable biomarker to assess occupational exposure to MDI in various industrial applications and to help factories to improve their manufacturing processes and working practices. A biological guiding value not exceeding 7 microg/l (5 microg/g creatinine) could be proposed in France.

  15. Colour vision and light sensitivity in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide containing grouting agents.

    PubMed

    Goffeng, Lars Ole; Kjuus, Helge; Heier, Mona Skard; Alvestrand, Monica; Ulvestad, Bente; Skaug, Vidar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine possible persisting visual system effects in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting work. Visual field light sensitivity threshold and colour vision has been examined among 44 tunnel workers 2-10 years after exposure to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide containing grouting agents. Forty-four tunnel workers not involved in grouting operations served as control group. Information on exposure and background variables was obtained for all participants from a questionnaire. Visual light sensitivity threshold was measured using Humphrey Visual Field Static Perimeter 740, program 30-2 Fastpack, with red stimuli on white background, and colour vision, using Lanthony D-15 Desaturated Color test. Based on D-15d test results, colour confusion index (CCI), and a severity index (C-index) was calculated. The exposed group had a significantly higher threshold for detecting single stimuli in all parts of the inner 30 degrees of the visual field compared to the control group. The foveal threshold group difference was 1.4 dB (p=0.002) (mean value, both eyes). On the Lanthony 15 Hue Desaturated test, the exposed subjects made more errors in sorting blue colours, and a statistically significant increase in C-index was observed. Surrogate measures for duration and intensity of exposure gave no further improvement of the model. The results indicate slightly reduced light sensitivity and reduced colour discrimination among the exposed subjects compared to the controls. The findings may be due to previous exposure to acrylamide containing grouts among the tunnel workers.

  16. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Persson, H E; Goldberg, J M; Westerholm, P

    1976-09-01

    In the present study the results of a neurological and neurophysiological health examination of 29 aircraft factory workers chronically exposed to jet fuel vapors are presented. The exposed subjects were classified into a heavily exposed and a less heavily exposed group. The examination included a standardized clinical neurological examination, measurements of the conduction velocities in the peripheral nerves, and threshold determinations of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 persons examined in the heavily exposed group and 7 of the 16 in the less heavily exposed group stated that they had repeatedly experienced acute effects (dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, heart palpitations, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea, headache) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. A high rate of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy was observed both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups combined in comparison with reference groups. Considering the presented facts concerning (a) the acute effects on repeated occasions, (b) the high rates of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy, and (c) the differences in the observations made between the two groups with varying degrees of exposure to jet fuel, the authors interpreted the results as indicative of a possible effect of long-term exposure to jet fuel on the nervous system.

  17. Cognitive impairment in agricultural workers and nearby residents exposed to pesticides in the Coquimbo Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sebastián A; de Angel, Valeria; Salas, Natalia; Zúñiga-Venegas, Liliana; Gaspar, Pablo A; Pancetti, Floria

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is a worldwide public health concern associated with several psychiatric disorders and dementia. Most existing studies on the effects of pesticides only evaluate agricultural workers. Therefore, this study sought to establish if individuals indirectly exposed to pesticides, such as residents in agricultural areas, also suffer cognitive impairments. Neuropsychological evaluations were carried out on three groups (n=102): agricultural workers directly exposed to pesticides (n=32), individuals living in agricultural areas indirectly (i.e. environmentally) exposed to pesticides (n=32), and an unexposed control group (n=38). The assessed cognitive processes included memory, executive functions, attention, language praxis, and visuoconstruction. The direct exposure group performed significantly lower in executive function, verbal fluency, and visual and auditory memory tests than the indirect exposure group, which, in turn, performed worse than the unexposed group. Even after adjusting for age, gender, and educational level, both exposure groups showed higher rates of cognitive deficit than control individuals. In conclusion, both direct and indirect chronic exposure to pesticides affects cognitive functioning in adults and, consequently, actions should be taken to protect the health of not only agricultural workers, but also of residents in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of vitamin D3 metabolites in smelter workers exposed to lead and cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Chalkley, S. R.; Richmond, J.; Barltrop, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of lead and cadmium on the metabolic pathway of vitamin D3. METHODS: Blood and urinary cadmium and urinary total proteins were measured in 59 smelter workers occupationally exposed to lead and cadmium. In 19 of these workers, the plasma vitamin D3 metabolites, (25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25 OHD3), 24R, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24R,25(OH)2D3) and 1 alpha,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3)) were measured together with blood lead. Vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay, (RIA), lead and cadmium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and total proteins with a test kit. RESULTS: Ranges for plasma 25(OH)D3, 24R,25(OH)2D3 and 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 were 1.0-51.9 ng/ml, 0.6-5.8 ng/ml, and 0.1-75.7 pg/ml, respectively. Ranges for blood lead were 1-3.7 mumol/l, (21-76 micrograms/dl), blood cadmium 6- 145 nmol/l, and urinary cadmium 3-161 nmol/l. Total proteins in random urine samples were 2.1-32.6 mg/dl. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood showed no correlation (correlation coefficient -0.265) but there was a highly significant correlation between blood and urinary cadmium. Concentrations for 24R,25(OH)2D3 were depressed below the normal range as blood and urinary cadmium increased, irrespective of lead concentrations. High cadmium concentrations were associated with decreased plasma 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 when lead concentrations were < 1.9 mumol/l and with above normal plasma 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 when lead concentrations were > 1.9 mumol/l, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (K-W ANOVA) chi 2 = 10.3, p = 0.006. Plasma 25(OH)D3 was negatively correlated with both urinary total proteins and urinary cadmium, but showed no correlation with plasma 24R,25(OH)2D3, 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3, blood lead, or blood cadmium. CONCLUSION: Continuous long term exposure to cadmium may result in a state of equilibrium between blood and urinary cadmium. Cadmium concentrations in blood could be predicted from the cadmium

  19. DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tovalin, H; Valverde, M; Morandi, M T; Blanco, S; Whitehead, L; Rojas, E

    2006-01-01

    Background Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries. Aims To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. Methods DNA damage (Comet assay) and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, PM2.5, and ozone were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from México City and Puebla. Results In México City, outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers (median 46.8 v 30.1 μm), and a greater percentage of highly damaged cells (cells with tail length ⩾41 μm); in Puebla, outdoor and indoor workers had similar DNA damage. There were more alkali labile sites in outdoor than indoor workers. The DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Outdoor and indoor workers with ⩾60% of highly damaged cells (highly damaged workers) had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone, and some volatile organic compounds. The main factors associated with the highly damaged workers were ozone, PM2.5, and 1‐ethyl‐2‐methyl benzene exposure. Conclusions With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the Comet assay. It is suggested that the use of personal exposure assessment and biological endpoints evaluation could be an important tool to generate a more precise assessment of the associated potential health risks. PMID:16556741

  20. Epidemiological study of respiratory disease in workers exposed to polyvinylchloride dust.

    PubMed Central

    Soutar, C A; Copland, L H; Thornley, P E; Hurley, J F; Ottery, J; Adams, W G; Bennett, B

    1980-01-01

    The respiratory health of workers exposed to polyvinylchloride (PVC) dust has been investigated in 818 men sampled from the work force of a factory manufacturing PVC. In a cross-sectional survey, the lung function and prevalences of respiratory symptoms and chest radiographic abnormalities were compared with estimates of individual PVC dust exposures based on detailed occupational histories and current measurements of respirable PVC dust. Complaints of slight exertional dyspnoea were associated with PVC dust exposure, though age and smoking effects were much stronger. The forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were inversely related to dust exposure after age, height, and smoking effects had been taken into account. This effect was seen principally in cigarette smokers, and there was suggestive evidence that PVC dust exposure and cigarette smoking interacted in the reduction of FEV1 and FVC. Gas transfer factor was not related to dust exposure. The chest radiographs were read according to the ILO U/C classification by three experienced readers. One reader recorded a low prevalence of small rounded opacities, and these were not related to age or dust exposure. Another reader recorded a higher prevalence of small rounded opacities category 0/1 or more, and these were related to age but not to dust exposure. The third reader recorded the highest prevalence of small rounded opacities (though none greater than category 1/1), and these were independently related both to age and to PVC dust exposure, indicating an effect of PVC dust on the appearance of the chest radiography. These appearances were so slight that only the higher sensitivity of this reader in the interpretation of profusion of small rounded opacities on the ILO U/C scale enabled detection of this effect of PVC dust. In conclusion, exposure to PVC dust is associated with some deterioration of lung function, slight abnormalities of the chest radiograph, and complaints of

  1. Medical follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: French evidence-based and pragmatic recommendations.

    PubMed

    Delva, Fleur; Margery, Jacques; Laurent, François; Petitprez, Karine; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-14

    The aim of this work was to establish recommendations for the medical follow-up of workers currently or previously exposed to lung carcinogens. A critical synthesis of the literature was conducted. Occupational lung carcinogenic substances were listed and classified according to their level of lung cancer risk. A targeted screening protocol was defined. A clinical trial, National Lung Screnning Trial (NLST), showed the efficacy of chest CAT scan (CT) screening for populations of smokers aged 55-74 years with over 30 pack-years of exposure who had stopped smoking for less than 15 years. To propose screening in accordance with NLST criteria, and to account for occupational risk factors, screening among smokers and former smokers needs to consider the types of occupational exposure for which the risk level is at least equivalent to the risk of the subjects included in the NLST. The working group proposes an algorithm that estimates the relative risk of each occupational lung carcinogen, taking into account exposure to tobacco, based on available data from the literature. Given the lack of data on bronchopulmonary cancer (BPC) screening in occupationally exposed workers, the working group proposed implementing a screening experiment for bronchopulmonary cancer in subjects occupationally exposed or having been occupationally exposed to lung carcinogens who are confirmed as having high risk factors for BPC. A specific algorithm is proposed to determine the level of risk of BPC, taking into account the different occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking at the individual level.

  2. Association of HSP70 and genotoxic damage in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chengfeng; Chen, Sheng; Li, Jizhao; Hai, Tao; Lu, Qiaofa; Sun, Enling; Wang, Ruibo; Tanguay, Robert M.; Wu, Tangchun

    2002-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been reported to protect cells, tissues, and organisms against damage from a wide variety of stressful stimuli. Whether they protect against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in individuals exposed to environmental stresses and chemical carcinogens is unknown. In the study, we investigated the association between Hsp70 levels (the most abundant mammalian Hsp) and genotoxic damage in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission using Western dot blot and 2 DNA damage assays, the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The data show that there is a significant increase in Hsp70 levels, DNA damage score, and micronucleus rates in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission as compared with the control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation of Hsp70 levels with DNA damage scores in the comet assay (r = −0.663, P < 0.01) and with micronucleus rates (r = −0.461, P < 0.01) in the exposed group. In the control group, there was also a light negative correlation between Hsp70 with DNA damage and micronuclei rate (r = −0.236 and r = 0.242, respectively), but it did not reach a statistically significant level (P > 0.05). Our results show that individuals who had high Hsp70 levels generally showed lower genotoxic damage than others. These results suggest a role of Hsp70 in the protection of DNA from genotoxic damage induced by coke-oven emission. PMID:12653484

  3. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  4. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  5. Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Suitable Matrix to Assess Lung Dose and Effects in Workers Exposed to Cobalt and Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; De Palma, Giuseppe; Manini, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Corradi, Massimo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a fluid formed by cooling exhaled air, can be used as a suitable matrix to assess target tissue dose and effects of inhaled cobalt and tungsten, using EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of pulmonary oxidative stress. Thirty-three workers exposed to Co and W in workshops producing either diamond tools or hard-metal mechanical parts participated in this study. Two EBC and urinary samples were collected: one before and one at the end of the work shift. Controls were selected among nonexposed workers. Co, W, and MDA in EBC were analyzed with analytical methods based on mass spectrometric reference techniques. In the EBC from controls, Co was detectable at ultratrace levels, whereas W was undetectable. In exposed workers, EBC Co ranged from a few to several hundred nanomoles per liter. Corresponding W levels ranged from undetectable to several tens of nanomoles per liter. A parallel trend was observed for much higher urinary levels. Both Co and W in biological media were higher at the end of the work shift in comparison with preexposure values. In EBC, MDA levels were increased depending on Co concentration and were enhanced by coexposure to W. Such a correlation between EBC MDA and both Co and W levels was not observed with urinary concentration of either element. These results suggest the potential usefulness of EBC to complete and integrate biomonitoring and health surveillance procedures among workers exposed to mixtures of transition elements and hard metals. PMID:15345342

  6. Biomarkers for Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis and Lung Ventilation Function in Chinese Occupational Refractory Ceramic Fibers-Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yishuo; Ma, Wenjun; Gao, Panjun; Liu, Mengxuan; Xiao, Pei; Wang, Hongfei; Chen, Juan; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) can cause adverse health effects on workers’ respiratory system, yet no proper biomarkers have been used to detect early pulmonary injury of RCFs-exposed workers. This study assessed the levels of two biomarkers that are related to respiratory injury in RCFs-exposed workers, and explored their relations with lung function. The exposure levels of total dust and respirable fibers were measured simultaneously in RCFs factories. The levels of TGF-β1 and ceruloplasmin (CP) increased with the RCFs exposure level (p < 0.05), and significantly increased in workers with high exposure level (1.21 ± 0.49 ng/mL, 115.25 ± 32.44 U/L) when compared with the control group (0.99 ± 0.29 ng/mL, 97.90 ± 35.01 U/L) (p < 0.05). The levels of FVC and FEV1 were significantly decreased in RCFs exposure group (p < 0.05). Negative relations were found between the concentrations of CP and FVC (B = −0.423, p = 0.025), or FEV1 (B = −0.494, p = 0.014). The concentration of TGF-β1 (B = 0.103, p = 0.001) and CP (B = 8.027, p = 0.007) were associated with respirable fiber exposure level. Occupational exposure to RCFs can impair lung ventilation function and may have the potential to cause pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. TGF-β1 and CP might be used as sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers to detect lung injury in occupational RCFs-exposed workers. Respirable fiber concentration can better reflect occupational RCFs exposure and related respiratory injuries. PMID:29280967

  7. Thermographic Evaluation of the Hands of Pig Slaughterhouse Workers Exposed to Cold Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tirloni, Adriana Seára; Reis, Diogo Cunha Dos; Ramos, Eliane; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2017-07-26

    Brazil was rated the fourth leading producer and exporter of pork meat in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature of the hands of pig slaughterhouse workers and its relation to the thermal sensation of the hands and the use of a cutting tool. The study included 106 workers in a pig slaughterhouse. An infrared camera FlirThermaCAM E320 (Flir Systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA) was used to collect the images of the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both hands. A numerical scale was used to obtain the thermal sensation. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation and Student's t test or Wilcoxon were used ( p ≤ 0.05). The majority of workers felt cold in the hands (66%) and workers who used the knife felt the coldest. There was an association between the thermal sensation and the use of knife ( p = 0.001). Workers who used the tool showed correlation between the thermal sensation and the temperatures of the left fingers, with a difference between the temperatures of the right and left hands of those who used the knife ( p ≤ 0.05). The hands (left) that manipulated the products presented the lowest temperatures. Findings indicate that employers of pig slaughterhouses should provide gloves with adequate thermal insulation to preserve the health of workers' hands.

  8. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Poręba, Rafał, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlationsmore » analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear

  9. Test-retest reliability of neurophysiological tests of hand-arm vibration syndrome in vibration exposed workers and unexposed referents.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Gillström, Lennart; Hagberg, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to hand-held vibrating tools may cause the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The aim was to study the test-retest reliability of hand and muscle strength tests, and tests for the determination of thermal and vibration perception thresholds, which are used when investigating signs of neuropathy in vibration exposed workers. In this study, 47 vibration exposed workers who had been investigated at the department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in Gothenburg were compared with a randomized sample of 18 unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants passed a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including hand and finger muscle strength tests, determination of vibrotactile (VPT) and thermal perception thresholds (TPT). Two weeks later, 23 workers and referents, selected in a randomized manner, were called back for the same test-procedures for the evaluation of test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability after a two week interval expressed as limits of agreement (LOA; Bland-Altman), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Pearson correlation coefficients was excellent for tests with the Baseline hand grip, Pinch-grip and 3-Chuck grip among the exposed workers and referents (N = 23: percentage of differences within LOA 91 - 100%; ICC-values ≥0.93; Pearson r ≥0.93). The test-retest reliability was also excellent (percentage of differences within LOA 96-100 %) for the determination of vibration perception thresholds in digits 2 and 5 bilaterally as well as for temperature perception thresholds in digits 2 and 5, bilaterally (percentage of differences within LOA 91 - 96%). For ICC and Pearson r the results for vibration perception thresholds were good for digit 2, left hand and for digit 5, bilaterally (ICC ≥ 0.84; r ≥0.85), and lower (ICC = 0.59; r = 0.59) for digit 2, right hand. For the latter two indices the test

  10. Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark P.; Yin, Songnian; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Shen, Min; Ji, Zhiying; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hosgood, H.Dean; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Banghua; Xie, Yuxuan; Li, Laiyu; Yue, Fei; Freeman, Laura E.Beane; Blair, Aaron; Hayes, Richard B.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Benzene, formaldehyde (FA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are ubiquitous chemicals in workplaces and the general environment. Benzene is an established myeloid leukemogen and probable lymphomagen. FA is classified as a myeloid leukemogen but has not been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whereas TCE has been associated with NHL but not myeloid leukemia. Epidemiologic associations between FA and myeloid leukemia, and between benzene, TCE and NHL are, however, still debated. Previously, we showed that these chemicals are associated with hematotoxicity in cross-sectional studies of factory workers in China, which included extensive personal monitoring and biological sample collection. Here, we compare and contrast patterns of hematotoxicity, monosomy 7 in myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs), and B-cell activation biomarkers across these studies to further evaluate possible mechanisms of action and consistency of effects with observed hematologic cancer risks. Workers exposed to benzene or FA, but not TCE, showed declines in cell types derived from MPCs, including granulocytes and platelets. Alterations in lymphoid cell types, including B cells and CD4+ T cells, and B-cell activation markers were apparent in workers exposed to benzene or TCE. Given that alterations in myeloid and lymphoid cell types are associated with hematological malignancies, our data provide biologic insight into the epidemiological evidence linking benzene and FA exposure with myeloid leukemia risk, and TCE and benzene exposure with NHL risk. PMID:27207665

  11. Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark P; Yin, Songnian; Rappaport, Stephen M; Shen, Min; Ji, Zhiying; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hosgood, H Dean; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Banghua; Xie, Yuxuan; Li, Laiyu; Yue, Fei; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Blair, Aaron; Hayes, Richard B; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, formaldehyde (FA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are ubiquitous chemicals in workplaces and the general environment. Benzene is an established myeloid leukemogen and probable lymphomagen. FA is classified as a myeloid leukemogen but has not been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whereas TCE has been associated with NHL but not myeloid leukemia. Epidemiologic associations between FA and myeloid leukemia, and between benzene, TCE and NHL are, however, still debated. Previously, we showed that these chemicals are associated with hematotoxicity in cross-sectional studies of factory workers in China, which included extensive personal monitoring and biological sample collection. Here, we compare and contrast patterns of hematotoxicity, monosomy 7 in myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs), and B-cell activation biomarkers across these studies to further evaluate possible mechanisms of action and consistency of effects with observed hematologic cancer risks. Workers exposed to benzene or FA, but not TCE, showed declines in cell types derived from MPCs, including granulocytes and platelets. Alterations in lymphoid cell types, including B cells and CD4+ T cells, and B-cell activation markers were apparent in workers exposed to benzene or TCE. Given that alterations in myeloid and lymphoid cell types are associated with hematological malignancies, our data provide biologic insight into the epidemiological evidence linking benzene and FA exposure with myeloid leukemia risk, and TCE and benzene exposure with NHL risk. Published by Oxford University Press 2016.

  12. Oxidative toxic stress in workers occupationally exposed to ceramic dust: A study in a ceramic manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Shad, Mehri Keshvari; Barkhordari, Abolfaz; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Dehghani, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Moghadam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-09-27

    Exposure to compounds used in ceramic industries appears to be associated with induction of oxidative toxic stress. This cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the oxidative toxic stress parameters associated with occupational exposure to ceramic dust. Forty ceramic-exposed workers from a ceramic manufacturing industry and 40 unexposed referent subjects were studied. A questionnaire containing information regarding demographic variables, occupational history, history of any chronic disease, antioxidant consumption, and use of therapeutic drugs was administrated to them. Oxidative toxic stress biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP), levels of total Thiol groups (TTG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured. Significant increments in blood LPO levels, CAT activity and concomitant lower TAP were observed in ceramic exposed workers in comparison to referent group. No statistically significant difference was noted between the means of TTG levels between the groups. Findings of the study indicate that occupational exposure to ceramic dust induces oxidative toxic stress. Supplementation of workers with antioxidants may have beneficial effects on oxidative damages in ceramic industries.

  13. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in workers occupationally exposed to water, sewage, and soil in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Liesenfeld, O; Márquez-Conde, J A; Estrada-Martínez, S; Dubey, J P

    2010-10-01

    Water, sewage, and soil are potential sources of infection for Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated characteristics in 61 plumbers, 203 construction workers, and 168 gardeners in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were tested for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from each participant were obtained. IgG T. gondii antibodies were found in 4 (6.6%) plumbers, 17 (8.4%) construction workers, and 10 (6.0%) gardeners; T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 3 (1.5%) construction workers and 4 (2.4%) gardeners, but in none of the plumbers. In the total population, the prevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in workers living in suburban areas, without education, workers that consumed chorizo, and those who suffered from any disease (P < 0.05). In gardeners, prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those with blood transfusion, and memory impairment (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was positively associated with consumption of unwashed fruits (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-5.13), and with raising animals (adjusted OR  =  2.53; 95% CI: 1.00-6.37). This is the first report of contributing factors for T. gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to water, sewage, and soil in a Mexican city, and results will contribute to the design of optimal preventive measures.

  14. Thermographic Evaluation of the Hands of Pig Slaughterhouse Workers Exposed to Cold Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Brazil was rated the fourth leading producer and exporter of pork meat in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature of the hands of pig slaughterhouse workers and its relation to the thermal sensation of the hands and the use of a cutting tool. The study included 106 workers in a pig slaughterhouse. An infrared camera FlirThermaCAM E320 (Flir Systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA) was used to collect the images of the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both hands. A numerical scale was used to obtain the thermal sensation. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation and Student’s t test or Wilcoxon were used (p ≤ 0.05). The majority of workers felt cold in the hands (66%) and workers who used the knife felt the coldest. There was an association between the thermal sensation and the use of knife (p = 0.001). Workers who used the tool showed correlation between the thermal sensation and the temperatures of the left fingers, with a difference between the temperatures of the right and left hands of those who used the knife (p ≤ 0.05). The hands (left) that manipulated the products presented the lowest temperatures. Findings indicate that employers of pig slaughterhouses should provide gloves with adequate thermal insulation to preserve the health of workers’ hands. PMID:28933764

  15. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleuralmore » regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.« less

  16. Kinetics of styrene in workers from a plastics industry after controlled exposure: a comparison with subjects not previously exposed.

    PubMed Central

    Löf, A; Lundgren, E; Nordqvist, M B

    1986-01-01

    Eight male workers from a glass reinforced plastics industry were experimentally exposed for 2 hours to 2.84 mmol/m3 (296 mg/m3) styrene during light physical exercise (50 W). About 63% of the amount supplied (4.6 mmol styrene) was taken up in the body. The arterial blood concentration of styrene reached a relatively stable level of 15 mumol/l at the end of exposure which was about 70% of the blood concentration in a group of volunteers with no previous exposure to solvents. The apparent blood clearance was significantly higher in the occupationally exposed subjects 2.01/h X kg compared with 1.51/h X kg. Contrary to the relatively stable level of styrene at the end of exposure the concentration of non-conjugated styrene glycol increased throughout the exposure and reached about 3 mumol/l in both groups. Like styrene, the non-conjugated styrene glycol seemed to be eliminated faster from the occupationally exposed workers. The blood concentration of styrene-7,8-oxide was low and seldom exceeded the detection limit of 0.02 mumol/l. The results show that long term exposure in a glass reinforced plastics industry may facilitate the metabolism of styrene. PMID:3730303

  17. Alterations in antioxidant defense system of workers chronically exposed to arsenic, cadmium and mercury from coal flying ash.

    PubMed

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Ajvazi, Majlinda; Kurti, Leonard; Daci, Nexhat

    2016-02-01

    Humans are exposed to different stress factors that are responsible for over-production of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to heavy metals is one of these factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of chronic exposure to heavy metals through coal flying ash on the efficiency of antioxidative defensive mechanisms, represented by the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid. Nonessential elements such as arsenic and mercury levels showed a significant increase (p > 0.001) in the power plant workers rather than in the control subjects. There were no significant differences of blood cadmium between power plant workers and control subjects. We found a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between BAs/SZn (r = 0.211), BAs/BSe (r = 0.287), BCd/SCu (r = 0.32) and BHg/BSe (r = 0.263) in the plant workers. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes and plasma ascorbic acid were significantly lower in power plants workers than in the control group (p < 0.002). We can conclude that levels of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in blood, despite their concentration within the reference values, significantly affect plasma ascorbic acid concentration, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, which are able to increase the risk of oxidative stress.

  18. Diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers: a one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Redlich, C A; Stowe, M H; Coren, B A; Wisnewski, A V; Holm, C T; Cullen, M R

    2002-12-01

    Diisocyanates currently are the most commonly identified cause of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. Auto body shops, a common hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposure setting, are difficult to study due to their small size and episodic exposures. A 1-year follow-up was undertaken as an adjunct to the cross-sectional SPRAY study (Survey of Painters & Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale) to investigate the effects of HDI on auto body shop workers over time and whether or not the healthy worker effect may exist in this industry. Forty-eight workers from seven shops were re-contacted. Thirty-four subjects who stayed at the same shop and 11 who left their original shop participated. No statistically significant changes in physiology, symptoms, and immunologic responses from baseline to follow-up were noted. However, significant differences between those who left the shops and those who stayed were noted. Those who left were younger, less experienced in the industry, and more likely to have a history of asthma (23 vs. 3%; P < 0.05), bronchial hyper-responsiveness (23 vs. 9%), HDI-specific IgG (64 vs. 29%; P < 0.05), and HDI-specific proliferation (S.I. 2.0 vs. 1.3; P < 0.05). The differences in workers who stayed at their shop compared to those who left, combined with the low asthma prevalence and high job turnover rate, all suggest that a healthy worker effect may exist in the auto body industry, and may in part account for the low prevalence of asthma noted in SPRAY and other cross-sectional studies of diisocyante workers. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  20. Biological monitoring of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers of mango orchards: A case study in tropical climate

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, H.; Pangtey, B.S.; Modak, D.P.

    1992-02-01

    Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds are widely used pesticides in India for controlling disease carrying vectors and agricultural pests. Organochlorine compounds being persistent and lipophilic in nature, accumulate in the human body through food chain and environmental exposure. Accumulation of DDT, BHC and endosulfan has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and other health related problems. Earlier, the authors have observed respiratory impairment (36.5%) among workers engaged in spraying of organochlorine pesticides on mango trees at Malihabad. In the present investigation, the levels of chlorinated present investigation, the levels of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers have beenmore » monitored to study the distribution pattern in blood and their excretion in urine of human subjects.« less

  1. The analysis of blood lead levels changeability over the 5-year observation in workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Płachetka, Anna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare a group of workers with stable lead levels with a group of workers with fluctuating lead levels in terms of selected hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. The examined group included male workers occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead (PbB) levels were measured every 3 months during the 5-year observation. Based on standard deviation of mean PbB levels, the examined population was divided into two groups: low level of fluctuation (L-SD) and high level of fluctuation (H-SD) groups. The mean and maximal PbB levels were significantly higher in the H-SD group than in the L-SD group by 9 and 22%, respectively. At the same time, the maximal level of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and standard deviation of mean ZPP level were higher in the H-SD group by 29 and 55%, respectively. The maximal level of hemoglobin and white blood cell (WBC) count as well as standard deviation of the mean hemoglobin level and WBC count were higher in the H-SD group by 2, 8, 58, and 24%, respectively. The expression of nuclear factor kappa-B1 gene and telomerase reverse transcriptase gene was significantly greater in the H-SD group than in the L-SD group by 11 and 28%, respectively. Workers occupationally exposed to lead do not represent a homogenous population. Some present stable lead levels, whereas others have fluctuating lead levels. These fluctuations are related to secondary changes in ZPP and hemoglobin levels as well as WBC count.

  2. Seroepidemiology and molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus infection in swine and occupationally exposed workers in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bansal, M; Kaur, S; Deka, D; Singh, R; Gill, J P S

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two discrete epidemiological patterns: waterborne epidemics in developing countries only, caused by HEV genotype I, and sporadic zoonotic outbreaks in developing and developed countries caused by genotypes III and IV. This study was designed to investigate seroprevalence, molecular detection and the characterization of HEV by nested RT-PCR in swine as well as the occupational risk to exposed human population in Punjab state of north-western India. The occupational risk-exposed group comprised of swine farmers (organized - mixed feed feeders and unorganized - swill feeders), slaughterhouse workers, sewage workers and veterinary internes. During the study period, blood and faecal samples were collected from 320 swine and 360 humans with both high and low occupational exposure risks. The overall seroprevalence of swine HEV was 65.00%, with a significantly higher seropositivity in growing pigs (2-8 months of age). The prevalence of HEV RNA in swine faecal samples by nRT-PCR was 8.75% with a significantly higher detection in swill-fed pigs. With humans in the high occupational exposure risk population, significantly higher anti-HEV IgG seropositivity was observed (60.48%) as compared to control population (10.71%). Strong evidence of association between human anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and certain occupational exposure risk groups was observed (p < 0.05). This indicates that unorganized swine farmers, slaughterhouse workers and sewage workers have higher odds of HEV infection in this study region. Percentage of nucleotide similarity between swine and human HEV isolates was less than that found in countries with zoonotic HEV outbreaks. Molecular characterization revealed the circulation of G IV and G I genotypes among swine and human population in Punjab state, respectively. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Crystalline Silica Dust by SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mahdi; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Berijani, Nima; Mahjub, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is considered an oxidative stress related disease that can lead to the development of lung cancer. In this study, our purpose was to analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dust and compare peak area of these compounds with silicosis patients and healthy volunteers (smokers and nonsmokers) groups. In this cross sectional case-control study, the exhaled breath of 69 subjects including workers exposed to silica (n=20), silicosis patient (n=4), healthy non-smoker (n=20) and healthy smoker (n=25) were analyzed. We collected breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Personal exposure intensity was measured according to NIOSH 7601 method. Respiratory parameters were measured using spirometry. Seventy percent and 100% of the exposures to crystalline silica dust exceeded from 8 h TWA ACGIH TLVs in case and positive control groups, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between dust exposure intensity and FEV1/FVC when exposure and positive control groups were studied in a group (r2=-0.601, P<0.001). Totally, forty VOCs were found in all exhaled breath samples. Among the VOCs, the mean of peak area acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane, pentad cane, 2-propanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were higher in exhaled breath of the workers exposed to silica and silicosis patient compared to the healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls. In some cases the difference was significant (P<0.05). The analysis of some VOCs in exhaled breath of subjects is appropriate biomarker to determine of exposure to silica.

  4. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-05

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  6. Measurement of Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in a Glass Wool Company Workers Exposed to Respirable Synthetic Vitreous Fiber and Dust.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Shabnam; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; Nikravan, Ghafour; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    Occupational exposures to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF) and dust are associated with many lung diseases including lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography is used for screening patients who are highly suspicious of having lung carcinoma. However, it seems not to be cost-effective. Serum biomarkers could be a useful tool for the surveillance of occupational exposure, by providing the possibility of diagnosing lung cancer in its early stages. To determine if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1 levels in workers exposed more than normal population to respirable SVF and dust may be used as indicators of progression towards lung cancer. An analytic cross-sectional study, including 145 personnel of a glass wool company, along with 25 age-matched healthy individuals, was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to respirable SVFs and dust and serum levels of two lung/pleura serum tumor markers, CEA and CYFRA 21-1, measured by ELISA. Individuals exposed to higher than the recommended levels of respirable SVF had higher serum concentrations of CEA and CYFRA 21-1, compared to controls (p=0.008 and 0.040, respectively), as well as in comparison to those exposed to lower than recommended OSHA levels (p=0.046 and 0.033, respectively). Workers with >9 years work experience, had significantly (p=0.045) higher levels of serum CYFRA 21-1 than those with ≤9 years of experience. It seems that working for >9 years in sites with detectable levels of respirable SVF and dust would increase the levels of known lung cancer serum tumor markers. Transferring these workers to sites with respirable SVF concentrations lower than the limit of detection in the air is recommended.

  7. COMPARISON OF BIOMARKERS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, the notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, we developed methods to biomonitor w...

  8. WORK SITE CLINICAL AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLVENT EXPOSED MICROELECTRONICS WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group of 25 workers currently (5), or formerly (20), involved in the manufacture of hybrid microcircuits underwent clinical evaluations at the request of a management-union committee concerned about chronic solvent exposures in a research and development laboratory. attery of n...

  9. VALIDATION AND EVALUATION OF BIOMARKERS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO BENZENE IN CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qu and colleagues recruited 181 healthy workers in several factories in the Tianjin region of China. These subjects formed part of a cohort of thousands identified by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the China Academy of Preventive Medicine for a study to evalua...

  10. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  11. Neuropsychological performance in solvent-exposed vehicle collision repair workers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Keer, Samuel; Glass, Bill; McLean, Dave; Harding, Elizabeth; Babbage, Duncan; Leathem, Janet; Brinkmann, Yanis; Prezant, Bradley; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether contemporary solvent exposures in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with objectively measured neuropsychological performance in collision repair workers. The RBANS battery and additional tests were administered to 47 vehicle collision repair and 51 comparison workers randomly selected from a previous questionnaire study. Collision repair workers performed lower on tests of attention (digit span backwards: -1.5, 95% CI -2.4, -0.5; digit span total: -1.7, CI -3.3, -0.0; coding: -6.1, CI -9.9, -2.8; total attention scale: -9.3, CI -15.9, -2.8) and the RBANS total scale (-5.1, CI -9.1, -1.2). Additional tests also showed deficits in visual attention and reaction time (Trails B: -11.5, CI -22.4, -0.5) and motor speed/dexterity (coin rotation dominant hand & non-dominant: -2.9, CI -5.3, -0.4 and -3.1, CI -5.6, -0.7 respectively). The strongest associations were observed in panel beaters. Applying dichotomised RBANS outcomes based on the lowest percentile scores of a normative comparison group showed strongly increased risks for attention (5th percentile: OR 20.1, 95% CI 1.5, 263.3; 10th percentile: 8.8, CI 1.7, 46.2; and 20th percentile: 5.1, CI 1.5, 17.6, respectively). Those employed in the industry for ≤ 17 years (the median work duration) generally had lower scores in the attention domain scale and RBANS total scale compared to those employed >17 years suggesting a healthy worker survivor bias, but trends were inconsistent for other domains. This study has found significant deficits in cognitive performance in collision repair workers despite low current airborne exposures in New Zealand.

  12. Study of two cohorts of workers exposed to methyl methacrylate in acrylic sheet production

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J; Bonner, S; Edwards, J; Pemberton, M; Cummings, T; Paddle, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study mortality among 4324 workers at two United Kingdom factories, Darwen, Lancashire and Wilton, Cleveland, producing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet. The Darwen factory is still active, but the Wilton one was closed in 1970. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methyl methacrylate; in particular, mortality from colon and rectal cancer.
METHODS—All male employees at the Darwen factory with a record of employment in 1949-88 and all men ever employed at the Wilton factory (1949-70) were investigated. The vital status of both cohorts was ascertained on 31 December 1995. The exposure of 1526 subjects at the Darwen plant who were engaged from 1949 onwards could be characterised. The mean duration of exposure was 7.6 years at 13.2 ppm (8 hour time weighted average), although exposures in some work groups were as high as 100 ppm. It was not possible to calculate the cumulative exposure of workers first employed at the Darwen plant before 1949 or workers at the Wilton factory.
RESULTS—In the Darwen cohort, 622 deaths were identified and a further 700 deaths in the Wilton cohort. Mortalities for the cohort were compared with national and local rates and expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). In the subcohort of Darwen workers with more than minimal exposure to MMA, reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates, were found for all causes (SMR 94), and colorectal cancer (SMR 92), but mortality from all cancers was slightly increased (SMR 104). No relations were found with cumulative exposure to MMA. In the subcohort of Wilton workers, mortality from all causes of death was significantly reduced (SMR 89), but mortality from all cancers (SMR 103) and colorectal cancer (SMR 124) were increased. The excess of colorectal cancer was confined to employees with less than 1 year of employment.
CONCLUSION—The study provided no clear evidence that employment at the factories or exposure to

  13. Behavioural and physiological reactions of cattle in a commercial abattoir: relationships with organisational aspects of the abattoir and animal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique; Tannugi, Carole Cohen; Terlouw, E M Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Behavioural, physiological and metabolic reactions of cattle to handling and slaughter procedures were evaluated in a commercial abattoir, from arrival until slaughter. Different genders or breeds were not subjected to the same procedures due to abattoir equipment or organisational aspects of the abattoir. Reactions to similar slaughter procedures varied according to animal characteristics and could have consequences for subsequent handling procedures. Factors that appeared to cause handling problems and vocalisation were excessive pressure during restraint, and distractions in the corridor such as noise, darkness, seeing people and activity. Post-mortem muscle metabolism depended on slaughter procedures. Following stunning or halal slaughter, some animals showed head rising movements despite the abolition of the corneal reflex, suggesting that head rising is not always indicative of consciousness. Overall, this study presents concrete data on how different types of cattle may react to slaughter procedures with a direct interest for the abattoir itself but also for scientific purposes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Gaines, Linda G. T.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer. Blood samples from 15 spray painters applying HDI-containing paint were analyzed for hemoglobin HDA (HDA-Hb) and N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA-Hb) by GC-MS. HDA-Hb was detected in the majority of workers (≤1.2–37 ng/g Hb), whereas monoacetyl-HDA-Hb was detected in one worker (0.06 ng/g Hb). The stronger, positive association between HDA-Hb and cumulative HDI exposure (r2 = 0.3, p < 0.06) than same day exposure (p ≥ 0.13) indicates long-term elimination kinetics for HDA-Hb adducts. This association demonstrates the suitability of HDA-Hb adducts for further validation as a biomarker of HDI exposure. PMID:21506697

  15. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Doty, R L; Monroe, C; Frye, R; Barker, S

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufacturers acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-sectional analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores--semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible. PMID:2784947

  16. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory performance in workers exposed to grain and grain based food dusts.

    PubMed

    Deacon, S P; Paddle, G M

    1998-05-01

    A health surveillance study of male grain food manufacturing workers used a respiratory health questionnaire and spirometry to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory performance. The prevalence of cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness was between 8-13% but was 20% for rhinitis. Rhinitis was the most common symptom with 37% of those reporting rhinitis describing this as work-related. A case-control analysis of workers reporting rhinitis did not identify any specific occupational activities associated with increased risk of rhinitis. Smoking habit and all respiratory symptoms apart from rhinitis had a significant effect upon ventilatory performance. Occupational exposure to raw grains, flour, ingredients and finished food was categorized as high, medium or low in either continuous or intermediate patterns. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the effects of height, age and smoking upon ventilatory performance. However, occupational exposure to grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts had no effect upon ventilatory performance. It is concluded that smoking habit is the major determinant of respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory function. The excess complaints of rhinitis warrant further study but it would appear that the current occupational exposure limits for grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts are adequate to protect workers against impairment of ventilatory performance.

  17. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Boers, Daisy; Portengen, Lützen; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Few epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and contaminants including TCDD. Methods: Eighty-five workers who had been exposed to either high (n = 47) or low (n = 38) TCDD levels more than 30 years before serum collection were included in the current investigation. Plasma level of 16 cytokines, 10 chemokines, and 6 growth factors were measured. Current plasma levels of TCDD (TCDDcurrent) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. TCDD blood levels at the time of last exposure (TCDDmax) were estimated using a one-compartment first order kinetic model. Results: Blood levels of most analytes had a negative association with current and estimated past maximum TCDD levels. These decreases reached formal statistical significance for fractalkine, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) with increasing TCDD levels. Conclusion: Our study showed a general reduction in most analyte levels with the strongest effects for fractalkine, FGF2, and TGF-α. These findings suggest that TCDD exposure could suppress the immune system and that chemokine and growth factor-dependent cellular pathway changes by TCDD may play role in TCDD toxicity and associated health effects. PMID:22655272

  18. Evaluating levels and health risk of heavy metals in exposed workers from surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to monitor heavy metal (chromium, Cr; cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; copper, Cu; lead, Pb; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; and zinc, Zn) footprints in biological matrices (urine, whole blood, saliva, and hair), as well as in indoor industrial dust samples, and their toxic effects on oxidative stress and health risks in exposed workers. Overall, blood, urine, and saliva samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of toxic metals in exposed workers (Cr; blood 16.30 μg/L, urine 58.15 μg/L, saliva 5.28 μg/L) than the control samples (Cr; blood 5.48 μg/L, urine 4.47 μg/L, saliva 2.46 μg/L). Indoor industrial dust samples also reported to have elevated heavy metal concentrations, as an example, Cr quantified with concentration of 299 mg/kg of dust, i.e., more than twice the level of Cr in household dust (136 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level presented significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) with Cr, Zn, and Cd (Cr > Zn > Cd) which is an indication of heavy metal's associated raised oxidative stress in exposed workers. Elevated average daily intake (ADI) of heavy metals resulted in cumulative hazard quotient (HQ) range of 2.97-18.88 in workers of different surgical units; this is an alarming situation of health risk implications. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)-based pie charts represent that polishing and cutting sections exhibited highest metal inputs to the biological and environmental matrices than other sources. Heavy metal concentrations in biological matrices and dust samples showed a significant positive correlation between Cr in dust, urine, and saliva samples. Current study will help to generate comprehensive base line data of heavy metal status in biomatrices and dust from scientifically ignored industrial sector. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation.

  19. Prediction of hearing loss among the noise-exposed workers in a steel factory using artificial intelligence approach.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Farhadian, Maryam; Darvishi, Ebrahim

    2015-08-01

    Prediction of hearing loss in noisy workplaces is considered to be an important aspect of hearing conservation program. Artificial intelligence, as a new approach, can be used to predict the complex phenomenon such as hearing loss. Using artificial neural networks, this study aims to present an empirical model for the prediction of the hearing loss threshold among noise-exposed workers. Two hundred and ten workers employed in a steel factory were chosen, and their occupational exposure histories were collected. To determine the hearing loss threshold, the audiometric test was carried out using a calibrated audiometer. The personal noise exposure was also measured using a noise dosimeter in the workstations of workers. Finally, data obtained five variables, which can influence the hearing loss, were used for the development of the prediction model. Multilayer feed-forward neural networks with different structures were developed using MATLAB software. Neural network structures had one hidden layer with the number of neurons being approximately between 5 and 15 neurons. The best developed neural networks with one hidden layer and ten neurons could accurately predict the hearing loss threshold with RMSE = 2.6 dB and R(2) = 0.89. The results also confirmed that neural networks could provide more accurate predictions than multiple regressions. Since occupational hearing loss is frequently non-curable, results of accurate prediction can be used by occupational health experts to modify and improve noise exposure conditions.

  20. Vascular and nerve damage in workers exposed to vibrating tools. The importance of objective measurements of exposure time.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Balogh, Istvan; Hambert, Per-Arne; Hjortsberg, Ulf; Karlsson, Jan-Erik

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the development of vibration white fingers (VWF) in workers in relation to different ways of exposure estimation, and their relationship to the standard ISO 5349, annex A. Nineteen vibration exposed (grinding machines) male workers completed a questionnaire followed by a structured interview including questions regarding their estimated hand-held vibration exposure. Neurophysiological tests such as fractionated nerve conduction velocity in hands and arms, vibrotactile perception thresholds and temperature thresholds were determined. The subjective estimation of the mean daily exposure-time to vibrating tools was 192 min (range 18-480 min) among the workers. The estimated mean exposure time calculated from the consumption of grinding wheels was 42 min (range 18-60 min), approximately a four-fold overestimation (Wilcoxon's signed ranks test, p<0.001). Thus, objective measurements of the exposure time, related to the standard ISO 5349, which in this case were based on the consumption of grinding wheels, will in most cases give a better basis for adequate risk assessment than self-exposure assessment.

  1. Analysis of particle and vapour phase PAHs from the personal air samples of bus garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Kuusimaki, Leea; Peltonen, Kimmo; Mutanen, Pertti; Savela, Kirsti

    2003-07-01

    The levels of particle and vapour phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the diesel exhaust compounds in bus garage work were measured in winter and in summer. Five personal air samples were collected from the breathing zones of 22 garage workers every other day of consecutive weeks. Control samples (n = 22) were collected from office workers in Helsinki. Fifteen PAHs in the air samples were analysed by HPLC using a fluorescence detector. Statistically significant differences were observed between total PAH levels of the exposed workers (2241 and 1245 ng/m(3)) and the control group (254 and 275 ng/m(3)) in both winter (P < 0.001) and summer (P < 0.001). Phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and fluoranthene were the major compounds in the particle phase, and naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene in the vapour phase. About 98% of PAHs measured were related to the vapour phase compounds, whereas the high molecular weight PAH compounds were detected only in the particle phase. The PAH levels in the garages were twice as high (P < 0.001) in winter as in summer. Even though the exposure levels were low in the bus garages, the low level does not allow conclusions to be drawn about the possible adverse health effects due to exposure to diesel exhaust.

  2. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on the expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and the malondialdehyde level in the blood of lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machnik, Grzegorz; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces oxidative stress intensity and restores the expression and activities of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, SOD), catalase (Cat, CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1, GPx) in lead-exposed workers. The exposed population was divided randomly into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group, n=49) were not administered any drugs, while workers in the second group (n=122) were treated with NAC at three doses for 12 weeks (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg/day). NAC administered orally to lead-exposed workers normalized antioxidant enzyme activities in blood cells. Oxidative stress intensity measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, leukocytes and erythrocytes significantly decreased after NAC administration. NAC may be an alternative therapy for chronic lead intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE, EFFECT AND SUSCEPTIBILITY IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO NITROTOLUENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (26DNT), are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor peop...

  4. Update of the mortality study of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in two Italian capacitor manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Grillo, P; Consonni, D; Caironi, M; Sampietro, G; Olivari, Leonella; Ghisleni, Silvia; Bertazzi, P A

    2013-01-01

    PCB carcinogenicity to humans is still controversial. Cohort mortality studies in PCB-exposed workers reported elevated risks for the following causes of death: liver, stomach, digestive, brain, prostate cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to update as of December 2006 the mortality experience of two Italian cohorts of workers employed in the manufacture of capacitors impregnated with PCBs. Age-gender-and calendar period adjusted Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using regional rates. Analyses by duration of employment and time since first employment were performed Results: Vital status was ascertained for 98.9% of the study subjects. Mortality from biliary tract cancer among males (SMR 3.91; 95%CI 1.47-10.41), digestive cancer "not otherwise specified" in the whole cohort (SMR 2.54; 95%CI 1.21-5.34), and brain cancer in Plant I (SMR 2.13; 95%CI 1.02-4.48), were significantly increased. Increased risks were also observed for Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. No linear associations between mortality and duration of employment or latency were observed for these cancers. Mortality from stomach cancer did not differ from expectation in the whole cohort, however an increasing risk with increasing duration of employment was detected (p for trend=0.02). The current update suggests possibly increased cancer risks in PCB-exposed workers, affecting in particular the digestive system, brain, and lymphohemopoietic tissue. However the limited sample size, the lack of clear trends with duration of employment or with latency period, preclude to derive definite conclusions about PCB exposure and the increased cancer risks.

  5. Risk of bile duct cancer among printing workers exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Utada, Mai; Makiuchi, Takeshi; Ohno, Yuko; Uehara, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Endo, Ginji

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of bile duct cancer among current and former workers in the offset color proof printing department at a printing company in Osaka, Japan. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2012, were estimated for the cumulative years of exposure to two chemicals, dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), using the national incidence level as a reference. In addition, we examined risk patterns by the calendar year in which observation started. Among 106 workers with a total of 1,452.4 person-years of exposure, 17 bile duct cancer cases were observed, resulting in an estimated overall SIR of 1,132.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 659.7-1,813.2). The SIR was 1,319.9 (95% CI: 658.9-2,361.7) for those who were exposed to both DCM and 1,2-DCP, and it was 1,002.8 (95% CI: 368.0-2,182.8) for those exposed to 1,2-DCP only. SIRs tended to increase according to years of exposure to 1,2-DCP but not DCM when a 5-year lag time was assumed. The SIRs were higher for the cohorts in which observation started in 1993-2000, particularly in cohorts in which it started in 1996-1999, compared with those in which it started before or after 1993-2000. We observed an extraordinarily high risk of bile duct cancer among the offset color proof printing workers. Elevated risk may be related to cumulative exposure to 1,2-DCP, but there remains some possibility that a portion of the risk is due to other unidentified substances.

  6. Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: a meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Schachter, E Neil; Zuskin, Eugenija; Moshier, Erin L; Godbold, James; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka; Pucarin-Cvetkovic, Jasna; Chiarelli, Angelo

    2009-01-12

    Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Three thousand and eleven (3011) workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male) were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387). Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

  7. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders. © 2015 UICC.

  8. The possible role of direct ingestion on the overall absorption of cadmium or arsenic in workers exposed to CdO or As2O3 dust.

    PubMed

    Roels, H; Buchet, J P; Truc, J; Croquet, F; Lauwerys, R

    1982-01-01

    Six volunteers (two office and four cadmium (Cd)-exposed workers, all nonsmokers) from an electric condenser factory participated in a study involving the measurement of cadmium in air and in dust, the evaluation of hand and mouth contamination by cadmium, and the determination of fecal cadmium. The mean levels of total airborne cadmium measured with static and personal samplers were for the exposed workers 9.5 and 16.7 microgram/m3, respectively, and for the office workers 0.3 and 0.5 microgram/m3, respectively. In the office workers, hand contamination by Cd hardly changes over the workday (less than 10 microgram/hand), whereas in the exposed workers important hand contamination by Cd was observed (up to 1,200 microgram/hand during the workday and up to 300 microgram/hand before lunch or before leaving the factory). Mouth contamination by Cd is rather similar in both groups on Monday morning, but increases 20- to 50-fold on Friday afternoon in the Cd workers against a slight increase for the office workers. The concentration of Cd in the feces was not much different between Sunday and Friday in the office workers, whereas in the exposed workers it was higher on Friday than on Sunday. There is suggestive evidence from a comparative study of fecal cadmium in two Cd-exposed volunteers who carried out their jobs with and without gloves that direct cadmium intake from hand contamination may contribute to the overall Cd absorption. A limited study in a glassware factory (As2O3 exposure) involving the measurement of total airborne arsenic, the determination of urinary arsenic, and the evaluation of hand and mouth contamination by arsenic before and after the workshift suggests that the high urinary arsenic levels (300 microgram/g creatinine) are likely to be more related to an increased oral intake from contaminated hands than to an increased absorption from the lungs.

  9. Markers of lipid oxidative damage among office workers exposed intermittently to air pollutants including nanoTiO2 particles.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Komarc, Martin; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Zikova, Nadezda; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makes, Otakar; Navratil, Tomas; Zakharov, Sergey; Bello, Dhimiter

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls. Office workers were observed to get intermittent exposures to nanoTiO2 during their process monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such short-term exposures on the markers of health effects in office workers relative to production workers from the same factory. Twenty-two office employees were examined. They were occupationally exposed to (nano)TiO2 aerosol during their daily visits of the production area for an average of 14±9 min/day. Median particle number concentration in office workers while in the production area was 2.32×104/cm3. About 80% of the particles were <100 nm in diameter. A panel of biomarkers of lipid oxidation, specifically malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenal (HNE), 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), and aldehydes C6-C12, were studied in the EBC and urine of office workers and 14 unexposed controls. Nine markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in the EBC of office employees relative to controls (p<0.05); only 8-isoprostane and C11 were not increased. Significant association was found in the multivariate analysis between their employment in the TiO2 production plant and EBC markers of lipid oxidation. No association was seen with age, lifestyle factors, or environmental air contamination. The EBC markers in office employees reached about 50% of the levels measured in production workers, and the difference between

  10. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Juutilainen, J; Stevens, Richard G.; Anderson, Larry E.

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group hadmore » average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.« less

  11. Whole Genome Expression in Peripheral-Blood Samples of Workers Professionally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Su, Hung-Ju; Huang, Jie-Len; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Wang, Weihsin; Chou, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ming-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Pan, Chih-Hong; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine global gene expression profiles before and after the work-shift among coke-oven workers (COW). COW work six consecutive days and then take two days off. Two blood and urine samples in each worker were collected before starting to work after two-days off and end-of-shift in the sixth-day work in 2009. Altered gene expressions (ratio of gene expression levels between end-of-shift and pre-shift work) were performed by Human OneArray expression system which probes ∼30,000-transcription expression profiling of human genes. Sixteen workers, all men, were enrolled in this study. Median urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) levels (μmole/mole creatinine) in end-of-shift work were significantly higher than those in pre-shift work (2.58 vs. 0.29, p = 0.0002). Among the 20,341 genes which passed experimental quality control, 26 gene expression changes, 7 positive and 19 negative, were highly correlated with across-the-shift urinary 1OHP levels (end-of-shift – pre-shift 1OHP) (p-value < 0.001). The high and low exposure groups of across-the-shift urinary 1OHP levels dichotomized in ∼2.00 μmole/mole creatinine were able to be distinguished by these 26 genes. Some of them are known to be involved in apoptosis, chromosome stability/DNA repair, cell cycle control/tumor suppressor, cell adhesion, development/spermatogenesis, immune function, and neuronal cell function. These findings in COW will be an ideal model to study the relationship of PAHs exposure with acute changes of gene expressions. PMID:21854004

  12. Respiratory health of workers exposed to low levels of chromium in stainless steel production.

    PubMed Central

    Huvinen, M; Uitti, J; Zitting, A; Roto, P; Virkola, K; Kuikka, P; Laippala, P; Aitio, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether occupational exposure to chromite, trivalent chromium, or hexavalent chromium causes respiratory diseases, an excess of respiratory symptoms, a decrease in pulmonary function, or signs of pneumoconiosis among workers in an integrated chain of stainless steel production. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out in 1993 and the inclusion criterion was a minimum of eight years of employment in the same production department. A self administered questionnaire was collected, and spirometry, measurement of diffusing capacity, chest radiography, and laboratory tests were carried out by a mobile research unit. RESULTS: There were 221 workers in the exposure groups and 95 in the control group. The average duration of employment was 18 years. No significant differences in the odds ratios (ORs) of the symptoms were found between the exposure and the control groups. In a logistic regression analysis age and smoking significantly explained the occurrence of most of the respiratory symptoms. The smokers in the chromite group had significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and diffusing capacity than the corresponding values of the control group. The analysis of variance between study groups, smoking, and exposure time, without modelling for interactions, showed that the chromite group had lower values for FVC, FEV1, and diffusing capacity than the other groups. The occurrence of small opacities was more frequent on the chest radiographs of the workers in the chromite group. CONCLUSIONS: An average exposure time of 18 years in ferrochromium and stainless steel production and exposure to dusts containing low concentrations of hexavalent or trivalent chromium do not lead to any respiratory changes detectable by lung function tests or radiography nor to any increase in symptoms of respiratory diseases. The lung function values were lower and the occurrence of radiological findings was

  13. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Simone; Fonseca, Antônio Sérgio Almeida; Otero, Ubirani Barros; Tabalipa, Marianne Medeiros; Moreira, Josino Costa; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes

    2015-07-21

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP), but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF) and Clinical Findings (CF) groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. Methods Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5%) of whom, and 31 (7.8%) of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96). Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1%) of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8%) of the control subjects (P = 0.23). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004). In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04), chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03), and reflex impairment (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03), unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02), and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01), whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age. PMID:22177118

  15. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mitri, Simone; Fonseca, Antônio Sérgio Almeida; Otero, Ubirani Barros; Tabalipa, Marianne Medeiros; Moreira, Josino Costa; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP), but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF) and Clinical Findings (CF) groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations. PMID:26197327

  16. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.

  17. Cognitive Control Dysfunction in Workers Exposed to Manganese-Containing Welding Fume

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lozi, A; Nielsen, SS; Hershey, T; Birke, A; Checkoway, H; Criswell, SR; Racette, BA

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) is a health concern in occupations such as welding because of well-established motor effects due to basal ganglia dysfunction. We hypothesized that cognitive control (the ability to monitor, manipulate, and regulate ongoing cognitive demands) would also be affected by chronic Mn exposure. Methods We examined the relationship between Mn exposure and cognitive control performance in 95 workers with varying intensity and duration (median 15.5 years) of exposure to welding fume. We performed linear regression to assess the association between exposure to Mn-containing welding fume and cognitive control tasks. Results Overall performance was inversely related to intensity of welding exposure (p=0.009) and was driven by the Two-Back and Letter Number Sequencing tests that assess working memory (both p=0.02). Conclusions Occupational exposure to Mn-containing welding fume may be associated with poorer working memory performance, and workers may benefit from practices that reduce exposure intensity. PMID:27862095

  18. Pulmonary function in workers exposed to diesel exhausts: the effect of control measures.

    PubMed

    Ulfvarson, U; Alexandersson, R; Dahlqvist, M; Ekholm, U; Bergström, B

    1991-01-01

    To assess the protective effect of exhausts pipe filters or respirators on pulmonary function, 15 workers in a tunnel construction site, truck and loading machine drivers, rock workers, and others were studied. The total and respirable dust, combustible matter in respirable dust, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were measured for each subject during entire work shifts. The effect of the exposure on the lung function variables was measured by dynamic spirometry, carbon monoxide single breath technique, and nitrogen single breath wash-out. The exhaust pipe filtering had a protective effect, directly discernible in the drivers on vital capacity and FEV1.0 and for the whole group on FEV% and TLco. The dust respirators had no effect, probably because of the difficulties in correctly using personal protection under the circumstances in the tunnel. In the absence of a true exposure assessment, control measures for diesel exhausts can be tested by medical effect studies. Catalytic particle filters of diesel exhausts are one method of rendering the emissions less irritant, although they will not remove irritant gases. An indicator of diesel exhaust exposure should include the particle fraction of the diesel exhausts, but a discrimination between different sources of organic dust must be possible.

  19. A study of characteristics of Michigan workers with work-related asthma exposed to welding.

    PubMed

    Banga, Amit; Reilly, Mary Jo; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2011-04-01

    To describe the characteristics of subjects with work-related asthma (WRA) secondary to welding exposure. As part of statewide surveillance, WRA reports were received from health care professionals. These reports were followed up with a telephonic interview using a standardized questionnaire; lung function tests were reviewed, and final assessment regarding the diagnosis was made. Welding exposure was the fifth leading cause of WRA (n = 142; age, 43.3 ± 11.4 years; male to female ratio, 94:48). Several workers (n = 72) were nonwelders but all worked around welding fumes. More than a third had predicted forced expiratory volume in one second less than 80% (38 of 106, 35.8%). Most had sought medical treatment (95.8%) and had emergency room visits (n = 86, 60.6%), and several had required hospitalization (n = 50, 36.7%). Welding exposure is a common cause of WRA. It is seen in workers from different industries engaged in diverse jobs. Spirometry changes are common. Work-related asthma is associated with high morbidity and health care costs.

  20. Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the utility of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer. Blood samples from 15 spray painters applying HDI-containing paint were analyzed for hemoglobin HDA (HDA-Hb) and N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA-Hb) by GC-MS. HDA-Hb was detected in the majority of workers (≤1.2-37 ng/g Hb), whereas monoacetyl-HDA-Hb was detected in one worker (0.06 ng/g Hb). The stronger, positive association between HDA-Hb and cumulative HDI exposure (r(2) = 0.3, p < 0.06) than same day exposure (p ≥ 0.13) indicates long-term elimination kinetics for HDA-Hb adducts. This association demonstrates the suitability of HDA-Hb adducts for further validation as a biomarker of HDI exposure.

  1. Cognitive control dysfunction in workers exposed to manganese-containing welding fume.

    PubMed

    Al-Lozi, Amal; Nielsen, Susan Searles; Hershey, Tamara; Birke, Angela; Checkoway, Harvey; Criswell, Susan R; Racette, Brad A

    2017-02-01

    Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) is a health concern in occupations such as welding because of well-established motor effects due to basal ganglia dysfunction. We hypothesized that cognitive control (the ability to monitor, manipulate, and regulate ongoing cognitive demands) would also be affected by chronic Mn exposure. We examined the relationship between Mn exposure and cognitive control performance in 95 workers with varying intensity and duration (median 15.5 years) of exposure to welding fume. We performed linear regression to assess the association between exposure to Mn-containing welding fume and cognitive control tasks. Overall performance was inversely related to intensity of welding exposure (P = 0.009) and was driven by the Two-Back and Letter Number Sequencing tests that assess working memory (both P = 0.02). Occupational exposure to Mn-containing welding fume may be associated with poorer working memory performance, and workers may benefit from practices that reduce exposure intensity. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:181-188, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of respiratory outcomes among bauxite exposed workers in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dennekamp, Martine; de Klerk, Nicholas Hubert; Reid, Alison; Abramson, Michael John; Cui, Jisheng; Del Monaco, Anthony; Fritschi, Lin; Benke, Geza Paul; Sim, Malcolm Ross; Musk, Arthur William

    2015-08-01

    Occupational exposure to bauxite is common in the aluminium industry but little is known about the associated health effects. This study investigates respiratory health in relation to respirable bauxite dust exposure longitudinally over a 13 year period. An inception cohort study recruited 91 male bauxite miners and 363 male alumina refinery workers. Annual measurements of respiratory symptoms and lung function were made. Cumulative exposure to bauxite was derived from job histories and air monitoring data. Mixed-effects modeling was used. No associations were found between cumulative bauxite exposure and respiratory symptoms or lung function. However, when analysis was restricted to the first three rounds, FEV1 was significantly lower in all exposure groups than in those unexposed but with no significant trend. Increasing exposure to bauxite dust in the aluminum industry was not associated with respiratory symptoms or consistent decrements in lung function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mortality among mound workers exposed to polonium-210 and other sources of radiation, 1944-1979.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Cragle, Donna L; Eckerman, Keith F; Wallace, Phillip W; Chadda, Bandana; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Richter, Bonnie S; Leggett, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. Cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944-1972) in combination with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionuclides. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose-response relationships for specific organs and tissues. Vital status was determined for 98.7% of the workers of which 3,681 had died compared with 4,073.9 expected (SMR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88-0.93). The mean dose from external radiation was 26.1 mSv (maximum 939.1 mSv) and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 100.1 mSv (maximum 17.5 Sv). Among the 4,977 radiation workers, all cancers taken together (SMR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.93), lung cancer (SMR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.98), and other types of cancer were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant positive dose-response trend for esophageal cancer [relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval at 100 mSv of 1.54 (1.15-2.07)] and a

  4. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. PMID:24589746

  5. Incidence of asthma among workers exposed to sulphur dioxide and other irritant gases.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E; Knutsson, A; Hagberg, S; Nilsson, T; Karlsson, B; Alfredsson, L; Torén, K

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated peak exposure (gassings) to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other irritant gases increases the risk of new-onset asthma. A questionnaire was sent to 4,112 sulphite workers, of whom 1,919 completed the questionnaire and 396 completed the short-form questionnaire, which was sent out as a last reminder. A sample of 130 nonrespondents completed a telephone interview using the short-form questionnaire. The incidence of adult-onset, physician-diagnosed asthma during employment duration was analysed in relation to exposure to SO2 and gassings giving rise to respiratory symptoms. Incidence rates, as well as incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated. Further Cox regression models were used allowing assessment of hazard ratios (HR) stratified for sex and adjusted for atopy, smoking habits and age. The incidence rate for asthma among sulphite mill workers reporting gassings of SO2 was 6.2 out of 1,000 person-yrs, compared with 1.9 out of 1,000 person-yrs among subjects unexposed to SO2 and any gassings (HR (95% CI) 4.0 (2.1-7.7)). Among males reporting gassings to SO2, the HR (95% CI) for asthma was 5.8 (2.6-13) compared with unexposed males. In conclusion, repeated peak exposure to sulphur dioxide increased the incidence of asthma during work in sulphite pulp mills, which supports the hypothesis of irritant-induced asthma.

  6. The Level of Selenium and Oxidative Stress in Workers Chronically Exposed to Lead.

    PubMed

    Pawlas, Natalia; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    The possible beneficial role of selenium (Se) on the oxidative stress induced by lead (Pb) is still unclear in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations among the Se levels, chronic Pb exposure, oxidative stress parameters, and parameters characterizing the function of the antioxidant defense system in men who are occupationally exposed to Pb. Based on the median serum Se concentrations, the 324 study subjects were divided into two subgroups: a subgroup with a low Se level (L-Se) and a subgroup with a high Se level (H-Se). The levels of lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the blood and the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in the urine served as indices of Pb exposure. The PbB level was significantly lower in the H-Se group compared to that in the L-Se group by 6 %. The levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine and lipofuscin (LPS) and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly lower in the H-Se group compared to that in the L-Se group by 17, 19, and 11 %, respectively. However, the glutathione level (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were significantly higher by 9, 23, and 3 %. Spearman correlations showed positive associations between the Se level and GPx activity and GSH level. A lower serum Se level in chronically Pb-exposed subjects is associated with higher Pb blood levels and an elevated erythrocyte LPS level, which reflects the intensity of oxidative stress. Besides, in a group of Pb-exposed subjects with lower serum Se level, depleted GSH pool and decreased activity of GPx in erythrocytes were reported. However, the present results are inadequate to recommend Se supplementation for chronic lead exposure at higher doses than would be included in a normal diet except for selenium deficiency.

  7. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A totalmore » of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.« less

  8. Mortality Among Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate in the US Polyurethane Foam Industry: Update and Exposure-Response Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Lynne E.; Yiin, James H.; Daniels, Robert D.; Fent, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mortality among 4,545 toluene diisocyante (TDI)-exposed workers was updated through 2011. The primary outcome of interest was lung cancer. Methods Life table analyses, including internal analyses by exposure duration and cumulative TDI exposure, were conducted. Results Compared with the US population, all cause and all cancer mortality was increased. Lung cancer mortality was increased but was not associated with exposure duration or cumulative TDI exposure. In post hoc analyses, lung cancer mortality was associated with employment duration in finishing jobs, but not in finishing jobs involving cutting polyurethane foam. Conclusions Dermal exposure, in contrast to inhalational exposure, to TDI is expected to be greater in finishing jobs and may play a role in the observed increase in lung cancer mortality. Limitations include the lack of smoking data, uncertainty in the exposure estimates, and exposure estimates that reflected inhalational exposure only. PMID:27346061

  9. [Factors influencing electrocardiogram results in workers exposed to noise in steel-making and steel-rolling workshops of an iron and steel plant].

    PubMed

    Li, Y H; Yu, S F; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Jiao, J

    2016-02-20

    To investigate the factors influencing the electrocardiogram results in the workers exposed to noise in steel-making and steel rolling workshops of an iron and steel plant. From September to December, 2013, cluster sampling was used to select 3 150 workers exposed to noise in the steel-making and steel-rolling workshops of an iron and steel plant, and a questionnaire survey and physical examinations were performed. The number of valid workers was 2 915, consisting of 1 606 workers in the steel-rolling workshop and 1 309 in the steel-making workshop. The electrocardiogram results of the workers in steel-making and steel-rolling workshops were analyzed. The overall abnormal rate of electrocardiogram was 26.35%, and the workers in the steel-making workshop had a significantly higher abnormal rate of electrocardiogram than those in the steel-rolling workshop(32.24% vs 21.54%, P<0.05). Male workers had a significantly higher abnormal rate of electrocardiogram than female workers(27.59% vs 18.61%, P<0.05). The workers with a drinking habit had a significantly higher abnormal rate of electrocardiogram than those who did not drink(28.17% vs 23.75%, P<0.05). The workers exposed to high temperature had a significantly higher abnormal rate of electrocardiogram than those who were not exposed to high temperature(29.43% vs 20.14%, P<0.05). The abnormal rates of electrocardiogram in the workers with cumulative noise exposure levels of <90, 90~94, 95~99, 100~104, and 105~113 dB(A)·year were 21.21%, 21.76%, 26.50%, 27.27%, and 32.16%, respectively, with significant differences between any two groups(P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a cumulative noise exposure of 105-113 dB(A)·year(OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.03~1.80), a drinking habit(OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.01~1.43), and high temperature(OR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.32~1.92) were the risk factors for abnormal electrocardiogram results. High cumulative noise exposure, alcohol consumption, and high temperature may

  10. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Skin Naphthyl–Keratin Adduct Levels in Workers Exposed to Naphthalene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rong; French, John E.; Stober, Vandy P.; Kang-Sickel, Juei-Chuan C.; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individual genetic variation that results in differences in systemic response to xenobiotic exposure is not accounted for as a predictor of outcome in current exposure assessment models. Objective: We developed a strategy to investigate individual differences in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic markers associated with naphthyl–keratin adduct (NKA) levels measured in the skin of workers exposed to naphthalene. Methods: The SNP-association analysis was conducted in PLINK using candidate-gene analysis and genome-wide analysis. We identified significant SNP–NKA associations and investigated the potential impact of these SNPs along with personal and workplace factors on NKA levels using a multiple linear regression model and the Pratt index. Results: In candidate-gene analysis, a SNP (rs4852279) located near the CYP26B1 gene contributed to the 2-naphthyl–keratin adduct (2NKA) level. In the multiple linear regression model, the SNP rs4852279, dermal exposure, exposure time, task replacing foam, age, and ethnicity all were significant predictors of 2NKA level. In genome-wide analysis, no single SNP reached genome-wide significance for NKA levels (all p ≥ 1.05 × 10–5). Pathway and network analyses of SNPs associated with NKA levels were predicted to be involved in the regulation of cellular processes and homeostasis. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that a quantitative biomarker can be used as an intermediate phenotype when investigating the association between genetic markers and exposure–dose relationship in a small, well-characterized exposed worker population. PMID:22391508

  11. Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    Carreón, Tania; Hein, Misty J; Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Ruder, Avima M

    2015-01-01

    Background An earlier investigation found increased bladder cancer incidence among workers at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant that used o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene. The cohort was expanded to include additional workers (n=1875) and updated through 2007 to assess bladder cancer with improved exposure characterisation. Methods Work histories were updated and exposure categories and ranks were developed for o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene combined. Incident cancers were identified by linkage to six state cancer registries. Residency in time-dependent cancer registry catchment areas was determined. SIR and standardised rate ratios for bladder cancer were calculated by exposure category and cumulative rank quartiles for different lag periods. Cox regression was used to model bladder cancer incidence with estimated cumulative rank, adjusting for confounders. Indirect methods were used to control for smoking. Results Excess bladder cancer was observed compared to the New York State population (SIR=2.87, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.96), with higher elevations among workers definitely exposed (moderate/high) (SIR=3.90, 95% CI 2.57 to 5.68), and in the highest cumulative rank quartile (SIR=6.13, 95% CI 2.80 to 11.6, 10-year lag). Bladder cancer rates increased significantly with estimated cumulative rank (10-year lag). Smoking only accounted for an estimated 8% elevation in bladder cancer incidence. Conclusions Bladder cancer incidence remains elevated in this cohort and significantly associated with estimated cumulative exposure. Results are consistent with earlier findings in this and other cohorts. Despite other concurrent chemical exposures, we consider o-toluidine most likely responsible for the bladder cancer incidence elevation and recommend a re-examination of occupational exposure limits. PMID:24368697

  12. Risk of cancer in workers exposed to styrene at eight British companies making glass-reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T

    2015-03-01

    To provide further information on the risks of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) and other cancers associated with styrene. We extended follow-up to December 2012 for 7970 workers at eight companies in England which used styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. Mortality was compared with that for England and Wales by the person-years method, and summarised by SMRs with 95% CIs. A supplementary nested case-control analysis compared styrene exposures, lagged by 5 years, in 122 incident or fatal cases of LH cancer and 1138 matched controls. A total of 3121 cohort members had died (2022 since the last follow-up). No elevation of mortality was observed for LH cancer, either in the full cohort (62 deaths, SMR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.15), or in those with more than background exposure to styrene (38 deaths, SMR 0.82, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.14). Nor did the case-control analysis suggest any association with LH cancer. In comparison with background exposure, the OR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in workers with high exposure (estimated 8-h time-weighted average of 40-100 ppm) for ≥1 year was 0.54 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.27). Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated, and risk increased progressively across exposure categories, with an SMR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) in workers highly exposed for ≥1 year. We found no evidence that styrene causes LH cancer. An association with lung cancer is not consistently supported by other studies. It may have been confounded by smoking, but would be worth checking further. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-09-11

    Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25-8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the "both" type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more "electrode effect" alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway.

  14. Mortality Among Mound Workers Exposed to Polonium-210 and Other Sources of Radiation, 1944–1979

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.; Cohen, Sarah S.; Mumma, Michael T.

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. In this paper, cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944–1972) in combinationmore » with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionuclides. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose-response relationships for specific organs and tissues. Vital status was determined for 98.7% of the workers of which 3,681 had died compared with 4,073.9 expected (SMR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88–0.93). The mean dose from external radiation was 26.1 mSv (maximum 939.1 mSv) and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 100.1 mSv (maximum 17.5 Sv). Among the 4,977 radiation workers, all cancers taken together (SMR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79–0.93), lung cancer (SMR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.98), and other types of cancer were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant positive dose-response trend for esophageal cancer [relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval at 100 m

  15. Pulmonary Impairment and Risk Assessment in a Diacetyl-Exposed Population: Microwave Popcorn Workers.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert M; Gilbert, Stephen J

    2018-06-01

    The butter flavoring additive, diacetyl (DA), can cause bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) by inhalation. A risk assessment was performed using data from a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant. Current employees' medical history and pulmonary function tests together with air sampling over a 2.7-year period were used to analyze forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC). The exposure responses for declining pulmonary function and for possible early onset of BO were estimated using multiple regression methods. Several exposure metrics were investigated; benchmark dose and excess lifetime risk of impairment were calculated. Forty-six percent of the population had less than 6 months exposure to DA. Percent-of-predicted FEV1 declined with cumulative exposure (0.40 per ppm-yr, P < 10) as did percent FEV1/FVC (0.13 per ppm-yr, P = 0.0004). Lifetime respiratory impairment prevalence of one per thousand resulted from 0.005 ppm DA and one per thousand lifetime incidence of impairment was predicted for 0.002 ppm DA. DA exposures, often exceeding 1 ppm in the past, place workers at high risk of pulmonary impairment.

  16. Correlation between benzene and testosterone in workers exposed to urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Rosati, M V; Sancini, A; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Traversini, V; De Vita, A; De Cesare, D P; Giammichele, G; De Marco, F; Pagliara, F; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Tomei, G; Ricci, S

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have examined the effects of benzene on testosterone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation between the blood levels of benzene and the levels of testosterone. The study involved a group of 148 subjects. For every worker have been made out a blood sample for the evaluation of benzene and testosterone levels and an urine analysis for the evaluation of the levels of trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. We estimated the Pearson correlation coefficient between the variables in the sample and the urinary metabolites, age, length of service, gender, BMI. For the analysis of the major confounding factors it was performed a multiple linear regression. The Pearson correlation coefficiet showed: 1. a significant inverse correlation between the S-phenyl mercapturic acid and free testosterone; 2. a significant direct correlation between trans-trans muconic acid and BMI. After dividing the sample according to the median of blood benzene (161.0 ng / L), Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant inverse correlation between the S-phenyl mercapturic acid and free testosterone in the group with values below this median. Our results, to be considered preliminary, suggest that occupational exposure to low levels of benzene, present in urban pollution, affect the blood levels of testosterone. These results need to be confirmed in future studies, with the eventual possibility of including more specific fertility tests.

  17. Plasma 17-alpha-OH-progesterone in female workers exposed to urban pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocca, M; Cerratti, D; Capozzella, A; Rosati, M V; Anzani, M F; Bernardini, A; Casale, T; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Monti, C; Tomao, E; Tomei, F

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to urban pollutants could cause alteration in plasma 17-alpha-OH-P levels in female workers. After excluding the subjects with the principal confounding factors, traffic police and controls were matched by age, working life, age of menarche, menstrual cycle day, BMI, drinking habits, habitual consumption of soy and Italian coffee. 68 traffic police and 82 controls (7th day; follicular phase of the ovarian cycle), 37 traffic police and 20 controls (21st day; lutheal phase of the ovarian cycle) were included in the study and matched for the above mentioned variables. In follicular and lutheal phase of ovarian cycle, 17-alpha-OH-P mean levels and the distribution of 17-alpha-OH-P values were significantly higher in traffic police vs. controls. A higher instance of mental health disorders in traffic police vs. controls was found, although the difference was not significant. Considering that the potential confounding effect of extraneous factors was controlled by restricting the study population and by matching traffic police vs. controls on the above mentioned variables, our results suggest that occupational exposure to urban pollutants may alter plasma 17-alpha-OH-P concentrations. 17-alpha-OH-P could be used in an occupational setting as an early biomarker of exposure to urban pollutants, valuable for a group, even before the onset of related pathologies.

  18. Mortality Among Mound Workers Exposed to Polonium-210 and Other Sources of Radiation, 1944–1979

    DOE PAGES

    Boice, John D.; Cohen, Sarah S.; Mumma, Michael T.; ...

    2014-02-14

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. In this paper, cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944–1972) in combinationmore » with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionuclides. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose-response relationships for specific organs and tissues. Vital status was determined for 98.7% of the workers of which 3,681 had died compared with 4,073.9 expected (SMR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88–0.93). The mean dose from external radiation was 26.1 mSv (maximum 939.1 mSv) and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 100.1 mSv (maximum 17.5 Sv). Among the 4,977 radiation workers, all cancers taken together (SMR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79–0.93), lung cancer (SMR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.98), and other types of cancer were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant positive dose-response trend for esophageal cancer [relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval at 100 m

  19. Observed versus predicted carboxyhemoglobin levels in cellulose triacetate workers exposed to methylene chloride.

    PubMed

    Amsel, J; Soden, K J; Sielken, R L; Valdez-Flora, C

    2001-08-01

    Occupational exposure to methylene chloride, together with carboxyhemoglobin concentrations, has not been studied previously. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured in non-smoking employees exposed to varying concentrations of methylene chloride during the manufacture of cellulose triacetate fibers. The observed carboxyhemoglobin levels were compared to predicted concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. The presence of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers exposed to methylene chloride results primarily from the metabolism of methylene chloride in the liver and exhibits a linear dose-response relationship. The observed levels of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers at the end of an 8-hour shift depend upon exposures to methylene chloride that day but are independent of occupational exposures on previous days. The observed daily concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin are consistent with predicted concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. While varying exposure patterns were shown to change the rate of metabolite formation at the end of shift, these same exposure patterns had almost no effect on the total amount of carbon monoxide in the blood. While the present study addresses the relationship between methylene chloride, carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and ischemic heart disease, it does not address the issue of tumorigenicity, which is also the basis for the current U.S. Occupational Health and Safety workplace exposure limit of 25 ppm. This study provides support for the conclusion that the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 8-hour Threshold Limit Value of 50 ppm adequately protects human health with regard to ischemic heart disease and carboxyhemoglobin formation among non-smokers. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Identification of trichloroethylene and its metabolites in human seminal fluid of workers exposed to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Forkert, Poh-Gek; Lash, Lawrence; Tardif, Robert; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj; Vandevoort, Catherine; Moussa, Madeleine

    2003-03-01

    We have investigated the potential of the male reproductive tract to accumulate trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites, including chloral, trichloroethanol (TCOH), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA). Human seminal fluid and urine samples from eight mechanics diagnosed with clinical infertility and exposed to TCE occupationally were analyzed. In in vivo experimental studies, TCE and its metabolites were determined in epididymis and testis of mice exposed to TCE (1000 ppm) by inhalation for 1 to 4 weeks. In other studies, incubations of monkey epididymal microsomes were performed in the presence of TCE and NADPH. Our results showed that seminal fluid from all eight subjects contained TCE, chloral, and TCOH. DCA was present in samples from two subjects, and only one contained TCA. TCA and/or TCOH were also identified in urine samples from only two subjects. TCE, chloral, and TCOH were detected in murine epididymis after inhalation exposure with TCE for 1 to 4 weeks. Levels of TCE and chloral were similar throughout the entire exposure period. TCOH levels were similar at 1 and 2 weeks but increased significantly after 4 weeks of TCE exposure. Chloral was identified in microsomal incubations with TCE in monkey epididymis. CYP2E1, a P450 that metabolizes TCE, was localized in human and monkey epididymal epithelium and testicular Leydig cells. These results indicated that TCE is metabolized in the reproductive tract of the mouse and monkey. Furthermore, TCE and its metabolites accumulated in seminal fluid, and suggested associations between production of TCE metabolites, reproductive toxicity, and impaired fertility.

  1. Milk and Dairy Products Intake Is Associated with Low Levels of Lead (Pb) in Workers highly Exposed to the Metal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Willian Robert; Devóz, Paula Pícoli; Araújo, Marília Ladeira; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Barbosa, Fernando; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron

    2017-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal, frequently associated with occupational exposure, due to its widespread use in industry and several studies have shown high Pb levels in workers occupationally exposed to the metal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of milk and dairy products (MDP) on Pb levels in blood (B-Pb), plasma (P-Pb), and urine (U-Pb), in workers from automotive battery industries in Brazil. The study included 237 male workers; information concerning diet and lifestyle were gathered through a questionnaire, and B-Pb, P-Pb, and U-Pb were determined by ICP-MS. Mean B-Pb, P-Pb, and U-Pb were 21 ± 12, 0.62 ± 0.73 μg/dL, and 39 ± 47 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Forty three percent of participants declared consuming ≤3 portions/week of MDP (classified as low-MDP intake), while 57% of individuals had >3portions/week of MDP (high-MDP intake). B-Pb and P-Pb were correlated with working time (r s  = 0.21; r s  = 0.20; p < 0.010). Multivariable linear regressions showed a significant influence of MDP intake on B-Pb (β = -0.10; p = 0.012) and P-Pb (β = -0.16; p < 0.010), while no significance was seen on U-Pb. Our results suggest that MDP consumption may modulate Pb levels in individuals highly exposed to the metal; these findings may be due to the Pb-Ca interactions, since the adverse effects of Pb are partially based on its interference with Ca metabolism and proper Ca supplementation may help to reduce the adverse health effects induced by Pb exposure.

  2. Modeling Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Otoacoustic Emissions in Workers Exposed to Different Industrial Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R.; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL) and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift

  3. Effects of physician counseling on the smoking behavior of asbestos-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Ewart, C.K.

    Physician antismoking advice has been shown to increase smoking cessation, particularly among patients who have medical problems or perceive themselves to be at risk. The present study tested three hypotheses: (a) providing 3 to 5 min of behavioral counseling regarding a cessation strategy would be more effective than simply warning the smoker to quit smoking; (b) smokers with abnormal pulmonary function would be more likely to comply with medical advice than would smokers with normal pulmonary function; and (c) that smokers with abnormal pulmonary function who receive behavioral counseling would be the group most likely to achieve prolonged abstinence. Asbestos-exposedmore » smoking men undergoing screening in a mandated program for naval shipyard workers were categorized as having normal or abnormal pulmonary status on the basis of chest X ray and pulmonary function tests (PFT). They were then randomly assigned within PFT categories to receive either a simple warning or 3 to 5 min of behavioral cessation counseling from the physician who gave them the results of their pulmonary tests. Subjects smoking status was evaluated at 3- and 11-month intervals following the physician intervention. Smokers who received behavioral counseling were more likely to quit and remain abstinent over the 11-month period (8.4% abstinent) than were smokers given a minimal warning (3.6% abstinent). Prolonged abstinence rates among abnormal PFT subjects (3.7%) did not differ from those of normals (5.9%). The group with normal PFT who received behavioral counseling achieved the highest level of abstinence (9.5%).« less

  4. Positive dermal hypersensitivity and specific antibodies in workers exposed to bio-engineered enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, R.E.; Henningsen, G.M.; Driscoll, R.

    1991-03-15

    Thirty-six employees who produced industrial enzymes from bio-engineered strains of bacteria and fungi were evaluated by skin prick testing and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgE and IgG antibodies. The workers complained of asthma- and flu-like' symptoms which generally lessened away from work. The enzymes evaluated were {alpha}-amylase from A. niger (ind-AAN), B. licheniformis (ind-AAL) and B. subtilis (ind-AAS); purified {alpha}-amylase from B. subtilis (AAS) and A. niger (AAN); alkaline protease from B. licheniformis (ind-APL) and purified alkaline protease (APL); amylase glucosidase from A. niger (ind-AGN) and purified amylase glucosidase (AGN). Significantly positive skin tests were found for APL,more » AGN and ind-AAN. Significantly elevated specific IgE results were observed for AAN, AGN, and ind-AAN; elevated specific IgGs were observed for AAN, ind-AAN, ind-AAS, ind-AAL and ind-AGN. Radioimmunoassays of air filter samples (using sera with high Ab titers) for 4 of the ind-enzymes showed only ind-AAN at extremely high environmental levels. These results indicate that occupational exposure to some ind-enzymes causes immediate onset dermal hypersensitivity reactions. The results are equivocal as to whether these reactions are IgE mediated, as IgE titers were low. Contrary to this, IgG titers were extremely high and suggest that these biomarkers can be used as indicators of both individual exposure and environmental analyses.« less

  5. Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry

    PubMed Central

    Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; P<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006) and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS. PMID:23645955

  6. Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds and health risk assessment for diesel-exhaust exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Sauvain, J-J; Vu Duc, T; Guillemin, M

    2003-07-01

    Workers' exposure to diesel exhaust in a bus depot, a truck repair workshop and an underground tunnel was determined by the measuring of elemental carbon (EC) and 15 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) proposed by the US Department of Health and Human Services/National Toxicology Program (NTP). Based on these concentration data, the genotoxic PAC contribution to the diesel-exhaust particle (DEP) lung-cancer risk was calculated. Respirable particulate matter was collected during the summer and winter of 2001 (except for in the underground situation) and analysed by coulometry for EC and by GC-MS methods for PACs. The use of potency equivalence factors (PEFs) allowed the studied PAC concentrations to be expressed as benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (B[a]P(eq)). We then calculated the lung-cancer risk due to PACs and DEPs by multiplying the B[a]P(eq) and EC concentrations by the corresponding unit risk factor. The ratio of these two risks values has been considered as an estimate of the genotoxic contribution to the DEP cancer risk. For the bus depot and truck repair workshop, exposure to EC and PACs has been shown to increase by three to six times and ten times, respectively, during winter compared to summer. This increase has been attributed mainly to a decrease in ventilation during the cold. With the PEF approach, the B[a]P(eq) concentration is five-times higher than if only benzo[ a]pyrene (B[a]P) is considered. Dibenzopyrenes contribute an important part to this increase. A simple calculation based on unit risk factors indicates that the studied PAC contribution to the total lung-cancer risk attributed to DEPs is in the range of 3-13%. The 15 NTP PACs represent a small but non-negligible part of lung-cancer risk with regard to diesel exposure. From this point of view, the dibenzopyrene family are important compounds to be considered.

  7. Clinical, toxicological, biochemical, and hematologic parameters in lead exposed workers of a car battery industry.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r(2)=0.711; P<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006) and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS.

  8. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L

    1990-03-01

    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  9. Waste-handling practices at red meat abattoirs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hester; de Jager, Linda; Blight, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Abattoir waste disposal must be carefully managed because the wastes can be a source of food-borne diseases (Nemerow & Dasgupta Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, p. 284, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991; Bradshaw et al. The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, p. 183, The Royal Society, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992). Disposal of food that has been condemned because it is known to be diseased is of particular concern, and this paper looks at current disposal methods for such waste in the light of new scientific developments and waste-management strategies. Questionnaires were presented to management and workers at low- and high-throughput red meat abattoirs in the Free State Province, South Africa to determine current waste-handling procedures for condemned products. The waste-handling practices, almost without exception, did not fully comply with the requirements of the South African Red Meat Regulations of 2004, framed under the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000). The survey highlighted the need to improve current waste-handling strategies to prevent condemned products from re-entering the food chain and contributing to environmental pollution.

  10. Help-seeking in transit workers exposed to acute psychological trauma: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Bance, Sheena; Links, Paul S; Strike, Carol; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; Bergmans, Yvonne; Hall, Peter; O'Grady, John; Antony, Jesmin

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic events often occur in workplace settings and can lead to stress reactions such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). One such workplace is the transportation industry, where employees are often exposed to trauma. However, extant research shows that a considerable proportion of people with PTSD do not seek specialty mental health treatment. In this qualitative study, we sought to better understand the experience of a traumatic event at work and the barriers and motivating factors for seeking mental health treatment. Twenty-nine Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) employees participated in a one-on-one interview, 18 soon after the traumatic event and 11 after entering a specialized treatment program. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducting using qualitative description and analyzed using content analysis. Participants described emotional responses after the trauma such as guilt, anger, disbelief as particularly difficult, and explained that barriers to seeking help included the overwhelming amount and timing of paperwork related to the incident as well as negative interactions with management. Motivating factors included family and peer support, as well as financial and emotional issues which persuaded some to seek help. Seeking treatment is a multifactorial process. Implications and recommendations for the organization are discussed.

  11. Association of genetic polymorphisms of telomere binding proteins with cholinesterase activity in omethoate-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingcui; Yang, Yongli; Duan, Xiaoran; Wang, Sihua; Feng, Xiaolei; Wang, Tuanwei; Wang, Pengpeng; Liu, Suxiang; Li, Lei; Liu, Junling; Tang, Lixia; Niu, Xinhua; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Guoyu; Yao, Wu; Cui, Liuxin; Wang, Wei

    2018-06-18

    Omethoate, an organophosphorous pesticide, can cause a variety of health effects, especially the decrease of cholinesterase activity. The aim of this study is to explore the association of genetic polymorphisms of telomere binding proteins with cholinesterase activity in omethoate-exposed population. Cholinesterase activities in whole blood, red blood cell and plasma were detected using acetylthiocholine and dithio-bis-(nitrobenzoic acid) method; Genetic Genotyping of POT1 rs1034794, POT1 rs10250202, TERF1 rs3863242 and TERT rs2736098 were performed with PCR-RFLP. The cholinesterase activities of whole blood, red blood cells and plasma in exposure group are significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicates that exposure group (b = - 1.016, P < 0.001), agender (b = 0.365, P < 0.001), drinking (b = 0.271, P = 0.004) and TERF1rs3863242 (b = - 0.368, P = 0.016) had an impact on cholinesterase activities. The results suggest that individual carrying AG+GG genotypes in TERF1 gene rs3863242 polymorphism were susceptible to damage in cholinesterase induced by omethoate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of Future Cancer Burden Among Rescue and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankura; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Moir, William; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Vossbrinck, Madeline; Jaber, Nadia; Webber, Mayris P; Kelly, Kerry J; Ortiz, Viola; Koffler, Ellen; Prezant, David J

    2018-06-01

    Elevated rates of cancer have been reported in individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, including Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) rescue and recovery workers. To project the future burden of cancer in WTC-exposed FDNY rescue and recovery workers by estimating the 20-year cancer incidence. A total of 14 474 WTC-exposed FDNY employees who were cancer-free on January 1, 2012; subgroup analyses were conducted of the cohort's white male population (n = 12 374). In this closed-cohort study, we projected cancer incidence for the January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2031, period. Simulations were run using demographic-specific New York City (NYC) cancer and national mortality rates for each individual, summed for the whole cohort, and performed 1000 times to produce mean estimates. Additional analyses in the subgroup of white men compared case counts produced by using 2007-2011 FDNY WTC Health Program (FDNY-WTCHP) cancer rates vs NYC rates. Average and 20-year aggregate costs of first-year cancer care were estimated using claims data. World Trade Center disaster exposure defined as rescue and recovery work at the WTC site at any time from September 11, 2001, to July 25, 2002. (1) Projected number of incident cancers in the full cohort, based on NYC cancer rates; (2) cancer incidence estimates in the subgroup projected using FDNY-WTCHP vs NYC rates; and (3) estimated first-year treatment costs of incident cancers. On January 1, 2012, the cohort was 96.8% male, 87.1% white, and had a mean (SD) age of 50.2 (9.2) years. The projected number of incident cancer cases was 2960 (95% CI, 2883-3037). In our subgroup analyses using FDNY-WTCHP vs NYC cancer rates, the projected number of new cases in white men was elevated (2714 [95% CI, 2638-2786] vs 2596 [95% CI, 2524-2668]). Accordingly, we expect more prostate (1437 [95% CI, 1383-1495] vs 863 [95% CI, 816-910]), thyroid (73 [95% CI, 60-86] vs 57 [95% CI, 44-69]), and melanoma cases (201 [95

  13. Acute respiratory effects on workers exposed to metalworking fluid aerosols in an automotive transmission plant.

    PubMed

    Robins, T; Seixas, N; Franzblau, A; Abrams, L; Minick, S; Burge, H; Schork, M A

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to metalworking fluids has been linked to modest cross-shift reductions in FEV1 and occupational asthma. To identify responsible agents, we measured personal exposures to thoracic particulate (TP), viable plus nonviable thoracic bacteria (BAC), and vapor phase nicotine (VPN) (as a surrogate for tobacco particulate) among 83 machinists exposed to soluble oils and 46 dry assemblers working in an automotive transmission machining plant using biocides infrequently. The participants completed interviews and performed pre- and postshift spirometry on Monday and Thursday of the same week in each of three rounds of data collection (June 1992, January 1993, June 1993). Generalized estimating equations were used to combine information across rounds in multiple regression models of cross-shift and cross-week changes in forced expiratory volume, I second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Mean seniority was 19 years among machinists. Mean personal TP levels were 0.41 mg/m3 in machinists and 0.13 mg/m3 in assemblers. Six of the 83 machinists and none of the 46 assemblers experienced a greater than 19% cross-shift decrement in FEV1 or FVC at least once (p = .07). In regression models using either TP or BAC, among subjects with lower baseline (Monday preshift) FEV1/FVC ratios, increasing exposure was significantly associated with increasing cross-shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC in linear models, and with increased likelihood of a 10% or greater cross-shift decrement in FEV1 or FVC in logistic models. Adjustment of TP for VPN did not affect models significantly. We conclude that clinically important cross-shift decrements in pulmonary function are associated with exposure to metalworking fluid aerosols within a high-seniority population.

  14. Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Möhner, M; Ahrens, W; Pohlabeln, H; Heinrich, J; Kreuzer, M; Jöckel, K H; Wichmann, H E

    1999-10-01

    Although in several epidemiological studies exposure to diesel motor emissions (DME) shows an elevated lung cancer risk, it is still controversial whether DME is a human carcinogen. In a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on lung cancer in Germany a total of 3498 male cases with histologically or cytologically ascertained lung cancer and 3541 male population controls were included. Information about lifelong occupational and smoking history was obtained by questionnaire. Drivers of lorries, buses, taxies, diesel locomotives and forklift trucks, bulldozers, graders, excavators, and tractors, were considered as exposed to DME and their cumulative exposure was estimated. All odds ratios were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. The evaluation of lung cancer risk for all jobs with DME-exposure combined showed an odds ratio of OR=1.43 (95%-CI: 1.23-1.67). Most pronounced was the increase in lung cancer risk in heavy equipment operators (OR=2. 31 95%-CI: 1.44-3.70). The risk of tractor drivers increased with length of employment and reached statistical significance for exposures longer than 30 years (OR=6.81, 95%-CI: 1.17-39.51). The group of professional drivers (e.g., trucks, buses, and taxies), showed an increased risk only in West Germany (OR=1.44, 95%-CI: 1. 18-1.76), but not in East Germany (OR=0.83, 95%-CI: 0.60-1.14). DME-exposure in other traffic related jobs (e.g., diesel engine locomotive drivers, switchmen, forklift operators) was associated with an odds ratio of OR=1.53 (95%-CI: 1.04-2.24). The study provides further evidence that occupational exposure to diesel motor emissions is associated with an increased lung cancer risk. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Associations between DNA methylation in DNA damage response-related genes and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome index in diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Jie; He, Zhini; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Haisheng; Yu, Shanfa; Chen, Wen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Recently, diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was reclassified as a known carcinogen to humans. DNA methylation alterations in DNA damage response (DDR)-related genes have the potential to affect DEE exposure-related cancer risk. However, the evidence regarding the association between DEE exposure and methylation alterations in DDR-related genes is limited. In 117 DEE-exposed workers and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, we measured urinary concentrations of six mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). We also determined the methylation levels of three DDR-related genes (p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT) and LINE-1 by bisulfite-pyrosequencing assay. We found that DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly lower mean promoter methylation levels of p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT than non-DEE-exposed workers (all p < 0.001). In all study subjects and non-smoking workers, increasing quartiles of urinary summed OH-PAHs was associated with hypomethylation of p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT (all p < 0.05). In non-smoking workers, methylation in p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT decreased by 0.36 % [95 % confidential interval (CI): -0.60, -0.11 %], 0.46 % (95 % CI: -0.79, -0.14 %), and 0.55 % (95 % CI: -0.95, -0.15 %), respectively, in association with highest versus lowest quartile of urinary summed OH-PAHs. In addition, p16, RASSF1A, MGMT, and LINE-1 methylation levels showed negative correlations with cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome index which was previously measured in the same workers (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that DEE exposure and increased genetic damage were associated with hypomethylation of p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these associations.

  16. Elevated levels of DNA-protein crosslinks and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of tannery workers exposed to trivalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, M G; Rodrigues, A S; Batoréu, M C; Laires, A; Rueff, J; Zhitkovich, A

    2003-01-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) are a promising biomarker of exposure to hexavalent chromium, a known human carcinogen. Although trivalent chromium is considered to have much lower toxicity, the risk involved in chronic exposure is uncertain. DPC may be a useful tool in clarifying this risk, by signaling an exposure of body tissues to biologically active forms of chromium. DPC quantification was carried out in lymphocytes of a group of tannery workers exposed to trivalent chromium, a small group of manual metal arc stainless steel welders exposed to hexavalent chromium and a control group. This biomarker was compared with the frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked peripheral lymphocytes as a biomarker of cytogenetic lesions and total plasma and urine chromium levels as an index of exposure. The results indicate a significant increase in the formation of DPC in tannery workers compared with controls (0.88 +/- 0.19 versus 0.57 +/- 0.21%, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test) and an even higher level of DPC in welders (2.22 +/- 1.12%, P = 0.03). Tanners showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells compared with controls (6.35 +/- 2.94 versus 3.58 +/- 1.69 per thousand, P < 0.01), whereas in welders this increase was not significant (5.40 +/- 1.67 per thousand ). Urinary chromium was increased in both groups, with a greater increase observed in tanners compared with controls (2.63 +/- 1.62 versus 0.70 +/- 0.38 microg/g creatinine, P < 0.001) than in welders (1.90 +/- 0.37 microg/g creatinine, P < 0.005). Plasma chromium was also increased in both groups (tanners 2.43 +/- 2.11 microg/l, P < 0.001, welders 1.55 +/- 0.67 microg/l, P < 0.005 versus controls 0.41 +/- 0.11 microg/l). In summary, chronic occupational exposure to trivalent chromium can lead to a detectable increase in lymphocyte DNA damage which correlates with a significant exposure of the cells to the metal.

  17. [Analytical quality in biological monitoring of workers exposed to chemicals: experience of the Prevention and Safety at the Workplace Service in Modena].

    PubMed

    Alpaca, R I Paredes; Migliore, A; Di Rico, R; Canali, Claudia; Rota, Cristina; Trenti, T; Cariani, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The quality of laboratory data is one of the main factors in guaranteeing efficacy of biological monitoring. To analyze the quality of laboratory data used for biological monitoring of exposed workers. A survey involving 18 companies employing 945 workers in the area of Modena, Italy, was carried out in 2008. Most of the 9 private laboratories receiving biological samples did not perform directly part or all of the laboratory assessments requested, but this was not indicated in the final report. Major problems were observed in the application of internal quality control, and only one laboratory participated in external quality assessment for blood lead measurements. Our results raise major concerns on the traceability and reliability of laboratory assessments performed for biomonitoring of exposed workers. Systematic evaluation of the quality of analytical data would be highly recommendable.

  18. HTR1B gene variants associate with the susceptibility of Raynauds' phenomenon in workers exposed hand-arm vibration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingsong; Lang, Li; Xiao, Bin; Lin, Hansheng; Yang, Aichu; Li, Hongling; Tang, Shichuan; Huang, Hanlin

    2016-10-05

    To explore whether polymorphic variants of the HTR1B gene are associated with the susceptibility of Raynauds' Phenomenon (RP) coursed by vibration. 148 subjects exposed to vibration for more than 2 years were classified into either induced white finger (VWF) group (n = 72), or non-VWF group (n = 76). Vibration exposure levels were measured and assessed following ISO 5349-1:2001 protocol. All workers were genotyped by sequencing for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5'-flanking and coding region of HTR1B. Genetic characteristics and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were analyzed with Haploview. Serum serotonin levels of each subject were detected using ELISA. The association between the susceptibility of vascular damage and genotype was analyzed via logistic regression. 7 known SNPs were obtained and their allele frequencies were inserted into the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. rs6297 variant genotype had an increased risk of VWF compared with wild genotype (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.04- 4.58, P < 0.05). rs6298 mutant type (AG+GG) was found to have a significant interaction on vibration exposure LN(CEI), accounting for VWF occurrence. LN(5-HT) level is significantly different between the VWF group (x¯±s= 1.99±1.09 ng/mL) and the non-VWF group (x¯±s= 2.72±1.47 ng/mL). Serotonin levels may affect the progression of secondary RP. Polymorphic variants of the HTR1B gene are associated with the susceptibility of secondary RP in vibration-exposed occupational populations of Chinese Han people.

  19. Neopterin: A candidate biomarker for the early assessment of toxicity of aluminum among bauxite dust exposed mine workers

    PubMed Central

    Pingle, Shubhangi K.; Thakkar, Lucky R.; Jawade, Aruna A.; Tumane, Rajani G.; Jain, Ruchika K.; Soni, Pravin N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bauxite ore is a major source of aluminum (Al) which contains approximately 35–60% Al by weight. Occupational and environmental bauxite dust exposure may cause toxicity by interaction with human biological systems resulting in oxidative stress (OS) and cell death. A neopterin derivative as an antioxidant is able to modulate cytotoxicity by the induction of OS. Materials and Methods: A total of 273 subjects were selected for blood collection from three different major Al producing bauxite mines and were categorized into three groups as experimental (Exp) (n = 150), experimental controls (ExC) (n = 73) and control (Con) (n = 50). Whole blood and serum samples were used for measurement of Al, neopterin, urea and creatinine values. Statistical analysis was performed using R-2.15.1 programming language. Results and Discussion: The result showed that age, body mass index and the behavioral habits, that is, smoking, tobacco and alcohol consumption have possible effects on neopterin level. Serum neopterin levels were found to be significantly higher (P <0.0001) in the experimental group as compared to other groups. Significantly positive correlation (P < 0.0001) was observed between neopterin and creatinine. It was also observed that neopterin level increases as the duration of exposure increases. Conclusion: On the basis of findings it was concluded that exposure to bauxite dust (even at low levels of Al) changes biochemical profile leading to high levels of serum neopterin. Levels of serum neopterin in workers exposed to bauxite dust were probably examined for the 1st time in India. The outcome of this study suggested that serum neopterin may be used as potential biomarker for early detection of health risks associated with bauxite dust exposed population. PMID:26500413

  20. Enhanced H3K4me3 modifications are involved in the transactivation of DNA damage responsive genes in workers exposed to low-level benzene.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Xing, Xiumei; Zhang, Xinjie; Liang, Boxuan; He, Zhini; Gao, Chen; Wang, Shan; Wang, Fangping; Zhang, Haiyan; Zeng, Shan; Fan, Junling; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Zhengbao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Caixia; Wang, Qing; Lin, Weiwei; Dong, Guanghui; Tang, Huanwen; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Yongmei; Li, Daochuan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we explore whether altered global histone modifications respond to low-level benzene exposure as well as their association with the hematotoxicity. We recruited 147 low-level benzene-exposed workers and 122 control workers from a petrochemical factory in Maoming City, Guangdong Province, China. The internal exposure marker level, urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in benzene-exposed workers was 1.81-fold higher than that of the controls (P < 0.001). ELISA method was established to examine the specific histone modifications in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs) of workers. A decrease in the counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes appeared in the benzene-exposed group (all P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Global trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) modification was enhanced in the benzene-exposed group (P < 0.05) and was positively associated with the concentration of urinary SPMA (β = 0.103, P = 0.045) and the extent of DNA damage (% Tail DNA: β = 0.181, P = 0.022), but was negatively associated with the leukocyte count (WBC: β = -0.038, P = 0.023). The in vitro study revealed that H3K4me3 mark was enriched in the promoters of several DNA damage responsive (DDR) genes including CRY1, ERCC2, and TP53 in primary human lymphocytes treated with hydroquinone. Particularly, H3K4me3 modification was positively correlated with the expression of CRY1 in the PBLCs of benzene-exposed workers. These observations indicate that H3K4me3 modification might mediate the transcriptional regulation of DDR genes in response to low-dose benzene exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Retrospective Occupational Cohort Study of End-Stage Renal Disease in Aircraft Workers Exposed to Trichloroethylene and Other Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Radican, Larry; Wartenberg, Daniel; Rhoads, George G.; Schneider, Dona; Wedeen, Richard; Stewart, Patricia; Blair, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Objective Case–control studies suggest hydrocarbons increase end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk. No cohort studies have been conducted. Methods An occupational database was matched to the U.S. Renal Data System, and the outcome of all-cause ESRD was examined using multivariable Cox regression. Sixteen individual hydrocarbons were studied, although exposures were not mutually exclusive. Results For the 1973–2000 period, there was an approximate twofold increased risk of ESRD among workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and JP4 gasoline compared with unexposed subjects (all P < 0.05). Relative risk was greater than unity (P > 0.05) for several other hydrocarbons. Associations attenuated (all P > 0.05) when 2001–2002 data were included in the analyses. Conclusions Certain hydrocarbons may increase all-cause ESRD risk. Uncertainty regarding the mechanism for increased risk and the observed attenuation in risk in 2001–2002, as well as the overlap of exposures, complicates interpretation. Additional research is needed. PMID:16404204

  2. The patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process: experiences of district nurses, geriatric nurses and social workers.

    PubMed

    Rydeman, IngBritt; Törnkvist, Lena

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the experiences of the discharge process among different professionals. An optimal discharge process for hospitalized elderly to other forms of care is of crucial importance, especially since health and medical policies encourages shorter hospital stays and increased healthcare service in outpatient care. Nurses and social workers from inpatient care, outpatient care, municipal care and social services were interviewed. Eight focus-group interviews with a total of 31 persons were conducted. The subsequent analyses followed a phenomenological approach. The findings revealed three themes, Framework, Basic Values and Patient Resources, which influenced the professionals' actions in the discharge process. The overall emerging structure comprised the patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process. In conclusion some factors are of special importance for the co-operation and the actions of professionals involved in the discharge process. Firstly, a distinct and common framework, with conscious and organizationally based values. Secondly the need to take the patient resources into consideration. Together these factors could contribute to secure the patients involvement in the discharge process and to design an optimal, safe and good care. Collaborative approaches among a range of professionals within a variety of organizations are common, especially in the care of the elderly. The role and support of both the organizations and the educational units are decisive factors in this area.

  3. Mortality among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the US polyurethane foam industry: Update and exposure-response analyses.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Lynne E; Yiin, James H; Daniels, Robert D; Fent, Kenneth W

    2016-08-01

    Mortality among 4,545 toluene diisocyante (TDI)-exposed workers was updated through 2011. The primary outcome of interest was lung cancer. Life table analyses, including internal analyses by exposure duration and cumulative TDI exposure, were conducted. Compared with the US population, all cause and all cancer mortality was increased. Lung cancer mortality was increased but was not associated with exposure duration or cumulative TDI exposure. In post hoc analyses, lung cancer mortality was associated with employment duration in finishing jobs, but not in finishing jobs involving cutting polyurethane foam. Dermal exposure, in contrast to inhalational exposure, to TDI is expected to be greater in finishing jobs and may play a role in the observed increase in lung cancer mortality. Limitations include the lack of smoking data, uncertainty in the exposure estimates, and exposure estimates that reflected inhalational exposure only. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:630-643, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and p53 as a biomarker of carcinogenesis among workers exposed to formaldehyde in the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Attia, Dalia; Mansour, Neveen; Taha, Fatma; Seif El Dein, Aisha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the wide use of cosmetic products, they exert a number of health effects on tissues ranging from irritation to cancer. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of formaldehyde on lipid peroxidation and verifying the susceptibility to carcinogenesis using p53 as a biomarker among workers exposed to formaldehyde in cosmetic industry. Our entire exposed group (n = 40) and the controls (n = 20) were subjected to estimation of formate in urine, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and p53. Also, complete blood picture, liver, and kidney function tests were carried out. The study revealed significant increase in the levels of formate, MDA, and p53 in the exposed group compared with their control group. Our results showed that workers in cosmetic industry had significant exposure to formaldehyde. Furthermore, the study pointed to the negative impact of formaldehyde as a cause of oxidative stress and suspicious carcinogen. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Serum neuron-specific enolase, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function in lead-exposed workers from lead-acid battery manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Ravibabu, K; Barman, T; Rajmohan, H R

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin) levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs). In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests---simple reaction time (SRT), symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and serial digit learning test (SDLT). There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05) between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01). NSE had a negative correlation (r -0.194, p<0.05) with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the "attention and perception" (SDST).

  6. [Evoked potentials and psychometric tests in the diagnosis of subclinical neurological damage in a group of workers exposed to low concentrations of mercury vapor].

    PubMed

    Martínez Vázquez, C; Rodríguez Sáez, E; Gil Fernández, M; Torres Pombo, J; Rodríguez, M; Iglesias Groba, M T; Herves Beloso, C

    1996-05-01

    We study the effects of low concentrations of mercury vapour on the nervous system of a group of eleven workers of a chloroalkali plant exposed to it. Twenty-three non-exposed workers in the same factory were used as control group. We used clinical and analytic explorations, psychometric tests and evoked potentials to evaluate the subjects. The average Hg in urine of the exposed group was 41.74 micrograms/gr creatinine and the average of the non-exposed group as 9.71 mu/yr. In the exposed group the evoked potentials have found a slowing-down of conduction in all the nervous paths studied (optical, auditive and somatosensory) and in the latency of P300 wave, although this was not statistically significant compared to the control group. Of the psychometric test used, only Rey's Complex Figure Test showed deterioration in the visual memory subtest of the exposed group (p < 0.05) compared to the control group, although in Wechsler's digit span test lower scores were obtained which were close to being statistically significant comparing the averages of the two groups (0.05 < p < 0.051). Bearing in mind these results we think that the amounts of Hg in urine and TLV-TWA (50 micrograms/gr creatinine and 50 micrograms/m3 respectively) accepted by most authors as innocuous should be reduced.

  7. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods.

  8. Abattoir (Slaughterhouse) in Qaladze Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-16

    and ducks for poultry meat ) Slaughtering animals poses significant public health concerns, such as E. coli and salmonella. Prior to this... meat hook is approximately 5’7‖ above the ground (Site Photo 22). A typical construction area contains many tripping hazards , such as bags of... meat hooks are essential to the production process for the facility; however, they also pose an extreme hazard for the workers. SIGIR pointed

  9. Association of lead exposure, serum uric acid and parameters of renal function in Nigerian lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Alasia, D D; Emem-Chioma, P C; Wokoma, F S

    2010-10-01

    The presence of hyperuricemia and renal function impairment, especially in the absence of urate stone formation is strongly suggestive of lead nephropathy. The evaluation of this association is essential in areas where lead exposure is still prevalent and uncontrolled. To determine the relationship between serum uric acid and renal function indices in lead-exposed workers. A cross-sectional study of 190 adults with occupational lead exposure and 80 adults (comparison group), matched for age and sex was performed in Port Harcourt, South-south Nigeria. Blood lead was used as the biomarker of lead exposure while serum urea, serum creatinine, urine albumin (using urine albumin:creatinine ratio), estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum uric acid were the renal function indices measured. Occupationally lead-exposed subjects had a significantly (p = 0.008) higher mean±SD blood lead levels (50.37±24.58 μg/dL) than the comparison group (41.40±26.85). The mean±SD serum urea (8.6±2.3 mg/dL), creatinine (1.0±0.2 mg/dL) and serum uric acid (4.6±1.2 mg/dL) were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the study subjects than the comparison group (7.6±2.4, 0.9±0.2, and 3.9±1.1 mg/dL, respectively). The mean±SD creatinine clearance was significantly (p = 0.002) lower in the study subjects than the comparison group (98.9±21.3 vs. 108.2±25.2 mL/min/1.72 m2). Serum uric acid level correlated positively with serum creatinine (r = 0.134) and negatively with GFR (r = -0.151). People with occupational lead exposure are at risk of developing hyperuricemia and renal impairment.

  10. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. II. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Olson, B A; Elofsson, S; Gamberale, F; Isaksson, A; Mindus, P; Persson, H E; Struwe, G; Wennberg, A; Westerholm, P

    1978-03-01

    Thirty jet fuel exposed workers selected according to exposure criteria and thirty nonexposed controls from a jet motor factory were examined, with special reference to the nervous system, by occupational hygiene physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, and neurophysiologists. The controls and the exposed subjects were matched with respect to age, employment duration, and education. Among the exposed subjects the mean exposure duration was 17 years, and 300 mg/m3 was calculated as a rough time-weighted average exposure level. The investigation revealed significant differences between the exposed and nonexposed groups for (a) incidence and prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, (b) psychological tests with the load on attention and sensorimotor speed and (c) electroencephalograms. When the control group was selected, it was ensured that the two groups were essentially equivalent except for exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded, therefore, that the differences found between the groups are probably related to exposure to jet fuel.

  11. [Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss in workers exposed to industrial noise of the turbogenerated electric plant of a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Montiel-López, María; Corzo-Alvarez, Gilbert; Chacín-Almarza, Betulio; Rojas-González, Liliana; Quevedo, Ana; Rendiles, Hernando

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss in the electric plant workers of a petrochemical industry of the west of Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included sonometry tests, carried out according to the established methodology by COVENIN rules, and the occupational medical evaluation and liminal tonal audiometrics test in 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) was quantified in different workplaces. It was found out that most of the workers are exposed to high noise levels [>85 dB(A)] and during more time than the recommended. All workers use hearing protectors appropriately. The hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, there were not noise-induced hearing losses. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometrics test was diminished, but inside the normal threshold values. We diagnosed 12 cases of conductive hearing loss, all grade I; there were not sensorial or mixed hearing losses. There was not a relationship between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. It is suggested the design and implantation of a program of auditory conservation to protect the health and security of the workers and to conduct a longitudinal study considering the findings of the present study as it basis.

  12. Update of a cohort mortality study of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base.

    PubMed

    Tomenson, John A

    2011-12-01

    To update the mortality experience of employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom and generate information on the effects of exposure to methylene chloride, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancers of the lung, liver and biliary tract, pancreas and brain. All 1,785 male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-1988 were followed through 2006, including 1,473 subjects exposed to methylene chloride on average for 9 years at a concentration of 19 ppm (8 h time-weighted average). A total of 559 deaths occurred during the follow-up period. In the subcohort of workers exposed to methylene chloride, substantially reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates were found for all causes, all cancers, and all the principal cancer sites of interest except for brain cancer. There was a small excess of brain cancer deaths (8 observed and 4.4 expected), but no evidence of an association with exposure to methylene chloride. Lung cancer mortality was significantly reduced in exposed workers, even compared to the low mortality rate in the local population (SMR 55). In contrast, mortality from ischaemic heart disease in exposed workers was slightly increased compared with local rates (SMR 102), but was lower in active employees (SMR 94; local rates), where a direct effect of exposure to methylene chloride should be concentrated. The study provided no indication that employment at the plant, or exposure to methylene chloride, had adversely affected the mortalities of workers.

  13. Comparing Urinary Biomarkers of Airborne and Dermal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Asphalt-Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sobus, Jon R.; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    When working with hot mix asphalt, road pavers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the inhalation of vapors and particulate matter (PM) and through dermal contact with PM and contaminated surfaces. Several PAHs with four to six rings are potent carcinogens which reside in these particulate emissions. Since urinary biomarkers of large PAHs are rarely detectable in asphalt workers, attention has focused upon urinary levels of the more volatile and abundant two-ring and three-ring PAHs as potential biomarkers of PAH exposure. Here, we compare levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic compounds (P-PACs, a group of aromatic hydrocarbons containing PAHs and heterocyclic compounds with four or more rings) in air and dermal patch samples from 20 road pavers to the corresponding urinary levels of naphthalene (U-Nap) (two rings), phenanthrene (U-Phe) (three rings), monohydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene (OH-Nap) and phenanthrene (OH-Phe), and 1-hydroxypyrene (OH-Pyr) (four rings), the most widely used biomarker of PAH exposure. For each worker, daily breathing-zone air (n = 55) and dermal patch samples (n = 56) were collected on three consecutive workdays along with postshift, bedtime, and morning urine samples (n = 149). Measured levels of P-PACs and the urinary analytes were used to statistically model exposure–biomarker relationships while controlling for urinary creatinine, smoking status, age, body mass index, and the timing of urine sampling. Levels of OH-Phe in urine collected postshift, at bedtime, and the following morning were all significantly associated with levels of P-PACs in air and dermal patch samples. For U-Nap, U-Phe, and OH-Pyr, both air and dermal patch measurements of P-PACs were significant predictors of postshift urine levels, and dermal patch measurements were significant predictors of bedtime urine levels (all three analytes) and morning urine levels (U-Nap and OH-Pyr only). Significant effects of

  14. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to fine particulates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Young; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Ngo, Long C; Christiani, David C

    2004-05-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a chemically complex mixture of compounds, including metals that are potentially carcinogenic because of their ability to cause oxidative injury. In this study, we investigated the association between exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter exposed to ROFA and metal fumes. Twenty workers (50% smokers) were monitored for 5 days during an overhaul of oil-fired boilers. The median occupational PM2.5 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.44 mg/m3 (25th-75th percentile, 0.29-0.76). The mean +/- SE creatinine-adjusted 8-OHdG levels were 13.26 +/- 1.04 micro g/g in urine samples collected pre-workshift and 15.22 +/- 0.99 micro g/g in the post-workshift samples. The urinary 8-OHdG levels were significantly greater in the post-workshift samples than in the pre-workshift samples (p = 0.02), after adjusting for urinary cotinine levels, chronic bronchitis status, and age. Linear mixed models indicated a significant exposure-response association between PM2.5 exposure and urinary 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.03). Each 1-mg/m3 incremental increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase of 1.67 micro g/g (95% confidence interval, 0.21-3.14) in 8-OHdG levels. PM2.5 vanadium, manganese, nickel, and lead exposures also were positively associated with 8-OHdG levels (p

  15. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to fine particulates.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Young; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Ngo, Long C; Christiani, David C

    2004-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a chemically complex mixture of compounds, including metals that are potentially carcinogenic because of their ability to cause oxidative injury. In this study, we investigated the association between exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter exposed to ROFA and metal fumes. Twenty workers (50% smokers) were monitored for 5 days during an overhaul of oil-fired boilers. The median occupational PM2.5 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.44 mg/m3 (25th-75th percentile, 0.29-0.76). The mean +/- SE creatinine-adjusted 8-OHdG levels were 13.26 +/- 1.04 micro g/g in urine samples collected pre-workshift and 15.22 +/- 0.99 micro g/g in the post-workshift samples. The urinary 8-OHdG levels were significantly greater in the post-workshift samples than in the pre-workshift samples (p = 0.02), after adjusting for urinary cotinine levels, chronic bronchitis status, and age. Linear mixed models indicated a significant exposure-response association between PM2.5 exposure and urinary 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.03). Each 1-mg/m3 incremental increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase of 1.67 micro g/g (95% confidence interval, 0.21-3.14) in 8-OHdG levels. PM2.5 vanadium, manganese, nickel, and lead exposures also were positively associated with 8-OHdG levels (p

  16. Evidence for Altered Hippocampal Volume and Brain Metabolites in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Lead: A Study by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-Ming; Long, Li-Ling; Zhu, Xia-Yan; Zheng, Hong; Fu, Xue; Ou, Shi-Yan; Wei, Dong-Lu; Zhou, Hai-Lin; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to lead (Pb) remains to be a major public health issue. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) techniques to investigate whether chronic exposure to Pb in an occupational setting altered brain structure and function of Pb-exposed workers. The Pb-exposed group consisted of 15 workers recruited from either a Pb-smelting factory or a Pb-battery manufacturer. The control group had 19 healthy volunteers who had no history of Pb exposure in working environment or at home. The average airborne Pb concentrations in fume and dust were 0.43 mg/m3 and 0.44 mg/m3, respectively in the smeltery, and 0.10 mg/m3 and 1.06 mg/m3, respectively in the Pb battery workshop. The average blood Pb concentrations (BPb) in Pb-exposed and control workers were 63.5 µg/dL and 8.7 µg/dL, respectively. The MRI examination showed that brain hippocampal volume among Pb-exposed workers was significantly diminished in comparison to age-matched control subjects (p<0.01), although the extent of this reduction was relatively small (5–6% of the control values). Linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between BPb and the decreased hippocampal volume on both sides of brain hemisphere. Among five brain metabolites investigated by MRS, i.e., N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), inosine (mI), glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and lipids (Lip), a significant decrease in NAA/Cr ratio (7% of controls, p<0.05) and a remarkable increase in Lip/Cr ratio (40%, p<0.01) were observed in the brains of Pb-exposed workers as compared to controls. Furthermore, the increased Lip/Cr ratio was significantly associated with BPb (r = 0.46, p<0.01). Taken together, this study suggests that occupational exposure to Pb may cause subtle structural and functional alteration in human brains. The MRI and MRS brain imaging techniques can be

  17. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in workers exposed to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a waste plastic recycling site in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Li; Chen, Xi; Rao, Kai Min; Lu, Shao You; Ma, Sheng Tao; Jiang, Pu; Zheng, Dan; Xu, Shun Qing; Zheng, Hong Yan; Wang, Jian Shu; Yu, Zhi Qiang; Zhang, Rong; Tao, Yong; Yuan, Jing

    2011-07-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in industrial and diverse consumer products. Animal studies indicate DEHP caused developmental, reproductive, and hepatic toxicities. However, human studies of the potential effects of DEHP are limited. The exposed site with a history of over 20 years of waste plastic recycling was located in Hunan Province, China. The reference site without known DEHP pollution source was about 50 km far away from the exposed site. In this study, 181 workers working in plastic waste recycling and 160 gender-age matched farmers were recruited. DEHP concentrations in water and cultivated soil samples, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei frequency in human capillary blood lymphocytes were analyzed. Mean levels of DEHP were greater in environment at the recycling site than at reference site (industry wastewater for the exposed: 42.43 μg/l; well water: 14.20 vs. 0.79 μg/l, pond water: 135.68 vs. 0.37 μg/l, cultivated soil: 13.07 vs. 0.81 mg/kg, p < 0.05 for all). The workers had higher median levels of MDA (3.80 vs. 3.14 nmol/ml) and urinary 8-OHdG (340.37 vs. 268.18 μmol/mol creatinine) and decreased SOD activities (112.15 vs. 123.82 U/ml) than the reference group (p < 0.01 for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that the history of working in waste plastic recycling was an independent risk factor for the increased urinary 8-OHdG levels in the male workers (p < 0.01). The occupational DEHP exposure might contribute to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the male workers.

  18. Migration and work in postwar Australia: mortality profile comparisons between Australian and Italian workers exposed to blue asbestos at Wittenoom.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alison; Merler, Enzo; Peters, Susan; Jayasinghe, Nimashi; Bressan, Vittoria; Franklin, Peter; Brims, Fraser; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Musk, Arthur W

    2018-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty thousand Italians arrived in Australia between 1945 and 1966, many on assisted passage schemes where the worker agreed to a 2-year unskilled employment contract. Italians were the largest of 52 migrant groups employed at the Wittenoom blue asbestos mining and milling operation. We compare mortality from asbestos-related diseases among Italian and Australian workers employed at Wittenoom. A cohort of 6500 male workers was established from employment records and followed up at state and national mortality and cancer registries. SMRs were calculated to compare mortality with the Western Australian male population. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of mesothelioma between Australian and Italian workers. 1031 Italians and 3465 Australians worked at Wittenoom between 1943 and 1966. Duration of employment was longer for the Italian workers, although the concentration of exposure was similar. The mesothelioma mortality rate per 100 000 was higher in Italians (184, 95% CI 148 to 229) than Australians (128, 95% CI 111 to 149). The risk of mesothelioma was greater than twofold (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.60) in Italians at the lowest asbestos exposure category (<10 fibre years/per mL). A hierarchy in migration, isolation and a shortage of workers led to Italians at Wittenoom incurring higher cumulative exposure to blue asbestos and subsequently a greater rate of malignant mesothelioma than Australian workers. Poor working conditions and disparities between native and foreign-born workers has had a detrimental and differential impact on the long-term health of the workforce. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. [Prevalence and influence factors of hypertension among the workers exposed to noise in steel making and steel rolling workshop of an iron and steel plant].

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Guoshun; Yu, Shanfa

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence and influence factors of hypertension among the workers exposed to noise in steel making and steel rolling workshop of an iron and steel plant. Using cluster sampling method, 3 150 workers exposed to noise participated in this study. According to do questionnaire survey and blood pressure measurement, 2 924 workers were tested, among which 1 313 workers were from steel making workshop and 1 611 workers were from steel rolling workshop. The relationships between different demographic characteristics, different habits, and different cumulative noise exposures of workers exposed to noise and hypertension were analyzed. For the hypertension prevalence rate, the total prevalence rate was 27.43% (802/2 924), the male was higher than the female (29.88 % (753/2 520) vs 12.13% (49/404), χ² = 55.13, P < 0.001), married ones were higher than the unmarried (29.84% (718/2 406) vs 16.22% (84/518), χ² = 39.76, P < 0.001), the smoking subjects were higher than the no smoking (30.31% (438/1 445) vs 24.61% (364/1 479), χ² = 11.93, P = 0.001), drinking ones were higher than the no drinking (31.53% (541/1 716) vs 21.61% (261/1 208), χ² = 35.05, P < 0.001). The hypertension prevalence rates among the subjects with education background in junior high school and below, high school (secondary) and university and above were separately 44.96%(125/278), 29.95%(455/1 519) and 19.70%(222/1 127) (χ² = 81.65, P < 0.001), among cumulative exposure groups 77-89, 90-94, 95-99, 100-104 and 105-113 were separately 8.43% (14/166), 14.48% (53/366), 24.28% (297/1 223), 36.65% (335/914) and 40.39%(103/255) (χ² = 127.58, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that workers who exposed to cumulative noise in 95-99, 100-104 and 105-113 dB(A) ·year had the higher risk of hypertension, the OR (95%CI) were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.35-2.51), 1.74 (95% CI: 1.24-2.45) and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.09-2.58). Drinking (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.32-1.95) and BMI ≥ 24.0 kg

  20. Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) among workers at an Industrial Company exposed to different industrial noise levels in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among workers exposed to noise. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their noise exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low levels of noise, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium level of noise, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high levels of noise. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the level of significance. Results: For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure level (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and < 0.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SNR values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30–8:00 A.M. and 13:30–14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). Conclusions: The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work. PMID:26388979

  1. Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: observations and limitations.

    PubMed

    Cullen, M R; Redlich, C A; Beckett, W S; Weltmann, B; Sparer, J; Jackson, G; Ruff, T; Rubinstein, E; Holden, W

    1996-06-01

    Diisocyanates, highly reactive monomers which cross-link polyurethane, are the most widely recognized causes of occupational asthma. Many exposed workers are end-users, including autobody spray painters who form a large population at risk. Neither the factors which determine incidence rate nor strategies for control have been adequately studied in this setting. We have conducted a cross-sectional survey of 23 (about one in five) autobody shops in the New Haven area to determine the feasibility of clinical epidemiological studies in this population. Among 102 workers, there was a high rate of airway symptoms consistent with occupational asthma (19.6%). Symptoms were most prevalent among those with the greatest opportunity for exposure (dedicated spray painters) and least among office workers; part-time painters had intermediate rates. Atopy was not associated with risk while smoking seemed to correlate with symptoms. Regular use of air-supplied respirators appeared to be associated with lower risk among workers who painted part- or full-time. We were unable to validate the questionnaire responses with peak expiratory flow record data attempted on a 1/3 sample of the workers. Despite intensive training and effort, subject compliance was limited. Among those who provided adequate data (24 of 38), only two demonstrated unequivocal evidence of labile airways; two others demonstrated lesser changes consistent with an occupational effect on flow rates. There was no clear association between these findings and either questionnaire responses or exposure classification. Overall, the survey suggests that there is a high prevalence of airway symptoms among workers in autobody shops, at least in part due to work-related asthma. However, there is need for both methodological and substantive research in this setting to document rates of occupational asthma and to develop a scientific basis for its effective control.

  2. [Comparative evaluation of the functional state of the respiratory system in workers exposed to asbestos and cotton dust].

    PubMed

    Izycki, J; Gielec, L

    1979-01-01

    63 spinners exposed to cotton dust and 75 spinners exposed to asbestos dust were examined. In the women working in asbestos spinning room chronic nonspecific respiratory tract diseases prevalence was found to amount to 30% and in the cotton exposed group it was 15%. Mean values of lungs' vital capacity remained within the due values, although they were statistically significantly lower in asbestos exposed spinners (p less than 0,001). On the other hand, the percentage ratio of the forced expiratory capacity of 1 second was statistically significantly lower (0,001 less than p less than 0,01) in those exposed to cotton dust. The authors point to the occurrence of functional disturbances of the respiratory tract prior to radiological symptoms of lung asbestosis and their correlation with clinical symptoms.

  3. Salmonellae in Rhodesia: sources and serotypes of some isolates from abattoirs, domestic animals, birds and man.

    PubMed

    Chambers, P G

    1977-12-01

    Sources and serotypes of some salmonellae isolated from abattoirs, domestic animals, birds and man are given. At least 72 serotypes have been identified from 1273 isolations from abattoirs, animals and birds, and from 7 137 isolations from man. The sources and serotypes of these isolations are discussed and some suggestions concerning the epidemiology of Salmonella in Rhodesia are made.

  4. Application of the kurtosis statistic to the evaluation of the risk of hearing loss in workers exposed to high-level complex noise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qiu, Wei; Zeng, Lin; Chen, Shan-Song; Cheng, Xiao-Ru; Davis, Robert I; Hamernik, Roger P

    2010-08-01

    Develop dose-response relations for two groups of industrial workers exposed to Gaussian or non-Gaussian (complex) types of continuous noises and to investigate what role, if any, the kurtosis statistic can play in the evaluation of industrial noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Audiometric and noise exposure data were acquired on a population (N = 195) of screened workers from a textile manufacturing plant and a metal fabrication facility located in Henan province of China. Thirty-two of the subjects were exposed to non-Gaussian (non-G) noise and 163 were exposed to a Gaussian (G) continuous noise. Each subject was given a general physical and an otologic examination. Hearing threshold levels (0.5-8.0 kHz) were age adjusted (ISI-1999) and the prevalence of NIHL at 3, 4, or 6 kHz was determined. The kurtosis metric, which is sensitive to the peak and temporal characteristics of a noise, was introduced into the calculation of the cumulative noise exposure metric. Using the prevalence of hearing loss and the cumulative noise exposure metric, a dose-response relation for the G and non-G noise-exposed groups was constructed. An analysis of the noise environments in the two plants showed that the noise exposures in the textile plant were of a Gaussian type with an Leq(A)8hr that varied from 96 to 105 dB whereas the exposures in the metal fabrication facility with an Leq(A)8hr = 95 dB were of a non-G type containing high levels (up to 125 dB peak SPL) of impact noise. The kurtosis statistic was used to quantify the deviation of the non-G noise environment from the Gaussian. The dose-response relation for the non-G noise-exposed subjects showed a higher prevalence of hearing loss for a comparable cumulative noise exposure than did the G noise-exposed subjects. By introducing the kurtosis variable into the temporal component of the cumulative noise exposure calculation, the two dose-response curves could be made to overlap, essentially yielding an equivalent noise

  5. Effect of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms on the genotoxicity of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline)-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ching; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Chiang, Sheng-Ta; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Lin, I-Shen; Chen, Hong-I; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) exposure and micronucleus (MN) frequency, and how this association was affected by genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4). We divided the study population into an exposed group (n=44 with total urine MBOCA ≥20 μg/g creatinine) and a control group (n=47 with total urine MBOCA <20 μg/g creatinine). Lymphocyte MN frequency (MNF) and micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency were measured by the cytokinesis-block MN assay method. MNF reported as the number of micronuclei in binucleated cells per 1000 cells, and MNC reported as the number of binucleated cells with the presence of MN per 1000 cells. CYP3A4 alleles were measured by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The mean MNF (6.11 vs 4.46 MN/1000 cells, p<0.001) and MNC (5.75 vs 4.15 MN/1000 cells, p<0.001) in the exposed workers was significantly higher than that in the controls. The CYP3A4 polymorphism A/A+A/G influenced the difference in the mean MNF (5.97 vs 4.38 MN/1000 cells, p<0.001) and MNC (5.60 vs 4.15 MN/1000 cells, p<0.001) between the MBOCA-exposed and control groups. After adjusting risk factors, the MNF level in the MBOCA-exposed workers was 0.520 MN cells/1000 cells (p<0.001) higher than the control group among the CYP3A4 A/A+A/G genotype. Similarly, the MNC level in the MBOCA-exposed workers was 0.593 MN/1000 cells (p<0.001) higher than the control group among the CYP3A4 A/A+A/G genotype. However, the difference in adjusted MNF and MNC between the exposed and control groups was not significant for the CYP3A4 polymorphism with the G/G genotype. We recommend that lymphocytes MNF and MNC are good indicators to evaluate MBOCA genotoxicity. Individuals with the CYP3A4 polymorphism A/A and A/G genotypes appear to be more susceptible to MBOCA genotoxicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  6. Sense of Coherence as a Determinant of Psychological Well-Being Across Professional Groups of Aid Workers Exposed to War Trauma.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro

    2015-06-18

    The present study aims to test whether sense of coherence (SOC) acts as a determinant of positive psychological functioning in aid workers directly exposed to warfare. Specifically, we performed multiple regression analyses to compare different groups of aid workers in terms of the effects of SOC and cumulative trauma on their psychological distress. Palestinian helpers, both professional and non-professional (N = 159) completed three self-reported measures: the General Health questionnaire, Sense of Coherence Scale, and Impact of Events Scale. The findings bear out the predictive power of SOC and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to mental health across different professional groups. In particular, volunteers without a specific professional profile, psychiatrists, medical doctors, and less markedly counselors seemed to protect their mental health through a SOC. Clinical implications and recommendations for training and supervision are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Inpatient hospital admission rates for nonmalignant respiratory disease among workers exposed to metal removal fluids at a U.S. automobile manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Gordon R; Stout, Allen W; Hands, David; Curry, Emmanuel

    2003-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of exposure to metal removal fluids (MRFs) on the respiratory health of exposed workers. The outcome measure selected was the rate of hospital admissions for nonmalignant respiratory disease episodes as determined from healthcare insurance claims data. A cohort of MRF-exposed employees was assembled from 11 manufacturing facilities where MRFs were extensively used in the manufacture of automotive engines, transmissions, and other machined parts. The MRF-exposed cohort included 20,434 employees of such facilities who worked at any time from 1993 through 1997. A non-MRF-exposed cohort was assembled from other employees of the same company during the same time period, but working in warehouse operations and other manufacturing facilities that did not use MRFs or any known respiratory sensitizing agents. The non-exposed cohort included 8681 employees. The crude hospital admission rate for the MRF-exposed cohort was 44 percent higher than that of the non-exposed cohort over the 5-year study period (6.67 vs. 4.62 per 1000 person years at risk, p < 0.05). With age adjustment, the MRF population's rate was still 35 percent higher, and still statistically significant. A nested case-control study was also conducted to determine whether the risk of hospital admission increased with the level of MRF exposure in the population working in MRF plants. The industrial hygiene reconstruction found the levels of exposures of both cases and controls to be very low, with the vast majority of study subjects (more than 90%) having exposures of less than 0.5 mg/m(3). The case-control study did not find any association between increased levels of MRF exposure and risk of hospitalization. The study did document an elevated risk of hospitalization among a sizable population employed in manufacturing operations where MRFs are used.

  8. Workers exposed to low levels of benzene present in urban air: Assessment of peripheral blood count variations.

    PubMed

    Casale, Teodorico; Sacco, Carmina; Ricci, Serafino; Loreti, Beatrice; Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola; Antuono, Vittorio; De Marco, Federica; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco; Rosati, Maria Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Few studies in the literature have examined the effects of benzene on blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation between the blood benzene levels and the blood cell counts. From a population of 2658 workers, we studied a group of 215 subjects. Each worker underwent blood sampling for the assessment of the blood benzene levels and the blood cell counts. The Mann-Whitney U test for two-mode variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test for more-than-two-mode variables were performed on all subjects. We estimated the Pearson correlation index between the variables in the total sample and the subgroups divided according to sex, the smoking habit, and job. After the main confounding factors were evaluated, multiple linear regression was performed on both the total sample and the subgroups. A significant inverse correlation was found among the blood benzene levels and the white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in traffic policemen, motorcyclists, and other outdoor workers. We did not find any significant correlation with any other parameters of blood cell count. Our results, which must be considered preliminary, indicate that increased blood benzene levels in outdoor workers lead to decreased counts of white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, because of possible immune effects. These are worth investigating in the future by specific immune tests. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [The study on behaviour of protective equipment utilization of workers exposed to benzene and factors based on Planned Behavior Theory].

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C D; Zhang, W M; Fu, Y K; Ma, H Y

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate and predict the behavioral intention and mode of the protective equipment utilization selection of the workers who used Benzene, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was applied to establish the behavioral model to enhance the theoretical foundation for long-term intervention. Methods: Questionnaires were used to survey the 707 workers, and all the behaviors of using protective equipment were investigated. Evaluate the relationships between each variable and obtain the influence affects by structural equation model. Results: The investigation showed that 38.47% of the total workers (272 cases) used whole body protection, 13.58% used partially, and 16.69% didn't use any body protection. There were significant difference between the varying degrees in the four dimensions (behavioral attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, and behavioral intention) (P<0.01) . The results of structural equation model revealed that perceived behavior control was the most important influencing factor, subjective norm, positive attitude, negative attitude were the other three respects in sequence. The path co-efficient were 0.600、0.215、0.141 and 0.046 respectively. Conclusion: The study show that the theory of planned behavior can effectively explain the behavioral intention and behavior of protective equipment utilization. Therefore, combining the subjective initiative of individuals with the supervision of enterprises, In order to effectively enhance the protective equipment utilization of benzene workers.

  10. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in workers occupationally exposed to water, sewage, and soil in Durango, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water, sewage, and soil are potential sources of infection for Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated characteristics in 61 plumbers, 203 construction workers, and 168 gardeners in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were tested for T...

  11. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in livestock ticks and animal handler seroprevalence at an abattoir in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akuffo, R; Brandful, J A M; Zayed, A; Adjei, A; Watany, N; Fahmy, N T; Hughes, R; Doman, B; Voegborlo, S V; Aziati, D; Pratt, D; Awuni, J A; Adams, N; Dueger, E

    2016-07-08

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Ixodid ticks and causes Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) disease in humans with up to 50 % mortality rate. Freshly slaughtered livestock at the Kumasi abattoir in the Ashanti Region of Ghana were examined for the presence of ticks once a month over a 6-month period from May to November 2011. The ticks were grouped into pools by species, sex, and animal source. CCHFV was detected in the ticks using reverse transcription PCR. Blood samples were collected from enrolled abattoir workers at initiation, and from those who reported fever in a preceding 30-day period during monthly visits 2-5 months after initiation. Six months after initiation, all participants who provided baseline samples were invited to provide blood samples. Serology was performed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Demographic and epidemiological data was also obtained from enrolled participants using a structured questionnaire. Of 428 freshly slaughtered animals comprising 130 sheep, 149 cattle, and 149 goats examined, 144 ticks belonging to the genera Ambylomma, Hyalomma and Boophilus were identified from 57 (13.3 %): 52 (34.9 %), 4 (3.1 %) and 1 (0.7 %) cattle, sheep and goat respectively. Of 97 tick pools tested, 5 pools comprising 1 pool of Hyalomma excavatum and 4 pools of Ambylomma variegatum, collected from cattle, were positive for CCHFV. Of 188 human serum samples collected from 108 abattoir workers, 7 (3.7 %) samples from 6 persons were anti-CCHF IgG positive with one of them also being CCHF IgM positive. The seroprevalence of CCHFV identified in this study was 5.7 %. This study detected human exposure to CCHF virus in slaughterhouse workers and also identified the CCHF virus in proven vectors (ticks) of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Ghana. The CCHFV was detected only in ticks collected from cattle, one of the livestock known to play a role in the amplification of the CCHF virus.

  12. Acute suppression of serum IgM and IgA in tank workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Kirkeleit, J; Ulvestad, E; Riise, T; Bråtveit, M; Moen, B E

    2006-12-01

    We investigated associations between benzene exposure and alterations of proteins and cells of the immune system among workers maintaining cargo tanks containing crude oil residues. Individual exposure to benzene, benzene in blood and urine, peripheral blood lymphocytes (total lymphocytes, lymphocytes in subpopulations CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56 and CD4/CD8 ratio), complement factors C3 and C4 and serum concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) were analysed among 13 tank workers and nine unexposed referents (catering section). Benzene exposure was measured during three consecutive 12-h work days. Blood and urine samples were collected pre-shift on the first day (baseline), post-shift on the third day, and pre-next shift on the following morning. The time spent in the cargo tank was logged. The individual geometric mean benzene exposure in the breathing zone of tank workers over 3 days was 0.15 p.p.m. (range 0.01-0.62 p.p.m.) (n = 26). The geometric mean benzene concentration in blood post-shift was 12.3 nmol/l among tank workers versus 0.7 nmol/l among the referents. Tank workers showed a decline (versus referents) in IgM from baseline to post-shift (t-test, P = 0.04) and IgA from baseline to pre-next shift (t-test, P = 0.01). They also showed a decline in CD4 T cells from baseline to post-shift (t-test, P = 0.04). Suppression correlated with benzene exposure, benzene concentrations in blood and urine and time spent in the tank. The groups did not differ significantly in the change in other immune parameters. The clinical significance is unknown and warrants further studies.

  13. Are workers who leave a job exposed to similar physical demands as workers who develop clinically meaningful declines in low-back function?

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sue A; Marras, William S; Lavender, Steven A; Splittstoesser, Riley E; Yang, Gang

    2014-02-01

    The objective is to quantify differences in physical exposures for those who stayed on a job (survivor) versus those who left the job (turnover). It has been suggested that high physical job demands lead to greater turnover and that turnover rates may supplement low-back disorder incidence rates in passive surveillance systems. A prospective study with 811 participants was conducted. The physical exposure of distribution center work was quantified using a moment monitor. A total of 68 quantitative physical exposure measures in three categories (load, position, and timing) were examined. Low-back health function was quantified using the lumbar motion monitor at baseline and 6-month follow-up. There were 365 turnover employees within the 6-month follow-up period and 446 "survivors" who remained on the same job, of which 126 survivors had a clinically meaningful decline in low-back functional performance (cases) and 320 survivors did not have a meaningful decline in low-back functional performance (noncases). Of the job exposure measures, 6% were significantly different between turnover and cases compared to 69% between turnover and noncases. Turnover employees had significantly greater exposure compared to noncases. Turnover employees had similar physical job exposures to workers who remained on the job and had a clinically meaningful decline in low-back functional performance. Thus, ergonomists and HR should be aware that high turnover jobs appear to have similar physical exposure as those jobs that put workers at risk for a decline in low-back functional performance.

  14. An abattoir survey of equine dental abnormalities in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chinkangsadarn, T; Wilson, G J; Greer, R M; Pollitt, C C; Bird, P S

    2015-06-01

    A cadaver study to estimate the prevalence of dental disorders in horses presented at an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. Cadaver heads at a Queensland abattoir were examined for the presence of dental abnormalities and categorised into age groups. The prevalence of abnormalities was analysed by binomial observation of observed proportion, Pearson's Chi-square test or Fisher's exact correlation test. Strength of association was evaluated using Cramer's V test. Heads from horses (n=400) estimated to be between 1 and 30 years of age were placed into four age groups. The most common abnormalities were sharp enamel points (55.3%) and hooks (43%). The highest frequency of dental diseases and abnormalities were in horses 11-15 years old (97.5%). Common abnormalities were found in all groups and the prevalence increased with age. This study suggests that all horses should have regular complete dental examinations to detect and treat dental disorders in order to limit more severe dental pathologies later in life. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Britz, T J; Schnetler, D C

    2010-09-01

    The prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. The effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. An attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. Samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the plant, plated out and selected organisms were typed using a commercial rapid identification system. It was indicated that the cold trim (mainly of bruises) of carcasses was advantageous in terms of microbiological meat quality. Results indicated pooled water in the abattoir as the most hazardous vector for carcass contamination and that contaminants from this source are mostly Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas and Shigella were frequently isolated from surface and air samples and indicated that the control of total plant hygiene is a requirement for producing ostrich meat that is safe to consume and has an acceptable shelf-life.

  16. Cancer Mortality through 2005 among a Pooled Cohort of U.S. Nuclear Workers Exposed to External Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Daniels, Robert D; Bertke, Stephen J; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Richardson, David B

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear workers worldwide have been studied for decades to estimate associations between their exposure to ionizing radiation and cancer. The low-level exposure of these workers requires pooling of large cohorts studied over many years to obtain risk estimates with appropriate latency and good precision. We assembled a pooled cohort of 119,195 U.S. nuclear workers at four Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities (Hanford site, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Savannah River site) and at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The cohort was followed at the start of the workers beginning their radiation work (at earliest, between 1944 and 1952) through 2005, and we compared its mortality to that of the U.S. We also conducted regression-modeling analysis to evaluate dose-response associations for external radiation exposure and outcomes: all cancers, smoking- and nonsmoking-related cancers, all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers, leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic), multiple myeloma, cardiovascular disease and others. The mean dose observed among the cohort was 20 mSv. For most outcomes, mortality was below expectation compared to the general population, but mesothelioma and pleura cancers were highly elevated. We found an excess relative risk (ERR) per 10 mSv of 0.14% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17%, 0.48%] for all cancers excluding leukemia. Estimates were higher for nonsmoking-related cancers (0.70%, 95% CI: 0.058%, 1.5%) and lower for smoking-related cancers (-0.079%, 95% CI: -0.43%, 0.32%). The ERR per 10 mSv was 1.7% (95% CI: -0.22%, 4.7%) for leukemia, which was similar to the estimate of 1.8% (95% CI: 0.027%, 4.4%) for all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. The ERR per 10 mSv for multiple myeloma was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.60%, 9.5%). The ERR per 10 mSv for cardiovascular disease was 0.026% (-0.25%, 0.32%). Little evidence of heterogeneity was seen by facility, birth cohort or sex for most outcomes. The estimates observed here

  17. The beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET) for chemoprevention of lung cancer in high risk populations: smokers and asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Omenn, G S; Goodman, G; Thornquist, M; Grizzle, J; Rosenstock, L; Barnhart, S; Balmes, J; Cherniack, M G; Cullen, M R; Glass, A

    1994-04-01

    CARET is a multicenter, two-armed, double-masked randomized chemoprevention trial in Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Baltimore, Connecticut, and Irvine, to test whether oral administration of beta-carotene (30 mg/day) plus retinyl palmitate (25,000 IU/day) can decrease the incidence of lung cancer in high risk populations, namely, heavy smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. The intervention combines the antioxidant action of beta-carotene and the tumor suppressor mechanism of vitamin A. As of April 30, 1993, CARET had randomized 1,845 participants in the 1985-1988 pilot phase plus 13,260 "efficacy" participants since 1989; of these, 4,000 are asbestos-exposed males and 11,105 are smokers and former smokers (44% female). Accrual is complete everywhere except Irvine, which was the last center added (1991), and the safety profile of the regimen to date has been excellent. With 14,420 smokers, 4,010 asbestos-exposed participants, and 114,100 person-years through February 1998, we expect CARET to be capable of detecting a 23% reduction in lung cancer incidence in the two populations combined and 27, 49, 32, and 35% reductions in the smokers, female smokers, male smokers, and asbestos-exposed subgroups, respectively. CARET is highly complementary to the alpha-tocopherol-beta-carotene study in Finland and the Harvard Physicians Health Study (beta-carotene alone) in the National Cancer Institute portfolio of major cancer chemoprevention trials.

  18. Mortality (1968-2008) in a French cohort of uranium enrichment workers potentially exposed to rapidly soluble uranium compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhivin, Sergey; Guseva Canu, Irina; Samson, Eric; Laurent, Olivier; Grellier, James; Collomb, Philippe; Zablotska, Lydia B; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Until recently, enrichment of uranium for civil and military purposes in France was carried out by gaseous diffusion using rapidly soluble uranium compounds. We analysed the relationship between exposure to soluble uranium compounds and exposure to external γ-radiation and mortality in a cohort of 4688 French uranium enrichment workers who were employed between 1964 and 2006. Data on individual annual exposure to radiological and non-radiological hazards were collected for workers of the AREVA NC, CEA and Eurodif uranium enrichment plants from job-exposure matrixes and external dosimetry records, differentiating between natural, enriched and depleted uranium. Cause-specific mortality was compared with the French general population via standardised mortality ratios (SMR), and was analysed via Poisson regression using log-linear and linear excess relative risk models. Over the period of follow-up, 131 161 person-years at risk were accrued and 21% of the subjects had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed: all causes SMR=0.69, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.74. SMR for pleural cancer was significantly increased (2.3, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.4), but was only based on nine cases. Internal uranium and external γ-radiation exposures were not significantly associated with any cause of mortality. This is the first study of French uranium enrichment workers. Although limited in statistical power, further follow-up of this cohort, estimation of internal uranium doses and pooling with similar cohorts should elucidate potential risks associated with exposure to soluble uranium compounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Influence of Cytokines and Soluble Receptors in the Quality of Life and Functional Capacity of Workers Exposed to Silica.

    PubMed

    Braz, Nayara Felicidade Tomaz; Carneiro, Ana Paula Scalia; Avelar, Núbia Carelli Pereira de; Miranda, Aline Silva de; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators in subjects exposed to silica, with and without silicosis compared with unexposed control group; and to check the association between inflammatory mediators with pulmonary function, quality of life, functional capacity, and dyspnea grade. Inflammatory mediators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were 30 subjects exposed to silica and 24 control group. Interleukin-6 plasma levels were higher in subjects exposed to silica with and without silicosis than in the control group. There was a positive correlation between radiological severity and the quality of life, whereas there was a negative correlation between radiological severity and pulmonary function. A negative correlation between sTNFR1 plasma level and functional capacity was found. Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with the quality of life total score and was positively correlated with the functional capacity and pulmonary function.

  20. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  1. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality - A review.

    PubMed

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-06-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals' wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  2. Incidence of male childhood sexual abuse and psychological sequelae in disaster workers exposed to a terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Leck, Pam; Difede, JoAnn; Patt, Ivy; Giosan, Cezar; Szkodny, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of male childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychological sequelae in a sample of disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center (WTC) site following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. There are limited data on male CSA and its psychological impact, especially on a large non-treatment seeking sample. As part of a mandatory medical screening program, workers were assessed with well-validated and widely used clinician interview and self-report measures following their involvement in the restoration of services to Ground Zero and surrounding areas of lower Manhattan. Frequency of CSA measured by the Traumatic Events Interview (TEI) was 4.3% (n = 92). Clinician interview and self-report data were analyzed using t-tests, revealing statistically significant relationships (but not clinically meaningful scores) between CSA and scores on the CAPS, PCL, BDI, STAXI, and SDS. Further analyses revealed that individuals endorsing CSA were three-times more likely to score high (vs. low) on the BDI and CAPS. Since disaster workers traditionally summon images of strength and mastery, professionals may overlook CSA and symptoms of depression and PTSD in this population.

  3. Evaluation of self-reported skin problems among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at a foam manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Daftarian, Helga S; Lushniak, Boris D; Reh, Christopher M; Lewis, Daniel M

    2002-12-01

    Toluene diisocyanate, or TDI (CAS 584-84-9) is a well-known asthmagen and respiratory irritant. TDI is also known for its ability to irritate the skin and mucous membranes. To further investigate the dermal effects of TDI, NIOSH investigators conducted a cross-sectional study at a flexible foam manufacturing plant. A total of 114 workers participated in the study. Participants completed a medical questionnaire, provided blood for antibody testing to TDI and other allergens, and a subset of participants reporting skin symptoms underwent skin patch testing to a standard diisocyanate panel. Production line workers were more than twice as likely to report skin problems as those working in nonproduction areas (PRR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.14-16.32; P = 0.02). Age, gender and duration of employment at the plant were comparable among participants working in production and nonproduction areas. Of the 100 participants who provided blood samples for antibody testing, specific IgG antibody to TDI was detected in two individuals, and none of the samples demonstrated specific IgE antibody to TDI. Of the 26 workers who underwent skin patch testing, none developed reactions to the diisocyanate allergens. These results suggest that the skin symptoms among study participants represent an irritant rather than an immunologic reaction to TDI, or to an unidentified allergen present in the foam.

  4. Epidemiological response to a suspected excess of cancer among a group of workers exposed to multiple radiological and chemical hazards

    PubMed Central

    Baysson, H; Laurier, D; Tirmarche, M; Valenty, M; Giraud, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—An excess of cancer was suspected by workers of the metallurgy department at the French Atomic Energy Commissariat (CEA) after several deaths from cancer were reported in 1983 and 1984. After a descriptive study performed by the CEA in 1985 the results of which were not conclusive enough to put an end to the controversy, the present cohort study was undertaken in 1989.
METHODS—As no specific exposure, or a precise cancer site was suspected, it was decided to include all subjects who had worked at the metallurgy department for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1968. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 1990. Individual occupational exposures were determined retrospectively for each year from 1950 to 1990, both qualitatively (annual job, and hazard records, and assistance from former workers) and quantitatively (for external radiation). On the basis of these exposures, three types of occupational tasks were identified: handling of chemicals, radionuclides, and external radiation. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to estimate the risk of death, and the existence of an association between risk of cancer and each of the three tasks was tested.
RESULTS—The cohort included 356 workers, followed up for an average of 30 years (total of 10 820 person-years). The number of deaths from all causes and from all cancer sites were respectively 44 and 21. No excess of cancer deaths was found for the study period (SMR 0.77), nor was there a peak in 1983-4. The risk of death from all cancer sites increased with the duration of exposure to chemicals.
CONCLUSION—The results do not justify the workers' impression of an excess of cancer. They suggest, however, that the duration of work at some tasks that involved handling chemicals may be an indicator of risk of cancer. Communication to the workers during the study played an important part in reducing their concern, contributing to their better understanding of the results

  5. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, Frederic; Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-09-21

    To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Prospective cohort study. Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1-10 years, 6.2% for 11-20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21-30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p<0.001). Using exposure for 1-10 years as reference, the adjusted OR of receiving a suspicious or malignant diagnosis increased with duration of exposure: OR=1.50 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.05, p=0.01) for 21-30 years and OR=1.78 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.56, p=0.002) for >30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with

  6. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Outcomes Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. Results We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1–10 years, 6.2% for 11–20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21–30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p<0.001). Using exposure for 1–10 years as reference, the adjusted OR of receiving a suspicious or malignant diagnosis increased with duration of exposure: OR=1.50 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.05, p=0.01) for 21–30 years and OR=1.78 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.56, p=0.002) for >30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Conclusions Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new

  7. Change in Level of 5-HT Contained in Peripheral Blood of Workers Exposed to Microwave and High-Frequency Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-19

    34excitability, and hyperhidrosis . The incidence of these symptoms was lower in the control group than in the two exposed groups (incidence rate. was the...0.0 Excitability .......... 18.2 ........ 15.2 .. ............ 9.1 Hyperhidrosis ......... 27.3 ........ 21.2 1............9.1 Neurasthenia

  8. A prospective cohort study investigating an exposure-response relationship among vibration-exposed male workers with numbness of the hands.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Maria; Burström, Lage; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr; Sandén, Helena; Hagberg, Mats

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure-response relationship of hand-arm vibration exposure to neurological symptoms (numbness) of the hand in a cohort of vibration-exposed workers. The baseline cohort comprised 241 office and manual workers with and without exposure to hand-arm vibration. Numbness (the symptom or event) in the hand was assessed for all subjects at baseline and follow-ups after 5, 10, and 16 years. The workers were stratified into quartiles with no exposure in the first quartile and increasing intensity of exposure in quartiles 2-4 (groups 1-3). Data analysis was performed using survival analysis (time to event). Information on cumulative exposure and years of exposure to event was collected via questionnaires. Measurements were performed in accordance with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 5349-1. The hazard ratio (HR) of risk of event (numbness) differed statistically significantly between the non-exposed group (group 0) and the two higher exposure groups (groups 2 and 3). There was also a significant ratio difference between the lowest exposure group (group 1) and the two higher groups. The ratio for group 1 was 1.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96-3.26] compared with 3.78 (95% CI 2.15-6.62) and 5.31 (95% CI 3.06-9.20) for groups 2 and 3, respectively. The results suggest a dose-response relationship between vibration exposure and numbness of the hands. This underlines the importance of keeping vibration levels low to prevent neurological injury to the hands.

  9. Occupational Bladder Cancer in a 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-Exposed Worker

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yi-Chun; Uang, Shi-Nian; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Hong-I

    2005-01-01

    A 52-year-old male chemical worker was admitted to the hospital with a history of paroxysmal microscopic hematuria for about 2 years and nocturia with gross hematuria about five times per night for 2 months. He was a nonsmoker and denied a history of any other bladder carcinogen exposure except for occasional pesticide application during agricultural work. Intravenous urogram imaging showed a mass occupying half of the bladder capacity. Cystoscopy revealed a mass over the left dome of the bladder. Cystoscopic biopsy revealed a grade 3 invasive transitional cell carcinoma with marked necrosis. From 1987 until hospital admission in 2001, the patient had worked in a company that produced the 4,4′-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) curing agent. He did not wear any personal protective equipment during work. Ambient air MBOCA levels in the purification process area (0.23–0.41 mg/m3) exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s permissible exposure level. Urinary MBOCA levels (267.9–15701.1 μg/g creatinine) far exceeded the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s reference value of 100 μg/L. This patient worked in the purification process with occupational exposure to MBOCA for 14 years. According to the environmental and biologic monitoring data and latency period, and excluding other potential bladder carcinogen exposure, this worker was diagnosed as having occupational bladder cancer due to high exposure to MBOCA through inhalation or dermal absorption in the purification area. This case finding supports that MBOCA is a potential human carcinogen. Safe use of skin-protective equipment and respirators is required to prevent workers from MBOCA exposure. PMID:15929884

  10. Occupation exposed to road-traffic emissions and respiratory health among Congolese transit workers, particularly bus conductors, in Kinshasa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Hirota, Ryoji; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Muchanga, Sifa Marie Joelle; Kiyosawa, Hidenori; Yasumitsu-Lovell, Kahoko; Lawanga, Ontshick Leader; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2017-03-20

    Road-traffic emissions (RTE) induce adverse health effects, notably respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases, as a result of pollutants deposited into the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupation groups of Congolese transit workers exposed to RTE, particularly bus conductors and respiratory health, in Kinshasa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 April 20 th to May 14 th , whose participants were bus conductors (n = 110), bus drivers (n = 107), taxi-motorcyclists (n = 102) and high school teachers (control group; n = 106). Subjects had completed the American Thoracic Society respiratory symptom questionnaire. Lung function test was performed by spirometry. Air pollutants levels of PM 2.5 , NO 2 and SO 2 were measured between 7:30 and 8:30 and 16:30-17:30 using a portable gas monitor. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupation exposed to RTE and impaired pulmonary function, after adjustment by plausible confounders. The prevalence of mixed syndrome was 21.9% for bus conductors, 10.9% for bus drivers, 15.4% for taxi-motorcyclists and 7.1% for high school teachers with (p < 0.05). The risk of developing a mixed syndrome was seven times higher among bus conductors [OR = 7.64; 95% CI: 1.83-31.67; p < 0.05] than other groups. Additionally, the prevalence of respiratory syndromes increased with the duration of exposure. Occupation exposed to RTE is associated with impaired pulmonary function and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among transit workers, especially bus conductors. Furthermore, this association increases with the duration of exposure suggesting the necessity to regulate these categories of occupations and to apply preventives measures.

  11. Micronuclei related to anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in peripheral blood lymphocytes of heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-exposed nonsmoking coke-oven workers and controls.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Kapka, Lucyna; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyñska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Clonfero, Erminio

    2008-10-01

    Micronuclei (MN) frequency associated to biologically effective dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH; anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (B[a]PDE)-DNA] within the same subjects' peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) was evaluated. Study subjects were nonsmoking male Polish coke-oven workers (n=49) and matched controls (n=45) verified for PAH exposure by urinary 1-pyrenol. We found that coke-oven workers, heavily exposed to PAHs (80% workers exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index value), presented significantly higher MN frequency in PBLs than controls (P<0.01). Substantial difference was also found for adduct levels in PBLs (P<0.01). Increase in MN levels was significantly related to anti-B[a]PDE-DNA formation, key adduct of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of B[a]P (n=94; r=0.47; P<0.001). The dose-response relationship was improved when subjects with adduct levels above the 3rd tertile (>or=4.35 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were excluded (n=61; r=0.69; P<0.001). Saturation of adduct/MN formation at high levels may disturb the underlying relationship. Linear multiple regression analysis, without subjects of 3rd tertile adduct level (n=61), revealed that adduct formation (t=4.61; P<0.001), but not 1-pyrenol, was the significant determinant in increasing MN. In conclusion, the increase in MN frequency is mainly related to the specific anti-B[a]PDE-DNA formation within PBLs of the same subject. Our results substantiate, with the use of an early indicator of biological effect as well, that workers are at higher cancer risk than controls.

  12. N-Acetyl-S-(n-Propyl)-L-Cysteine in Urine from Workers Exposed to 1-Bromopropane in Foam Cushion Spray Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kevin W.; Petersen, Martin R.; Cheever, Kenneth L.; Luo, Lian

    2009-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br(−)] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br(−) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

  13. Quantitative cancer risk assessment based on NIOSH and UCC epidemiological data for workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco; Sielken, Robert L; Teta, M Jane

    2010-04-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on individual workers in the NIOSH and updated UCC occupational studies have been used to characterize the potential excess cancer risks of environmental exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). In addition to refined analyses of the separate cohorts, power has been increased by analyzing the combined cohorts. In previous SMR analyses of the separate studies and the present analyses of the updated and pooled studies of over 19,000 workers, none of the SMRs for any combination of the 12 cancer endpoints and six sub-cohorts analyzed were statistically significantly greater than one including the ones of greatest previous interest: leukemia, lymphohematopoietic tissue, lymphoid tumors, NHL, and breast cancer. In our study, no evidence of a positive cumulative exposure-response relationship was found. Fitted Cox proportional hazards models with cumulative EO exposure do not have statistically significant positive slopes. The lack of increasing trends was corroborated by categorical analyses. Cox model estimates of the concentrations corresponding to a 1-in-a-million extra environmental cancer risk are all greater than approximately 1ppb and are more than 1500-fold greater than the 0.4ppt estimate in the 2006 EPA draft IRIS risk assessment. The reasons for this difference are identified and discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-20

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  15. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  16. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids. PMID:25791573

  17. Mortality among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and welding emissions: an exercise in epidemiologic triage.

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, M; Maizlish, N; Park, R; Mirer, F

    1985-01-01

    The United Automobile Workers International Union has established a system of epidemiologic triage to evaluate patterns of mortality among groups of union members. In response to worker concerns, the Union examined mortality at a metal stamping plant, using a method which linked pension records with the State of Michigan computerized death registry. The observed proportion of malignant neoplasms was nearly twice that expected (95% Confidence Limits 1.36, 2.62). Two- to five-fold excess proportional mortality from cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, and leukemia accounted for most of the overall excess. Strong associations were found between lung and digestive organ cancer and employment as maintenance welders or millwrights in the plant (odds ratios greater than 10). High levels of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties were found during hot coal tar application to wood block floors, work conducted by the high-risk groups. These levels were substantially reduced following the purchase of new tar pots. The example demonstrates that epidemiologic tools can play a valuable role in occupational health decision making, but care must be taken to avoid mechanical reliance on quantitative testing and to acknowledge the important role of social and political value judgments in the establishment of responsible public policy. PMID:4051064

  18. Cancer Incidence in Workers Exposed to Styrene in the Danish-reinforced Plastics Industry, 1968-2012.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mette Skovgaard; Hansen, Johnni; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Toft, Gunnar; Kolstad, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Occupational exposure to styrene is widespread and has been suggested to be carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to styrene increases the risk of cancer, in particular lymphohematopoietic cancers. We established a study population of 72,292 workers employed in 443 small and medium-sized companies producing reinforced plastics 1964-2007 by utilizing several national registries, expert assessment, and worker survey data. We identified incident cancer cases from 1968 to 2012 in the national Danish cancer registry and computed standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) based on national rates. Increasing SIRs of Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and cancer of nasal cavities and sinuses were inconsistently associated with increasing duration of employment, early year of first employment, or styrene exposure probability. No such trends were observed for cancer of the esophagus, pancreas, lung, kidney, or urinary bladder, which have previously been associated with styrene exposure. Lung cancer showed an overall increased risk that decreased by duration of employment. Occupational styrene exposure may be associated with Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and cancer of nasal cavities and sinuses. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the observed associations are likely to be causal.

  19. Micronucleus frequency in copper-mine workers exposed to arsenic is modulated by the AS3MT Met287Thr polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Paiva, Leiliane; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been demonstrated to be the key enzyme in the metabolism of arsenic as it catalyses the methylation of arsenite and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to form methylated arsenic species, which have higher toxic and genotoxic potential than the parent compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate if genetic variation in the AS3MT gene influences arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) assay. AS3MT Met287Thr allele frequencies and MN values were determined for 207 subjects working in the copper-mine industry, who were exposed to variable levels of arsenic. The urinary arsenic profile was used as individual biomarker of arsenic exposure. Results indicate that the MN frequencies found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed population poorly correlate with the levels of total arsenic content in urine. Nevertheless, when workers were classified according to their AS3MT Met287Thr genotypes, significantly higher MN values were observed for those carrying the variant allele [odds ratio (OR), 3.4 (1.6-5.2); P=0.0003)]. To our knowledge, these results are the first to show that genetic variation in AS3MT, especially the Met287Thr polymorphism, may play a role in modulating the levels of arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229