Science.gov

Sample records for abb power plant

  1. ABB's advanced steam turbine program

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    Demand for industrial steam turbines for combined-cycle applications and cogeneration plants has influenced turbine manufacturers to standardize their machines to reduce delivery time and cost. ABB, also a supplier of turnkey plants, manufactures steam turbines in Finspong, Sweden, at the former ASEA Stal facilities and in Nuernberg, Germany, at the former AEG facilities. The companies have joined forces, setting up the advanced Steam Turbine Program (ATP) that, once completed, will cover a power range from two to 100 MW. The company decided to use two criteria as a starting point, the high efficiency design of the Swedish turbines and themore » high reliability of the German machines. Thus, the main task was combining the two designs in standard machines that could be assembled quickly into predefined packages to meet specific needs of combined-cycle and cogeneration plants specified by customers. In carrying out this project, emphasis was put on cost reduction as one of the main goals. The first results of the ATP program, presented by ABB Turbinen Nuernberg, is the range of 2-30 MW turbines covered by two frame sizes comprising standard components supporting the thermodynamic module. An important feature is the standardization of the speed reduction gearbox.« less

  2. Impact of workstations on criticality analyses at ABB combustion engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, L.B.; Freeman, R.S.; O'Donnell, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    During 1991, ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB C-E) made the transition from a CDC Cyber 990 mainframe for nuclear criticality safety analyses to Hewlett Packard (HP)/Apollo workstations. The primary motivation for this change was improved economics of the workstation and maintaining state-of-the-art technology. The Cyber 990 utilized the NOS operating system with a 60-bit word size. The CPU memory size was limited to 131 100 words of directly addressable memory with an extended 250000 words available. The Apollo workstation environment at ABB consists of HP/Apollo-9000/400 series desktop units used by most application engineers, networked with HP/Apollo DN10000 platforms that use 32-bitmore » word size and function as the computer servers and network administrative CPUS, providing a virtual memory system.« less

  3. AbbVie Ltd., Barceloneta, PR Amended Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Region 2 Office (EPA) received an October 11,2017 submittal from the law firm of Toro, Colon, Mullet, Rivera & Sifre, P.S.c. on behalf of AbbVieLtd.

  4. The Effects of Using Microsoft Power Point on EFL Learners' Attitude and Anxiety: Case Study of Two Master Students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benghalem, Boualem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of using ICT tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL students' attitude and anxiety. The participants in this study were 40 Master 2 students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes Algeria. In order to find out the effects of Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL…

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: TWO-ZONE PCE BIOREMEDIATION SYSTEM - ABB ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC. - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABB Environmental Services, Inc.'s (ABB-ES), research has demonstrated that sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is feasible if the proper conditions can be established. The anaerobic process can potentially completely dechlorinate PCE. Howeve...

  6. Calculating the Weather: Deductive Reasoning and Disciplinary "Telos" in Cleveland Abbe's Rhetorical Transformation of Meteorology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdik, Zoltan P.; Platt, Carrie Anne; Meister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetorical basis of a major paradigm change in meteorology, from a focus on inductive observation to deductive, mathematical reasoning. Analysis of Cleveland Abbe's "The Physical Basis of Long-Range Weather Forecasts" demonstrates how in his advocacy for a new paradigm, Abbe navigates the tension between piety to tradition…

  7. Inverse Abbe-method for observing small refractive index changes in liquids.

    PubMed

    Räty, Jukka; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2015-05-01

    This study concerns an optical method for the detection of minuscule refractive index changes in the liquid phase. The proposed method reverses the operation of the traditional Abbe refractometer and thus utilizes the light dispersion properties of materials, i.e. it involves the dependence of the refractive index on light wavelength. In practice, the method includes the detection of light reflection spectra in the visible spectral range. This inverse Abbe method is suitable for liquid quality studies e.g. for monitoring water purity. Tests have shown that the method reveals less than per mil NaCl or ethanol concentrations in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Collaborative Defense of Transmission and Distribution Protection and Control Devices Against Cyber Attacks (CODEF) DE-OE0000674. ABB Inc. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuqui, Reynaldo

    This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-OE funded project DEOE0000674, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Ameren-Illinois (Ameren-IL) pursued the development of a system of collaborative defense of electrical substation’s intelligent electronic devices against cyber-attacks (CODEF). An electrical substation with CODEF features will be more capable of mitigating cyber-attacks especially those that seek to control switching devices. It leverages the security extensions of IEC 61850 to empower existing devices to collaborate in identifying and blocking malicious intents to trip circuit breakers, mis-coordinate devices settings, even thoughmore » the commands and the measurements comply with correct syntax. The CODEF functions utilize the physics of electromagnetic systems, electric power engineering principles, and computer science to bring more in depth cyber defense closer to the protected substation devices.« less

  9. Effect of Impact Damage on the Fatigue Response of TiAl Alloy-ABB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Nazmy, M. Y.; Staubli, M.; Clemens, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gamma-TiAl to withstand potential foreign or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma-TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. In the present study, the impact resistance of TiAl alloy ABB-2 was determined and compared to the impact resistance of Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr. Specimens were impacted with four different impact conditions with impact energies ranging from 0.22 to 6.09 J. After impacting, the impact damage was characterized by crack lengths on both the front and backside of the impact. Due to the flat nature of gamma-TiAl's S-N (stress vs. cycles to failure) curve, step fatigue tests were used to determine the fatigue strength after impacting. Impact damage increased with increasing impact energy and led to a reduction in the fatigue strength of the alloy. For similar crack lengths, the fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 was similar to the fatigue strength of impacted Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, even though the tensile properties of the two alloys are significantly different. Similar to Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, ABB-2 showed a classical mean stress dependence on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 could be accurately predicted using a threshold analysis.

  10. SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricitymore » costs to consumers and lowest emissions.« less

  11. Combined cycle comes to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The first combined cycle power station in the Philippines has gone into operation at National Power Corporation`s (NPC) Limay Bataan site, some 40 km west of Manila. The plant comprises two 300 MW blocks in 3+3+1 configuration, based on ABB Type GT11N gas turbines. It was built by a consortium of ABB, with their Japanese licensee Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Marubeni Corporation. This paper discusses Philippine power production, design and operation of the Limay Bataan plant, and conversion of an existing turbine of the nuclear plant project that was abandoned earlier, into a combined cycle operation. 6 figs.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Saguaro Power Plant | Concentrating

    Science.gov Websites

    Solar Power | NREL Saguaro Power Plant This page provides information on Saguaro, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Status Date: April 14, 2017 Project Overview Project Name: Saguaro Power Plant Country: United

  13. Energy comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosel, Urška; Avsec, Jurij

    2017-07-01

    The combined use of renewable energy and alternative energy systems and better efficiency of energy devices is a promising approach to reduce effects due to global warming in the world. On the basis of first and second law of thermodynamics we could optimize the processes in the energy sector. The presented paper shows the comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant in terms of energy, exergy and life cycle analysis. Solar thermal power plant produces electricity with basic Rankine cycle, using solar tower and solar mirrors to produce high fluid temperature. Heat from the solar system is transferred by using a heat exchanger to Rankine cycle. Both power plants produce hydrogen via electrolysis. The paper shows the global efficiency of the system, regarding production of the energy system.

  14. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  15. Amistad Power Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Worh District AMISTAD POWEI PLANT DEL RIO, TEXAS DTICS LECTE DEC 2 11983 OCTOBER 1063 88 11 281 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved fca public relea...A I I I 1 1 ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT WORTH DISTRICT, TEXAS FINAL FOUNDATION REPORT AMISTAD POWER PLANT NTIS G- xi DTI’. T" Jus! if - Distr ’. Avai...Wayne E. McIntosh. Colonel Donald Palladino and Colonel Theodore Stroup served as District Engineers during construction of the Amistad Power Plant

  16. What is the diffraction limit? From Airy to Abbe using direct numerical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, Y. M.; Merlo, J. M.; Burns, M. J.; Kempa, K.; Naughton, M. J.

    The resolution of a conventional optical microscope is sometimes taken from Airy's point spread function (PSF), 0 . 61 λ / NA , and sometimes from Abbe, λ / 2 NA , where NA is the numerical aperture, however modern fluorescence and near-field optical microscopies achieve spatial resolution far better than either of these limits. There is a new category of 2D metamaterials called planar optical elements (POEs), which have a microscopic thickness (< λ), macroscopic transverse dimensions (> 100 λ), and are composed of an array of nanostructured light scatterers. POEs are found in a range of micro- and nano-photonic technologies, and will influence the future optical nanoscopy. With this pretext, we shed some light on the 'diffraction limit' by numerically evaluating Kirchhoff's scalar formulae (in their exact form) and identifying the features of highly non-paraxial, 3D PSFs. We show that the Airy and Abbe criteria are connected, and we comment on the design rules for a particular type of POE: the flat lens. This work is supported by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferredmore » alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.« less

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 1. Feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferredmore » alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.« less

  19. Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 3. Feasibility study report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferredmore » alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.« less

  20. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Environmental Assessment... Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  1. A commercial project for private investments. Update of the 280 MW api Energia IGCC plant construction in central Italy.

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bravo, R.; Pinacci, P.; Trifilo, R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper has the aim to give a general overview of the api Energia IGCC project starting from the project background in 1992 and ending with the progress of construction. api Energia S.p.A., a joint VENTURE between api anonima petroli italiana S.p.A., Roma, Italy (51%), ABB Sae Sadelmi S.p.A., Milano, Italy (25%) and Texaco Development Corporation (24%), is building a 280 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant in the api refinery at Falconara Marittima, on Italy' s Adriatic coast, using heavy oil residues. The plant is based on the modern concept of employing a highly efficient combined cycle power plantmore » fed with a low heating value fuel gas produced by gasifying heavy refinery residues. This scheme provides consistent advantages in terms of efficiency and environmental impact over alternative applications of the refinery residues. The electric power produced will feed the national grid. The project has been financed using the ``project financing'' scheme: over 1,000 billion Lira, representing 75% of the overall capital requirement, have been provided by a pool of international banks. In November 1996 the project reached financial closure and immediately after the detailed design and procurement activities started. Engineering, Procurement and Construction activities, carried out by a Consortium of companies of the ABB group, are totally in line with the schedule. Commercial operation of the plant, is scheduled for November 1999.« less

  2. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  3. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Final)] Large Power Transformers... materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings... Commission and Commerce by ABB Inc., Cary, NC; Delta Star Inc., Lynchburg, VA; and Pennsylvania Transformer...

  4. 2. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Potomac Power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  5. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Calvert Cliffs.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed operator...

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Redstone Solar Thermal Power Plant |

    Science.gov Websites

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Redstone Solar Thermal Power Plant Status Date: September 8 , 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Redstone Solar Thermal Power Plant Country: South Africa Location ): 100.0 MW Turbine Capacity (Net): 100.0 MW Cooling Method: Dry cooling Thermal Storage Storage Type: 2

  7. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1...

  8. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its... for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, located in Calvert County, MD. The...

  9. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  10. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  11. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated onmore » such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.« less

  12. 75 FR 20384 - ABB, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion Staffing, Dividend Staffing, Mystaff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...-Site Leased Workers From Spherion Staffing, Dividend Staffing, Mystaff, and Zero Chaos, Wichita Falls... from Spherion Staffing, Dividend Staffing, MyStaff, and Zero Chaos were employed on-site by the Wichita..., Dividend Staffing, MyStaff, and Zero Chaos working on-site at the Wichita Falls, Texas location of ABB, Inc...

  13. ESP IMPROVEMENTS AT POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-going ORD and OIA collaborative project in the Newly Independent States (NIS) is designed to upgrade ESPs used in NIS power plants and has laid the foundation for implementing cost-effective ESP modernization efforts at power plants. Thus far, state-of-the-art ESP performan...

  14. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County, Georgia...

  15. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Henry

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant canmore » provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion

  16. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2012-09-01

    Geothermal power plants are currently producing reliable and low-cost, base load electricity. Three basic types of geothermal power plants are currently in operation: single-flashing, dual-flashing, and binary power plants. Typically, the single-flashing and dual-flashing geothermal power plants utilize geothermal water (brine) at temperatures in the range of 550-430 K. Binary units utilize geothermal resources at lower temperatures, typically 450-380 K. The entropy production in the various components of the three types of geothermal power plants determines the efficiency of the plants. It is axiomatic that a lower entropy production would improve significantly the energy utilization factor of the corresponding power plant. For this reason, the entropy production in the major components of the three types of geothermal power plants has been calculated. It was observed that binary power plants generate the lowest amount of entropy and, thus, convert the highest rate of geothermal energy into mechanical energy. The single-flashing units generate the highest amount of entropy, primarily because they re-inject fluid at relatively high temperature. The calculations for entropy production provide information on the equipment where the highest irreversibilities occur, and may be used to optimize the design of geothermal processes in future geothermal power plants and thermal cycles used for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

  18. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant |

    Science.gov Websites

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant This page provides information on Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background , participants, and power plant configuration. Gemasolar is the first high-temperature solar receiver with molten

  19. An experimental aluminum-fueled power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Bersh, A. V.; Zhuk, A. Z.; Lisicyn, A. V.; Sorokovikov, A. I.; Pankina, Yu. V.

    2011-10-01

    An experimental co-generation power plant (CGPP-10) using aluminum micron powder (with average particle size up to 70 μm) as primary fuel and water as primary oxidant was developed and tested. Power plant can work in autonomous (unconnected from industrial network) nonstop regime producing hydrogen, electrical energy and heat. One of the key components of experimental plant is aluminum-water high-pressure reactor projected for hydrogen production rate of ∼10 nm3 h-1. Hydrogen from the reactor goes through condenser and dehumidifier and with -25 °C dew-point temperature enters into the air-hydrogen fuel cell 16 kW-battery. From 1 kg of aluminum the experimental plant produces 1 kWh of electrical energy and 5-7 kWh of heat. Power consumer gets about 10 kW of electrical power. Plant electrical and total efficiencies are 12% and 72%, respectively.

  20. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  1. Power Plant Model Validation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    The PPMV is used to validate generator model using disturbance recordings. The PPMV tool contains a collection of power plant models and model validation studies, as well as disturbance recordings from a number of historic grid events. The user can import data from a new disturbance into the database, which converts PMU and SCADA data into GE PSLF format, and then run the tool to validate (or invalidate) the model for a specific power plant against its actual performance. The PNNL PPMV tool enables the automation of the process of power plant model validation using disturbance recordings. The tool usesmore » PMU and SCADA measurements as input information. The tool automatically adjusts all required EPCL scripts and interacts with GE PSLF in the batch mode. The main tool features includes: The tool interacts with GE PSLF; The tool uses GE PSLF Play-In Function for generator model validation; Database of projects (model validation studies); Database of the historic events; Database of the power plant; The tool has advanced visualization capabilities; and The tool automatically generates reports« less

  2. Optimizing the Utility Power of a Geothermal Power Plant using Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) (Case Study: Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Manik, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant (SGPP) is one of the plants being developed by Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) at the upstream phase. At the downstream phase, State - owned Electricity Company (PLN) through PT. Dizamatra Powerindo is the developer. The gross capacity of the power plant is 13.3 MW, consisting 1 unit of Monoblock (2 MW) developed by PGE and 2 units (2×5.65 MW) operated through Energy Sales Contract by PLN. During the development phase of a geothermal power plant, there is a chance to reduce the utility power in order to increase the overall plant efficiency. Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modeling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430. The possibility of energy saving is indicated by condenser pressure changes as a result of wet bulb temperature fluctuation. The result of this study indicates that the change of condenser pressure is about 50.8% on the constant liquid/gas (L/G) condition of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C. Further result indicates that in this power plant, Cooling Tower Fan (CTF) is the facility that has the greatest utility load, followed by Hot Well Pump (HWP). The saving of the greatest utility load is applied trough Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) instrumentation. The result of this modeling has been validated by actual operations data (log sheet). The developed model has also been reviewed trough Specific Steam Consumption (SSC), resulting that constant L/G condition allows the optimum condition on of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C.

  3. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft...) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County, Georgia. The purpose of the Proposal is...

  4. Pair and triple correlations in the A+B-->B diffusion-controlled reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovkov, Vladimir; Kotomin, Eugene

    1994-03-01

    An exact solution for the one-dimensional kinetics of the diffusion-controlled reaction A+B-->B is obtained by means of the three-particle correlation functions. Because of a lattice discreteness each site could be occupied by a single particle only which leads to the so-called ``bus effect'': Recombination of any particle A is defined by a spatial configuration of two nearest particles B only surrounding A from its left and right. This results in the unusual algebraic decay law, n(t)~t-1, which asymptotically (as t-->∞) does not depend on the trap B concentration.

  5. Mobile Nuclear Power Plants 1960-1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-11-01

    power for electricity for the Army in the Field cannot be realized until a satisfactory electri- cal power distribution system is developed or low...power plants in the 1960-70 period should be to provide electri- cal power to meet concentrated demands such as those im- posed by Army and Corps...Capital Letter - Order of initiation of field plants whoa« deslg- nationa do not Include thia final letter are prototype or pilot planta

  6. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  7. The 125 MW Upper Mahiao geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, N.

    1996-12-31

    The 125 MW Upper Mahiao power plant, the first geothermal power project to be financed under a Build-Own-Operate-and-Transfer (BOOT) arrangement in the Philippines, expected to complete its start-up testing in August of this year. This plant uses Ormat`s environmentally benign technology and is both the largest geothermal steam/binary combined cycle plant as well as the largest geothermal power plant utilizing air cooled condensers. The Ormat designed and constructed plant was developed under a fast track program, with some two years from the April 1994 contract signing through design, engineering, construction and startup. The plant is owned and operated by amore » subsidiary of CalEnergy Co., Inc. and supplies power to PNOC-Energy Development Corporation for the National Power Corporation (Napocor) national power grid in the Philippines.« less

  8. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Coolingmore » water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.« less

  9. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.

  10. Above-bottom biomass retrieval of aquatic plants with regression models and SfM data acquired by a UAV platform - A case study in Wild Duck Lake Wetland, Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ran; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenji; Pu, Ruiliang; Deng, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Above-bottom biomass (ABB) is considered as an important parameter for measuring the growth status of aquatic plants, and is of great significance for assessing health status of wetland ecosystems. In this study, Structure from Motion (SfM) technique was used to rebuild the study area with high overlapped images acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). We generated orthoimages and SfM dense point cloud data, from which vegetation indices (VIs) and SfM point cloud variables including average height (HAVG), standard deviation of height (HSD) and coefficient of variation of height (HCV) were extracted. These VIs and SfM point cloud variables could effectively characterize the growth status of aquatic plants, and thus they could be used to develop a simple linear regression model (SLR) and a stepwise linear regression model (SWL) with field measured ABB samples of aquatic plants. We also utilized a decision tree method to discriminate different types of aquatic plants. The experimental results indicated that (1) the SfM technique could effectively process high overlapped UAV images and thus be suitable for the reconstruction of fine texture feature of aquatic plant canopy structure; and (2) an SWL model based on point cloud variables: HAVG, HSD, HCV and two VIs: NGRDI, ExGR as independent variables has produced the best predictive result of ABB of aquatic plants in the study area, with a coefficient of determination of 0.84 and a relative root mean square error of 7.13%. In this analysis, a novel method for the quantitative inversion of a growth parameter (i.e., ABB) of aquatic plants in wetlands was demonstrated.

  11. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  12. 76 FR 40403 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-244; Docket No. 72-67] R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... Facility Operating License No. DPR-18, for the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), currently held by R...

  13. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  15. Local phytochemical response of Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. 'Bluggoe' (ABB) to colonization by Sternorrhyncha.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Vollrath, Antje; Kai, Marco; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthaguntalam; Menezes, Riya C; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of two Sternorrhyncha species, the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Aphidinae)), vector of the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), and the latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Diaspidinae)) with Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla (ABB Group) 'Bluggoe' (Musaceae) was investigated by a combination of conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques, 1 H NMR, UHPLC-MS, and matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization MS imaging. After infestation, the feeding sites of P. nigronervosa on the pseudostem and the exocarp of banana fruit developed a red tinge, in which tissue-specific accumulations of phenylphenalenones were discovered. Phenylphenalenones were also detected in the black mats of sooty molds growing on the banana aphid exudates and in the dorsal scales of H. lataniae. This suggests that although these secondary metabolites play a role in the reaction of banana plants towards attack by sucking insects, an aphid and an armored scale have established mechanisms to exude these metabolites before they deploy their deleterious effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G., E-mail: vti@vti.ru; Olkhovsky, G. G.

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas.more » Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.« less

  17. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ..., Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the... Operating License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's...

  18. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North Carolina. In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21... of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  19. Abbe's number and Cauchy's constant of iodine and selenium doped poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Sheetal, E-mail: smehta-29@yahoo.com; Das, Kallol, E-mail: smehta-29@yahoo.com; Keller, Jag Mohan, E-mail: smehta-29@yahoo.com

    2014-04-24

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) / Polystyrene and iodine / selenium hybrid matrixes have been prepared and characterized. Refractive index measurements were done at 390, 535, 590, 635 nm wavelengths. Abbe's number and Cauchy's constants of the iodine / selenium doped poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene samples are being reported. The results also showed that the refractive index of the composite varies non-monotonically with the doping concentration at low iodine concentration or in the region of nanoparticles formation and is also dependent on thermal annealing.

  20. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.

    Toroidal magnetic systems present the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They offer potential solutions to the main requirements that confront a power plant designer. An ideal system may be postulated in which the coils are a very small part of the cost, and the cost stems primarily from the inescapable components: minimal plasma heating (and sustaining system), tritium breeding blanket, shield, particle input, removal and treatment system, heat transfer system, generators, buildings, and balance of plant. No present system meets the ideal standards; however, toroidal systems contain among them the elements required. Consequently, a logical program may be based upon an evolutionary development, building on the contributions of the tokamak, which has been the mainline of research for a number of years.

  1. A parametric simulation of solar chimney power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beng Hooi, Lim; Kannan Thangavelu, Saravana

    2018-01-01

    The strong solar radiation, continuous supplies of sunlight and environmental friendly factors have made the solar chimney power plant becoming highly feasible to build in Malaysia. Solar chimney power plant produces upward buoyancy force through the greenhouse effect. Numerical simulation was performed on the model of a solar chimney power plant using the ANSYS Fluent software by applying standard k-epsilon turbulence model and discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model to solve the relevant equations. A parametric study was carried out to evaluate the performance of solar chimney power plant, which focused on the temperature rise in the collector, air velocity at the chimney base, and pressure drop inside the chimney were based on the results of temperature, velocity, and static pressure distributions. The results demonstrate reliability by comparing a model with the experimental data of Manzanares Spanish prototype. Based on the numerical results, power capacity and efficiency were analysed theoretically. Results indicate that a stronger solar radiation and larger prototype will improve the performance of solar chimney power plant.

  2. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0202] Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 3.7.4, ``Seismic Instrumentation.'' DATES: Submit... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to a new Revision 3). The proposed...

  3. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the design and and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe PFBC power plants for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) The steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBCmore » designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.« less

  4. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error.more » The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.« less

  5. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  6. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  7. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOEpatents

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  8. Nuclear Power Plants | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2018-06-22

    Nuclear power plants produce electricity from the heat created by splitting uranium atoms. In the event of a nuclear power plant emergency, follow instructions from emergency responders and public officials.

  9. Power plant fault detection using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Joini, Nur Fazriana; Hidzir, Hidzrin Dayana Mohd; Awira, Mohammad Zulfikar Khairul

    2018-02-01

    The fault that commonly occurs in power plants is due to various factors that affect the system outage. There are many types of faults in power plants such as single line to ground fault, double line to ground fault, and line to line fault. The primary aim of this paper is to diagnose the fault in 14 buses power plants by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Multilayered Perceptron Network (MLP) that detection trained utilized the offline training methods such as Gradient Descent Backpropagation (GDBP), Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), and Bayesian Regularization (BR). The best method is used to build the Graphical User Interface (GUI). The modelling of 14 buses power plant, network training, and GUI used the MATLAB software.

  10. Evaluation of the results of simultaneous open rhinoplasty and Abbe flap for the reconstruction of the secondary bilateral cleft and nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Eski, Muhitdin; Aykan, Andac; Alhan, Dogan; Zor, Fatih; Isik, Selcuk

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the results of simultaneous rhinoplasty and Abbe flap for the reconstruction of the secondary bilateral cleft and nasal deformity by means of a newly developed software-based method. A total of 16 patients with the bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity received Abbe flap and simultaneous open rhinoplasty between 2004 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 21 years, and the average follow-up time was 2.4 years. After the open rhinoplasty procedure, the upper lip was reconstructed with the Abbe flap. Preoperative and postoperative photographs that had been taken laterally were evaluated by using Adobe Photoshop(®) CS4 and Adobe InDesign(®) software. The length of the columella and the relative changes of the most anterior point of the upper lip to the vertical plane tangent to the most anterior point of the lower lip were measured in pixels on standardized preoperative and postoperative images. The differences were calculated and compared as a percentage (%). There was no flap loss and associated problems. The measurements of columellar length revealed an average increase of 51.8 ± 11.3%, while the relative change of the most anterior point of the upper lip revealed an average increase of 68.6 ± 11.2%. The results of the treatment modality were successfully evaluated by a newly developed software-based method. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  12. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Layouts of trigeneration plants for centralized power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Il'ina, I. P.; Rozhnatovskii, V. D.; Burmakina, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    One of the possible and, under certain conditions, sufficiently effective methods for reducing consumption of fuel and energy resources is the development of plants for combined generation of different kinds of energy. In the power industry of Russia, the facilities have become widespread in which the cogeneration technology, i.e., simultaneous generation of electric energy and heat, is implemented. Such facilities can use different plants, viz., gas- and steam-turbine plants and gas-reciprocating units. Cogeneration power supply can be further developed by simultaneously supplying the users not only with electricity and heat but also with cold. Such a technology is referred to as trigeneration. To produce electricity and heat, trigeneration plants can use the same facilities that are used in cogeneration, namely, gas-turbine plants, steam-turbine plants, and gas-reciprocating units. Cold can be produced in trigeneration plants using thermotransformers of various kinds, such as vaporcompression thermotransformers, air thermotransformers, and absorption thermotransformers, that operate as chilling machines. The thermotransformers can also be used in the trigeneration plants to generate heat. The main advantage of trigeneration plants based on gas-turbine plants or gas-reciprocating units over cogeneration plants is the increased thermodynamic power supply efficiency owing to utilization of the waste-gas heat not only in winter but also in summer. In the steam-turbine-based trigeneration plants equipped with absorption thermotransformers, the enhancement of the thermodynamic power supply efficiency is determined by the increase in the heat extraction load during the nonheating season. The article presents calculated results that demonstrate higher thermodynamic efficiency of a gas-turbine-based plant with an absorption thermotransformer that operates in the trigeneration mode compared with a cogeneration gas-turbine plant. The structural arrangements of trigeneration

  14. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ..., Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company... operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted...

  15. Safety Regulation of Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Qi, Yuan; Yang, LiLi

    2018-01-01

    China’s regulations stipulate that a nuclear power plant license is valid for a design life period (generally 30 or 40 years). Whether the nuclear power plant’s license is renewed after the expiration of the license is to be determined based on the safety and economy of the nuclear power plant..

  16. 14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. 4415, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  17. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oilmore » refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.« less

  18. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  19. Martin Drake power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmoller, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    The relatively old Martin Drake coal-fired plant at Colorado Springs is facing challenges to meet environmental requirements whilst satisfying power demands and remaining competition. The article describes measures taken and planned to tackle these challenges. 2 photos.

  20. 15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. PA-A-36692, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  1. Steady-State Plant Model to Predict Hydroden Levels in Power Plant Components

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulatingmore » HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.« less

  2. CHANGES IN TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY RELATED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the effects of a coal-fired power plant on terrestrial plants and animals. Research was conducted from 1971 through 1977 at the Columbia Generating Station in the eastern flood-plain of the Wisconsin River in south-central Wisconsin. Initial studies were la...

  3. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Structural considerations for underground nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sarne, Y.

    The advantages and disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants are briefly reviewed. The impact of underground contruction on plant layout and structural design are discussed. Schedules and costs for construction are compared with those for conventional plants.

  5. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG... Support of Nuclear Power Plants;'' NSIR/DPR-ISG-01, ``Interim Staff Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development of Evacuation Time Estimate Studies...

  6. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  7. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri Husam Fayiz, Al

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms.

  8. Proposed Minor NSR Permit: Deseret Power Electric Cooperative - Bonanza Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed minor NSR permit, technical support document, public notice bulletin, and supporting documentation for the Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant, Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation, Utah.

  9. Energy analysis of coal, fission, and fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1981-04-01

    The method of net energy analysis has been applied to coal, fission, and fusion power plants. Energy consumption over the lifetime of the plants has been calculated for construction, operation and maintenance, fuel, public welfare, and land use and restoration. Thermal and electric energy requirements were obtained separately for each energy consuming sector. The results of the study are presented in three ways: total energy requirements, energy gain ratio, and payback periods. All three types of power plants are net producers of energy. The coal and fusion power plants are superior to fission plants from the energy efficiency point of view. Fission plants will improve considerably if the centrifuge replaces the gaseous diffusion as a method of enrichment.

  10. Influence of geographic setting on thermal discharge from coastal power plants.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hou-Lei; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Jian; Ying, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Cui-Ping

    2016-10-15

    Characteristics of thermal discharge from three coastal power plants were studied in China. The three plants, Zhuhai Power Plant, Chaozhou Power Plant and Huilai Power Plant, are located in estuary, bay and open sea, respectively. The water temperatures and ocean currents surrounding the outlet of the three power plants were monitored. The results show that the temperature rise became smaller as the spread of thermal discharge moved toward the open sea, which confirms the results of previous studies. The results also indicated that the influence range of thermal discharge from a coastal power plant is determined by geographic setting. The temperature rise range of the Chaozhou Plant, which is located in a bay, was the largest, followed by that of the Zhuhai Plant located in an estuary, and the temperature rise range of the Huilai Plant located in an open sea was the smallest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rocket Power Plants Based on Nitric Acid and their Specific Propulsive Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zborowski, Helmut

    1947-01-01

    Two fields are reserved for the application of rocket power plants. The first field is determined by the fact that the rocket power plant is the only type of power plant that can produce thrust without dependence upon environment. For this field,the rocket is therefore the only possible power plant and the limit of what may be done is determined by the status of the technical development of these power plants at the given moment. The second field is that in which the rocket power plant proves itself the most suitable as a high-power drive in free competition with other types of power plants. The exposition will be devoted to the demarcation of this field and its division among the various types of rocket power plants.

  12. Thermal storage requirements for parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.; Steele, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of a high temperature thermal storage system is investigated for a representative parabolic dish solar power plant. The plant supplies electrical power in accordance with a specific, seasonally varying demand profile. The solar power received by the plant is supplemented by power from fuel combustion. The cost of electricity generated by the solar power plant is calculated, using the cost of mass-producible subsystems (specifically, parabolic dishes, receivers, and power conversion units) now being designed for this type of solar plant. The trade-off between fuel and thermal storage is derived in terms of storage effectiveness, the cost of storage devices, and the cost of fuel. Thermal storage requirements, such as storage capacity, storage effectiveness, and storage cost are established based on the cost of fuel and the overall objective of minimizing the cost of the electricity produced by the system. As the cost of fuel increases at a rate faster than general inflation, thermal storage systems in the $40 to $70/kWthr range could become cost effective in the near future.

  13. Athermalization and achromatization of visible/SWIR optics using instantaneous Abbe number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    With the move to more and more lightweight and cost-effective design, a move to multiband or multi-spectral optics is required. These systems are becoming more prevalent in the market as new detector technologies have been developed. However, the lens designs are only starting to be considered with the addition of new materials in the MWIR and the LWIR. For the VIS/SWIR region the designs have been possible, but a lack of detector technology has resulted in few designs being considered for actual manufacturing. These designs are also difficult due to changes in the Abbe number in the different wavebands. Where the glass map is robust in the visible region, there exists a lack of crown glasses in the SWIR, and one is left with mostly flint glasses. This proves challenging from a chromatic perspective. The challenge becomes even more difficult if one wants to incorporate athermalization.

  14. Wind Power Plant SCADA and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Badrzadeh, Babak; Castillo, Nestor; Bradt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Modern Wind Power Plants (WPPs) contain a variety of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and communication systems. This paper discusses the issues related to a typical WPP's SCADA and Control. Presentation topics are: (1) Wind Turbine Controls; (2) Wind Plant SCADA, OEM SCADA Solutions, Third-Party SCADA Solutions; (3) Wind Plant Control; and (4) Security and Reliability Compliance.

  15. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three different reference power plant configurations were considered with parametric variations of the various design parameters for each plant. Two of the reference plant designs were based on the use of high temperature regenerative air preheaters separately fired by a low Btu gas produced from a coal gasifier which was integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design was based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to a more moderate temperature in a tubular type metallic recuperative heat exchanger which is part of the bottoming plant heat recovery system. Comparative information was developed on plant performance and economics. The highest net plant efficiency of about 45 percent was attained by the reference plant design with the use of a high temperature air preheater separately fired with the advanced entrained bed gasifier. The use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air yielded the lowest cost of generating electricity at a slightly lower plant efficiency. Both of these two reference plant designs are identified as potentially attractive for early MHD power plant applications.

  16. Westinghouse ICF power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Sucov, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    In this study, two different electric power plants for the production of about 1000 MWe which were based on a CO/sub 2/ laser driver and on a heavy ion driver have been developed and analyzed. The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine in a self consistent way the technological and institutional problems that need to be confronted and solved in order to produce commercially competitive electricity in the 2020 time frame from an inertial fusion reactor, and (2) to compare, on a common basis, the consequences of using two different drivers to initiate the DT fuel pellet explosions.more » Analytic descriptions of size/performance/cost relationships for each of the subsystems comprising the power plant have been combined into an overall computer code which models the entire plant. This overall model has been used to conduct trade studies which examine the consequences of varying critical design values around the reference point.« less

  17. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  19. Performance calculations for 200-1000 MWe MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staiger, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of MHD generator length, level of oxygen enrichment, and oxygen production power on the performance of MHD/steam power plants ranging from 200 to 1000 MW in electrical output are investigated. The plants considered use oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to 1100 F. Both plants in which the MHD generator is cooled with low temperature and pressure boiler feedwater and plants in which the generator is cooled with high temperature and pressure boiler feedwater are considered. For plants using low temperature boiler feedwater for generator cooling the maximum thermodynamic efficiency is obtained with shorter generators and a lower level of oxygen enrichment compared to plants using high temperature boiler feedwater for generator cooling. The generator length at which the maximum plant efficiency occurs increases with power plant size for plants with a generator cooled by low temperature feedwater. Also shown is the relationship of the magnet stored energy requirement of the generator length and the power plant performance. Possible cost/performance tradeoffs between magnet cost and plant performance are indicated.

  20. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  1. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods ofmore » high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal

  2. Typical calculation and analysis of carbon emissions in thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Jian-gang; Zhang, Gang

    2018-03-01

    On December 19, 2017, the national development and reform commission issued the national carbon emissions trading market construction plan (power generation industry), which officially launched the construction process of the carbon emissions trading market. The plan promotes a phased advance in carbon market construction, taking the power industry with a large carbon footprint as a breakthrough, so it is extremely urgent for power generation plants to master their carbon emissions. Taking a coal power plant as an example, the paper introduces the calculation process of carbon emissions, and comes to the fuel activity level, fuel emissions factor and carbon emissions data of the power plant. Power plants can master their carbon emissions according to this paper, increase knowledge in the field of carbon reserves, and make the plant be familiar with calculation method based on the power industry carbon emissions data, which can help power plants positioning accurately in the upcoming carbon emissions trading market.

  3. The optimization air separation plants for combined cycle MHD-power plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Springmann, H.; Greenberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the design approaches being employed during a current supported study directed at developing an improved air separation process for the production of oxygen enriched air for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combustion are outlined. The ultimate objective is to arrive at conceptual designs of air separation plants, optimized for minimum specific power consumption and capital investment costs, for integration with MHD combined cycle power plants.

  4. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology aremore » proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states« less

  5. Risk in nuclear power plants due to natural hazard phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.C.

    1995-12-01

    For the safety of nuclear power plants, it is important to identify potential areas of vulnerabilities to internal as well as external events to which nuclear power plants are exposed. This paper summarizes the risk in nuclear power plants due to natural hazard phenomena such as earthquakes, winds and tornadoes, floods, etc. The reported results are based on a limited number of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) performed for a few of the operating nuclear power plants within the United States. The summary includes an importance ranking of various natural hazard phenomena based on their contribution to the plant risk alongmore » with insights observed from the PRA studies.« less

  6. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, G.E.; Bell, F.R.

    1963-06-26

    A protective arrangement is designed for shielding the environment and for preventing the leakage of radioactive gases from a ship nuclear power plant. In this arrangement, the core has inner and outer pressure vessels and a biological shielding around the outer pressure vessel. The shielding comprises a series of steel cylindrical shells immersed in water, and its inner wall may comprise part of the outer pressure vessel. (D.L.C.)

  7. 4. NORTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. 11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  9. JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

    1978-01-01

    The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

  10. Scanning thermal plumes. [from power plant condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1974-01-01

    In order to study the behavior and effects of thermal plumes associated with the condenser cooling of power plants, thermal line scans are periodically made from aircraft over all power plants along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Michigan. Simultaneous ground truth is also gathered with a radiometer. Some sequential imagery has been obtained for periods up to two hours to study short term variations in the surface temperature of the plume. The article concentrates on the techniques used to analyze thermal scanner data for a single power plant which was studied intensively. The calibration methods, temperature dependence of the thermal scanner, and calculation of the modulation transfer function for the scanner are treated. It is concluded that obtaining quantitative surface-temperature data from thermal scanning is a nontrivial task. Accuracies up to plus or minus 0.1 C are attainable.

  11. 35. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS 325 AND 321) AT LEFT, FUEL TOWER AT CENTER AND CHLORINE EVAPORATOR (BUILDING 251) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Pilot solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D.

    A fully functionally efficient solar-thermal power plant (10 kW electric) was built. The operating principle of thermomechanical conversion of solar energy into mechanical or electrical energy is presented. The equipment is completely automatic. Flat plate collectors absorb solar energy and convert it into heat which is transmitted by water to a heat exchanger. A closed cycle machine uses the heat to boil a working fluid (C2C12F4). A screw, powered by gas expansion in the working fluid, converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  13. Performance Assessment of Flashed Steam Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, Theodore E.

    1980-12-01

    Five years of operating experience at the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) Cerro Prieto flashed steam geothermal power plant are evaluated from the perspective of U. S. utility operations. We focus on the design and maintenance of the power plant that led to the achievement of high plant capacity factors for Units No. 1 and 2 since commercial operation began in 1973. For this study, plant capacity factor is the ratio of the average load on the machines or equipment for the period of time considered to the capacity rating of the machines or equipment. The plant capacity factor ismore » the annual gross output in GWh compared to 657 GWh (2 x 37.5 MW x 8760 h). The CFE operates Cerro Prieto at base load consistent with the system connected electrical demand of the Baja California Division. The plant output was curtailed during the winter months of 1973-1975 when the system electric demand was less than the combined output capability of Cerro Prieto and the fossil fuel plant near Tijuana. Each year the system electric demand has increased and the Cerro Prieto units now operate at full load all the time. The CFE added Units 3 and 4 to Cerro Prieto in 1979 which increased the plant name plate capacity to 150 MW. Part of this additional capacity will supply power to San Diego Gas and Electric Company through an interconnection across the border. The achievement of a high capacity factor over an extensive operating period was influenced by operation, design, and maintenance of the geothermal flash steam power plant.« less

  14. Peach Bottom and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    A dramatic and extraordinary instance of state and local government control of nuclear power, the purchase by New York of the Shoreham plant is nonetheless indicative of the political demands that some states confront for additional involvement in the regulation of the radiological hazards associated with commercial nuclear power plants. Although the Supreme Court has appeared to expand, in the eight years since PG&E and Silkwood, the acceptable extent of state regulation, some states, in addition to New York, have acquired, with the acquiescence of the NRC, a degree of involvement that exceeds the role for state and local governmentsmore » provided by the Court. For example, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania concluded with the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in June 1989 an agreement that commits PECO to various initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, for the safe operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. In July 1991 the State of Vermont and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation (Vermont Yankee) concluded an agreement similar to that concluded between Pennsylvania and PECO. The agreement also commits Vermont Yankee to certain initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, related to its operation of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Vermont. The agreement was precipitated by a challenge to an application, submitted to the NRC by Vermont Yankee in April 1989, to amend the Vermont Yankee plant license to extend its expiration date from December 11, 2007 to March 21, 2012. The amendment would allow the Vermont Yankee plant to operate for forty full years.« less

  15. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has beenmore » evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.« less

  16. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests ofmore » the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.« less

  17. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  18. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  19. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  20. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.R.

    1962-12-01

    A power plant is described that comprises a nuclear reactor and a heat exchanger which is included in primary and secondary circuits. Fluid in the primary circuit extracts heat from the reactor and transfers it in the heat exchanger to the fluid in the secondary circuit which transmits energy to one or more utilization points. Means are provided for detecting, isolating, and removing radioactive fluid from the secondary circuit. (R.J.S.)

  1. A simulated field trip: "The visual aspects of power plant sitings"

    Treesearch

    Bill Bottomly; Alex Young

    1979-01-01

    The growth of our economy is demanding construction of a variety of power plants to generate electricity which is having a significant impact on the visual environment. These power plants will consist of conventional thermal (fossil fuel and nuclear), geothermal, wind and solar power plants. There are several areas where solutions to the visual impacts of these power...

  2. 76 FR 46856 - Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S..., ``Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC... in nuclear power plants. The environmental qualification helps ensure that connection assemblies can...

  3. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  4. 16. Photocopy of a photograph1921 EASTSIDE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of a photograph--1921 EASTSIDE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  5. Visual sensitivity of river recreation to power plants

    Treesearch

    David H. Blau; Michael C. Bowie

    1979-01-01

    The consultants were asked by the Power Plant Siting Staff of the Minnesota Environmental Quality Council to develop a methodology for evaluating the sensitivity of river-related recreational activities to visual intrusion by large coal-fired power plants. The methodology, which is applicable to any major stream in the state, was developed and tested on a case study...

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  7. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    PubMed

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  8. Design and implementation of a simple nuclear power plant simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, William H.

    1983-02-01

    A simple PWR nuclear power plant simulator has been designed and implemented on a minicomputer system. The system is intended for students use in understanding the power operation of a nuclear power plant. A PDP-11 minicomputer calculates reactor parameters in real time, uses a graphics terminal to display the results and a keyboard and joystick for control functions. Plant parameters calculated by the model include the core reactivity (based upon control rod positions, soluble boron concentration and reactivity feedback effects), the total core power, the axial core power distribution, the temperature and pressure in the primary and secondary coolant loops, etc.

  9. Flexibility of CCS Power Plants and Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimtz, Michael; Krautz, Hans-Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Growing shares of renewable energy in the German power grid urge fossil fuelled power plants to reduce load or to shut down completely with increasing frequency and amplitude. Shut down, load changes and the following restart or ramp-up often have to be carried out as fast as possible. To realize such fast transitions is already complicated and expensive for conventional power plants - if further measures for CO2 reduction are applied, the task is even harder. Capture equipment and transport systems will add further process steps as well as additional masses of fluids and construction material. This will result in a change of time constants and a generally slower system reaction on changes in parameters like load, temperature and pressure in the power plant components and capture units. On the other hand there is only limited time to earn money by selling electricity - if there is a chance to sell more electricity in a short term, efficiencies should be as high as possible. Any capture unit that would reduce the efficiency causes economic conflicts. Therefore measures are analysed to offset the power generation from the capture process in time or to reduce the capture load temporarily. The poster will present a case study for different CCS power plant configurations and load scenarios representing typical grid load from renewable energies. Approaches to balance the load and/or the CO2 output of these power plants will be presented. These approaches comprise: bypassing of flue gas, intermediate storage of heat and/or fluids. Amounts of additional steam, electrical energy and other process fluids (e.g. scrubbing fluids like MEA) and size of auxiliary equipment will be shown .Finally, effects on the transport system (e.g. cooling down of CO2 in the pipeline and changes in mass and volume flow) will be presented and discussed.

  10. NREL/PG&E Condensation System Increases Geothermal Power Plant Efficiency

    Science.gov Websites

    . Geothermal power plants like The Geysers produce energy by collecting steam from underground reservoirs and NREL/PG&E Condensation System Increases Geothermal Power Plant Efficiency For more information world's largest producer of geothermal power has improved its power production efficiency thanks to a new

  11. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartan, Ayfer; Kucukali, Serhat; Ar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS). The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  12. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0245] Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power... Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that NRC staff considers acceptable to... Regulations (10 CFR), section 73.56, ``Personnel Access Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants...

  13. Carbonated Science Cleans Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, Roger; Heldebrant, David; Glezakou, Vand

    Similar to the properties of soda, liquid solvents can efficiently capture and convert carbon dioxide from coal power plants. Researchers at PNNL explain this process and how this method can turn captured carbon into plastic or fuel.

  14. A study on economic power dispatch grid connected PV power plant in educational institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kuldip; Kumar, M. Narendra; Mishra, Satyasis

    2018-04-01

    India has main concerns on environment and escalation of fuel prices with respect to diminution of fossil fuel reserves and the major focus on renewable Energy sources for power generation to fulfill the present and future energy demand. Installation of PV power plants in the Educational Institutions has grown up drastically throughout India. More PV power plant are integrated with load and grid through net metering. Therefore, this paper is an analysis of the 75kWp PV plant at chosen buses, considering the need of minimum demand from the grid. The case study is carried out for different generation level throughout the day and year w.r.t load and climate changes, load sharing on grid. The economic dispatch model developed for PV plant integrated with Grid.

  15. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  16. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND GROUND VERIFICATION AT POWER PLANT SITES: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrated and evaluated nine methods for monitoring the deterioration of a large wetland on the site of a newly-constructed coal-fired power plant in Columbia, County, Wisconsin. Four of the nine methods used data from ground sampling; two were remote sensing method...

  17. More on duel purpose solar-electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. F.

    Rationale for such plants is reviewed and plant elements are listed. Dual purpose solar-electric plants would generate both electricity and hydrogen gas for conversion to ammonia or methanol or direct use as a fuel of unsurpassed specific power and cleanliness. By-product oxygen would also be sold to owners of hydrogen age equipment. Evolved gasses at high pressure could be fired in compressorless gas turbines, boilerless steam-turbines or fuel-cell-inverter hydrogen-electric power drives of high thermal efficiency as well as in conventional internal combustion engines.

  18. On-line condition monitoring applications in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hastiemian, H. M.; Feltus, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Existing signals from process instruments in nuclear power plants can be sampled while the plant is operating and analyzed to verify the static and dynamic performance of process sensors, identify process-to-sensor problems, detect instrument anomalies such as venturi fouling, measure the vibration of the reactor vessel and its internals, or detect thermal hydraulic anomalies within the reactor coolant system. These applications are important in nuclear plants to satisfy a variety of objectives such as: 1) meeting the plant technical specification requirements; 2) complying with regulatory regulations; 3) guarding against equipment and process degradation; 4) providing a means for incipient failuremore » detection and predictive maintenance; or 5) identifying the root cause of anomalies in equipment and plant processes. The technologies that are used to achieve these objectives are collectively referred to as 'on-line condition monitoring.' This paper presents a review of key elements of these technologies, provides examples of their use in nuclear power plants, and illustrates how they can be integrated into an on-line condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants. (authors)« less

  19. Microprocessor-based control systems application in nuclear power plant critical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.R.; Nowak, J.B.

    Microprocessor-based control systems have been used in fossil power plants and are receiving greater acceptance for application in nuclear plants. This technology is not new but it does require unique considerations when applied to nuclear power plants. Sargent and Lundy (S and L) has used a microprocessor-based component logic control system (interposing Logic System) for safety- and non-safety-related components in nuclear power plants under construction overseas. Currently, S and L is in the design stage to replace an existing analog control system with a microprocessor-based control system in the U.S. The trend in the industry is to replace systems inmore » existing plants or design new power plants with microprocessor-based control systems.« less

  20. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide... Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power...

  1. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  2. Intelligent Modeling for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Michael Christropher; Luger, George F.; Jones, Thomas B.

    This study explores the viability of using counterfactual reasoning for impact analyses when understanding and responding to “beyond-design-basis” nuclear power plant accidents. Currently, when a severe nuclear power plant accident occurs, plant operators rely on Severe Accident Management Guidelines. However, the current guidelines are limited in scope and depth: for certain types of accidents, plant operators would have to work to mitigate the damage with limited experience and guidance for the particular situation. We aim to fill the need for comprehensive accident support by using a dynamic Bayesian network to aid in the diagnosis of a nuclear reactor’s state andmore » to analyze the impact of possible response measures.« less

  3. Intelligent Modeling for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Management

    DOE PAGES

    Darling, Michael Christropher; Luger, George F.; Jones, Thomas B.; ...

    2018-03-29

    This study explores the viability of using counterfactual reasoning for impact analyses when understanding and responding to “beyond-design-basis” nuclear power plant accidents. Currently, when a severe nuclear power plant accident occurs, plant operators rely on Severe Accident Management Guidelines. However, the current guidelines are limited in scope and depth: for certain types of accidents, plant operators would have to work to mitigate the damage with limited experience and guidance for the particular situation. We aim to fill the need for comprehensive accident support by using a dynamic Bayesian network to aid in the diagnosis of a nuclear reactor’s state andmore » to analyze the impact of possible response measures.« less

  4. POWER PLANT COOLING WATER CHLORINATION IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted of chlorination practices at five power plants owned and operated by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Frequency and duration of chlorination varied significantly from plant to plant and was controlled analytically by the orthotolidine and/or amperometr...

  5. Stability assessment of the chemical composition of the treated mining water used to replenish the cooling circuit in Jaworzno III Power Plant - Power Plant II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiński, Marcin; Kmiecik, Ewa

    2017-11-01

    In Poland, electricity is still produced mainly in conventional power plants where fuel and water are materials necessary to generate the electricity. Even in modern power plants operating according to the principles of the sustainable development, this involves a high intake of water and considerable production of wastewater. This, in turn, necessi-tates the application of some technological solutions aimed at limiting the negative impact on the environment. The Jaworzno III Power Plant - Power Plant II is located in Jaworzno, Silesian Province, Poland. In order to minimise the negative impact on the surface water, the plant replenishes the cooling circuit with the mining water obtained from the closed-down Jan Kanty mine. The paper presents a stability assessment of the chemical composition of the treated mining water used to replenish the cooling circuit based on the data from 2007-2017.

  6. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  7. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has amore » low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.« less

  8. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn Ann; D'Arcy, Daniel; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  9. 4. View of south elevation of power plant, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of south elevation of power plant, looking north - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. 8. View of power plant and radar tower, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of power plant and radar tower, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  11. 2. View of north elevation of power plant, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of north elevation of power plant, looking south - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  12. Advanced Direct-Drive Generator for Improved Availability of Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Power Generation Systems Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Englebretson, Steven; Ouyang, Wen; Tschida, Colin

    This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-EERE funded project DE-EE0006400, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with Texas A&M’s Advanced Electric Machines & Power Electronics (EMPE) Lab and Resolute Marine Energy (RME) designed, derisked, developed, and demonstrated a novel magnetically geared electrical generator for direct-drive, low-speed, high torque MHK applications The project objective was to investigate a novel and compact direct-drive electric generator and its system aspects that would enable elimination of hydraulic components in the Power Take-Off (PTO) of a Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) system with an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC), thereby improving the availability ofmore » the MHK system. The scope of this project was limited to the development and dry lab demonstration of a low speed generator to enable future direct drive MHK systems.« less

  13. Associations Between Residential Proximity to Power Plants and Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sandie; Hu, Hui; Roth, Jeffrey; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between residential proximity to power plants and adverse birth outcomes including preterm delivery (PTD), very preterm delivery (VPTD), and term low birth weight (LBW). We geocoded 423,719 singleton Florida births born from 2004 to 2005 and all active power plants and determined residential proximity to the nearest power plant for each birth. Prenatal exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter for women living near different types of power plants was also determined by using National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network data. Logistic regression models were used to test the hypothesized associations. Women who lived closer to coal and solid waste power plants were exposed to higher levels of particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter compared with other types. We observed a 1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.3) increased odds for PTD, 2.2% (95% CI: 1.0, 3.4) for VPTD, and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0) for term LBW for each 5 km closer to any power plant. When stratifying by different fuel type, we found that only solid waste had an association with term LBW, whereas oil, gas, and solid waste all had an association with PTD and VPTD. Results were consistent when exposure was categorized by number of power plants. Our study found evidence of increasing odds of adverse birth outcomes among infants born to pregnant women living closer to power plants. More research is warranted to better understand the causal relationship. PMID:26121989

  14. Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

  15. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power... nuclear power plants that were licensed before January 1, 1979, satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR Part 50...

  16. 18. Power plant engine piping floor plan, sheet 71 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Power plant engine piping floor plan, sheet 71 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Availability Performance Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhangu, Navneet Singh; Singh, Rupinder; Pahuja, G. L.

    2018-03-01

    This case study presents the availability evaluation method of thermal power plants for conducting performance analysis in Indian environment. A generic availability model has been proposed for a maintained system (thermal plants) using reliability block diagrams and fault tree analysis. The availability indices have been evaluated under realistic working environment using inclusion exclusion principle. Four year failure database has been used to compute availability for different combinatory of plant capacity, that is, full working state, reduced capacity or failure state. Availability is found to be very less even at full rated capacity (440 MW) which is not acceptable especially in prevailing energy scenario. One of the probable reason for this may be the difference in the age/health of existing thermal power plants which requires special attention of each unit from case to case basis. The maintenance techniques being used are conventional (50 years old) and improper in context of the modern equipment, which further aggravate the problem of low availability. This study highlights procedure for finding critical plants/units/subsystems and helps in deciding preventive maintenance program.

  19. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Stationmore » for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.« less

  20. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. 19. Power plant engine pipinglower level plan, sheet 80 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Power plant engine piping-lower level plan, sheet 80 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. 20. Power plant engine piping details and schedules, sheet 82 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Power plant engine piping details and schedules, sheet 82 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. 16. Power plant roof plan and wall sections, sheet 65 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Power plant roof plan and wall sections, sheet 65 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  4. Power Plants Likely Covered by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. Using Google Earth, this page locates power plants in your state.

  5. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, goodmore » thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.« less

  6. 10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  7. 14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. 12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  9. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST STAND REMNANTS OF BUILDING-BLANK WHITE WALL ONLY ORIGINAL REMAINS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 1. View of east elevation of power plant, radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of east elevation of power plant, radar tower in background, looking west - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  11. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  12. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  13. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for themore » site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.« less

  14. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  15. Radon emissions from natural gas power plants at The Pennsylvania State University.

    PubMed

    Stidworthy, Alison G; Davis, Kenneth J; Leavey, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Burning natural gas in power plants may emit radon ( 222 Rn) into the atmosphere. On the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University, atmospheric radon enhancements were measured and modeled in the vicinity of their two power plants. The three-part study first involved measuring ambient outdoor radon concentrations from August 2014 through January 2015 at four sites upwind and downwind of the power plants at distances ranging from 80 m to 310 m. For each plant, one site served as a background site, while three other sites measured radon concentration enhancements downwind. Second, the radon content of natural gas flowing into the power plant was measured, and third, a plume dispersion model was used to predict the radon concentrations downwind of the power plants. These predictions are compared to the measured downwind enhancements in radon to determine whether the observed radon concentration enhancements could be attributed to the power plants' emissions. Atmospheric radon concentrations were consistently low as compared to the EPA action level of 148 Bq m -3 , averaging 34.5 ± 2.7 Bq m -3 around the East Campus Steam Plant (ECSP) and 31.6 ± 2.7 Bq m -3 around the West Campus Steam Plant (WCSP). Significant concentrations of radon, ranging from 516 to 1,240 Bq m -3 , were detected in the natural gas. The measured enhancements downwind of the ECSP averaged 6.2 Bq m -3 compared to modeled enhancements of 0.08 Bq m -3 . Measured enhancements around the WCSP averaged -0.2 Bq m -3 compared to the modeled enhancements of 0.05 Bq m -3 , which were not significant compared to observational error. The comparison of the measured to modeled downwind radon enhancements shows no correlation over time. The measurements of radon levels in the vicinity of the power plants appear to be unaffected by the emissions from the power plants. Radon measurements at sites surrounding power plants that utilize natural gas did not indicate that the radon concentrations

  16. 8. VIEW OF WESTERN END OF THE POWER PLANT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WESTERN END OF THE POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTH. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  17. 11. Interior view, east side of power plant, close of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view, east side of power plant, close of up fuel tanks, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  20. Reassessing the Efficiency Penalty from Carbon Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2015-10-20

    This paper examines thermal efficiency penalties and greenhouse gas as well as other pollutant emissions associated with pulverized coal (PC) power plants equipped with postcombustion CO2 capture for carbon sequestration. We find that, depending on the source of heat used to meet the steam requirements in the capture unit, retrofitting a PC power plant that maintains its gross power output (compared to a PC power plant without a capture unit) can cause a drop in plant thermal efficiency of 11.3-22.9%-points. This estimate for efficiency penalty is significantly higher than literature values and corresponds to an increase of about 5.3-7.7 US¢/kWh in the levelized cost of electricity (COE) over the 8.4 US¢/kWh COE value for PC plants without CO2 capture. The results follow from the inclusion of mass and energy feedbacks in PC power plants with CO2 capture into previous analyses, as well as including potential quality considerations for safe and reliable transportation and sequestration of CO2. We conclude that PC power plants with CO2 capture are likely to remain less competitive than natural gas combined cycle (without CO2 capture) and on-shore wind power plants, both from a levelized and marginal COE point of view.

  1. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O'Neill, Barbara

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015,more » testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.« less

  2. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  3. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1989. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, federal, state, and local governments, and the general public. This report primarily presents aggregate operation, maintenance, and fuel expense data about all power plants owned and operated by the major investor-owned electric utilities in the United States. The power production expenses for the major investor-owned electric utilities are summarized. Plant-specific data are presented for a selection of both investor-owned and publicly owned plants. Summary statistics for each plantmore » type (prime mover), as reported by the electric utilities, are presented in the separate chapters as follows: Hydroelectric Plants; Fossil-Fueled Steam-Electric Plants; Nuclear Steam-Electric Plants; and Gas Turbine and Small Scale Electric Plants. These chapters contain plant level data for 50 conventional hydroelectric plants and 22 pumped storage hydroelectric plants, 50 fossil-fueled steam-electric plants, 71 nuclear steam-electric plants, and 50 gas turbine electric plants. Among the operating characteristics of each plant are the capacity, capability, generation and demand on the plant. Physical characteristics comprise the number of units in the plant, the average number of employees, and other information relative to the plant's operation. The Glossary section will enable the reader to understand clearly the terms used in this report. 4 figs., 18 tabs.« less

  4. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  5. Comparative analysis of cooling systems for energy equipment of combined heat and power plants and nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, B. F.; Lazarev, M. V.; Ermakova, S. V.; Zisman, S. L.; Kaplanovich, L. S.; Svetushkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the 20th century, the thermal power engineering in this country was oriented toward oncethrough cooling systems. More than 50% of the CHPP and NPP capacities with once-through cooling systems put into operation before the 1990s were large-scale water consumers but with minimum irretrievable water consumption. In 1995, the Water Code of the Russian Federation was adopted in which restrictions on application of once-through cooling systems for newly designed combined heat and power plants (CHPPs) were introduced for the first time. A ban on application of once-through systems was imposed by the current Water Code of the Russian Federation (Federal law no. 74-FZ, Art. 60 Cl. 4) not only for new CHPPs but also for those to be modified. Clause 4 of Article 60 of the Water Code of the Russian Federation contravenes law no. 7-FZ "On Protection of the Environment" that has priority significance, since the water environment is only part of the natural environment and those articles of the Water Code of the Russian Federation that are related directly to electric power engineering, viz., Articles 46 and 62. In recent decades, the search for means to increase revenue charges and the economic pressure on the thermal power industry caused introduction by law of charges for use of water by cooling systems irrespective of the latter's impact on the water quality of the source, the environment, the economic efficiency of the power production, and the living conditions of the people. The long-range annual increase in the water use charges forces the power generating companies to switch transfer once-through service water supply installations to recirculating water supply systems and once-through-recirculating systems with multiple reuse of warm water, which drastically reduces the technical, economic, and ecological characteristic of the power plant operation and also results in increasing power rates for the population. This work comprehensively substantiates the demands of

  6. 6. VIEW OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DRY CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DRY CANAL BED TO THE LEFT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  7. 9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY CANAL BED IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. 3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS OF THE TURBINE FLUMES. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  9. 7. EXTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DETAIL OF TRASH RACK IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  10. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  11. Quantifying CO2 Emissions From Individual Power Plants From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Ray; Hill, Timothy G.; McLinden, Chris A.; Wunch, Debra; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Crisp, David

    2017-10-01

    In order to better manage anthropogenic CO2 emissions, improved methods of quantifying emissions are needed at all spatial scales from the national level down to the facility level. Although the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite was not designed for monitoring power plant emissions, we show that in some cases, CO2 observations from OCO-2 can be used to quantify daily CO2 emissions from individual middle- to large-sized coal power plants by fitting the data to plume model simulations. Emission estimates for U.S. power plants are within 1-17% of reported daily emission values, enabling application of the approach to international sites that lack detailed emission information. This affirms that a constellation of future CO2 imaging satellites, optimized for point sources, could monitor emissions from individual power plants to support the implementation of climate policies.

  12. 1. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. SEVEN TURBINE FLUMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. SEVEN TURBINE FLUMES VISIBLE IN FRONT OF BUILDING. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  13. 9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels in place in center of photograph, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. Research on the Intensive Material Management System of Biomass Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruosi; Hao, Tianyi; Li, Yunxiao; Zhang, Fangqing; Ding, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    In view of the universal problem which the material management is loose, and lack of standardization and interactive real-time in the biomass power plant, a system based on the method of intensive management is proposed in this paper to control the whole process of power plant material. By analysing the whole process of power plant material management and applying the Internet of Things, the method can simplify the management process. By making use of the resources to maximize and data mining, material utilization, circulation rate and quality control management can be improved. The system has been applied in Gaotang power plant, which raised the level of materials management and economic effectiveness greatly. It has an important significance for safe, cost-effective and highly efficient operation of the plant.

  15. Chapter 11: Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Generation and Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) power generation is a relatively new type of renewable generation. Predecessors such as wind power generation, hydropower plant generation, geothermal generation, photovoltaic generation, and solar thermal generation have gained a lot of attention because of their successful implementation. The successful integration of renewable generation into the electric power grid has energized the power system global communities to take the lessons learned, innovations, and market structure to focus on the large potential of MHK to also contribute to the pool of renewable energy generation. This chapter covers the broad spectrum of MHK generation. The state-of-the-art power takeoffmore » methods will be discussed. Types of electrical generators will be presented, and the options for implementation will be presented.« less

  16. Simulation of the visual effects of power plant plumes

    Treesearch

    Evelyn F. Treiman; David B. Champion; Mona J. Wecksung; Glenn H. Moore; Andrew Ford; Michael D. Williams

    1979-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has developed a computer-assisted technique that can predict the visibility effects of potential energy sources in advance of their construction. This technique has been employed in an economic and environmental analysis comparing a single 3000 MW coal-fired power plant with six 500 MW coal-fired power plants located at hypothetical...

  17. Monitoring of temperature-mediated phase transitions of adipose tissue by combined optical coherence tomography and Abbe refractometry.

    PubMed

    Yanina, Irina Y; Popov, Alexey P; Bykov, Alexander V; Meglinski, Igor V; Tuchin, Valery V

    2018-01-01

    Observation of temperature-mediated phase transitions between lipid components of the adipose tissues has been performed by combined use of the Abbe refractometry and optical coherence tomography. The phase transitions of the lipid components were clearly observed in the range of temperatures from 24°C to 60°C, and assessed by quantitatively monitoring the changes of the refractive index of 1- to 2-mm-thick porcine fat tissue slices. The developed approach has a great potential as an alternative method for obtaining accurate information on the processes occurring during thermal lipolysis. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. GHGRP Power Plants Sector Industrial Profiles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles, available for download below, contain detailed analyses for the Power Plants industry.

  19. Range Performance of Bombers Powered by Turbine-Propeller Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Charles W.

    1950-01-01

    Calculations have been made to find range? attainable by bombers of gross weights from l40,000 to 300,000 pounds powered by turbine-propeller power plants. Only conventional configurations were considered and emphasis was placed upon using data for structural and aerodynamic characteristics which are typical of modern military airplanes. An effort was made to limit the various parameters invoked in the airplane configuration to practical values. Therefore, extremely high wing loadings, large amounts of sweepback, and very high aspect ratios have not been considered. Power-plant performance was based upon the performance of a typical turbine-propeller engine equipped with propellers designed to maintain high efficiencies at high-subsonic speeds. Results indicated, in general, that the greatest range, for a given gross weight, is obtained by airplanes of high wing loading, unless the higher cruising speeds associated with the high-wing-loading airplanes require-the use of thinner wing sections. Further results showed the effect of cruising at-high speeds, of operation at very high altitudes, and of carrying large bomb loads.

  20. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITS of 950 K and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITS ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo -generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  1. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  2. 8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment room; showing battery racks. The dc power of these batteries is distributed to motor-control centers, the annunciator system, and fire alarm and tripping circuits - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. Monitoring and management of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Yang, Lili; Meng, De; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to regulate tritium nuclides from the nuclear power plant effluent, the paper briefly analyzes the main source of tritium, and the regulatory requirements associated with tritium in our country and the United States. The monitoring methods of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent are described, and the purpose to give some advice to our national nuclear power plant about the effluent of tritium monitoring and management.

  4. The Power Plant Mapping Student Project: Bringing Citizen Science to Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayne, K.; Oda, T.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Petron, G.; Tans, P. P.; Frost, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    An emission inventory (EI) is a conventional tool to quantify and monitor anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the atmosphere. Gridded EI can visually show geographical patterns of emissions and their changes over time. These patterns, when available, are often determined using location data collected by regional governments, industries, and researchers. Datasets such as Carbon Monitoring and Action (CARMA, www.carma.org) are particularly useful for mapping emissions from large point sources and have been widely used in the EI community. The EI community is aware of potentially significant errors in the geographical locations of point sources, including power plants. The big challenge, however, is to review tens of thousands of power plant locations around the world and correct them where needed. The Power Plant Mapping Student Project (PPMSP) is a platform designed for students in 4th through 12th grade to improve the geographical location of power plants indicated in existing datasets to benefit international EI research. In PPMSP, we use VENTUS, a web-based platform (http://ventus.project.asu.edu/) that invites citizens to contribute power plant location data. Using VENTUS, students view scenes in the vicinity of reported power plant coordinates on Google Maps. Students either verify the location of a power plant or search for it within a designated radius using various indicators, an e-guide, and a power plant photo gallery for assistance. If the power plant cannot be found, students mark the plant as unverified. To assure quality for research use, the project contains multiple checkpoints and levels of review. While participating in meaningful research that directly benefits the EI research community, students are engaged in relevant science curricula designed to meet each grade level's Next Generation Science Standards. Students study energy, climate change, the atmosphere, and geographical information systems. The curricula is

  5. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  7. A solar thermal electric power plant for small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A solar power plant has been designed with a rating of 1000-kW electric and a 0.4 annual capacity factor. It was configured as a prototype for plants in the 1000 to 10,000-kWe size range for application to small communities or industrial users either grid-connected or isolated from a utility grid. A small central receiver was selected for solar energy collection after being compared with alternative distributed collectors. Further trade studies resulted in the selection of Hitec (heat transfer salt composed of 53 percent KNO3, 40 percent NaNO2, 7 percent NaNO3) as both the receiver coolant and the sensible heat thermal stroage medium and the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The plant is configured with road-transportable units to accommodate remote sites and minimize site assembly requirements. Results of the analyses indicate that busbar energy costs are competitive with diesel-electric plants in certain situations, e.g., off-grid, remote regions with high insolation. Sensitivity of energy costs to plant power rating and system capacity factor are given.

  8. 10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases in foreground, electrical panels and fuel tanks in background looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  9. 8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND DURING AN ENGINE FIRING. DATE UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. Siting Issues for Solar Thermal Power Plants with Small Community Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbeck, J. J.; Ireland, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    Technologies for solar thermal plants are being developed to provide energy alternatives for the future. Implementation of these plants requires consideration of siting issues as well as power system technology. While many conventional siting considerations are applicable, there is also a set of unique siting issues for solar thermal plants. Early experimental plants will have special siting considerations. The siting issues associated with small, dispersed solar thermal power plants in the 1 to 10 MWe power range for utility/small community applications are considered. Some specific requirements refer to the first 1 MWe engineering experiment for the Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project. The siting issues themselves are discussed in three categories: (1) system resource requirements, (2) environmental effects on the system, and (3) potential impact of the plant on the environment. Within these categories, specific issues are discussed in a qualitative manner. Examples of limiting factors for some issues are taken from studies of other solar systems.

  11. Manatee use of power plant effluents in Brevard County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, S.H.

    The relationship between manatees and power plants was investigated at 2 power plants on the Indian River in Brevard County, Florida from January 1978-February 1980. Manatee presence in the power plant effluent zones was correlated with cold air and water temperatures. When air temperatures were below 16 C most manatees in the country were found in the effluent zones. Manatees in the effluent zones move with the wind-blown warm water plume, demonstrating a sensitivity to small changes in water temperature. Some individuals were frequently resighted at 1 plant, while others moved between the 2 plants. Because industrial warm water sourcesmore » are less reliable than natural warm water refuges, it is recommended that no new artificial warm water effluents be constructed north of the species' traditional winter range. 16 references, 3 figures, 1 table.« less

  12. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  13. Method for Prediction of the Power Output from Photovoltaic Power Plant under Actual Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surzhikova, O. A.; Savkin, K. D.

    2017-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic technology is one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity that has practical application in various fields of human activity due to its high availability, huge potential and environmental compatibility. The original simulation model of the photovoltaic power plant has been developed to simulate and investigate the plant operating modes under actual operating conditions. The proposed model considers the impact of the external climatic factors on the solar panel energy characteristics that improves accuracy in the power output prediction. The data obtained through the photovoltaic power plant operation simulation enable a well-reasoned choice of the required capacity for storage devices and determination of the rational algorithms to control the energy complex.

  14. Draft Title V Permit to Operate: Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Draft operating permit, Statement of Basis, public notice, and supporting documentation for the Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant located within the exterior boundaries of the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  15. 9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #214, control room; showing central monitoring station console in foreground. Well and booster control panel in left background and electric power management panel on far right - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. 7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment room; showing battery room (in background) and multiple source power converter (in foreground). The picture offers another look at the shock-isolation system developed for each platform - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. 15. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BACK SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BACK SIDE OF ELECTRICAL PANEL ON LEFT, AND C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER ON RIGHT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  18. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, James; Macknick, Jordan; Macknick, Jordan

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut-down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, ormore » if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut-downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S., and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.« less

  19. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  20. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavčciče and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bošstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krško, Brežice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  1. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  2. Comparative evaluation of distributed-collector solar thermal electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; El Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G. G.; Caputo, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Distributed-collector solar thermal-electric power plants are compared by projecting power plant economics of selected systems to the 1990-2000 timeframe. The approach taken is to evaluate the performance of the selected systems under the same weather conditions. Capital and operational costs are estimated for each system. Energy costs are calculated for different plant sizes based on the plant performance and the corresponding capital and maintenance costs. Optimum systems are then determined as the systems with the minimum energy costs for a given load factor. The optimum system is comprised of the best combination of subsystems which give the minimum energy cost for every plant size. Sensitivity analysis is done around the optimum point for various plant parameters.

  3. Silica problem in the design of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.

    1985-02-01

    The silica problem is examined from the perspective of the power plant designer to develop a procedure to enable a quick estimate to be made of the potential seriousness of the silica deposition problem for a wide variety of resources and for selected types of power plant. The method employs correlations for the equilibrium solubilities of quartz and amorphous silica and for the saturated liquid enthalpy and the latent heat of water substance. Single- and double-flash plants optimized for highest thermodynamic efficiency are considered. Binary-type plants are included generically without mention of cycle specifics. The results are presented both graphically and in tabular form, and the governing equations will be given in an easily-programmable form.

  4. The optimization of nuclear power plants operation modes in emergency situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebayev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.; Ramazanov, R. N.

    2018-01-01

    An emergency situations resulting in the necessity for temporary reactor trip may occur at the nuclear power plant while normal operating mode. The paper deals with some of the operation c aspects of nuclear power plant operation in emergency situations and during threatened period. The xenon poisoning causes limitations on the variety of statements of the problem of calculating characteristics of a set of optimal reactor power off controls. The article show a possibility and feasibility of new sets of optimization tasks for the operation of nuclear power plants under conditions of xenon poisoning in emergency circumstances.

  5. Gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different technologies.

    PubMed

    Athar, Makshoof; Ali, Mahboob; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the assessment of gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different combustion technologies. Four thermal power plants operating on heavy furnace oil were selected for the study, among which three were based on diesel engine technology, while the fourth plant was based on oil-fired steam turbine technology. The stack emissions were monitored for critical air pollutants carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, lead, and mercury. The pollutant emissions were measured at optimum load conditions for a period of 6 months with an interval of 1 month. The results of stack emissions were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan and World Bank guidelines for thermal power plants, and few parameters were found higher than the permissible limits of emissions. It was observed that the emissions carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matters from diesel engine-based power plants were comparatively higher than the turbine-based power plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide were high in all the plants, even the plants with different technologies, which was mainly due to high sulfur contents in fuel.

  6. The particulate-related health benefits of reducing power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.

    The report estimates the adverse human health effects due to exposure to particulate matter from power plants. Power plants are significant emitters of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In many parts of the U.S., especially the Midwest, power plants are the largest contributors. These gases are harmful themselves, and they contribute to the formation of acid rain and particulate matter. Particulate matter reduces visibility, often producing a milky haze that blankets wide regions, and it is a serious public health problem. Over the past decade and more, numerous studies have linked particulate matter to a wide range of adverse healthmore » effects in people of all ages. Epidemiologists have consistently linked particulate matter with effects ranging from premature death, hospital admissions and asthma attacks to chronic bronchitis. This study documents the health impacts from power plant air pollution emissions. Using the best available emissions and air quality modeling programs, the stud y forecasts ambient air quality for a business-as-usual baseline scenario for 2007, assuming full implementation of the Acid Rain program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Summer Smog rule (the 1999 NO{sub x} SIP Call). The study then estimates the attributable health impacts from all power plant emissions. Finally, the study estimates air quality for a specific policy alternative: reducing total power plant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} 75 percent form the levels emitted in 1997. The difference between this '75 percent reduction scenario' and the baseline provides an estimate of the health effects that would be avoided by this reduction in power plant emissions. In addition to the policy scenario, the work involved performing sensitivity analyses to examine alternative emission reductions and forecast ambient air quality using a second air quality model. EPA uses both air quality models extensively, and both suggest that power plants make a large

  7. Transmission system protection screening for integration of offshore wind power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sajadi, A.; Strezoski, L.; Clark, K.

    This paper develops an efficient methodology for protection screening of large-scale transmission systems as part of the planning studies for the integration of offshore wind power plants into the power grid. This methodology avails to determine whether any upgrades are required to the protection system. The uncertainty is considered in form of variability of the power generation by offshore wind power plant. This paper uses the integration of a 1000 MW offshore wind power plant operating in Lake Erie into the FirstEnergy/PJM service territory as a case study. This study uses a realistic model of a 63,000-bus test system thatmore » represents the U.S. Eastern Interconnection.« less

  8. Transmission system protection screening for integration of offshore wind power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Sajadi, A.; Strezoski, L.; Clark, K.; ...

    2018-02-21

    This paper develops an efficient methodology for protection screening of large-scale transmission systems as part of the planning studies for the integration of offshore wind power plants into the power grid. This methodology avails to determine whether any upgrades are required to the protection system. The uncertainty is considered in form of variability of the power generation by offshore wind power plant. This paper uses the integration of a 1000 MW offshore wind power plant operating in Lake Erie into the FirstEnergy/PJM service territory as a case study. This study uses a realistic model of a 63,000-bus test system thatmore » represents the U.S. Eastern Interconnection.« less

  9. The Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Power Plant Emissions on Birth Weight: Evidence from a Pennsylvania Power Plant Located Upwind of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muzhe; Bhatta, Rhea A; Chou, Shin-Yi; Hsieh, Cheng-I

    To examine the infant health impact of prenatal exposure to power plant emissions, we draw scientific evidence on the impacted region downwind of a large polluter, a coal-fired power plant located on the border of two states and proven to be the sole contributor to the violation of air quality standards of the impacted region. Our results show that among all live singleton births that occurred during 1990 through 2006, those born to mothers living as far as 20 to 30 miles away downwind from the power plant (which is also an affluent region) during pregnancy are at greater risks of low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW): the likelihoods of LBW and VLBW could increase approximately by 6.50 and 17.12 percent, respectively. In light of the continual efforts of The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in reducing cross-state air pollution caused by transboundary power plant emissions, our study is aimed at broadening the scope of cross-border pollution impact analysis by taking into account adverse infant health effects of upwind polluters, which can impose disproportionate burdens of health risks on downwind states due to air pollutants transported by wind.

  10. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  11. Advanced binary geothermal power plants: Limits of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliem, C. J.; Mines, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program is investigating potential improvements to power cycles utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources to produce electrical power. Investigations have specifically examined Rankine cycle binary power systems. Binary Rankine cycles are more efficient than the flash steam cycles at moderate resource temperature, achieving a higher net brine effectiveness. At resource conditions similar to those at the Heber binary plant, it has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating in a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over Rankine cycles with the pure working fluids executing single or dual boiling cycles or supercritical cycles. Recently, other types of cycles have been proposed for binary geothermal service. The feasible limits on efficiency of a plant given practical limits on equipment performance is explored and the methods used in these advanced concept plants to achieve the maximum possible efficiency are discussed. (Here feasible is intended to mean reasonably achievable and not cost effective.) No direct economic analysis was made because of the sensitivity of economic results to site specific input. The limit of performance of three advanced plants were considered. The performance predictions were taken from the developers of each concept. The advanced plants considered appear to be approaching the feasible limit of performance. Ultimately, the plant designer must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the the different cycles to find the best plant for a given service. In addition, a standard is presented of comparison of the work which has been done in the Heat Cycle Research Program and in the industrial sector by Exergy, Inc. and Polythermal Technologies.

  12. Maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono, V.; Corsi, S.; Lambri, L.

    The paper describes two different closed-loop control criteria for the maximum power point tracking of the voltage-current characteristic of a photovoltaic generator. The two criteria are discussed and compared, inter alia, with regard to the setting-up problems that they pose. Although a detailed analysis is not embarked upon, the paper also provides some quantitative information on the energy advantages obtained by using electronic maximum power point tracking systems, as compared with the situation in which the point of operation of the photovoltaic generator is not controlled at all. Lastly, the paper presents two high-efficiency MPPT converters for experimental photovoltaic plants of the stand-alone and the grid-interconnected type.

  13. MSR performance enhancements and modifications at St. Lucie Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rubano, V.F.; Ugelow, A.G.; Menocal, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The St. Lucie Power Plant provides an excellent historical prospective on various moisture separator/reheater improvements. Between the two essentially identical units there is a total of 14 years of operating experience with various moisture separator/reheater configurations, with a combination of four different heat transfer surfaces and three moisture removal configurations. Through various modifications and enhancements, the performance and the reliability of the moisture separator/reheaters at the St. Lucie Power Plant and consequently the overall plant performance has been improved. This improvement has taken place over several years and involves changes in both the heat transfer and moisture removal areas. Thismore » paper provides an overview of the history and description of moisture separator/reheater modifications at the St. Lucie Power Plant with the resulting performance improvements.« less

  14. Dynamic analysis of a pumped-storage hydropower plant with random power load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Diyi; Xu, Beibei; Patelli, Edoardo; Tolo, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a pumped-storage hydropower plant in generating mode. Considering the elastic water column effects in the penstock, a linearized reduced order dynamic model of the pumped-storage hydropower plant is used in this paper. As the power load is always random, a set of random generator electric power output is introduced to research the dynamic behaviors of the pumped-storage hydropower plant. Then, the influences of the PI gains on the dynamic characteristics of the pumped-storage hydropower plant with the random power load are analyzed. In addition, the effects of initial power load and PI parameters on the stability of the pumped-storage hydropower plant are studied in depth. All of the above results will provide theoretical guidance for the study and analysis of the pumped-storage hydropower plant.

  15. 16. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH AT 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH AT 1925 GE GENERATOR. GOVERNOR MECHANISM IN FOREGROUND MANUFACTURED BY THE WOODWARD GOVERNOR COMPANY, ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS (NAMEPLATE ON LEFT). - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  16. Apros-based Kola 1 nuclear power plant compact training simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Porkholm, K.; Kontio, H.; Nurmilaukas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima Oy`s subsidiary IVO International Ltd (IVO IN) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in co-operation with Kola staff supplies the Kola Nuclear Power Plant in the Murmansk region of Russia with a Compact Training Simulator. The simulator will be used for the training of the plant personnel in managing the plant disturbance and accident situations. By means of the simulator is is also possible to test how the planned plant modifications will affect the plant operation. The simulator delivery is financed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Themore » delivery is part of the aid program directed to Russia for the improvement of the nuclear power plant safety.« less

  17. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  18. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) report NEI 06-11...(c)(25). Pursuant to 10 CFR 51.22(b), no environmental impact statement or environmental assessment...

  19. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contractsmore » in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.« less

  20. 5. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT BUILDING. GRATE COVERED 'TRASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT BUILDING. GRATE COVERED 'TRASH RACK' VISIBLE IN CENTER. THE STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE SUPPORTS MACHINES TO CLEAR DEBRIS CAUGHT ON THE TRASH RACK. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  1. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide... regulatory guide, (RG) 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants... missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed to withstand to prevent undue risk to the health and...

  2. Flow-accelerated corrosion in power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chexal, B.; Horowitz, J.; Dooley, B.

    1998-07-01

    Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is a phenomenon that results in metal loss from piping, vessels, and equipment made of carbon steel. FAC occurs only under certain conditions of flow, chemistry, geometry, and material. Unfortunately, those conditions are common in much of the high-energy piping in nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. Undetected, FAC will cause leaks and ruptures. Consequently, FAC has become a major issue, particularly for nuclear plants. Although major failures are rare, the consequences can be severe. In 1986, four men in the area of an FAC-induced pipe rupture were killed. Fossil plants too, are subject to FAC. In 1995,more » a failure at a fossil-fired plant caused two fatalities. In addition to concerns about personnel safety, FAC failures can pose challenges to plant safety. Regulatory agencies have therefore required nuclear utilities to institute formal programs to address FAC. Finally, a major FAC failure (like the one that happened in 1997 at a US nuclear power plant) can force a plant to shutdown and purchase replacement power at a price approaching a million dollars per day depending upon the MWe rating of the plant. A great deal of time and money has been spent to develop the technology to predict, detect, and mitigate FAC in order to prevent catastrophic failures. Over time, substantial progress has been made towards understanding and preventing FAC. The results of these efforts include dozens of papers, reports, calculations, and manuals, as well as computer programs and other tools. This book is written to provide a detailed treatment of the entire subject in a single document. Any complex issue requires balancing know-how, the risk of decision making, and a pragmatic engineering solution. This book addresses these by carrying out the necessary R and D and engineering along with plant knowledge to cover all quadrants of Chexal`s four quadrant known-unknown diagram, as seen in Figure i.« less

  3. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  4. Saguaro power plant solar repowering project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The subsystem characteristics, design requirements, and system environmental requirements for the Saguaro Power Plant Solar Repowering Project are defined. The plant conceptual design, performance, and economic data to be provided for the solar additions are identified as well as certain design data for the existing plant. All of the 115 MWe net No. 1 steam-Rankine unit of the Saguaro station is to be repowered. The receiver heat transport fluid is draw salt (60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate) that is also used to provide 4 hours of sensible heat storage. The receiver is quad-cavity type, and there is amore » field of 10,500 second generation heliostats. (LEW)« less

  5. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  6. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  7. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  8. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the powermore » plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention

  9. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  10. Derate Mitigation Options for Pulverized Coal Power Plant Carbon Capture Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Jeffrey W.; Hackett, Gregory A.; Lewis, Eric G.

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies available in the near-term for pulverized coal-fueled power plants (i.e., post combustion solvent technologies) require substantial capital investment and result in marked decrease in electricity available for sale to the grid. The impact to overall plant economics can be mitigated for new plant designs (where the entire plant can be optimized around the CCS system). However, existing coal-fueled power plants were designed without the knowledge or intent to retrofit a CCS process, and it is simply not possible to re-engineer an existing plant in a manner that it could achieve the same performance asmore » if it was originally designed and optimized for CCS technology. Pairing an auxiliary steam supply to the capture system is a technically feasible option to mitigate the derate resulting from diverting steam away from an existing steam turbine and continuing to run that turbine at steam flow rates and properties outside of the original design specifications. The results of this analysis strongly support the merits of meeting the steam and power requirements for a retrofitted post-combustion solvent based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system with an auxiliary combined heat and power (CHP) plant rather than robbing the base plant (i.e., diverting steam from the existing steam cycle and electricity from sale to the grid).« less

  11. 13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, WITH C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER IN BACKGROUND. STEEL FRAME SUPPORTS HOISTING MECHANISM USED TO MOVE, REPAIR, OR REPLACE GENERATORS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  12. Constructing a sustainable power sector in China: current and future emissions of coal-fired power plants from 2010 to 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest energy infrastructure in China, power sector consumed more coal than any other sector and threatened air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement target. In this work, we assessed the evolution of coal-fired power plants in China during 2010-2030 and the evolution of associated emissions for the same period by using a unit-based emission projection model which integrated the historical power plants information, turnover of the future power plant fleet, and the evolution of end-of-pipe control technologies. We found that, driven by the stringent environmental legislation, SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 emissions from China's coal-fired power plants decreased by 49%, 45%, and 24% respectively during 2010-2015, comparing to 14% increase of coal consumption and 15% increase in CO2 emissions. We estimated that under current national energy development planning, coal consumption and CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants will continue to increase until 2030, in which against the China's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) targets. Early retirement of old and low-efficient power plants will cumulatively reduce 2.2 Pg CO2 emissions from the baseline scenario during 2016-2030, but still could not curb CO2 emissions from the peak before 2030. Owing to the implementation of "near zero" emission control policy, we projected that emissions of air pollutants will significantly decrease during the same period under all scenarios, indicating the decoupling trends of air pollutants and CO2 emissions. Although with limited direct emission reduction benefits, increasing operating hours of power plants could avoid 236 GW of new power plants construction, which could indirectly reduce emissions embodied in the construction activity. Our results identified a more sustainable pathway for China's coal-fired power plants, which could reduce air pollutant emissions, improve the energy efficiency, and slow down the construction of new units. However, continuous

  13. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  14. A Design Tool for Matching UAV Propeller and Power Plant Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangio, Arion L.

    A large body of knowledge is available for matching propellers to engines for large propeller driven aircraft. Small UAV's and model airplanes operate at much lower Reynolds numbers and use fixed pitch propellers so the information for large aircraft is not directly applicable. A design tool is needed that takes into account Reynolds number effects, allows for gear reduction, and the selection of a propeller optimized for the airframe. The tool developed in this thesis does this using propeller performance data generated from vortex theory or wind tunnel experiments and combines that data with an engine power curve. The thrust, steady state power, RPM, and tip Mach number vs. velocity curves are generated. The Reynolds number vs. non dimensional radial station at an operating point is also found. The tool is then used to design a geared power plant for the SAE Aero Design competition. To measure the power plant performance, a purpose built engine test stand was built. The characteristics of the engine test stand are also presented. The engine test stand was then used to characterize the geared power plant. The power plant uses a 26x16 propeller, 100/13 gear ratio, and an LRP 0.30 cubic inch engine turning at 28,000 RPM and producing 2.2 HP. Lastly, the measured power plant performance is presented. An important result is that 17 lbf of static thrust is produced.

  15. Optimized MPPT-based converter for TEG energy harvester to power wireless sensor and monitoring system in nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Shaoxu; Anakok, Isil; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Accidents like Fukushima Disasters push people to improve the monitoring systems for the nuclear power plants. Thus, various types of energy harvesters are designed to power these systems and the Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) energy harvester is one of them. In order to enhance the amount of harvested power and the system efficiency, the power management stage needs to be carefully designed. In this paper, a power converter with optimized Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed for the TEG Energy Harvester to power the wireless sensor network in nuclear power plant. The TEG Energy Harvester is installed on the coolant pipe of the nuclear plant and harvests energy from its heat energy while the power converter with optimized MPPT can make the TEG Energy Harvester output the maximum power, quickly response to the voltage change and provide sufficient energy for wireless sensor system to monitor the operation of the nuclear power plant. Due to the special characteristics of the Single-Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) when it is working in the Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DICM) and Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), the MPPT method presented in this paper would be able to control the converter to achieve the maximum output power in any working conditions of the TEG system with a simple circuit. The optimized MPPT algorithm will significantly reduce the cost and simplify the system as well as achieve a good performance. Experiment test results have shown that, comparing to a fixed- duty-cycle SEPIC which is specifically designed for the working on the secondary coolant loop in nuclear power plant, the optimized MPPT algorithm increased the output power by 55%.

  16. Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by a 300-MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loutan, Clyde; Klauer, Peter; Chowdhury, Sirajul

    The California Independent System Operator (CAISO), First Solar, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a demonstration project on a large utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant in California to test its ability to provide essential ancillary services to the electric grid. With increasing shares of solar- and wind-generated energy on the electric grid, traditional generation resources equipped with automatic governor control (AGC) and automatic voltage regulation controls -- specifically, fossil thermal -- are being displaced. The deployment of utility-scale, grid-friendly PV power plants that incorporate advanced capabilities to support grid stability and reliability is essential for the large-scale integrationmore » of PV generation into the electric power grid, among other technical requirements. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, PV power plants can be used to mitigate the impact of variability on the grid, a role typically reserved for conventional generators. In August 2016, testing was completed on First Solar's 300-MW PV power plant, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to use grid-friendly controls to provide essential reliability services. These data showed how the development of advanced power controls can enable PV to become a provider of a wide range of grid services, including spinning reserves, load following, voltage support, ramping, frequency response, variability smoothing, and frequency regulation to power quality. Specifically, the tests conducted included various forms of active power control such as AGC and frequency regulation; droop response; and reactive power, voltage, and power factor controls. This project demonstrated that advanced power electronics and solar generation can be controlled

  17. Multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods research of nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Handing; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Weidong; Lei, Dina

    2017-01-01

    2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant severe accident was caused by both earthquake and tsunami, which results in large amount of radioactive nuclides release. That accident has caused the radioactive contamination on the surrounding environment. Although this accident probability is extremely small, once such an accident happens that is likely to release a lot of radioactive materials into the environment, and cause radiation contamination. Therefore, studying accidents consequences is important and essential to improve nuclear power plant design and management. Level 3 PSA methods of nuclear power plant can be used to analyze radiological consequences, and quantify risk to the public health effects around nuclear power plants. Based on multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods studies of nuclear power plant, and the description of the multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA technology roadmap and important technical elements, as well as taking a coastal nuclear power plant as the reference site, we analyzed the impact of off-site consequences of nuclear power plant severe accidents caused by multiple external hazards. At last we discussed the impact of off-site consequences probabilistic risk studies and its applications under multiple external hazards compound conditions, and explained feasibility and reasonableness of emergency plans implementation.

  18. Analysis on capability of load following for nuclear power plants abroad and its enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kuan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Deng, Ting-ting; Zhang, Jin-fang; Hao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    With the acceleration adjustment of China’s energy structure, the development of nuclear power plants in China has been going back to the fast track. While as the trend of slowing electric power demand is now unmistakable, it enforces the power system to face much greater pressure in some coastal zones where the nuclear power plants are of a comparative big proportion, such as Fujian province and Liaoning province. In this paper, the capability of load following of nuclear power plants of some developed countries with high proportion of nuclear power generation such as France, US and Japan are analysed, also from the aspects including the safety, the economy and their practical operation experience is studied. The feasibility of nuclear power plants to participate in the peak regulation of system is also studied and summarized. The results of this paper could be of good reference value for the China’s nuclear power plants to participate in system load following, and also of great significance for the development of the nuclear power plants in China.

  19. Study on integration potential of gas turbines and gas engines into parabolic trough power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Tobias; Oeljeklaus, Gerd; Görner, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid power plants represent an important intermediate step on the way to an energy supply structure based substantially on renewable energies. Natural gas is the preferred fossil fuel for hybridization of solar thermal power plants, due to its low specific CO2-emission and technical advantages by means of integration into the power plant process. The power plant SHAMS ONE serves as an exemplary object of this study. In order to facilitate peaker gas turbines in an economical way to a combined cycle approach, with the SGT-400 an industrial gas turbine of the 10-20 MWel class have been integrated into the base case power plant. The concept has been set up, to make use of the gas turbine waste heat for power generation and increasing the overall power plant efficiency of the hybrid power plant at the same time. This concept represents an alternative to the widely used concept of combined cycle power plants with solar heat integration. Supplementary, this paper also dedicates the alternative to use gas engines instead of gas turbines.

  20. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  1. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  2. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  3. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  4. 10 CFR 73.56 - Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. 73.56 Section 73.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. (a) Introduction. (1) By March 31, 2010, each nuclear power...

  5. 10 CFR 73.56 - Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. 73.56 Section 73.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. (a) Introduction. (1) By March 31, 2010, each nuclear power...

  6. 10 CFR 73.56 - Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. 73.56 Section 73.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. (a) Introduction. (1) By March 31, 2010, each nuclear power...

  7. 10 CFR 73.56 - Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. 73.56 Section 73.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... authorization requirements for nuclear power plants. (a) Introduction. (1) By March 31, 2010, each nuclear power...

  8. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures moremore » than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.« less

  9. Field test of an autonomous wind-diesel power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, A.; Knoebel, U.; Ruckert, W.

    1985-09-01

    An autonomous power plant composed of a wind energy converter and a diesel generator was tested in laboratory and in the field to assess the wind energy supply as a noninfluenceable parameter in the regulation of the mono and bivalent operation of the power plant, for control of the dynamic behavior of the electrical components, for tuning of the regulation expenditure with comfort requirements, and for model evaluation of energy cost analysis. The interaction between meteorological, technical, economic and energy policy aspects was assessed. The relationship between economical use and comfort limits technical improvement. Development of the concept of a bivalent power supply with wind and diesel is recommended.

  10. Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushong, Wilton E.; Fox, Ronald C.; Brown, Christopher S.; Biro, Ronald R.; Dreshel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinostat rotates coaxial pair of plant-growth cabinets about horizontal axis while supplying cabinets with electric power for built-in computers, lamps, fans, and auxiliary equipment, such as nutrient pumps. Each cabinet self-contained unit for growing plants in controlled environment. By rotating cabinets and contents about horizontal axis, scientists simulate and study some of effects of microgravity on growth of plants. Clinostat includes vertical aluminum mounting bracket on horizontal aluminum base. Bearings on bracket hold shaft with V-belt pulley. At each end of shaft, circular plate holds frame mount for cabinet. Mounting plates also used to hold transparent sealed growth chambers described in article, "Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat" (KSC-11538).

  11. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES FROM STANDARDIZED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A WIND TUNNEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate radiopollutant effluents released to the atmosphere from two standard design nuclear power plants. The main objective of the study was to compare the dispersion in the wake of the standardized nuclear power plants with that in a s...

  12. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Sreepradha; Panda, Rames Chandra; Swaminathan, Bhuvaneswari Natrajan

    2017-06-01

    The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R 2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The dependability of the process variable (temperature) on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) supported by DOE (design of experiments) are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant.

  13. Experience with ALARA and ALARA procedures in a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamse, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The nuclear power plant Borssele is a Siemens two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor having a capacity of 480 MWe and in operation since 1973. The nuclear power plant Borssle is located in the southwest of the Netherlands, near the Westerschelde River. In the first nine years of operation the radiation level in the primary system increased, reaching a maximum in 1983. The most important reason for this high radiation level was the cobalt content of the grid assemblies of the fuel elements. After resolving this problem, the radiation level decreased to a level comparable with that of other nuclear power plants.

  14. Atmospheric emission of 137Cs82 from Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Citing Beloyarsk nuclear power plant (Russia) as an example, the problem of remote detection of radioactivity in the atmospheric pollution is examined. The comparative analysis of injected radionuclides into the atmosphere from the nuclear power plant with advanced fast neutron reactor is carried out. The main radionuclides throw out into the atmosphere from the nuclear power plant are beta-radionuclides. The secondary and tertiary spectra of beta-electrons decay for artificial radionuclide 137Cs82 is calculated, using Spencer-Fano’s equation. The averaged parameters of initial beta - electrons generated by 137Cs82 decay in the atmosphere is calculated.

  15. Cost analysis of a coal-fired power plant using the NPV method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Sharma, Avdhesh Kr.; Tewari, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the impact of various factors affecting coal-fired power plant economics of 210 MW subcritical unit situated in north India for electricity generation. In this paper, the cost data of various units of thermal power plant in terms of power output capacity have been fitted using power law with the help of the data collected from a literature search. To have a realistic estimate of primary components or equipment, it is necessary to include the latest cost of these components. The cost analysis of the plant was carried out on the basis of total capital investment, operating cost and revenue. The total capital investment includes the total direct plant cost and total indirect plant cost. Total direct plant cost involves the cost of equipment (i.e. boiler, steam turbine, condenser, generator and auxiliary equipment including condensate extraction pump, feed water pump, etc.) and other costs associated with piping, electrical, civil works, direct installation cost, auxiliary services, instrumentation and controls, and site preparation. The total indirect plant cost includes the cost of engineering and set-up. The net present value method was adopted for the present study. The work presented in this paper is an endeavour to study the influence of some of the important parameters on the lifetime costs of a coal-fired power plant. For this purpose, parametric study with and without escalation rates for a period of 35 years plant life was evaluated. The results predicted that plant life, interest rate and the escalation rate were observed to be very sensitive on plant economics in comparison to other factors under study.

  16. Open innovation at the Abbe School of Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgert, Christian; Geiss, Reinhard; Nolte, Stefan; Eilenberger, Falk; Zakoth, David; Mauroner, Oliver; Pertsch, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Abbe School of Photonics (ASP) provides and coordinates the optics and photonics education of graduate and doctoral students at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. The internationalized Master's degree program is the key activity in training students in the optical sciences. The program is designed to provide them with the skills necessary to fill challenging positions in industry and academia. Here, an essential factor is ASP's close collaboration with more than 20 German photonics companies. To sustain these partners' future economic development, the availability of highly qualified employees is constantly required. Accordingly, these industrial partners, the European Union, the local state and the federal German government are strongly involved in the sustainable development of ASP's curriculum by both conceptual and financial engagements. The main goal is to promote the students' academic careers and job experience in the photonics industry as well as in academia. To open up the program to students from all over the world, all ASP lectures and courses are taught in English. ASP's qualification strategy is fully research-oriented and based on the principles of academic freedom, competitive research conditions and internationalization at all levels. The education program is complemented by a structured doctoral student support and a prestigious guest professorship program. Recently, ASP and partners have started a project to build an open photonics laboratory in order to foster innovative and co-creative processes. The idea follows well-established open innovation schemes e.g. in electronics. This Photon Garage (German: "Lichtwerkstatt") will bring together professionals and interested laymen from different backgrounds to approach pertinent challenges in photonics. Here, we will share our latest insights into the potentials and opportunities offered by this novel educative approach.

  17. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. Objective: To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Methods: Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0.93 f/cm3. Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1.0 f/cm3. If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0.1 f/cm3. Conclusion: Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia. PMID:25730489

  18. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.

  19. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0·93 f/cm(3). Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1·0 f/cm(3). If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0·1 f/cm(3). Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia.

  20. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  1. Power plant I - Fused salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    A solar thermal power plant using fused salt as the heat transfer fluid for steam power generation is analyzed for the feasibility of economic operation. The salt is also stored in a tank reservoir for maintaining the primary heat loop at temperatures high enough for the salts to remain liquid, and also to provide reserve power for the steam generator. Initial studies were with eutectic (hitec) salt comprising Na, KOH, and nitrites melting at 146 C, and further studies were performed employing draw salt, which has no nitrite, is more stable at high temperature, and melts at 225 C. The use of draw salt was found to allow a 5 percent reduction in storage capacity. Further examinations of the effects of the hitec salts on corrosion and composition degradation at high temperatures are indicated. The molten salt system is projected to offer an efficiency of 26 percent.

  2. Reliability analysis of a utility-scale solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a reliability analysis for a solar central receiver power plant that employs a salt-in-tube receiver. Because reliability data for a number of critical plant components have only recently been collected, this is the first time a credible analysis can be performed. This type of power plant will be built by a consortium of western US utilities led by the Southern California Edison Company. The 10 MW plant is known as Solar Two and is scheduled to be on-line in 1994. It is a prototype which should lead to the construction of 100 MW commercial-scale plants by the year 2000. The availability calculation was performed with the UNIRAM computer code. The analysis predicted a forced outage rate of 5.4 percent and an overall plant availability, including scheduled outages, of 91 percent. The code also identified the most important contributors to plant unavailability. Control system failures were identified as the most important cause of forced outages. Receiver problems were rated second with turbine outages third. The overall plant availability of 91 percent exceeds the goal identified by the US utility study. This paper discuses the availability calculation and presents evidence why the 91 percent availability is a credible estimate.

  3. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be requiredmore » for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost.« less

  4. Thermal and nuclear power plants: Competitiveness in the new economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the conditions of development and functionality of power generating assets have notably changed. Considering the decline in the price of hydrocarbon fuel on the global market, the efficiency of combined-cycle gas-turbine plants in the European part of Russia is growing in comparison with nuclear power plants. Capital investments in the construction of nuclear power plants have also increased as a result of stiffening the safety requirements. In view of this, there has been an increasing interest in exploration of effective lines of development of generating assets in the European part of Russia, taking consideration of the conditions that may arise in the nearest long-term perspective. In particular, the assessment of comparative efficiency of developing combined-cycle gas-turbine plants (operating on natural gas) in the European part of Russia and nuclear power plants is of academic and practical interest. In this article, we analyze the trends of changes in the regional price of hydrocarbon fuel. Using the prognosis of net-weighted import prices of natural gas in Western European countries—prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ERIRAS)—the prices of natural gas in the European part of Russia equilibrated with import prices of this heat carrier in Western Europe were determined. The methodology of determining the comparative efficiency of combined-cycle gas turbine plants (CCGT) and nuclear power plants (NPP) were described; based on this, the possible development of basic CCGTs and NPPs with regard to the European part of Russia for various scenarios in the prognosis of prices of gaseous fuel in a broad range of change of specific investments in the given generating sources were assessed, and the extents of their comparative efficiency were shown. It was proven that, at specific investments in the construction of new NPPs in the amount of 5000 dollars/kW, nuclear

  5. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power Water...

  6. Review of the coal-fired, over-supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Shvarts, A. L.; Somova, E. V.; Verbovetskii, E. Kh.; Avrutskii, G. D.; Ermakova, S. V.; Kalugin, R. N.; Lazarev, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a review of developments of modern high-capacity coal-fired over-supercritical (OSC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) steam power plants and their implementation. The basic engineering solutions are reported that ensure the reliability, economic performance, and low atmospheric pollution levels. The net efficiency of the power plants is increased by optimizing the heat balance, improving the primary and auxiliary equipment, and, which is the main thing, by increasing the throttle conditions. As a result of the enhanced efficiency, emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, the "greenhouse" gas, are reduced. To date, the exhaust steam conditions in the world power industry are p 0 ≈ 30 MPa and t 0 = 610/620°C. The efficiency of such power plants reaches 47%. The OSC plants are being operated in Germany, Denmark, Japan, China, and Korea; pilot plants are being developed in Russia. Currently, a project of a power plant for the ultra-supercritical steam conditions p 0 ≈ 35 MPa and t 0 = 700/720°C with efficiency of approximately 50% is being studied in the EU within the framework of the Thermie AD700 program, project AD 700PF. Investigations in this field have also been launched in the United States, Japan, and China. Engineering solutions are also being sought in Russia by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute (VTI) and the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. The stated steam parameter level necessitates application of new materials, namely, nickel-base alloys. Taking into consideration high costs of nickel-base alloys and the absence in Russia of technologies for their production and manufacture of products from these materials for steam-turbine power plants, the development of power plants for steam parameters of 32 MPa and 650/650°C should be considered to be the first stage in creating the USC plants as, to achieve the above parameters, no expensive alloys are require. To develop and

  7. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  8. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... guide, (RG) 1.218, ``Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants... of electric cables for nuclear power plants. RG 1.218 is not intended to be prescriptive, instead it...

  9. Evaluation of solar thermal power plants using economic and performance simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Gabawali, N.

    1980-01-01

    An energy cost analysis is presented for central receiver power plants with thermal storage and point focusing power plants with electrical storage. The present approach is based on optimizing the size of the plant to give the minimum energy cost (in mills/kWe hr) of an annual plant energy production. The optimization is done by considering the trade-off between the collector field size and the storage capacity for a given engine size. The energy cost is determined by the plant cost and performance. The performance is estimated by simulating the behavior of the plant under typical weather conditions. Plant capital and operational costs are estimated based on the size and performance of different components. This methodology is translated into computer programs for automatic and consistent evaluation.

  10. Analysis of Axial Turbine Pico-Hydro Electrical Power Plant in North Sulawesi Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangari, F. J.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    This study presents analysis of pico-hydro electrical power plant in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this study is to get a design of axial turbine pico-hydro electrical power plant. The method used the study of literature, survey the construction site of the power plant and the characteristics of the location being a place of study, analysis of hydropower ability and analyzing costs of power plant. The result showed that the design of axial turbine pico-hydro installation is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy maximum can be used for household needs in villages. This analyze will be propose to local government of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

  11. Parametric study of potential early commercial power plants Task 3-A MHD cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of costs for an MHD Power Plant and the comparison of these costs to a conventional coal fired power plant are reported. The program is divided into three activities: (1) code of accounts review; (2) MHD pulverized coal power plant cost comparison; (3) operating and maintenance cost estimates. The scope of each NASA code of account item was defined to assure that the recently completed Task 3 capital cost estimates are consistent with the code of account scope. Improvement confidence in MHD plant capital cost estimates by identifying comparability with conventional pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant systems is undertaken. The basis for estimating the MHD plant operating and maintenance costs of electricity is verified.

  12. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance tomore » licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.« less

  13. Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.

    2006-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees andmore » applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)« less

  14. The thermodynamic cycle models for geothermal power plants by considering the working fluid characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Adiprana, Reza; Saad, Aswad H.; M. Ridwan, H.; Muhammad, Fajar

    2016-02-01

    The scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the development of geothermal power plant in Indonesia. The main issue is how to minimize the energy loss from the geothermal working fluid so that the power generated can be increased. In some of geothermal power plant, the hot water which is resulted from flashing is flown to injection well, and steam out from turbine is condensed in condenser, while the temperature and pressure of the working fluid is still high. The aim of this research is how the waste energy can be re-used as energy source to generate electric power. The step of the research is started by studying the characteristics of geothermal fluid out from the well head. The temperature of fluid varies from 140°C - 250°C, the pressure is more than 7 bar and the fluid phase are liquid, gas, or mixing phase. Dry steam power plant is selected for vapor dominated source, single or multiple flash power plant is used for dominated water with temperature > 225°C, while the binary power plant is used for low temperature of fluid < 160°C. Theoretically, the process in the power plant can be described by thermodynamic cycle. Utilizing the heat loss of the brine and by considering the broad range of working fluid temperature, the integrated geothermal power plant has been developed. Started with two ordinary single flash power plants named unit 1 and unit 2, with the temperature 250°C resulting power is W1'+W2'. The power is enhanced by utilizing the steam that is out from first stage of the turbine by inputting the steam to the third stage, the power of the plant increase with W1''+W2" or 10% from the original power. By using flasher, the water from unit 1 and 2 is re-flashed at 200°C, and the steam is used to drive the turbine in unit 3, while the water is re-flashed at the temperature170°C and the steam is flown to the same turbine (unit 3) resulting the power of W3+W4. Using the fluid enthalpy, the calculated power of these double and triple flash power plant

  15. U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: Continued Life or Replacement After 60? (released in AEO2010)

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants generate approximately 20% of U.S. electricity, and the plants in operation today are often seen as attractive assets in the current environment of uncertainty about future fossil fuel prices, high construction costs for new power plants (particularly nuclear plants), and the potential enactment of greenhouse gas regulations. Existing nuclear power plants have low fuel costs and relatively high power output. However, there is uncertainty about how long they will be allowed to continue operating.

  16. Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

  17. Raspberry Pi-powered imaging for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Jose C; Hoyer, J Steen; Lin, Andy; Tielking, Allison; Callen, Steven T; Elizabeth Castillo, S; Miller, Michael; Tessman, Monica; Fahlgren, Noah; Carrington, James C; Nusinow, Dmitri A; Gehan, Malia A

    2018-03-01

    Image-based phenomics is a powerful approach to capture and quantify plant diversity. However, commercial platforms that make consistent image acquisition easy are often cost-prohibitive. To make high-throughput phenotyping methods more accessible, low-cost microcomputers and cameras can be used to acquire plant image data. We used low-cost Raspberry Pi computers and cameras to manage and capture plant image data. Detailed here are three different applications of Raspberry Pi-controlled imaging platforms for seed and shoot imaging. Images obtained from each platform were suitable for extracting quantifiable plant traits (e.g., shape, area, height, color) en masse using open-source image processing software such as PlantCV. This protocol describes three low-cost platforms for image acquisition that are useful for quantifying plant diversity. When coupled with open-source image processing tools, these imaging platforms provide viable low-cost solutions for incorporating high-throughput phenomics into a wide range of research programs.

  18. Regulatory Actions - Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes Federal regulatory actions.

  19. Regulatory Actions - Proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page includes supporting documentation and

  20. Onsite 40-kilowatt fuel cell power plant manufacturing and field test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A joint Gas Research Institute and U.S. Department of Energy Program was initiated in 1982 to evaluate the use of fuel cell power systems for on-site energy service. Forty-six 40 kW fuel cell power plants were manufactured at the United Technologies Corporation facility in South Windsor, Connecticut, and are being delivered to host utilities and other program participants in the United States and Japan for field testing. The construction of the 46 fully-integrated power plants was completed in January 1985 within the constraints of the contract plan. The program has provided significant experience in the manufacture, acceptance testing, deployment, and support of on-site fuel cell systems. Initial field test results also show that these experimental power plants meet the performance and environmental requirements of a commercial specification. This Interim Report encompasses the design and manufacturing phases of the 40 kW Power Plant Manufacturing and Field Test program. The contract between UTC and NASA also provides UTC field engineering support to the host utilities, training programs and associated manuals for utility operating and maintenance personnel, spare parts support for a defined test period, and testing at UTC of a power plant made available from a preceding program phase. These activities are ongoing and will be reported subsequently.

  1. Thermodynamics Analysis of Binary Plant Generating Power from Low-Temperature Geothermal Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksuwan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose in this research was to predict tendency of increase Carnot efficiency of the binary plant generating power from low-temperature geothermal resource. Low-temperature geothermal resources or less, are usually exploited by means of binary-type energy conversion systems. The maximum efficiency is analyzed for electricity production of the binary plant generating power from low-temperature geothermal resource becomes important. By using model of the heat exchanger equivalent to a power plant together with the calculation of the combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The CHP was solved in detail with appropriate boundary originating an idea from the effect of temperature of source fluid inlet-outlet and cooling fluid supply. The Carnot efficiency from the CHP calculation was compared between condition of increase temperature of source fluid inlet-outlet and decrease temperature of cooling fluid supply. Result in this research show that the Carnot efficiency for binary plant generating power from low-temperature geothermal resource has tendency increase by decrease temperature of cooling fluid supply.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position 35...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position 35...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position 35...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position 35...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position 35...

  7. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation and master control subsystems and balance of plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The requirements, performance, and subsystem configuration for both the Commercial and Pilot Plant electrical power generation subsystems (EPGS) and balance of plants are presented. The EPGS for both the Commercial Plant and Pilot Plant make use of conventional, proven equipment consistent with good power plant design practices in order to minimize risk and maximize reliability. The basic EPGS cycle selected is a regenerative cycle that uses a single automatic admission, condensing, tandem-compound double-flow turbine. Specifications, performance data, drawings, and schematics are included. (WHK)

  8. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  9. Simulated Coal Gas MCFC Power Plant System Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.

    1998-09-01

    Technical Report September 1998 This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the US Government. Neither the US Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owed rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoringmore » by the US Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof. This is the Technical Progress Report covering September 1998. All tasks have been completed, except for those discussed on the following pages. Unocal estimated the costs of dismantling and packaging the test facility for storage and shipment. The scope of work for the contract has been modified to accommodate the dismantling and packaging of the plant. An amendment to Sub-Contract No. MCP-9-UNO between M-C Power and Unocal has been executed which includes the Scope of Work in Unocal's cost estimate. Unocal continued maintenance of the 250-kW demonstration power plant. Bid packages for plant dismantling have been prepared and sent out to appropriate contractors for their proposals. A work plan and estimate for dismantling and packaging the plant for shipment has been prepared by Unocal. The plan has been reviewed by M-C Power and Bechtel with modifications made where appropriate. Unocal has obtained vendor qualifications for possible bidders who are acceptable to M-C Power. M-C Power has revised the bid packages to incorporate the modifications. Disassembly activities will proceed upon review of the proposals

  10. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  11. Fiber optic sensors for nuclear power plant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Murugesan; Sosamma, Samuel; BabuRao, Chelamchala; Murali, Nagarajan; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2012-05-01

    Studies have been carried out for application of Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The high temperature monitoring in sodium circuits of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is important. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in the surrounding insulation in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. The suitability of RDTS for detecting defects in ACSR overhead power cable, is also demonstrated.

  12. Wireless microwave acoustic sensor system for condition monitoring in power plant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio

    This project successfully demonstrated novel wireless microwave acoustic temperature and pressure sensors that can be embedded into equipment and structures located in fossil fuel power plant environments to monitor the condition of components such as steam headers, re-heat lines, water walls, burner tubes, and power turbines. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology researched and developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Maine and Environetix Technologies Corporation can provide a revolutionary impact in the power industry since it is anticipated that the wireless sensors will deliver reliable real-time sensing information in harsh power plant conditions that involve temperatures upmore » to 1100oC and pressures up to 750 psi. The work involved the research and development of novel high temperature harsh environment thin film electrodes, piezoelectric smart microwave acoustic sensing elements, sensor encapsulation materials that were engineered to function over long times up to 1100oC, and a radio-frequency (RF) wireless interrogation electronics unit that are located both inside and outside the high temperature harsh environment. The UMaine / Environetix team have interacted with diverse power plant facilities, and identified as a testbed a local power generation facility, which burns municipal solid waste (MSW), the Penobscot Energy Recovery Company (PERC), Orrington, Maine. In this facility Environetix / UMaine successfully implemented and tested multiple wireless temperature sensor systems within the harsh-environment of the economizer chamber and at the boiler tubes, transferring the developed technology to the power plant environment to perform real-time sensor monitoring experiments under typical operating conditions, as initially targeted in the project. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology developed under this project for power plant applications offers several significant advantages including

  13. Power plant allocation in East Kalimantan considering total cost and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimin; Utomo, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    The fulfillment of electricity need in East Kalimantan is the responsibility of State Electricity Company/Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). But PLN faces constraints in the lack of generating capacity it has. So the allocation of power loads in East Kalimantan has its own challenges. Additional power supplies from other parties are required. In this study, there are four scenarios tested to meet the electricity needs in East Kalimantan with the goal of minimizing costs and emissions. The first scenario is only by using PLN power plant. The second scenario is by combining PLN + Independent Power Producer (IPP) power plants. The third scenario is by using PLN + Rented power plants. The fourth scenario is by using PLN + Excess capacity generation. Numerical experiment using nonlinear programming is conducted with the help of the solver. The result shows that in the peak load condition, the best combination is scenario 2 (PLN + IPP). While at the lowest load condition, the cheapest scenario is PLN + IPP while the lowest emission is PLN + Rent.

  14. Internationalized and research-oriented photonics education: Abbe School of Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgert, Christian; Nolte, Stefan; Pertsch, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The Abbe School of Photonics (ASP) provides and coordinates the optics and photonics education of graduate and doctoral students at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. The internationalized Master's degree program is the key activity in training students in the optical sciences. The program is designed to provide them with the skills necessary to fill challenging positions in industry and academia. Here, an essential factor is ASP's close collaboration with more than 20 German photonics companies. To sustain these partners' future economic development, the availability of highly qualified employees is constantly required. Accordingly, these industrial partners, the European Union, the local state and the federal German government are strongly involved in the sustainable development of ASP's curriculum by both conceptual and financial engagements. The main goal is to promote the students' academic careers and job experience in the photonics industry as well as in academia. To open up the program to students from all over the world, all ASP lectures and courses are taught in English. Since 2009, more than 250 graduate students from more than 40 different countries have been enrolled at the School. Almost 90% of them of non-German nationality, fulfilling the essential ASP philosophy to locally establish an international education program. ASP's qualification strategy is fully research-oriented and based on the principles of academic freedom, competitive research conditions and internationalization at all levels. The education program is complemented by a structured doctoral student support and a prestigious guest professorship program.

  15. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  16. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0268] Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power... Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition.'' The new subsection is the Standard Review Plan... Nuclear Power Plants: Integral Pressurized Water Reactor (iPWR) Edition.'' DATES: Comments must be filed...

  17. The Role of Demand Response in Reducing Water-Related Power Plant Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macknick, J.; Brinkman, G.; Zhou, E.; O'Connell, M.; Newmark, R. L.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The electric sector depends on readily available water supplies for reliable and efficient operation. Elevated water temperatures or low water levels can trigger regulatory or plant-level decisions to curtail power generation, which can affect system cost and reliability. In the past decade, dozens of power plants in the U.S. have curtailed generation due to water temperatures and water shortages. Curtailments occur during the summer, when temperatures are highest and there is greatest demand for electricity. Climate change could alter the availability and temperature of water resources, exacerbating these issues. Constructing alternative cooling systems to address vulnerabilities can be capital intensive and can also affect power plant efficiencies. Demand response programs are being implemented by electric system planners and operators to reduce and shift electricity demands from peak usage periods to other times of the day. Demand response programs can also play a role in reducing water-related power sector vulnerabilities during summer months. Traditionally, production cost modeling and demand response analyses do not include water resources. In this effort, we integrate an electricity production cost modeling framework with water-related impacts on power plants in a test system to evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on power system costs and reliability. Specifically, we i) quantify the cost and reliability implications of incorporating water resources into production cost modeling, ii) evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on reducing system costs and vulnerabilities, and iii) consider sensitivity analyses with cooling systems to highlight a range of potential benefits of demand response measures. Impacts from climate change on power plant performance and water resources are discussed. Results provide key insights to policymakers and practitioners for reducing water-related power plant vulnerabilities via lower cost methods.

  18. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmissionmore » requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.« less

  19. 2. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant accessway 101, showing equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant accessway 101, showing equipment blast lock #102 entrance for fire trucks and equipment. An underground structure at its origin, the 177-foot long accessway is above ground at its south end, terminating in the parking lot of service road B - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    DOEpatents

    Wroblewski, David [Mentor, OH; Katrompas, Alexander M [Concord, OH; Parikh, Neel J [Richmond Heights, OH

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  2. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  3. Application of Spatial Models in Making Location Decisions of Wind Power Plant in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płuciennik, Monika; Hełdak, Maria; Szczepański, Jakub; Patrzałek, Ciechosław

    2017-10-01

    In this paper,we explore the process of making decisions on the location of wind power plants in Poland in connection with a gradually increasing consumption of energy from renewable sources and the increase of impact problems of such facilities. The location of new wind power plants attracts much attention, and both positive and negative publicity. Visualisations can be of assistance when choosing the most advantageous location for a plant, as three-dimensional variants of the facility to be constructed can be prepared. This work involves terrestrial laser scanning of an existing wind power plant and 3D modelling followed by. The model could be subsequently used in visualisation of real terrain, with special purpose in local land development plan. This paper shows a spatial model of a wind power plant as a new element of a capital investment process in Poland. Next, we incorporate the model into an undeveloped site, intended for building a wind farm, subject to the requirements for location of power plants.

  4. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vesselmore » connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.« less

  5. Optimal Regulation of Virtual Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dall Anese, Emiliano; Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Simonetto, Andrea

    This paper develops a real-time algorithmic framework for aggregations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks to provide regulation services in response to transmission-level requests. Leveraging online primal-dual-type methods for time-varying optimization problems and suitable linearizations of the nonlinear AC power-flow equations, we believe this work establishes the system-theoretic foundation to realize the vision of distribution-level virtual power plants. The optimization framework controls the output powers of dispatchable DERs such that, in aggregate, they respond to automatic-generation-control and/or regulation-services commands. This is achieved while concurrently regulating voltages within the feeder and maximizing customers' and utility's performance objectives. Convergence andmore » tracking capabilities are analytically established under suitable modeling assumptions. Simulations are provided to validate the proposed approach.« less

  6. Cost Modeling and Design of Field-Reversed Configuration Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, David; Slough, John; Helion Team

    2017-10-01

    The Inductively Driven Liner (IDL) fusion concept uses the magnetically driven implosion of thin (0.5-1 mm) Aluminum hoops to magnetically compress a merged Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma to fusion conditions. Both the driver and the target have been studied experimentally and theoretically by researchers at Helion Energy, MSNW, and the University of Washington, demonstrating compression fields greater than 100 T and suitable fusion targets. In the presented study, a notional power plant facility using this approach will be described. In addition, a full cost study based on the LLNL Z-IFE and HYLIFE-II studies, the ARIES Tokamak concept, and RAND power plant studies will be described. Finally, the expected capital costs, development requirements, and LCOE for 50 and 500 MW power plants will be given. This analysis includes core FRC plant scaling, metallic liner recycling, radiation shielding, operations, and facilities capital requirements.

  7. Economics of power plant siting in southeastern New England. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J.M.; Meade, N.F.; Sutinen, J.G.

    1974-06-01

    The four major topics are discussed, i.e. demand and supply of electrical energy in the SENE region; the economics of expanding supply of and managing demand for electrical energy in SENE; the economics of locating power plants; and the economic implications of fifteen alternative power plant sites. The major sources of demand in the SENE region are Boston and Providence. Fossil fuel expansions in these areas will have to contend with higher fuel prices in the future and strict air quality standards. This will create incentives for fossil fuel facilities in outlying communities and for coastal nuclear plants where adequatemore » cooling water exists. Considerations affecting the choice of sites are: public health and safety; environmental quality and zero emissions; resistance on the part of land owners to sell sites for power plants; and local regulations on transmission lines.« less

  8. Coal-fired Power Plants with Flexible Amine-based CCS and Co-located Wind Power: Environmental, Economic and Reliability Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Rubenka

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies provide a means to significantly reduce carbon emissions from the existing fleet of fossil-fired plants, and hence can facilitate a gradual transition from conventional to more sustainable sources of electric power. This is especially relevant for coal plants that have a CO2 emission rate that is roughly two times higher than that of natural gas plants. Of the different kinds of CCS technology available, post-combustion amine based CCS is the best developed and hence more suitable for retrofitting an existing coal plant. The high costs from operating CCS could be reduced by enabling flexible operation through amine storage or allowing partial capture of CO2 during high electricity prices. This flexibility is also found to improve the power plant's ramp capability, enabling it to offset the intermittency of renewable power sources. This thesis proposes a solution to problems associated with two promising technologies for decarbonizing the electric power system: the high costs of the energy penalty of CCS, and the intermittency and non-dispatchability of wind power. It explores the economic and technical feasibility of a hybrid system consisting of a coal plant retrofitted with a post-combustion-amine based CCS system equipped with the option to perform partial capture or amine storage, and a co-located wind farm. A techno-economic assessment of the performance of the hybrid system is carried out both from the perspective of the stakeholders (utility owners, investors, etc.) as well as that of the power system operator. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  9. Turbomachinery design considerations for the nuclear HTGR-GT power plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Smith, M.J.

    1979-11-01

    For several years, design studies have been under way in the USA on a nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine plant (HTGR-GT). Design aspects of the helium turbomachine portion of these studies are presented. Gas dynamic and mechanical design considerations are presented for helium turbomachines in the 400-MW(e) (non-intercooled) and 600-MW(e) (intercooled) power range. Design of the turbomachine is a key element in the overall power plant program effort, which is currently directed toward the selection of a reference HTGR-GT commercial plant configuration for the US utility market. A conservative design approach has been emphasized to provide maximum safety and durability. Themore » studies presented for the integrated plant concept outline the necessary close working relationship between the reactor primary system and turbomachine designers.« less

  10. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  11. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O'Neill, Barbara

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Officemore » selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants

  12. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish andmore » cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship

  13. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, minemore » pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and

  14. Control system development for a 1 MW/e/ solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubert, E. R.; Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The point-focusing distributed receiver power plant considered consists of a number of power modules delivering power to a central collection point. Each power module contains a parabolic dish concentrator with a closed-cycle receiver/turbine/alternator assembly. Currently, a single-module prototype plant is under construction. The major control system tasks required are related to concentrator pointing control, receiver temperature control, and turbine speed control. Attention is given to operational control details, control hardware and software, and aspects of CRT output display.

  15. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim; Laumert, Björn; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential. In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise the life of the components. Moreover, from an operability perspective it might not be optimal to have designs for the highest heating rates, as there may be other components limiting the power plant start-up. Therefore, it is important to look at the interaction between the steam turbine and steam generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated with a control strategy to account for the start-up limitations of both the turbine and steam generator. The models have been introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results indicated that for each application, an optimal heating rates range can be identified. For the specific case presented in the paper, an optimal range of 7-10 K/min of evaporator heating rate can result in a 1.7-2.1% increase in electricity production compared to a slower component (4 K/min).

  16. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ningle; Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingjiang; Fan, Xiangyong; Xu, Xiaosan; Wang, Furu

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China. Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted. Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables. Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power. Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently. PMID:22811610

  17. Synthesis of power plant outage schedules. Final technical report, April 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    This document provides a report on the creation of domain theories in the power plant outage domain. These were developed in conjunction with the creation of a demonstration system of advanced scheduling technology for the outage problem. In 1994 personnel from Rome Laboratory (RL), Kaman Science (KS), Kestrel Institute, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a joint project to develop scheduling tools for power plant outage activities. This report describes our support for this joint effort. The project uses KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to generate schedulers from formal specifications of the power plant domain outage activities.

  18. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  19. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard Review Plans for Environmental... for Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 1: Operating License Renewal'' (ESRP). The ESRP serves as a guide... published a final rule, ``Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating...

  20. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  1. Space Solar Power Concepts: Demonstrations to Pilot Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie K.; Feingold, Harvey; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of abundant, affordable power where needed is a key to the future exploration and development of space as well as future sources of clean terrestrial power. One innovative approach to providing such power is the use of wireless power transmission (WPT). There are at least two possible WPT methods that appear feasible; microwave and laser. Microwave concepts have been generated, analyzed and demonstrated. Technologies required to provide an end-to-end system have been identified and roadmaps generated to guide technology development requirements. Recently, laser W T approaches have gained an increased interest. These approaches appear to be very promising and will possibly solve some of the major challenges that exist with the microwave option. Therefore, emphasis is currently being placed on the laser WPT activity. This paper will discuss the technology requirements, technology roadmaps and technology flight experiments demonstrations required to lead toward a pilot plant demonstration. Concepts will be discussed along with the modeling techniques that are used in developing them. Feasibility will be addressed along with the technology needs, issues and capabilities for particular concepts. Flight experiments and demonstrations will be identified that will pave the road from demonstrations to pilot plants and beyond.

  2. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to bemore » self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.« less

  3. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this...

  4. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this...

  5. Quantifying CO2 Emissions from Individual Power Plants using OCO-2 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, R.; Hill, T. G.; McLinden, C. A.; Wunch, D.; Jones, D. B. A.; Crisp, D.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better manage anthropogenic CO2 emissions, improved methods of quantifying emissions are needed at all spatial scales from the national level down to the facility level. Although the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite was not designed for monitoring power plant emissions, we show that in select cases, CO2 observations from OCO-2 can be used to quantify daily CO2 emissions from individual mid- to large-sized coal power plants by fitting the data to plume model simulations. Emission estimates for US power plants are within 1-13% of reported daily emission values enabling application of the approach to international sites that lack detailed emission information. These results affirm that a constellation of future CO2 imaging satellites, optimized for point sources, could be used for the Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 emissions from individual power plants to support the implementation of climate policies.

  6. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  7. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigationmore » conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.« less

  8. Model for the techno-economic analysis of common work of wind power and CCGT power plant to offer constant level of power in the electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsic, Z.; Rajsl, I.; Filipovic, M.

    2017-11-01

    Wind power varies over time, mainly under the influence of meteorological fluctuations. The variations occur on all time scales. Understanding these variations and their predictability is of key importance for the integration and optimal utilization of wind in the power system. There are two major attributes of variable generation that notably impact the participation on power exchanges: Variability (the output of variable generation changes and resulting in fluctuations in the plant output on all time scales) and Uncertainty (the magnitude and timing of variable generation output is less predictable, wind power output has low levels of predictability). Because of these variability and uncertainty wind plants cannot participate to electricity market, especially to power exchanges. For this purpose, the paper presents techno-economic analysis of work of wind plants together with combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant as support for offering continues power to electricity market. A model of wind farms and CCGT plant was developed in program PLEXOS based on real hourly input data and all characteristics of CCGT with especial analysis of techno-economic characteristics of different types of starts and stops of the plant. The Model analyzes the followings: costs of different start-stop characteristics (hot, warm, cold start-ups and shutdowns) and part load performance of CCGT. Besides the costs, the technical restrictions were considered such as start-up time depending on outage duration, minimum operation time, and minimum load or peaking capability. For calculation purposes, the following parameters are necessary to know in order to be able to economically evaluate changes in the start-up process: ramp up and down rate, time of start time reduction, fuel mass flow during start, electricity production during start, variable cost of start-up process, cost and charges for life time consumption for each start and start type, remuneration during start up time regarding

  9. Efficient and equitable spatial allocation of renewable power plants at the country scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Martin; Egerer, Jonas; Lange, Martin; Masurowski, Frank; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Oehlmann, Malte

    2017-09-01

    Globally, the production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid growth. One of the most pressing issues is the appropriate allocation of renewable power plants, as the question of where to produce renewable electricity is highly controversial. Here we explore this issue through analysis of the efficient and equitable spatial allocation of wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants in Germany. We combine multiple methods, including legal analysis, economic and energy modelling, monetary valuation and numerical optimization. We find that minimum distances between renewable power plants and human settlements should be as small as is legally possible. Even small reductions in efficiency lead to large increases in equity. By considering electricity grid expansion costs, we find a more even allocation of power plants across the country than is the case when grid expansion costs are neglected.

  10. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  11. Performance and Simulation of a Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, S. T.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Assadi, M. K.; Gilani, S. I. U. H.; Khlief, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a Simulink® Thermolib Model has been established for simulation performance evaluation of Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. This paper proposes a design of 1.2 kW parabolic trough power plant. The model is capable to predict temperatures at any system outlet in the plant, as well as the power output produced. The conditions that are taken into account as input to the model are: local solar radiation and ambient temperatures, which have been measured during the year. Other parameters that have been input to the model are the collector’s sizes, location in terms of latitude and altitude. Lastly, the results are presented in graphical manner to describe the analysed variations of various outputs of the solar fields obtained, and help to predict the performance of the plant. The developed model allows an initial evaluation of the viability and technical feasibility of any similar solar thermal power plant.

  12. Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Haruo Uehara; Dilao, C.O.; Tsutomu Nakaoka

    1988-01-01

    Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29{degree}C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4{degree}C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within the Philippine seas are suggested. Conceptual designs for a 5-MW onland-type and a 25-MW floating-type OTEC power plant are proposed. Optimum conditions are determined and plant specifications are computed. Cost estimates show that a floating-type 25-MW OTEC power plant canmore » generate electricity at a busbar power cost of 5.33 to 7.57 cents/kW {times} h while an onshore type 5-MW plant can generate electricity at a busbar cost of 14.71 to 18.09 cents/kW {times} h.« less

  13. Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos

    2016-05-05

    Mercury pollution is a global environmental problem that has serious implications for human health. One of the most important sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions are coal-burning power plants. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with their atmospheric deposition. Our study provides the first assessment of soil Hg on the entire Spanish surface obtained from one sampling protocol. Hg spatial distribution was analysed with topsoil samples taken from 4000 locations in a regular sampling grid. The other aim was to use geostatistical techniques to verify the extent of soil contamination by Hg and to evaluate presumed Hg enrichment near the seven Spanish power plants with installed capacity above 1000 MW. The Hg concentration in Spanish soil fell within the range of 1-7564 μg kg(-1) (mean 67.2) and 50% of the samples had a concentration below 37 μg kg(-1). Evidence for human activity was found near all the coal-fired power plants, which reflects that metals have accumulated in the basin over many years. Values over 1000 μg kg(-1) have been found in soils in the vicinity of the Aboño, Soto de Ribera and Castellon power plants. However, soil Hg enrichment was detectable only close to the emission source, within an approximate range of only 15 km from the power plants. We associated this effect with airborne emissions and subsequent depositions as the potential distance through fly ash deposition. Hg associated with particles of ash tends to be deposited near coal combustion sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of UF6 breeder reactor power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous UF6 fueled breeder reactor design and technical applications of such concepts are summarized. Special attention was given to application in nuclear power plants and to reactor efficiency and safety factors.

  15. Archive of GHGRP Power Plants Sector Industrial Profiles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles, available for download below, contain detailed analyses for the Power Plants industry.

  16. Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John; Mason, Charles

    The Summit on Improving the Economics of America’s Nuclear Power Plants was convened May 19, 2016, by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and co-sponsored by Idaho Senator Mike Crapo to stress the importance of existing nuclear reactors in meeting our nation’s energy goals. The summit was also designed to identify and discuss policy options that can be pursued at federal and state levels to address economic challenges, as well as technical options that utilities can use to improve the economic competitiveness of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) and avoid early plant retirements that are driven by temporary market conditions. Themore » owners of NPPs face difficult economic decisions and are working to improve the performance of existing NPPs. However, it soon became clear that some of the actions taken by states and regional markets have had an impact on the economic viability of existing power plants, including carbon free NPPs. Summit speakers identified concepts and actions that could be taken at state and federal levels to improve the economics of the existing fleet within these regulated and restructured electricity markets. This report summarizes the speeches, concepts, and actions taken.« less

  17. Power-to-heat in adiabatic compressed air energy storage power plants for cost reduction and increased flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2018-04-01

    The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. For further improvements in cost efficiencies and flexibility, system modifications are necessary. Therefore, a novel concept regarding the integration of an electrical heating component is investigated. This modification allows increased power plant flexibilities and decreasing component sizes due to the generated high temperature heat with simultaneously decreasing total round trip efficiencies. For an exemplarily A-CAES case simulation studies regarding the electrical heating power and thermal energy storage sizes were conducted to identify the potentials in cost reduction of the central power plant components and the loss in round trip efficiency.

  18. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots ofmore » mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the

  19. SCADA-based Operator Support System for Power Plant Equipment Fault Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayadevi, N.; Ushakumari, S. S.; Vinodchandra, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Power plant equipment must be monitored closely to prevent failures from disrupting plant availability. Online monitoring technology integrated with hybrid forecasting techniques can be used to prevent plant equipment faults. A self learning rule-based expert system is proposed in this paper for fault forecasting in power plants controlled by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Self-learning utilizes associative data mining algorithms on the SCADA history database to form new rules that can dynamically update the knowledge base of the rule-based expert system. In this study, a number of popular associative learning algorithms are considered for rule formation. Data mining results show that the Tertius algorithm is best suited for developing a learning engine for power plants. For real-time monitoring of the plant condition, graphical models are constructed by K-means clustering. To build a time-series forecasting model, a multi layer preceptron (MLP) is used. Once created, the models are updated in the model library to provide an adaptive environment for the proposed system. Graphical user interface (GUI) illustrates the variation of all sensor values affecting a particular alarm/fault, as well as the step-by-step procedure for avoiding critical situations and consequent plant shutdown. The forecasting performance is evaluated by computing the mean absolute error and root mean square error of the predictions.

  20. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  1. Coping with coal quality impacts on power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, R.

    1998-12-31

    The electric power industry is rapidly changing due to deregulation. The author was present one hot day in June of this year, when a southeastern utility company was selling electricity for $5,000.00 per megawatt with $85.00 cost. Typical power cost range from the mid teens at night to about $30.00 on a normal day. The free market place will challenge the power industry in many ways. Fuel is the major cost in electric power. In a regulated industry the cost of fuel was passed on to the customers. Fuels were chosen to minimize problems such as handling, combustion, ash depositsmore » and other operational and maintenance concerns. Tight specifications were used to eliminate or minimize coals that caused problems. These tight specifications raised the price of fuel by minimizing competition. As the power stations become individual profit centers, plant management must take a more proactive role in fuel selection. Understanding how coal quality impacts plant performance and cost, allows better fuel selection decisions. How well plants take advantage of their knowledge may determine whether they will be able to compete in a free market place. The coal industry itself can provide many insights on how to survive in this type of market. Coal mines today must remain competitive or be shut down. The consolidation of the coal industry indicates the trends that can occur in a competitive market. These trends have already started, and will continue in the utility industry. This paper will discuss several common situations concerning coal quality and potential solutions for the plant to consider. All these examples have mill maintenance and performance issues in common. This is indicative of how important pulverizers are to the successful operation of a power plant.« less

  2. Validation of a program for supercritical power plant calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Łukowicz, Henryk; Bartela, Łukasz; Michalski, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the validation of a supercritical steam cycle. The cycle model was created with the commercial program GateCycle and validated using in-house code of the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery. The Institute's in-house code has been used extensively for industrial power plants calculations with good results. In the first step of the validation process, assumptions were made about the live steam temperature and pressure, net power, characteristic quantities for high- and low-pressure regenerative heat exchangers and pressure losses in heat exchangers. These assumptions were then used to develop a steam cycle model in Gate-Cycle and a model based on the code developed in-house at the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery. Properties, such as thermodynamic parameters at characteristic points of the steam cycle, net power values and efficiencies, heat provided to the steam cycle and heat taken from the steam cycle, were compared. The last step of the analysis was calculation of relative errors of compared values. The method used for relative error calculations is presented in the paper. The assigned relative errors are very slight, generally not exceeding 0.1%. Based on our analysis, it can be concluded that using the GateCycle software for calculations of supercritical power plants is possible.

  3. Analysis of the environmental issues concerning the deployment of an OTEC power plant in Martinique.

    PubMed

    Devault, Damien A; Péné-Annette, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a form of power generation, which exploits the temperature difference between warm surface seawater and cold deep seawater. Suitable conditions for OTEC occur in deep warm seas, especially the Caribbean, the Red Sea and parts of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The continuous power provided by this renewable power source makes a useful contribution to a renewable energy mix because of the intermittence of the other major renewable power sources, i.e. solar or wind power. Industrial-scale OTEC power plants have simply not been built. However, recent innovations and greater political awareness of power transition to renewable energy sources have strengthened the support for such power plants and, after preliminary studies in the Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), the Martinique Island (West Indies) has been selected for the development of the first full-size OTEC power plant in the world, to be a showcase for testing and demonstration. An OTEC plant, even if the energy produced is cheap, calls for high initial capital investment. However, this technology is of interest mainly in tropical areas where funding is limited. The cost of innovations to create an operational OTEC plant has to be amortized, and this technology remains expensive. This paper will discuss the heuristic, technical and socio-economic limits and consequences of deploying an OTEC plant in Martinique to highlight respectively the impact of the OTEC plant on the environment the impact of the environment on the OTEC plant. After defining OTEC, we will describe the different constraints relating to the setting up of the first operational-scale plant worldwide. This includes the investigations performed (reporting declassified data), the political context and the local acceptance of the project. We will then provide an overview of the processes involved in the OTEC plant and discuss the feasibility of future OTEC installations. We will also list the extensive marine

  4. Feasibility study on optimization of a typical solar chimney power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, Mohsen; Nazari, Ali; Mansouri, Hossein; Zahedi, Ghazzanfar

    2012-03-01

    The solar chimney which has been built in Kerman (Kerman city-Iran) is a small scale electrical power plant. The chimney of this unit has 60 m height and 3 m diameter. The collector of this unit is 40 m × 40 m square. To reach nominal power of this unit of power plant, parameters which are effective in optimization are studied. In this regard, we deliberate and propose suggestions to maximize usage of solar energy and kinetic energy. The calculation of maximum power is one of the objectives of this study, so the paper present economic analysis for Kerman solar chimney. A home code has been written for this modeling, in MATLAB.

  5. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    PubMed

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Active Power Control in Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul; Aho, Jake; Gebraad, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis performed on a wind plant's ability to provide active power control services using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics-based wind plant simulator. This approach allows examination of the impact on wind turbine wake interactions within a wind plant on performance of the wind plant controller. The paper investigates several control methods for improving performance in waked conditions. One method uses wind plant wake controls, an active field of research in which wind turbine control systems are coordinated to account for their wakes, to improve the overall performance. Results demonstrate the challenge of providing active power controlmore » in waked conditions but also the potential methods for improving this performance.« less

  7. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request... that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

  8. Wireless online position monitoring of manual valve types for plant configuration management in nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Agarwal, Vivek; Buttles, John W.; Beaty, Lawrence H.; ...

    2016-10-05

    In the current competitive energy market, the nuclear industry is committed to lower the operations and maintenance cost; increase productivity and efficiency while maintaining safe and reliable operation. The present operating model of nuclear power plants is dependent on large technical staffs that put the nuclear industry at long-term economic disadvantage. Technology can play a key role in nuclear power plant configuration management in offsetting labor costs by automating manually performed plant activities. The technology being developed, tested, and demonstrated in this paper will enable the continued safe operation of today’s fleet of light water reactors by providing the technicalmore » means to monitor components in plants today that are only routinely monitored through manual activities. The wireless enabled valve position indicators that are the subject of this paper are able to provide a valid position indication available continuously, rather than only periodically. As a result, a real-time (online) availability of valve positions using an affordable technologies are vital to plant configuration when compared with long-term labor rates, and provide information that can be used for a variety of plant engineering, maintenance, and management applications.« less

  9. Wireless online position monitoring of manual valve types for plant configuration management in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Buttles, John W.; Beaty, Lawrence H.

    In the current competitive energy market, the nuclear industry is committed to lower the operations and maintenance cost; increase productivity and efficiency while maintaining safe and reliable operation. The present operating model of nuclear power plants is dependent on large technical staffs that put the nuclear industry at long-term economic disadvantage. Technology can play a key role in nuclear power plant configuration management in offsetting labor costs by automating manually performed plant activities. The technology being developed, tested, and demonstrated in this paper will enable the continued safe operation of today’s fleet of light water reactors by providing the technicalmore » means to monitor components in plants today that are only routinely monitored through manual activities. The wireless enabled valve position indicators that are the subject of this paper are able to provide a valid position indication available continuously, rather than only periodically. As a result, a real-time (online) availability of valve positions using an affordable technologies are vital to plant configuration when compared with long-term labor rates, and provide information that can be used for a variety of plant engineering, maintenance, and management applications.« less

  10. The regulatory framework for safe decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Sangmyeon Ahn; Jungjoon Lee; Chanwoo Jeong

    We are having 23 units of nuclear power plants in operation and 5 units of nuclear power plants under construction in Korea as of September 2012. However, we don't have any experience on shutdown permanently and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. There are only two research reactors being decommissioned since 1997. It is realized that improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of IAEA's safety standards. It is also known that IAEA will prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities; its title is the Safe Decommissioning ofmore » Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we focus on identifying the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. It is expected that if the things will go forward as planned, the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)« less

  11. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  12. A Model of Small Capacity Power Plant in Tateli Village, North Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangari, F. J.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2017-03-01

    The electricity supply in North Sulawesi is still very limited so ubiquitous electric current outage. It makes rural communities have problems in life because most uses electrical energy. One of the solutions is a model of power plants to supply electricity in Tateli village, Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this research is to get the model that generate electrical energy for household needs through power plant that using a model of Picohydro with cross flow turbine in Tateli village. The method used the study of literature, survey the construction site of the power plant and the characteristics of the location being a place of research, analysis of hydropower ability and analyzing costs of power plant. The result showed that the design model of cross flow turbines used in pico-hydro hydropower installations is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy maximum of 3.29 kW for household needs. This analyze will be propose to local government of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia to be followed.

  13. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  14. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  15. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  16. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - 13101

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jungjoon; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Choi, Kyungwoo

    As of 2012, 23 units of nuclear power plants are in operation, but there is no experience of permanent shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear power plant in Korea. It is realized that, since late 1990's, improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s safety standards. And it is known that now IAEA prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities, its title is the Safe Decommissioning of Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission tomore » Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework for decommissioning should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became also important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we identify the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is to be established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. After dealing with it, it is expected that the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)« less

  17. Association between Residential Proximity to Fuel-Fired Power Plants and Hospitalization Rate for Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Lessner, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution is known to cause respiratory disease. Unlike motor vehicle sources, fuel-fired power plants are stationary. Objective: Using hospitalization data, we examined whether living near a fuel-fired power plant increases the likelihood of hospitalization for respiratory disease. Methods: Rates of hospitalization for asthma, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were estimated using hospitalization data for 1993–2008 from New York State in relation to data for residences near fuel-fired power plants. We also explored data for residential proximity to hazardous waste sites. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, race, median household income, and rural/urban residence, there were significant 11%, 15%, and 17% increases in estimated rates of hospitalization for asthma, ARI, and COPD, respectively, among individuals > 10 years of age living in a ZIP code containing a fuel-fired power plant compared with one that had no power plant. Living in a ZIP code with a fuel-fired power plant was not significantly associated with hospitalization for asthma or ARI among children < 10 years of age. Living in a ZIP code with a hazardous waste site was associated with hospitalization for all outcomes in both age groups, and joint effect estimates were approximately additive for living in a ZIP code that contained a fuel-fired power plant and a hazardous waste site. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution from fuel-fired power plants and volatile compounds coming from hazardous waste sites increases the risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases. PMID:22370087

  18. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M.; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J.; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  19. Resource-Saving Cleaning Technologies for Power Plant Waste-Water Cooling Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakonnova, Lyudmila; Nikishkin, Igor; Rostovzev, Alexandr

    2017-11-01

    One of the frequently encountered problems of power plant small cooling ponds is rapid eutrophication and related intensified development of phytoplankton ("hyperflow") and overgrowing of ponds by higher aquatic vegetation. As a result of hyper-flowering, an enormous amount of detritus settles on the condenser tubes, reducing the efficiency of the power plant operation. The development of higher aquatic vegetation contributes to the appearing of the shoals. As a result the volume, area and other characteristics of the cooling ponds are getting changed. The article describes the environmental problems of small manmade ponds of power plants and coal mines in mining regions. Two approaches to the problem of eutrophication are considered: technological and ecological. The negative effects of herbicides application to aquatic organisms are experimentally proved. An ecological approach to solving the problem by fish-land reclamation method is shown.

  20. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermalmore » rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.« less

  1. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to..., Environmental impact statement, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Reporting and... Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear...

  2. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fofrich, R.; Shearer, C.; Davis, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions due to its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves. In this study, we assess existing and proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future energy production and emissions in the country. In 2016, India had 369 coal-fired power plants under development totaling 243 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity. These coal-fired power plants would increase India's coal-fired generating capacity by 123% and would exceed India's projected electricity demand. Therefore, India's current proposals for new coal-fired power plants would be forced to retire early or operate at very low capacity factors and/or would prevent India from meeting its goal of producing at least 40% of its power from renewable sources by 2030. In addition, future emissions from proposed coal-fired power plants would exceed India's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% - 35% by 2030.

  3. Efficiency mark of the two-product power complex of nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrustalev, V. A.; Suchkov, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the combining nuclear power plants (NPP) with pressurized water reactors and distillation-desalination plants (DDP), their joint mode of operation during periods of coating failures of the electric power load graphs and thermo-economical efficiency. Along with the release of heat and generation of electric energy a desalination complex with the nuclear power plant produces distillate. Part of the selected steam “irretrievably lost” with a mix of condensation of this vapor in a desalination machine with a flow of water for distillation. It means that this steam transforms into condition of acquired product - distillate. The article presents technical solutions for the return of the working fluid for turbine К-1000-60/1500-2 и К-1200-6,8/50, as well as permissible part of low pressure regime according to the number of desalination units for each turbine. Patent for the proposed two-product energy complex, obtained by Gagarin State Technical University is analyzed. The energy complex has such system advantages as increasing the capacity factor of a nuclear reactor and also allows to solve the problem of shortage of fresh water. Thermo-economics effectiveness of this complex is determined by introducing a factor-“thermo-economic index”. During analyzing of the results of the calculations of a thermo-economic index we can see a strong influence of the cost factor of the distillate on the market. Then higher participation of the desalination plant in coverage of the failures of the graphs of the electric loading then smaller the payback period of the NPP. It is manifested more clearly, as it’s shown in the article, when pricing options depend on time of day and the configuration of the daily electric load diagram. In the geographical locations of the NPPs with PWR the Russian performance in a number of regions with low freshwater resources and weak internal electrical connections combined with DDP might be one of the ways to improve the

  4. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  5. The ARCO 1 megawatt Photovoltaic Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, G. W.; Reilly, M. R.

    The world's largest Photovoltaic Power Plant is in operation and meeting performance specifications on the Southern California Edison (SCE) grid near Hesperia, California. The 1 MW plant designed and constructed by The BDM Corporation, for ARCO Solar Inc., occupies a 20 acre site adjacent to the SCE Lugo substation. The entire design and construction process took 7 1/2 months and was not only on schedule but below budget. Because of its vast photovoltaic experience, BDM was chosen over several engineering firms to perform this complex job. We were provided a conceptual design from ARCO which we quickly refined and immediately initiated construction.

  6. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  7. Control of Solar Power Plants Connected Grid with Simple Calculation Method on Residential Homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kananda, Kiki; Nazir, Refdinal

    2017-12-01

    One of the most compatible renewable energy in all regions to apply is solar energy. Solar power plants can be built connected to existing or stand-alone power grids. In assisting the residential electricity in which there is a power grid, then a small scale solar energy power plants is very appropriate. However, the general constraint of solar energy power plants is still low in terms of efficiency. Therefore, this study will explain how to control the power of solar power plants more optimally, which is expected to reactive power to zero to raise efficiency. This is a continuation of previous research using Newton Rapshon control method. In this study we introduce a simple method by using ordinary mathematical calculations of solar-related equations. In this model, 10 PV modules type of ND T060M1 with a 60 Wp capacity are used. The calculations performed using MATLAB Simulink provide excellent value. For PCC voltage values obtained a stable quantity of approximately 220 V. At a maximum irradiation condition of 1000 W / m2, the reactive power value of Q solar generating system maximum 20.48 Var and maximum active power of 417.5 W. In the condition of lower irradiation, value of reactive power Q almost close to zero 0.77Var. This simple mathematical method can provide excellent quality control power values.

  8. SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    Since passage of the Clean Air Act, Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has been actively developing a knowledge base on the Title 3 hazardous air pollutants, more commonly called air toxics. As ABB is a multinational company, US operating companies are able to call upon work performed by European counterparts, who have faced similar legislation several years ago. In addition to the design experience and database acquired in Europe, ABB Inc. has been pursuing several other avenues to expand its air toxics knowledge. ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) is presently studying the formation of organic pollutants within the combustion furnace andmore » partitioning of trace metals among the furnace outlet streams. ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) has reviewed available and near-term control technologies and methods. Also, both ABB CE and ABBES have conducted source sampling and analysis at commercial installations for hazardous air pollutants to determine the emission rates and removal performance of various types of equipment. Several different plants hosted these activities, allowing for variation in fuel type and composition, boiler configuration, and air pollution control equipment. This paper discusses the results of these investigations.« less

  9. Overview of past, present and future marine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy El-Gohary, M.

    2013-06-01

    In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies, reserves; economic variations facing the world, and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels, an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable, safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative. The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world. Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NO x and SO x emissions. These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem. In this paper, the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed. The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second. Also, the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past, present and future of the marine power plants development. Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions, many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem, including the adoption of new cleaner fuels. This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine, gas turbines, and fuel cells.

  10. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project.

    PubMed

    Pelay, Ugo; Luo, Lingai; Fan, Yilin; Stitou, Driss; Rood, Mark

    2017-08-01

    This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant) and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.). Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017) [1].

  11. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  12. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  13. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  14. Study on key technologies of optimization of big data for thermal power plant performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Mingyang; Xiao, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Thermal power generation accounts for 70% of China's power generation, the pollutants accounted for 40% of the same kind of emissions, thermal power efficiency optimization needs to monitor and understand the whole process of coal combustion and pollutant migration, power system performance data show explosive growth trend, The purpose is to study the integration of numerical simulation of big data technology, the development of thermal power plant efficiency data optimization platform and nitrogen oxide emission reduction system for the thermal power plant to improve efficiency, energy saving and emission reduction to provide reliable technical support. The method is big data technology represented by "multi-source heterogeneous data integration", "large data distributed storage" and "high-performance real-time and off-line computing", can greatly enhance the energy consumption capacity of thermal power plants and the level of intelligent decision-making, and then use the data mining algorithm to establish the boiler combustion mathematical model, mining power plant boiler efficiency data, combined with numerical simulation technology to find the boiler combustion and pollutant generation rules and combustion parameters of boiler combustion and pollutant generation Influence. The result is to optimize the boiler combustion parameters, which can achieve energy saving.

  15. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    PubMed

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective.

  16. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  17. Wind Plant Power Optimization and Control under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj; Ulker, Demet; Hutchings, Kyle; Oxley, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The development of optimized cooperative wind plant control involves the coordinated operation of individual turbines co-located within a wind plant to improve the overall power production. This is typically achieved by manipulating the trajectory and intensity of wake interactions between nearby turbines, thereby reducing wake losses. However, there are various types of uncertainties involved, such as turbulent inflow and microscale and turbine model input parameters. In a recent NREL-Envision collaboration, a controller that performs wake steering was designed and implemented for the Longyuan Rudong offshore wind plant in Jiangsu, China. The Rudong site contains 25 Envision EN136-4 MW turbines, of which a subset was selected for the field test campaign consisting of the front two rows for the northeasterly wind direction. In the first row, a turbine was selected as the reference turbine, providing comparison power data, while another was selected as the controlled turbine. This controlled turbine wakes three different turbines in the second row depending on the wind direction. A yaw misalignment strategy was designed using Envision's GWCFD, a multi-fidelity plant-scale CFD tool based on SOWFA with a generalized actuator disc (GAD) turbine model, which, in turn, was used to tune NREL's FLORIS model used for wake steering and yaw control optimization. The presentation will account for some associated uncertainties, such as those in atmospheric turbulence and wake profile.

  18. ATOMIC POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-11-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactor power plants and discloses a design of a reactor utilizing a mixture of discrete units of a fissionable material, such as uranium carbide, a neutron moderator material, such as graphite, to carry out the chain reaction. A liquid metal, such as bismuth, is used as the coolant and is placed in the reactor chamber with the fissionable and moderator material so that it is boiled by the heat of the reaction, the boiling liquid and vapors passing up through the interstices between the discrete units. The vapor and flue gases coming off the top of the chamber are passed through heat exchangers, to produce steam, for example, and thence through condensers, the condensed coolant being returned to the chamber by gravity and the non- condensible gases being carried off through a stack at the top of the structure.

  19. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  20. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jim, Nichols

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students alsomore » participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.« less

  1. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installationmore » of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)« less

  2. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0079] Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide... power plants. This RG is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.73, ``Qualification Tests of Electric Valve...

  3. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L.; Turk, R.S.

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commissionmore » (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.« less

  4. Study on the coal mixing ratio optimization for a power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y. A.; Cheng, J. W.; Bai, Q.; Li, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    For coal-fired power plants, the application of blended coal combustion has been a great issue due to the shortage and rising prices of high-rank coal. This paper describes the optimization of blending methods between Xing'an lignite coal, Shaltala lignite coal, Ura lignite coal, and Inner Mongolia bituminous coal. The multi-objective decision-making method based on fuzzy mathematics was used to determine the optimal blending ratio to improve the power plant coal-fired economy.

  5. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  6. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  7. Large U.S. liquids plant starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Milios, P.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1997-05-12

    Operation began in 1996 on the new Chaco liquids-extraction plant in northwest New Mexico. The plant`s extraction capacity--50,000 b/d of NGLs from 600 MMcfd of gas--exceeds that of any other turboexpander plant in the lower 48 states. Regulatory reform made the project possible, and significant regulatory, economic, environmental, technical, and logistic challenges were overcome to achieve plant start-up. Operator El Paso Field Services, Houston, believes the new Chaco plant creates added value when compared to the lean-oil extraction plant which El Paso had operated at the San Juan basin site since the 1950s. Success of the project was based, inmore » part, on the following: creation of a free-market company by the spin-down of El Paso Field Services (EPFS) from El Paso Natural Gas (EPNG); establishment of agreements with producers behind the plant to share the benefits generated by the plant in exchange for acreage dedication; negotiation of an agreement with Mid-America Pipeline Co. to expand its pipeline system to receive and deliver to market liquids from the new plant; and selection of ABB Randall which committed to engineer, procure for, and construct the plant at a cost which provided an adequate rate of return. These four issues are discussed. Construction and start-up are described.« less

  8. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  9. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason

    2015-10-05

    Because wind power penetration levels in electric power systems are continuously increasing, voltage stability is a critical issue for maintaining power system security and operation. The traditional methods to analyze voltage stability can be classified into two categories: dynamic and steady-state. Dynamic analysis relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations; however, this method needs to exhaust faults at all locations to find the security region for voltage at a single bus. With the widely located phasor measurement units (PMUs), the Thevenin equivalent matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. This papermore » proposes a method based on a Thevenin equivalent matrix to identify system locations that will have the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plant's point of interconnection. The number of dynamic voltage stability analysis runs is greatly reduced by using the proposed method. The numerical results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed approach for voltage security assessment for a wind power plant.« less

  10. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  11. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50,more » Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  13. The reliability evaluation of reclaimed water reused in power plant project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Jia, Ru-sheng; Gao, Yu-lan; Wang, Wan-fen; Cao, Peng-qiang

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water has become one of the important measures to solve the shortage of water resources in many cities, But there is no unified way to evaluate the engineering. Concerning this issue, it took Wanneng power plant project in Huai city as a example, analyzed the reliability of wastewater reuse from the aspects of quality in reclaimed water, water quality of sewage plant, the present sewage quantity in the city and forecast of reclaimed water yield, in particular, it was necessary to make a correction to the actual operation flow rate of the sewage plant. the results showed that on the context of the fluctuation of inlet water quality, the outlet water quality of sewage treatment plants is basically stable, and it can meet the requirement of circulating cooling water, but suspended solids(SS) and total hardness in boiler water exceed the limit, and some advanced treatment should be carried out. In addition, the total sewage discharge will reach 13.91×104m3/d and 14.21×104m3/d respectively in the two planning level years of the project. They are greater than the normal collection capacity of the sewage system which is 12.0×104 m3/d, and the reclaimed water yield can reach 10.74×104m3/d, which is greater than the actual needed quantity 8.25×104m3/d of the power plant, so the wastewater reuse of this sewage plant are feasible and reliable to the power plant in view of engineering.

  14. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County, NY. In accordance with 10 CFR...Patrick Nuclear Power Plant Power Authority of the State of New York, Docket No. 50-333,'' dated March...

  15. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...

  16. The Power Plant Operating Data Based on Real-time Digital Filtration Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ning; Chen, Ya-mi; Wang, Hui-jie

    2018-03-01

    Real-time monitoring of the data of the thermal power plant was the basis of accurate analyzing thermal economy and accurate reconstruction of the operating state. Due to noise interference was inevitable; we need real-time monitoring data filtering to get accurate information of the units and equipment operating data of the thermal power plant. Real-time filtering algorithm couldn’t be used to correct the current data with future data. Compared with traditional filtering algorithm, there were a lot of constraints. First-order lag filtering method and weighted recursive average filtering method could be used for real-time filtering. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the two filtering methods and applications for real-time processing of the positive spin simulation data, and the thermal power plant operating data. The analysis was revealed that the weighted recursive average filtering method applied to the simulation and real-time plant data filtering achieved very good results.

  17. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant.

  18. RADIOACTIVITY IN THE ATMOSPHERIC EFFLUENTS OF POWER PLANTS THAT USE FOSSIL FUELS.

    PubMed

    EISENBUD, M; PETROW, H G

    1964-04-17

    Analysis of the fly ash produced by combustion of pulverized Appalachian coal has shown that a 1000-megawatt coal-burning power plant will discharge into the atmosphere from about 28 millicuries to nearly 1 curie per year of radium-226 and radium-228. An oil-burning plant of similar size will discharge about 0.5 millicurie of radium per year. Comparison of these data with data on the release of fission products from nuclear-powered generating stations shows that when the physical and biological properties of the various radionuclides are taken into consideration, the conventional fossil-fueled plants discharge relatively greater quantities of radioactive materials into the atmosphere than nuclearpowered plants of comparable size.

  19. Security Assessment Of A Turbo-Gas Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masera, Marcelo; Fovino, Igor Nai; Leszczyna, Rafal

    Critical infrastructures are exposed to new threats due to the large number of vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of information and communication technologies. This paper presents the results of an exhaustive security assessment for a turbo-gas power plant.

  20. Should a coal-fired power plant be replaced or retrofitted?

    PubMed

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Morel, Benoit; Apt, Jay; Chen, Chao

    2007-12-01

    In a cap-and-trade system, a power plant operator can choose to operate while paying for the necessary emissions allowances, retrofit emissions controls to the plant, or replace the unit with a new plant. Allowance prices are uncertain, as are the timing and stringency of requirements for control of mercury and carbon emissions. We model the evolution of allowance prices for SO2, NOx, Hg, and CO2 using geometric Brownian motion with drift, volatility, and jumps, and use an options-based analysis to find the value of the alternatives. In the absence of a carbon price, only if the owners have a planning horizon longer than 30 years would they replace a conventional coal-fired plant with a high-performance unit such as a supercritical plant; otherwise, they would install SO2 and NOx, controls on the existing unit. An expectation that the CO2 price will reach $50/t in 2020 makes the installation of an IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration attractive today, even for planning horizons as short as 20 years. A carbon price below $40/t is unlikely to produce investments in carbon capture for electric power.

  1. Synchronized Phasor Data for Analyzing Wind Power Plant Dynamic Behavior and Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the power grid. One of those is the implementation of 'wide area measurements' using phasor measurement units (PMUs) to dynamically monitor the operations and the status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. This project seeks to obtain PMU data from wind power plants and grid reference points and develop software tools to analyze and visualize synchrophasor data for the purpose of better understanding wind power plant dynamic behaviors under normal and contingency conditions.

  2. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Qinghai Gonghe 50 MW CSP Plant |

    Science.gov Websites

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Qinghai Gonghe 50 MW CSP Plant Status Date: September 26, 2016 : 50.0 Status: Under development Do you have more information, corrections, or comments? Background Technology: Power tower Status: Under development Country: China City: Gonghe Region: Qinghai Province

  4. 14CO2 dispersion around two PWR nuclear power plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cíntia Melazo; Stenström, Kristina; Bacelar Leão, Igor Luiz; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Nícoli, Iêda Gomes; Skog, Göran; Ekström, Peter; da Silveira Corrêa, Rosangela

    2009-07-01

    Atmospheric air samples were taken within 3 km from power plants encompassing five different distances and wind directions. Samples were taken between 2002 and 2005 aiming to evaluate the environmental (14)C enrichment due to the operation of Brazilian nuclear power plants. The sampling system consisted of a pump connected to a trapping column filled with a 3M NaOH solution. The trapped CO(2) was analyzed for (14)C by using a single stage accelerator mass spectrometry (SSAMS). All sampling sites revealed measurable (14)C excess values. The maximum excesses were of 15 and 14 mBq/m(3) for sampling sites placed at NE of the power plants, which is the main wind direction in the area. The mean excesses values were 12 mBq/m(3) to the NE direction, 8 mBq/m(3) to the E, 10 mBq/m(3) to the N, 8 mBq/m(3) to the WNW and 7 mBq/m(3) to the W direction (increasing distances from NE to W). Compared to other Light Water Reactors (LWR) data, these means' values are significantly higher than the average worldwide reported value of 3 mBq/m(3). Available data indicate that the observed values are not related to (14)C emission by the power plants vent stack. Other factors, such as topography, seem to have an important role because it affects wind dispersion thus favoring (14)C accumulation in the sampled area. Moreover, the high elevations around the power plants enhance the chances to measure high values of (14)C since the plume can be intercepted before it is drawn to the ground. Modeling of the plume has shown that its dispersion does not follow a Gaussian model and that agreement between atmospheric CO(2) and vegetation (14)C activities occurs only for sampling sites placed at NE of the power plants.

  5. Numerical simulation of a passive scalar transport from thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issakhov, Alibek; Baitureyeva, Aiymzhan

    2017-06-01

    The active development of the industry leads to an increase in the number of factories, plants, thermal power plants, nuclear power plants, thereby increasing the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Harmful chemicals are deposited on the soil surface, remain in the atmosphere, which leads to a variety of environmental problems which are harmful for human health and the environment, flora and fauna. Considering the above problems, it is very important to control the emissions to keep them at an acceptable level for the environment. In order to do that it is necessary to investigate the spread of harmful emissions. The best way to assess it is the creating numerical simulation of gaseous substances' motion. In the present work the numerical simulation of the spreading of emissions from the thermal power plant chimney is considered. The model takes into account the physical properties of the emitted substances and allows to calculate the distribution of the mass fractions, depending on the wind velocity and composition of emissions. The numerical results were performed using the ANSYS Fluent software package. As a result, the results of numerical simulations and the graphs are given.

  6. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  7. Air quality impact of the coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the China West-East Power Transmission Project.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhigang; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe; Duan, Ning; Chen, Yizhen; Li, Jindan; Chen, Fu; Liu, Simei; Pu, Wenqing

    2005-12-01

    This paper analyzes the air quality impacts of coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the West-East Power Transmission Project in China. A three-layer Lagrangian model called ATMOS, was used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental sulfur dioxide (SO2) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations under different emission control scenarios. In the year 2005, the emissions from planned power plants mainly affected the air quality of Shanxi, Shaanxi, the common boundary of Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and the area around the boundary between Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. In these areas, the annually averaged incremental SO2 and PM10 concentrations exceed 2 and 2.5 microg/m3, respectively. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations are 8.3 and 7.2 microg/m3, respectively, which occur around Hancheng city, near the boundary of the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces. After integrated control measures are considered, the maximum increases of annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations fall to 4.9 and 4 microg/m3, respectively. In the year 2010, the areas affected by planned power plants are mainly North Shaanxi, North Ningxia, and Northwest Shanxi. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10, concentrations are, respectively, 6.3 and 5.6 microg/m3, occurring in Northwest Shanxi, which decline to 4.4 and 4.1 microg/m3 after the control measures are implemented. The results showed that the proposed power plants mainly affect the air quality of the region where the power plants are built, with little impact on East China where the electricity will be used. The influences of planned power plants on air quality will be decreased greatly by implementing integrated control measures.

  8. Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mobini, Mahdi; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    This study investigates the logistics of supplying forest biomass to a potential power plant. Due to the complexities in such a supply logistics system, a simulation model based on the framework of Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) is developed in this study to evaluate the cost of delivered forest biomass, the equilibrium moisture content, and carbon emissions from the logistics operations. The model is applied to a proposed case of 300 MW power plant in Quesnel, BC, Canada. The results show that the biomass demand of the power plant would not be met every year. The weighted averagemore » cost of delivered biomass to the gate of the power plant is about C$ 90 per dry tonne. Estimates of equilibrium moisture content of delivered biomass and CO2 emissions resulted from the processes are also provided.« less

  9. Neutron activation analysis of thermal power plant ash and surrounding area soils.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Alsomel, N; Sarhil, A

    2015-08-01

    Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed that all elements were more concentrated in fly ash than in the fly ash; there was a clear increasing trend of the elemental concentrations in the fly ash along the flue gas pathway. The annual emission of elements was estimated. Elemental concentrations were higher inside the campus area than in surrounding areas, and the lowest values were found in natural-gas-fired power plant. In addition, the levels have decreased as the distance from power plant campus increases. However, the levels in the surrounding villages were within the Syrian standard for agriculture soil.

  10. Digital control for the condensate system in a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Parra, M.; Fuentes Gutierrez, J.E.; Castelo Cuevas, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the highlights by means of which development, installation and start up of the digital control system (DCS)for the condenser and hotwell (condensate system) were performed. This system belongs to the distributed control system installed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) at the Combined Cycle Power Plant in Gomez Palacio (GP), Durango, Mexico, during the February-March period, in 1993. The main steps for development of the condenser and hotwell control system include: process modeling, definition of control strategies, algorithms, design and software development, PC simulation tests, laboratory tests with an equipment similar to the one installed atmore » the GP Power Plant, installation, and finally, start up, which was a joint effort with the GP Power Plant engineering staff.« less

  11. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″ N...

  13. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″ N...

  14. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″ N...

  15. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″ N...

  16. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″ N...

  17. Load allocation of power plant using multi echelon economic dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuda, Santosa, Budi; Rusdiansyah, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the allocation of power plant load which is usually done with a single echelon as in the load flow calculation, is expanded into a multi echelon. A plant load allocation model based on the integration of economic dispatch and multi-echelon problem is proposed. The resulting model is called as Single Objective Multi Echelon Economic Dispatch (SOME ED). This model allows the distribution of electrical power in more detail in the transmission and distribution substations along the existing network. Considering the interconnection system where the distance between the plant and the load center is usually far away, therefore the loss in this model is seen as a function of distance. The advantages of this model is its capability of allocating electrical loads properly, as well as economic dispatch information with the flexibility of electric power system as a result of using multi-echelon. In this model, the flexibility can be viewed from two sides, namely the supply and demand sides, so that the security of the power system is maintained. The model was tested on a small artificial data. The results demonstrated a good performance. It is still very open to further develop the model considering the integration with renewable energy, multi-objective with environmental issues and applied to the case with a larger scale.

  18. Forecast Inaccuracies in Power Plant Projects From Project Managers' Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Orlando

    Guided by organizational theory, this phenomenological study explored the factors affecting forecast preparation and inaccuracies during the construction of fossil fuel-fired power plants in the United States. Forecast inaccuracies can create financial stress and uncertain profits during the project construction phase. A combination of purposeful and snowball sampling supported the selection of participants. Twenty project managers with over 15 years of experience in power generation and project experience across the United States were interviewed within a 2-month period. From the inductive codification and descriptive analysis, 5 themes emerged: (a) project monitoring, (b) cost control, (c) management review frequency, (d) factors to achieve a precise forecast, and (e) factors causing forecast inaccuracies. The findings of the study showed the factors necessary to achieve a precise forecast includes a detailed project schedule, accurate labor cost estimates, monthly project reviews and risk assessment, and proper utilization of accounting systems to monitor costs. The primary factors reported as causing forecast inaccuracies were cost overruns by subcontractors, scope gaps, labor cost and availability of labor, and equipment and material cost. Results of this study could improve planning accuracy and the effective use of resources during construction of power plants. The study results could contribute to social change by providing a framework to project managers to lessen forecast inaccuracies, and promote construction of power plants that will generate employment opportunities and economic development.

  19. VIEW OF LOCATION OF CHILDS POWER PLANT (SHOWING POWERHOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LOCATION OF CHILDS POWER PLANT (SHOWING POWERHOUSE AND TRANSFORMER FRAMEWORK AT LEFT, BELOW POWER LINES AND THE MAINTENANCE AND RESIDENTIAL COMPOUND UPSTREAM TO RIGHT) ALONG VERDE RIVER FROM FS ROAD #502. LOOKING UPSTREAM (WEST-SOUTHWEST) - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  1. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  2. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  3. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  4. The simulation of organic rankine cycle power plant with n-pentane working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhilal, Otong; Mulyana, Cukup; Suhendi, Nendi; Sapdiana, Didi

    2016-02-01

    In the steam power plant in Indonesia the dry steam from separator directly used to drive the turbin. Meanwhile, brine from the separator with low grade temperature reinjected to the earth. The brine with low grade temperature can be converted indirectly to electrical power by organic Rankine cycle (ORC) methods. In ORC power plant the steam are released from vaporization of organic working fluid by brine. The steam released are used to drive an turbine which in connected to generator to convert the mechanical energy into electric energy. The objective of this research is the simulation ORC power plant with n-pentane as organic working fluid. The result of the simulation for brine temperature around 165°C and the pressure 8.001 bar optained the net electric power around 1173 kW with the cycle thermal efficiency 14.61% and the flow rate of n-pentane around 15.51 kg/s. This result enable to applied in any geothermal source in Indonesia.

  5. A program for the calculation of paraboloidal-dish solar thermal power plant performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A program capable of calculating the design-point and quasi-steady-state annual performance of a paraboloidal-concentrator solar thermal power plant without energy storage was written for a programmable calculator equipped with suitable printer. The power plant may be located at any site for which a histogram of annual direct normal insolation is available. Inputs required by the program are aperture area and the design and annual efficiencies of the concentrator; the intercept factor and apparent efficiency of the power conversion subsystem and a polynomial representation of its normalized part-load efficiency; the efficiency of the electrical generator or alternator; the efficiency of the electric power conditioning and transport subsystem; and the fractional parasitic loses for the plant. Losses to auxiliaries associated with each individual module are to be deducted when the power conversion subsystem efficiencies are calculated. Outputs provided by the program are the system design efficiency, the annualized receiver efficiency, the annualized power conversion subsystem efficiency, total annual direct normal insolation received per unit area of concentrator aperture, and the system annual efficiency.

  6. Using peer-to-peer energy-trading platforms to incentivize prosumers to form federated power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morstyn, Thomas; Farrell, Niall; Darby, Sarah J.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    2018-02-01

    Power networks are undergoing a fundamental transition, with traditionally passive consumers becoming `prosumers' — proactive consumers with distributed energy resources, actively managing their consumption, production and storage of energy. A key question that remains unresolved is: how can we incentivize coordination between vast numbers of distributed energy resources, each with different owners and characteristics? Virtual power plants and peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading offer different sources of value to prosumers and the power network, and have been proposed as different potential structures for future prosumer electricity markets. In this Perspective, we argue they can be combined to capture the benefits of both. We thus propose the concept of the federated power plant, a virtual power plant formed through P2P transactions between self-organizing prosumers. This addresses social, institutional and economic issues faced by top-down strategies for coordinating virtual power plants, while unlocking additional value for P2P energy trading.

  7. Fiber optic strain and temperature sensor for power plant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Weiss, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of fiber-optic strain and temperature sensors to monitor power plant structures was evaluated on a super-heated steam pipe operating at 1000 degree(s)F at the Tennessee Valley Authority power plant in Kingston, Tennessee. The potential applications of these fiber-optic sensors include health monitoring of high-temperature structures such as boilers, tube headers, and steam pipes, as well as many other power plant structures exposed to less severe environments. The sensor selected for this application is based on a white-light interferometric technique. The key features of this sensor include its ability for absolute measurements that are not affected by light loss along the fiber cable due to, for example, microbending effects and coupler loss, its compatibility with off-the-shelf fiber-optic components, and its low cost. The glass fiber-optic strain sensors were packaged in a rugged metal housing and were spot welded to the high-temperature steam pipe. Another set of gages was placed inside a thermowell for steam temperature measurement. Data collected during a routine start-up is very encouraging and the details are presented in this manuscript.

  8. Welding Metallurgy of Nickel-Based Superalloys for Power Plant Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, David C.

    Increasing the steam temperature and pressure in coal-fired power plants is a perpetual goal driven by the pursuit of increasing thermal cycle efficiency and reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The next target steam operating conditions, which are 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi) are known as Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC), and can reduce CO2 emissions up to 13% but this cannot be achieved with traditional power plant construction materials. The use of precipitation-strengthened Nickel-based alloys (superalloys) is required for components which will experience the highest operating temperatures. The leading candidate superalloys for power plant construction are alloys 740H, 282, and 617. Superalloys have excellent elevated temperature properties due to careful microstructural design which is achieved through very specific heat treatments, often requiring solution annealing or homogenization at temperatures of 1100 °C or higher. A series of postweld heat treatments was investigated and it was found that homogenization steps before aging had no noticeable effect on weld metal microhardness, however; there were clear improvements in weld metal homogeneity. The full abstract can be viewed in the document itself.

  9. Maladie thromboembolique veineuse dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie: fréquence et facteurs de risque

    PubMed Central

    Chalal, Nourelhouda; Demmouche, Abbassia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La maladie thromboembolique veineuse (MTEV) présente par ses deux entités cliniques: thrombose veineuse profonde (TVP) et embolie pulmonaire (EP), est une pathologie fréquente ayant une forte morbi-mortalité. En Algérie, cette pathologie prend de plus en plus de l'ampleur, en l'absence de toute publication révélant sa fréquence et le pouvoir thrombogène des facteurs de risque qui lui sont corrélés. Notre étude a pour objectif de déterminer la fréquence et les facteurs de risque de ce type d'affection dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective allant du 1er janvier 2006 au 10 juin 2012 ciblant les patients hospitalisés pour TVP et /ou EP au sein du service de cardiologie du CHU de Sidi Bel Abbes. Résultats 183 patients atteints de la MTEV dont 112 femmes (61.2%) d’âge moyen 46.4 ± 17.9 et 71 hommes (38.7%) d’âge moyen 51.5 ± 17.7 ont été notés. 146 cas parmi eux (79.7%) présentaient une TVP isolée, alors que 37 autres (20.2%) étaient atteints d'EP, dont 16 cas de TVP associée. Les facteurs de risque les plus fréquents enregistrés en cas de TVP sont surtout: l'immobilité, l'hypertension, la chirurgie, et la contraception orale, tandis que: l'immobilité, la chirurgie, l'hypertension et les fractures sont les facteurs de risques les plus incriminés en cas d'EP. 24.7% des patients présentaient plusieurs facteurs de risque. L'antécédent personnel de la MTEV, était présent dans 12.02% des cas. 97.5% des TVP ont touché les membres inférieurs mais seulement 2.5% des TVP étaient localisés au niveau des membres supérieurs. Conclusion Au terme de notre étude, et en dépit de sa fréquence non alarmante, il serait indispensable d'envisager l'adoption d'une stratégie prophylactique adéquate afin de lutter contre le développement redoutable de ce genre d'affection dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes. PMID:24648858

  10. Simulation of existing gas-fuelled conventional steam power plant using Cycle Tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamel, M. S.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Simulation of a 200 MW gas-fuelled conventional steam power plant located in Basra, Iraq was carried out. The thermodynamic performance of the considered power plant is estimated by a system simulation. A flow-sheet computer program, "Cycle-Tempo" is used for the study. The plant components and piping systems were considered and described in detail. The simulation results were verified against data gathered from the log sheet obtained from the station during its operation hours and good results were obtained. Operational factors like the stack exhaust temperature and excess air percentage were studied and discussed, as were environmental factors, such as ambient air temperature and water inlet temperature. In addition, detailed exergy losses were illustrated and describe the temperature profiles for the main plant components. The results prompted many suggestions for improvement of the plant performance.

  11. Analysis of synchronous and induction generators used at hydroelectric power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; lagăr, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the operating electric generators (synchronous and induction) within a small capacity hydroelectric power plant. Such is treated the problem of monitoring and control hydropower plant using SCADA systems. Have been carried an experimental measurements in small hydropower plant for different levels of water in the lake and various settings of the operating parameters.

  12. Proates a computer modelling system for power plant: Its description and application to heatrate improvement within PowerGen

    SciTech Connect

    Green, C.H.; Ready, A.B.; Rea, J.

    1995-06-01

    Versions of the computer program PROATES (PROcess Analysis for Thermal Energy Systems) have been used since 1979 to analyse plant performance improvement proposals relating to existing plant and also to evaluate new plant designs. Several plant modifications have been made to improve performance based on the model predictions and the predicted performance has been realised in practice. The program was born out of a need to model the overall steady state performance of complex plant to enable proposals to change plant component items or operating strategy to be evaluated. To do this with confidence it is necessary to model themore » multiple thermodynamic interactions between the plant components. The modelling system is modular in concept allowing the configuration of individual plant components to represent any particular power plant design. A library exists of physics based modules which have been extensively validated and which provide representations of a wide range of boiler, turbine and CW system components. Changes to model data and construction is achieved via a user friendly graphical model editing/analysis front-end with results being presented via the computer screen or hard copy. The paper describes briefly the modelling system but concentrates mainly on the application of the modelling system to assess design re-optimisation, firing with different fuels and the re-powering of an existing plant.« less

  13. Verifying the Performance of RTDs in Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, H. M.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a number of techniques that have been developed for nuclear power plants to ensure that optimum steady-state and transient performance is achieved with the resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) that are used in the plant for critical temperature measurements. This includes precision laboratory calibration of RTDs, the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) method for in-situ response time measurements, a cross calibration technique to verify the steady-state performance of RTDs as installed in the plant, and the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) test that is used to identify the location of a problem along RTD cables.

  14. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  15. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  16. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0109] Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  17. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  18. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Seel, Joachim

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO 2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basismore » and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO 2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.« less

  19. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  1. Megawatt-Scale Application of Thermoelectric Devices in Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, A. R.; Buckle, J.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.; McCulloch, E.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the recent investment in renewable and sustainable energy sources, over 95% of the UK's electrical energy generation relies on the use of thermal power plants utilizing the Rankine cycle. Advanced supercritical Rankine cycle power plants typically have a steam temperature in excess of 600°C at a pressure of 290 bar and yet still have an overall efficiency below 50%, with much of this wasted energy being rejected to the environment through the condenser/cooling tower. This paper examines the opportunity for large-scale application of thermoelectric heat pumps to modify the Rankine cycle in such plants by preheating the boiler feedwater using energy recovered from the condenser system at a rate of approximately 1 MWth per °C temperature rise. A derivation of the improved process cycle efficiency and breakeven coefficient of performance required for economic operation is presented for a typical supercritical 600-MWe installation.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Wang, H.; Johnnerfelt, B.

    Zinc Oxide based surge arresters are widely used to safeguard and improve reliability of the electrical power delivering and transmission systems. The primary application of surge arresters is to protect valuable components such as transformers from lightning strikes and switching transients in the transmission lines. Metal-oxide-varistor blocks (MOV, e.g. ZnO) are used in surge arrester assemblies. ORNL has developed an advanced infrared imaging technique to monitor the joule heating during transient heating of small varistors. In a recent short-term R&D effort, researchers from ABB and ORNL have expanded the use of IR imaging to larger station-class arrester blocks. An on-sitemore » visit to the ABB facility demonstrated that the use of IR imaging is not only feasible but also has the potential to improve arrester quality and reliability. The ASEA Brown Bower (ABB) Power and Technology & Development Company located at Greensburg PA having benefited from collaborative R&D cooperation with ORNL. ABB has decided a follow-on CRADA project is very important. While the previous efforts to study surge arresters included broader studies of IR imaging and computer modeling, ABB has recognized the potential of IR imaging, decided to focus on this particular area. ABB plans to use this technique to systematically study the possible defects in the arrester fabrication process. ORNL will improve the real-time monitoring capability and provide analysis of the infrared images. More importantly, the IR images will help us understand transient heating in a ceramic material from the scientific standpoint. With the improved IR imaging ABB and ORNL will employ the IR system to visualize manufacturing defects that could not be detected otherwise. The proposed on-site tests at ABB Power Technology & Development processing facility will identify the defects and also allow quick adjustments to be made since the resulting products can be inspected immediately. ABB matched the DOE $50K

  3. Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

  4. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  5. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  6. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... Regulations (10 CFR), Subpart C of Part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP), in Salem County...

  7. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of watermore » to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and

  8. A Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Powering Wireless Sensors in Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Klein, Jackson; Wu, Yongjia; Xing, Shaoxu; Flammang, Robert; Heibel, Michael; Zuo, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Safety is the most important issue in the development of nuclear energy. This paper reports experimental studies of a thermoelectric energy harvesting system designed for integration in a nuclear power plant capable of performing in radiation rich environments and producing enough power to run wireless sensors meant to increase plant safety. Furthermore, the system, which utilizes wasted heat present in coolant system piping, has the unique ability to provide power in both normal and accidental situations, to run the sensors without the need for external power. Two energy harvesting prototypes were designed utilizing a heat pipe for heat transfer. The first can supply a maximum power of 2.25 W using two Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules of 2.79cm (1.1") × 2.79 cm (1.1”), in a source temperature near 250 °C. A second design was put forward to extend the application in higher-temperature primary loops, in which one PbTe-Bi2Te3 hybrid TEG module of 5.6cm (2.2") × 5.6 cm (2.2") can provide a power of 3.0 W when the hot side temperature reaches 340 °C. In addition to the energy harvester, wireless communication circuits were developed along with an integrated power management circuit for wireless data transmission. A high intensity gamma radiation experiment was conducted during which each component was irradiated. A total dose of 200 kGy±10% (20M rads) was applied to the first prototype in order to approximate the expected lifetime accumulation for one implemented thermoelectric generator. Results showed that thermoelectric modules used in the prototype had no reduction in voltage output throughout irradiation. Throughout the experiment the harvester system witnessed a small voltage drop in open circuit voltage attributed to a reduction in heat pipe performance from radiation exposure. We also acquired a baseline radiation survivability level for non-hardened, non-shielded electronics of 102 Gy.

  9. Intelligent system for a remote diagnosis of a photovoltaic solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Bobi, M. A.; Muñoz San Roque, A.; de Marcos, A.; Bada, M.

    2012-05-01

    Usually small and mid-sized photovoltaic solar power plants are located in rural areas and typically they operate unattended. Some technicians are in charge of the supervision of these plants and, if an alarm is automatically issued, they try to investigate the problem and correct it. Sometimes these anomalies are detected some hours or days after they begin. Also the analysis of the causes once the anomaly is detected can take some additional time. All these factors motivated the development of a methodology able to perform continuous and automatic monitoring of the basic parameters of a photovoltaic solar power plant in order to detect anomalies as soon as possible, to diagnose their causes, and to immediately inform the personnel in charge of the plant. The methodology proposed starts from the study of the most significant failure modes of a photovoltaic plant through a FMEA and using this information, its typical performance is characterized by the creation of its normal behaviour models. They are used to detect the presence of a failure in an incipient or current form. Once an anomaly is detected, an automatic and intelligent diagnosis process is started in order to investigate the possible causes. The paper will describe the main features of a software tool able to detect anomalies and to diagnose them in a photovoltaic solar power plant.

  10. Automatic control of solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, V. S.; Dubilovich, V. M.

    1982-02-01

    The automatic control of the heliostat field of a 200-MW solar power plant is discussed. The advantages of the decentralized control principle with the solution of a number of individual problems in a single control center are emphasized. The basic requirements on heliostat construction are examined, and possible functional schemes for the automatic control of a heliostat field are described. It is proposed that groups of heliostats can be controlled from a single center and on the basis of a single algorithm.

  11. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  12. Intermediate-sized natural gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhoff, Frederick A.; Fleming, Donald K.

    1994-04-01

    This executive summary of the report describes the accomplishments of the joint US Department of Energy's (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and M-C POWER Corporation's Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) No. 93-013. This study addresses the intermediate power plant size between 2 megawatt (MW) and 200 MW. A 25 MW natural-gas, fueled-carbonate fuel cell power plant was chosen for this purpose. In keeping with recent designs, the fuel cell will operate under approximately three atmospheres of pressure. An expander/alternator is utilized to expand exhaust gas to atmospheric conditions and generate additional power. A steam-bottoming cycle is not included in this study because it is not believed to be cost effective for this system size. This study also addresses the simplicity and accuracy of a spreadsheet-based simulation with that of a full Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulation. The personal computer can fully utilize the simple spreadsheet model simulation. This model can be made available to all users and is particularly advantageous to the small business user.

  13. Exploratory study of several advanced nuclear-MHD power plant systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    In order for efficient multimegawatt closed cycle nuclear-MHD systems to become practical, long-life gas cooled reactors with exit temperatures of about 2500 K or higher must be developed. Four types of nuclear reactors which have the potential of achieving this goal are the NERVA-type solid core reactor, the colloid core (rotating fluidized bed) reactor, the 'light bulb' gas core reactor, and the 'coaxial flow' gas core reactor. Research programs aimed at developing these reactors have progressed rapidly in recent years so that prototype power reactors could be operating by 1980. Three types of power plant systems which use these reactors have been analyzed to determine the operating characteristics, critical parameters and performance of these power plants. Overall thermal efficiencies as high as 80% are projected, using an MHD turbine-compressor cycle with steam bottoming, and slightly lower efficiencies are projected for an MHD motor-compressor cycle.

  14. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  15. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  16. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  17. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  18. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  19. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC powermore » supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.« less

  20. Investment and operating costs of binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, B.; Brugman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Typical investment and operating costs for geothermal power plants employing binary cycle technology and utilizing the heat energy in liquid-dominated reservoirs are discussed. These costs are developed as a function of reservoir temperature. The factors involved in optimizing plant design are discussed. A relationship between the value of electrical energy and the value of the heat energy in the reservoir is suggested.

  1. The State-of-the-Art of Materials Technology Used for Fossil and Nuclear Power Plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yuqing

    Combined with the development of energy in China during the past 30 years, this paper clarified that high steam parameters ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plants and 1000MW nuclear power plants are the most important method to optimize energy structure and achieve national goals of energy saving and CO2 emission in China. Additionally, requirement of materials technology in high steam parameters USC coal-fired power plants and 1000MW nuclear power plants, current research and major development of relevant materials technology in China were briefly described in this paper.

  2. Mixed-power scaling of whole-plant respiration from seedlings to giant trees

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shigeta; Yamaji, Keiko; Ishida, Atsushi; Prokushkin, Stanislav G.; Masyagina, Oxana V.; Hagihara, Akio; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul; Suwa, Rempei; Osawa, Akira; Nishizono, Tomohiro; Ueda, Tatsushiro; Kinjo, Masaru; Miyagi, Tsuyoshi; Kajimoto, Takuya; Koike, Takayoshi; Matsuura, Yojiro; Toma, Takeshi; Zyryanova, Olga A.; Abaimov, Anatoly P.; Awaya, Yoshio; Araki, Masatake G.; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Chiba, Yukihiro; Umari, Marjnah

    2010-01-01

    The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body mass is one of the most pervasive phenomena in biology. Using a single allometric equation to characterize empirical scaling relationships and to evaluate alternative hypotheses about mechanisms has been controversial. We developed a method to directly measure respiration of 271 whole plants, spanning nine orders of magnitude in body mass, from small seedlings to large trees, and from tropical to boreal ecosystems. Our measurements include the roots, which have often been ignored. Rather than a single power-law relationship, our data are fit by a biphasic, mixed-power function. The allometric exponent varies continuously from 1 in the smallest plants to 3/4 in larger saplings and trees. Therefore, our findings support the recent findings of Reich et al. [Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Machado JL, Oleksyn J (2006) Universal scaling of respiratory metabolism, size, and nitrogen in plants. Nature 439:457–461] and West, Brown, and Enquist [West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ (1997) A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science 276:122 -126.]. The transition from linear to 3/4-power scaling may indicate fundamental physical and physiological constraints on the allocation of plant biomass between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs over the course of ontogenetic plant growth. PMID:20080600

  3. Mixed-power scaling of whole-plant respiration from seedlings to giant trees.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shigeta; Yamaji, Keiko; Ishida, Atsushi; Prokushkin, Stanislav G; Masyagina, Oxana V; Hagihara, Akio; Hoque, A T M Rafiqul; Suwa, Rempei; Osawa, Akira; Nishizono, Tomohiro; Ueda, Tatsushiro; Kinjo, Masaru; Miyagi, Tsuyoshi; Kajimoto, Takuya; Koike, Takayoshi; Matsuura, Yojiro; Toma, Takeshi; Zyryanova, Olga A; Abaimov, Anatoly P; Awaya, Yoshio; Araki, Masatake G; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Chiba, Yukihiro; Umari, Marjnah

    2010-01-26

    The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body mass is one of the most pervasive phenomena in biology. Using a single allometric equation to characterize empirical scaling relationships and to evaluate alternative hypotheses about mechanisms has been controversial. We developed a method to directly measure respiration of 271 whole plants, spanning nine orders of magnitude in body mass, from small seedlings to large trees, and from tropical to boreal ecosystems. Our measurements include the roots, which have often been ignored. Rather than a single power-law relationship, our data are fit by a biphasic, mixed-power function. The allometric exponent varies continuously from 1 in the smallest plants to 3/4 in larger saplings and trees. Therefore, our findings support the recent findings of Reich et al. [Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Machado JL, Oleksyn J (2006) Universal scaling of respiratory metabolism, size, and nitrogen in plants. Nature 439:457-461] and West, Brown, and Enquist [West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ (1997) A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science 276:122 -126.]. The transition from linear to 3/4-power scaling may indicate fundamental physical and physiological constraints on the allocation of plant biomass between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs over the course of ontogenetic plant growth.

  4. Lubricating oil burn-off in Coast Guard power plants

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-02-01

    The results of a feasibility study for the burn-off of waste oils in Coast Guard power plants are presented. Among the factors considered in this evaluation were: simplicity, cost, engine manufacturers recommendations, mixing ratios, engine emissions...

  5. A defense in depth approach for nuclear power plant accident management

    SciTech Connect

    Chih-Yao Hsieh; Hwai-Pwu Chou

    2015-07-01

    An initiating event may lead to a severe accident if the plant safety functions have been challenged or operators do not follow the appropriate accident management procedures. Beyond design basis accidents are those corresponding to events of very low occurrence probability but such an accident may lead to significant consequences. The defense in depth approach is important to assure nuclear safety even in a severe accident. Plant Damage States (PDS) can be defined by the combination of the possible values for each of the PDS parameters which are showed on the nuclear power plant simulator. PDS is used to identifymore » what the initiating event is, and can also give the information of safety system's status whether they are bypassed, inoperable or not. Initiating event and safety system's status are used in the construction of Containment Event Tree (CET) to determine containment failure modes by using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technique. Different initiating events will correspond to different CETs. With these CETs, the core melt frequency of an initiating event can be found. The use of Plant Damage States (PDS) is a symptom-oriented approach. On the other hand, the use of Containment Event Tree (CET) is an event-oriented approach. In this study, the Taiwan's fourth nuclear power plants, the Lungmen nuclear power station (LNPS), which is an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) with fully digitized instrumentation and control (I and C) system is chosen as the target plant. The LNPS full scope engineering simulator is used to generate the testing data for method development. The following common initiating events are considered in this study: loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), total loss of feedwater (TLOFW), loss of offsite power (LOOP), station blackout (SBO). Studies have indicated that the combination of the symptom-oriented approach and the event-oriented approach can be helpful to find mitigation strategies and is useful for the accident

  6. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions - Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Emission control system development includes: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on. power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO. to N02 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology

  7. Engine-propeller power plant aircraft community noise reduction key methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkov P., A.; Samokhin V., F.; Yakovlev A., A.

    2018-04-01

    Basic methods of aircraft-type flying vehicle engine-propeller power plant noise reduction were considered including single different-structure-and-arrangement propellers and piston engines. On the basis of a semiempirical model the expressions for blade diameter and number effect evaluation upon propeller noise tone components under thrust constancy condition were proposed. Acoustic tests performed at Moscow Aviation institute airfield on the whole qualitatively proved the obtained ratios. As an example of noise and detectability reduction provision a design-and-experimental estimation of propeller diameter effect upon unmanned aircraft audibility boundaries was performed. Future investigation ways were stated to solve a low-noise power plant design problem for light aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.

  8. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  9. Evaluation of respiratory functions of residents around the Orhaneli thermal power plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pala, Kayihan; Türkkan, Alpaslan; Gerçek, Harika; Osman, Erdinc; Aytekin, Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health and respiratory function of residents around the Orhaneli thermal power plant in Turkey. The study was conducted using face-to-face interviews, and respiratory functions were measured with a spirometer. The respiratory functions of 2350 residents, 15 years and older, living in communities near the coal-fired Orhaneli thermal power plant in Turkey were measured. The control group consisted of 469 persons from similar communities without a nearby power plant. The FEV1 (forced expiratory volume after 1 s) and FVC (forced vital capacity) values of the study participants were significantly lower than those of the control group, and residents directly downwind of the plant's smokestack showed greater impairment of respiratory functions compared with residents upwind.

  10. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plantmore » energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.« less

  11. Feasibility of conducting wetfall chemistry investigations around the Bowen Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1979-10-01

    The feasibility of expanding the Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (METER-ORNL) research at Bower Power Plant, a coal-fired power plant in northwest Georgia, to include wetfall chemistry is evaluated using results of similar studies around other power plants, several atmospheric washout models, analysis of spatial variability in precipitation, and field logistical considerations. An optimal wetfall chemistry network design is proposed, incorporating the inner portion of the existing rain-gauge network and augmented by additional sites to ensure adequate coverage of probable target areas. The predicted sulfate production rate differs by about four orders of magnitudemore » among the models reviewed with a pH of 3. No model can claim superiority over any other model without substantive data verification. The spatial uniformity in rain amount is evaluated using four storms that occurred at the METER-ORNL network. Values of spatial variability ranged from 8 to 31% and decreased as the mean rainfall increased. The field study of wetfall chemistry will require a minimum of 5 persons to operate the approximately 50 collectors covering an area of 740 km/sup 2/. Preliminary wetfall-only samples collected on an event basis showed lower pH and higher electrical conductivity of precipitation collected about 5 km downwind of the power plant relative to samples collected upwind. Wetfall samples collected on a weekly basis using automatic samplers, however, showed variable results, with no consistent pattern. This suggests the need for event sampling to minimize variable rain volume and multiple-source effects often associated with weekly samples.« less

  12. Loss of Load Probability Calculation for West Java Power System with Nuclear Power Plant Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah, I. D.; Abdullah, A. G.; Purnama, W.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Shafii, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) index showing the quality and performance of an electrical system. LOLP value is affected by load growth, the load duration curve, forced outage rate of the plant, number and capacity of generating units. This reliability index calculation begins with load forecasting to 2018 using multiple regression method. Scenario 1 with compositions of conventional plants produce the largest LOLP in 2017 amounted to 71.609 days / year. While the best reliability index generated in scenario 2 with the NPP amounted to 6.941 days / year in 2015. Improved reliability of systems using nuclear power more efficiently when compared to conventional plants because it also has advantages such as emission-free, inexpensive fuel costs, as well as high level of plant availability.

  13. Are Public-Private Partnerships an Appropriate Governance Structure for Power Plants? A Transaction Cost Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. Ping; Hsu, Yaowen

    2015-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the rapid economic growth, many countries demand an increasing number of power plants to meet the increasing electricity usage. Since high capital requirements of power plants present a big issue for these countries, PPPs have been considered an alternative to provide power plant infrastructure. In particular, in emerging or developing countries, PPPs may be the fastest way to provide the infrastructure needed. However, while PPPs are a promising alternative to providing various types of infrastructure, many failed power plant PPP projects have made it evident that PPPs, under certain situations, can be very costly or even a wrong choice of governance structure. While the higher efficiency due to better pooling of resources is greatly emphasized in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), the embedded transaction inefficiencies are often understated or even ignored. Through the lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), this paper aims to answer why and when PPPs may become a costly governance structure for power plants. Specifically, we develop a TCE-based theory of PPPs as a governance structure. This theory suggests that three major opportunism problems embedded in infrastructure PPPs are possible to cause substantial transaction costs and render PPPs a costly governance structure. The three main opportunism problems are principal-principal problem, firm's hold-up problem, and government-led hold-up problem. Moreover, project and institutional characteristics that may lead to opportunism problems are identified. Based on these characteristics, an opportunism-focused transaction cost analysis (OTCA) for PPPs as a governance structure is proposed to supplement the current practice of PPP feasibility analysis. As a part of theory development, a case study of PPP power plants is performed to evaluate the proposed theory and to illustrate how the proposed OTCA can be applied in practice. Policies and administration strategies for power

  14. Thermal impacts of a fossil-fueled electric power plant discharge on seagrass bed communities

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, J.C.; Garrett, R.A.; Imbur, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with a 316a demonstration for an older fossil-fueled electric power plant which is often overlooked but nevertheless a regultory compliance. In this report, the Lansing Smith coal-fired steam electric power plant went under a 316a demonstration and the results are recorded and tabulated.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... applicant or holder whose construction permit was issued before January 10, 1997, the earthquake engineering...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... applicant or holder whose construction permit was issued before January 10, 1997, the earthquake engineering...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... applicant or holder whose construction permit was issued before January 10, 1997, the earthquake engineering...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... applicant or holder whose construction permit was issued before January 10, 1997, the earthquake engineering...

  19. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions-Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Chung, Landy

    2004-01-01

    Overview of emission control system development: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO to NO2 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology.

  20. Benefits of full scope simulators during solar thermal power plants design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, José F.; Gil, Elena; Rey, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    In order to efficiently develop high-precision dynamic simulators for solar thermal power plants, Tecnatom adapted its simulation technology to consider solar thermal models. This effort and the excellent response of the simulation market have allowed Tecnatom to develop simulators with both parabolic trough and solar power tower technologies, including molten salt energy storage. These simulators may pursue different objectives, giving rise to training or engineering simulators. Solar thermal power market combines the need for the training of the operators with the potential benefits associated to the improvement of the design of the plants. This fact along with the simulation capabilities enabled by the current technology and the broad experience of Tecnatom present the development of an engineering+training simulator as a very advantageous option. This paper describes the challenge of the development and integration of a full scope simulator during the design and construction stages of a solar thermal power plant, showing the added value to the different engineering areas.