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Sample records for abb power plant

  1. Operating experience with ABB Power Plant Laboratories multi-use combustion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jukkola, G.; Levasseur, A.; Mylchreest, D.; Turek, D.

    1999-07-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc.'s ABB Power Plant Laboratories (PPL) has installed a new Multi-Use Combustion Test Facility to support the product development needs for ABB Group's Power Generation Businesses. This facility provides the flexibility to perform testing under fluidized bed combustion, conventional pulverized-coal firing, and gasification firing conditions, thus addressing the requirements for several test facilities. Initial operation of the facility began in late 1997. This paper will focus on the design and application of this Multi-Use Combustion Test Facility for fluidized bed product development. In addition, this paper will present experimental facility results from initial circulating fluidized bed operation, including combustion and environmental performance, heat transfer, and combustor profiles.

  2. Korean order latest ABB project in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    ABB, in various incarnations, has been active in Asia from the beginning of the century. The new power plant in Korea represents a major commitment on the part of Korea Electric Power Corporation to ABB`s newest technology - the advanced sequential combustion gas turbine. For installation in Poryong, Korea, KEPCO has ordered a 2000MW combined-cycle power plant based on eight of ABB`s new GT24 gas turbines. This paper describes the project and specifications.

  3. Piping benchmark problems for the ABB/CE System 80+ Standardized Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1994-07-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the ABB/Combustion Engineering System 80+ Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the System 80+ standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solution to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set. The first System 80+ piping benchmark is a uniform support motion response spectrum solution for one section of the feedwater piping subjected to safe shutdown seismic loads. The second System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution for the feedwater piping subjected to the transient loading induced by a water hammer. The third System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution of the pressurizer surge line subjected to the accelerations induced by a main steam line pipe break. The System 80+ reactor is an advanced PWR type.

  4. ABB and the global market

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, G. )

    1994-09-01

    Competing in a global environment implies that the authors previous business environment has been less than global, and there are indeed changes underway that lead to a more universal environment. But, there are still differences between regions and especially between the mature economies in the OECD countries and the rapidly developing countries, of which a majority are in Asia. For the OECD countries, the time after World War 2 and up to about 1970 was a period of unprecedented growth. Rebuilding after the war and a general growth of the use of electric power required high investments in power systems and caused a booming market for equipment suppliers. After a trend break in the beginning of the 1970s to less than 40 GW 10 years later, then slowly increased to about 50 GW today. At the same time, annual capacity growth in developing countries increased from less than 20 GW to about 50 GW, i.e. the same level as in OECD. This means that ABB is now passing a cross-over point: from now on less than half of their global market is in their well-known OECD world. And this share will continue to shrink. ABB is now restructuring to fulfill market needs in less developed, developing, and newly industrialized countries. This is the most important change in their global environment is addressed in this article.

  5. Abbe, Ernst (1840-1905)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Eisenach, Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (now Germany), Abbe became director of the observatory at Jena and research director of the CARL ZEISS optical works in Jena. He discovered the Abbe sine condition, which describes a lens that will form an image, without defects of coma and spherical aberration. His mathematical treatment founded the present-day science of optics....

  6. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  7. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  8. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  9. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  10. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  11. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  12. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  13. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  14. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  15. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  16. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  17. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  18. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  19. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  20. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  3. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  4. Tidal power plants in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bernshtein, L.B. )

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

  5. Delano Biomass Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.; Hendershaw, W.K.; Corbin, H.R.; Taylor, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Delano Biomass Power Plant utilizes orchard prunings, urban wood waste, almond shells, and cotton stalks to fuel a boiler for steam generation. The steam is condensed in a steam turbine/generator to produce 31.8 MW of power. The electrical power generated (27 MW net) is then sold to Southern California Edison Co. for distribution. By incorporating a cooling tower, demineralizer, brine concentration tower, and evaporation ponds this system is able to achieve zero discharge. Steam at 97{degrees}F is condensed with cooling water. The cooling water is recirculated through an evaporator tower. Due to the temperature of the water entering the tower (83{degrees}F), evaporation occurs leaving behind concentrated salts. A blowdown is used to remove these salts from the tower. Losses from evaporation or leaks require make up to the tower. Wastewater from various processes in the plant are passed to a brine concentration tower. This concentrate is then taken to the evaporation ponds. Concentrated blowdown of small volumes (approximately 2-4 gpm) from the brine tower is disposed of in evaporation ponds.

  6. Hydraulic power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, T.

    1980-01-08

    A hydraulic power plant has a reservoir with a dam wall, a water turbine connected to a generator, a penstock extending from the reservoir to the water turbine and passing over the dam wall without passing through the dam wall to supply water from the reservoir to the turbine, and a vacuum pump adapted to fill at least a portion of the penstock with water by a siphon effect and being connected at a substantially uppermost portion of the penstock which is located on the top of the dam wall.

  7. Power plant III - Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    The projected principal components, performance, and costs associated with a direct cycle steam generating solar thermal power plant producing over 10 MWe are examined. Calculations are given for a location in south France, using heliostat and heat exchanger technology developed for Themis. The heat exchanger would have vertical tubes on the side walls for natural circulation, with superheater channels at the top composed of austenitic steels. Temperature of the superheated steam could be regulated by injections of liquid water. Maintaining the pressure during the passage of clouds is taken to require the presence of an auxiliary boiler burning fossil fuels, since no method is presently known of storing latent heat at over 300 C. Approaching clouds would have to be detected in order to stop the heliostats and ignite the back-up systems.

  8. ATOMIC POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-11-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactor power plants and discloses a design of a reactor utilizing a mixture of discrete units of a fissionable material, such as uranium carbide, a neutron moderator material, such as graphite, to carry out the chain reaction. A liquid metal, such as bismuth, is used as the coolant and is placed in the reactor chamber with the fissionable and moderator material so that it is boiled by the heat of the reaction, the boiling liquid and vapors passing up through the interstices between the discrete units. The vapor and flue gases coming off the top of the chamber are passed through heat exchangers, to produce steam, for example, and thence through condensers, the condensed coolant being returned to the chamber by gravity and the non- condensible gases being carried off through a stack at the top of the structure.

  9. Solar thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oplatka, G.

    1983-08-30

    A solar thermal power plant is disclosed containing a heliostat field and a collector system mounted upon a tower or column, the radiation receivers of the collector system being structured to be elongate, preferably circular ring sector-shaped and extending over part of the circumference of the crown or top of the tower. The removal of steam is accomplished directly or indirectly from a hot water storage which is alternately or overlappingly charged and discharged. According to one embodiment there are provided three heat receivers, two of which serve for charging and discharging the hot water storage, whereas in the third receiver there is directly generated steam for the compensation of time periods devoid of sun.

  10. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  11. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  12. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  13. Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Elliot

    1986-11-01

    To demonstrate technical viability of photovoltaic modules in central, grid connected energy systems, ARCO Solar, Inc. has designed, installed and is operating two photovoltaic power plants on the megawatt scale. These systems use two-axis tracking. The first generation plant in Lugo (Hesperia), California, with a nominal rating of one MWpk (DC)" was installed in 1982 in the Southern California Edison Company grid. The second system, rated at 6.4 MWDk (DC), is located in the Carrisa Plain in California and connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid. Based on the cost and performance data from these installations, an assessment of the current status and future needs of large scale photovoltaic energy systems is made. With each new system, improved techniques of design, installation and system integration have been developed. Expectations have been confirmed as to the performance and adaptability of solar cells, especially the ease of incremental increases in capacity when needed. Modular photovoltaic systems have been found to be easy to build and operate, and to be highly reliable. Prologue: Technological advancement usually requires good science and logical engineering. In the main, faith, persistence and feel are also required. Rule: The balance-of-system costs for photovoltaic energy systems equal photovoltaic module costs. Photovoltaic systems have progressed to their current stage of high promise because of faith, persistence, feel and belief in this rule.

  14. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  15. 76 FR 8785 - ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...--Resident Farmer Thorium and Radium. August 2010. ML102310548. 5. ABB, Inc. Decommissioning Plan Revision 2.... ABB, Inc. Derivation of the Site Specific Soil DCGLs, Addendum, Soil DCGLs for thorium and...

  16. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  17. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  18. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  19. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  20. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  2. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  3. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. Grant

    1994-09-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an exmaple of an IEE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity.

  4. Cycling/dispatching power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the effect cycling capability has on a power systems plants and the tradeoffs in performance that may occur. The topics of this article include cycling capability, control and training tools, combined cycles, steam turbine selection, protection against water induction, plant staffing, boiler/steam turbines, full turbine bypasses, cycling of CFB boilers, generators, and environmental control system uses to monitor performance.

  5. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  6. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  7. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  8. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  9. Process performance at the ABPP 80-MW waste coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, J.M. III; Mills, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The American Bituminous Power Partners, L.P. own an 80 MW Waste coal (GOB) power plant in Grant Town, WV. The plant, which is operated by Mission Operations Maintenance, Inc., is located on the site of a retired high sulfur coal mine. The GOB fuel consists of waste coal rejects from the mining and washing process used the operation of the mine. The Btu content of the fuel ranges from 4,000 to 9,000 Btu/lb, the ash ranges from 40 to 65%, and the sulfur ranges from 3 to 9%. The independent power plant consists of two Pyropower 40,000 pph Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers producing steam at 1365 psig and 955 F. The boilers supply steam to a common ABB turbine/generator which supplies power to the Monogahela Power systems. The plant has completed over 10,000 hours of operation since startup in February 1993. This paper will discuss the methodology and results of the plant`s original performance acceptance testing.

  10. MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.

    1993-11-01

    In pursuit of commercialization, efforts are underway to: (1) advance the technology base by enhancing performance and demonstrating endurance, (2) scale up stack to the full area and height, (3) acquire stack manufacturing capability and experience, (4) establish capability as well as gain experience for power plant system testing of the full-height carbonate fuel cell stack, (5) and define power plant design and develop critical subsystem components. All the major project objectives have already been attained. Over the last year, significant progress has been achieved in establishing the full-height stack design, gaining stack manufacturing and system integrated testing experience, and verifying the major equipment design in power plant system tests. In this paper, recent progresses on stack scaleup, demonstration testing, BOP verification, and stack endurance are presented.

  11. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  12. Fossil power plant systems description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This single-volume, looseleaf text presents the functions and relationships between each major component and its auxiliaries within a system. The text also describes the relationships between systems. All major components are addressed, and system boundaries are defined for a generic fossil power plant.

  13. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  14. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  15. Application of PSA to review and define technical specifications for advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Reinhart, F.M.; Wohl, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the design certification process, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAS) are performed at the design stage for each advanced nuclear power plant. Among other usages, these PSAs are important inputs in defining the Technical Specifications (TSs) for these plants. Knowledge gained from their use in improving the TSs for operating nuclear power plants is providing methods and insights for using PSAs at this early stage. Evaluating the safety or the risk significance of the TSs to be defined for an advanced plant encompasses diverse aspects: (a) determining the basic limiting condition for operation (LCO); (b) structuring conditions associated with the LCO; (c) defining completion times (equivalent to allowed outage times in the TS for conventional plants); and, (d) prescribing required actions to be taken within the specified completion times. In this paper, we consider the use of PSA in defining the TSs for an advanced nuclear plant, namely General Electric`s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). Similar approaches are being taken for ABB-CE`s System 80+ and Westinghouse`s AP-600. We discuss the general features of an advanced reactor`s TS, how PSA is being used in reviewing the TSs, and we give an example where the TS submittal was reviewed using a PSA-based analysis to arrive at the requirements for the plant.

  16. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Like conventional power plants, wind power plants must provide the power quality required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power system it is connected to and to satisfy the customers connected to the same grid. When wind energy development began, wind power plants were very small, ranging in size from under one megawatt to tens megawatts with less than 100 turbines in each plant. Thus, the impact of wind power plant on the grid was very small, and any disturbance within or created by the plant was considered to be in the noise level. In the past 30 years, the size of wind turbines and the size of wind power plants have increased significantly. Notably, in Tehachapi, California, the amount of wind power generation has surpassed the infrastructure for which it was designed. At the same time, the lack of rules, standards, and regulations during early wind development has proven to be an increasing threat to the stability and power quality of the grid connected to a wind power plant. Fortunately, many new wind power plants are equipped with state of the art technology, which enables them to provide good service while producing clean power for the grid. The advances in power electronics have allowed many power system applications to become more flexible and to accomplish smoother regulation. Applications such as reactive power compensation, static transfer switches, energy storage, and variable-speed generations are commonly found in modern wind power plants. Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper, focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality. In general, the voltage and frequency must be kept as stable as possible. The voltage and current distortions created by harmonics will also be discussed in this paper as will self-excitation, which may occur in a wind power plant due to loss of line.

  17. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  18. Hybrid solar powered desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hamester, H.L.; Husseiny, A.; Lumdstrom, J.; La Porta, C.; McLagan, G.

    1981-01-01

    A solar powered sea water desalination system design is described. The commercial size plant is specified to provide at least 1.8*10/sup 6/m/sup 3//year of product water (<500 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids) from sea water containing 44,000 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids. The basis of the design is a two-stage desalination system employing membrane technologies. Membrane technologies were selected since they require about a factor of five less energy than desalination technologies which use distillation.

  19. Power plants, roses, and catfish

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.L.

    1981-06-01

    This paper reports on a three-year study done by EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory and the Northern States Power Company of Minneapolis and the University of Minnesota to show that warm water from a coal-fired plant could be used to heat commercial greenhouses and, at the same time, to cut fuel costs. During a 2-year period (1976-1978), all the crops yielded impressive returns. Spin-offs from the successful demonstration project include aquaculture or fish-farming. (KRM)

  20. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  1. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  2. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  3. Dirty kilowatts: America's most polluting power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-15

    In 2006, the US EPA tracked more than 1,400 fossil-fired power plants of varying sizes through its Acid Rain Program. This report ranks each of the 378 largest plants (generating at least 2 million megawatt-hours in 2006) for which both the most recent EPA emissions data and Energy Information Administration (EIA) electric generation data are available. The report ranks each plant based on emission rates, or pounds of pollutant for each megawatt-hour (or million megawatt-hours, in the case of mercury) the plant produced. It ranks the top fifty power plants polluters for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and mercury. A complete listing of all 378 plants is included as Appendix A. Appendix B contains overheads of an NETL presentation: Tracking new coal-fired power plants - coal's resurgence in electric power generation, 24 January 2007. The 12 states with the heaviest concentrations of the dirtiest power plants, in terms of total tons of carbon dioxide emitted, are: Texas (five, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Pennsylvania (four); Indiana (four, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Alabama (three); Georgia (three, including two of the top three dirtiest plants); North Carolina (three); Ohio (three); West Virginia (three); Wyoming (two); Florida (two); Kentucky (two); and New Mexico (two). Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants are now at roughly 2.5 billion tons per year. Power plants are responsible for about 30%-40% of all man-made CO{sub 2} emissions in the USA. Power plants, especially those that burn coal, are by far the largest single contributor of SO{sub 2} pollution in the United States. Power plant mercury emissions remain steady as compared to previous years. A searchable database ranking 378 U.S. power plants on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and mercury pollution is available online at http://www.dirtykilowatts.org. 22 refs., 8 tabs., 2 apps.

  4. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  5. Mercury emissions from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D E; Crecelius, E A; Fruchter, J S; Ludwick, J D

    1977-06-01

    Geothermal steam used for power production contains significant quantities of volatile mercury. Much of this mercury escapes to the atmosphere as elemental mercury vapor in cooling tower exhausts. Mercury emissions from geothermal power plants, on a per megawatt (electric) basis, are comparable to releases from coal-fired power plants.

  6. Infrared imaging of power plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teskey, Mike E.; Adamson, R. D.

    1995-05-01

    The application of infrared thermography (IR) to electric utility applications is discussed. A joint program with electric power research institute (EPRI) demonstrated the inspection of specific power plant components including boiler casing, condenser air-inleakage, and condenser tube leakage. Infrared thermography was successfully demonstrated as a predictive maintenance tool for power plant applications and real dollar savings by the utility.

  7. 15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. PA-A-36692, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. 4415, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  9. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  10. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  11. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  12. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  14. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Prepare an EIS and Hold a Scoping Meeting was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 30520, on June 26... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related...

  15. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Draft EIS was published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 20624, on April 13, 2011, and in local...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal)...

  16. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  17. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  18. Introduction and overall description of nuclear power plant. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include content and purpose of booklets; how to study; producing electricity; the fossil fuel power plant; the nuclear power plant; the nuclear reactor; generating steam in a nuclear power plant; using the steam in a nuclear power plant; nuclear power station facilities; and special features of nuclear power plants.

  19. Demonstration of 5MW PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Usami, Yutaka; Takae, Toshio

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association, established in May 1991 by Japanese 10 electric power and 4 gas companies, started a new project in 1991 FY, with the object of PAFC realization and aiming the development of 5MW- class PAFC. power plant for urban energy center and 1 MW- class power plant for onsite use. This project is carried out as 6 years plan jointly with New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. The targets of the project are to evaluate and resolve the development task, such as a high reliability, compactness and cost reduction throughout the engineering, manufacturing and field testing of PAFC power plants. PAC tests and power generating test operations of 5MW plant were completed in 1994. Conducting the 2 years continuous operations and studies since 1995, the plant operational performance, system control characteristics, waste heat recovery and environmental advantage will be demonstrated.

  20. Wind Power Plant SCADA and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Badrzadeh, Babak; Castillo, Nestor; Bradt, M.; Janakiraman, R.; Kennedy, R.; Klein, S.; Smith, Travis M; Vargas, L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern Wind Power Plants (WPPs) contain a variety of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and communication systems. This paper discusses the issues related to a typical WPP's SCADA and Control. Presentation topics are: (1) Wind Turbine Controls; (2) Wind Plant SCADA, OEM SCADA Solutions, Third-Party SCADA Solutions; (3) Wind Plant Control; and (4) Security and Reliability Compliance.

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  2. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  3. An experimental aluminum-fueled power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Bersh, A. V.; Zhuk, A. Z.; Lisicyn, A. V.; Sorokovikov, A. I.; Pankina, Yu. V.

    2011-10-01

    An experimental co-generation power plant (CGPP-10) using aluminum micron powder (with average particle size up to 70 μm) as primary fuel and water as primary oxidant was developed and tested. Power plant can work in autonomous (unconnected from industrial network) nonstop regime producing hydrogen, electrical energy and heat. One of the key components of experimental plant is aluminum-water high-pressure reactor projected for hydrogen production rate of ∼10 nm3 h-1. Hydrogen from the reactor goes through condenser and dehumidifier and with -25 °C dew-point temperature enters into the air-hydrogen fuel cell 16 kW-battery. From 1 kg of aluminum the experimental plant produces 1 kWh of electrical energy and 5-7 kWh of heat. Power consumer gets about 10 kW of electrical power. Plant electrical and total efficiencies are 12% and 72%, respectively.

  4. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  6. 34. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT (BUILDING 325) AT LEFT AND CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 35. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS 325 AND 321) AT LEFT, FUEL TOWER AT CENTER AND CHLORINE EVAPORATOR (BUILDING 251) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. Impact of workstations on criticality analyses at ABB combustion engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, L.B.; Freeman, R.S.; O'Donnell, P.F. )

    1993-01-01

    During 1991, ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB C-E) made the transition from a CDC Cyber 990 mainframe for nuclear criticality safety analyses to Hewlett Packard (HP)/Apollo workstations. The primary motivation for this change was improved economics of the workstation and maintaining state-of-the-art technology. The Cyber 990 utilized the NOS operating system with a 60-bit word size. The CPU memory size was limited to 131 100 words of directly addressable memory with an extended 250000 words available. The Apollo workstation environment at ABB consists of HP/Apollo-9000/400 series desktop units used by most application engineers, networked with HP/Apollo DN10000 platforms that use 32-bit word size and function as the computer servers and network administrative CPUS, providing a virtual memory system.

  9. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Availability (NOA) of the Draft EIS was published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 20624, on April 13, 2011... NOA of the Final EIS for the proposed Project in the Federal Register on December 15, 2011 at 76 FR... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY:...

  10. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: TWO-ZONE PCE BIOREMEDIATION SYSTEM - ABB ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC. - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABB Environmental Services, Inc.'s (ABB-ES), research has demonstrated that sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is feasible if the proper conditions can be established. The anaerobic process can potentially completely dechlorinate PCE. Howeve...

  11. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  12. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  13. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  14. Fossil power plant operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This three-volume text presents the theory and interaction of all components within a system. Startup, normal, emergency, and shutdown operating techniques are discussed for each component and subsystem within the sixteen systems addressed. In addition to the plant systems, pump operation, fluid piping, instrumentation and control, and piping and instrument drawings (P and IDs) are covered.

  15. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  16. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  17. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  18. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  19. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the

  20. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  1. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  2. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  3. Progress in developing tidal electric power plants reported

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhnin, A.

    1984-12-01

    The natural energy potential of tides on the shores of the U.S.S.R. is equal to about a third of the world's total. The Achilles heel of tidal power plants is their pulsating operation. One solution to this problem was to build a hydroelectric power plant for use in tandem with the tidal power plant. During lulls in the tidal plant, the hydraulic power plant switches on at full power. Possible sites for dual plants were discussed.

  4. Life optimization for fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, W.P.; Richman, R.H. ); Parker, J.D.; McMinn, A. ); Bell, R.J. ); McCabe, P.; Leake, W.H. Jr. ); Dimmer, J.P.; Damon, J.E. ); Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.

    1990-11-01

    During 1985 and 1986, EPRI funded several major studies of aging fossil-fuel power plants. These were aimed both at evaluation and planning on the plant level (life optimization), and condition assessment of individual components (life assessment). The experience gained during the execution of these projects, along with available international experience on the optimized use of existing power plants, was integrated in Generic Guidelines for the Life Extension of Fossil Fuel Power Plants,'' issued in November 1986 (CS-4778). These guidelines advocated the assessment of residual component life in increasingly detailed stages, the phased evaluation and refurbishment of equipment, the importance of integrated planning, and the requirement for application of data management techniques. To extend the procedures and methods presented in those generic guidelines, and to demonstrate the potential benefits of a formalized approach to the consideration of fossil fuel power plant evaluation, the Electric Power Research Institute initiated a technology transfer demonstration project, RP2596-10. This report provides a summary of the activities in that demonstration project. One of the tools that was developed during the project was a compilation of the condition assessment of 25 critical and major components. This report includes an overview of the Component Condition Assessment Guidelines, as well as other tools and analysis methods that were developed during the project. The project also served as a review of the application of the methods and procedures presented in the basic guidelines document; therefore, this report also includes an evaluation and suggested refinements of the generic guidelines.

  5. Fuel cell power plant integrated systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonds, T. L.; Dawes, M. H.; Schnacke, A. W.; Spradlin, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    Power plant configurations for a central station (675 MW) fueled by coal and small dispersed plan generation plants fueled by oil were defined. Capital costs and costs for electricity were evaluated for both plants. Parametric variations and the impact on plants and components are discussed. Alternate oil fueled oil fired cycles as well as several alternate coal gasifiers were examined to show effects on plant performance. The economic attractiveness of the coal fired plant was confirmed and a scenario is established for an oil fired plant with reject heat recovery. Performance for the coal fired plant exceeds the study goal of 6800 Btu/kWh. The oil fired plant performance of 7627 Btu/kWh is very close to the study goal of 7500 Btu/kWh. The development of a finite slice computer model of the carbonate fuel cell is reported and an initial parametric cell and plant performance study was performed using the model. Preliminary subsystem description sheets and plant layout arrangements are presented.

  6. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  7. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  8. Report on Hawaii geothermal power plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project is the first power plant in the State of Hawaii to be powered by geothermal energy. This plant, which is located in the Puna District on the Island of Hawaii, produces three (3) megawatts of electricity utilizing the steam phase from the geothermal well. This project represents the climax of the geophysical research efforts going on for two decades in the Hawaiian Islands which resulted in the discovery of a significant reservoir of geothermal energy which could be put to practical use. In 1978 the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the State of Hawaii, entered into negotiations to design and build a power plant. The purpose and objective of this plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a geothermal power plant located in a remote volcanically active area. A contract was signed in mid 1978 between the Research Corporation of the University of Hawaii (RCUH) and the Department of Energy (DOE). To date, the DOE has provided 8.3 million dollars with the State of Hawaii and others contributing 2.1 million dollars. The cost of the project exceeded its original estimates by approximately 25%. These increases in cost were principally contributed to the higher cost for construction than was originally estimated. Second, the cost of procuring the various pieces of equipment exceed their estimates by 10 to 20 percent, and third, the engineering dollar per man hour rose 20 to 25 percent.

  9. Syngas treating options for IGCC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.; Mohammad-zadeh, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Increased environmental awareness, lower cost of gas turbine based combined cycle power plants, and advances in gasification processes have made the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) a viable technology to convert solid fuel to useful energy. The raw solid fuel derived synthesis gas (syngas) contains contaminants that should be removed before combustion in a gas turbine. Therefore, an important process in a gasification based plant is the cleaning of syngas. This paper provides information about various syngas treating technologies and describes their optimal selections for power generation or cogeneration of steam for industrial applications.

  10. Slim Holes for Small Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.

    1999-08-06

    Geothermal research study at Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a program in slimhole drilling research since 1992. Although our original interest focused on slim holes as an exploration method, it has also become apparent that they have substantial potential for driving small-scale, off-grid power plants. This paper summarizes Sandia's slim-hole research program, describes technology used in a ''typical'' slimhole drilling project, presents an evaluation of using slim holes for small power plants, and lists some of the research topics that deserve further investigation.

  11. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  12. Planting for power in central New York

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.

    1997-12-31

    The Salix consortium has joined forces with the US DOE and USDA to grow dedicated plantations of willows strategically located within a 50 mile radius (or easy hauling distance) of coal-burning power plants. At harvest time, the energy farmers could have as much as 7.5 tonnes of oven dry wood per acre per year. This article describes this project, covering the following areas: biomass power for rural development; energy farming; the Salix plan; New York State`s utilities; commercializing a new crop; the SUNY ESF team; biomass test field station; planting and harvesting; what lies ahead. 2 figs.

  13. Control system for electric power plant

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, K.L.; McManus, P.J.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a control system for a power plant. The power plant consists of a generator including means for producing a generator filed, a turbine for converting the flow of a fluid into mechanical power to drive the generator, a control means for regulating the flow of the fluid, a voltage regulator for controlling the generator field to thereby control the voltage produced by the generator, a bus, and a main circuit breaker for selectively connecting the generator to the bus, the control system comprising: nonvolatile memory means for storing configuration data comprising a plurality of configuration parameters for the power plants; input means for producing input data including data indicating a speed of the turbine, a position of the control means, a current and a voltage produced by the generator, a current and a voltage produced by the generator, a current and a voltage on the bus, and a position of the main circuit breaker; multitasking processing means for processing the input data in accordance with the configuration data, to thereby produce control signals including breaker signals for tripping and closing the main circuit breaker, voltage level signals for establishing a voltage setpoint for the voltage regulator, and a control signal for controlling the position of the control means and, edit means for enabling an operator to edit the configuration data, to thereby configure the control system for a particular power plant.

  14. Saguaro power plant solar repowering project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The subsystem characteristics, design requirements, and system environmental requirements for the Saguaro Power Plant Solar Repowering Project are defined. The plant conceptual design, performance, and economic data to be provided for the solar additions are identified as well as certain design data for the existing plant. All of the 115 MWe net No. 1 steam-Rankine unit of the Saguaro station is to be repowered. The receiver heat transport fluid is draw salt (60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate) that is also used to provide 4 hours of sensible heat storage. The receiver is quad-cavity type, and there is a field of 10,500 second generation heliostats. (LEW)

  15. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  16. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  17. Closed cycle osmotic power plants for electric power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, M.

    1980-04-01

    The paper deals with closed-cycle osmotic power plants (CCOPPs), which are not meant for the exploitation of natural salinity gradients but, rather, for the exploitation of those abundant heat sources having temperatures slightly higher than ambient temperature, e.g., geothermal fields, ocean temperature gradients, waste heat from power plants, and solar energy. The paper gives a general description of the CCOPP, along with some indications of its potential for energy generation. The concept of the CCOPP lies in producing electric power by means of the osmotic flows of suitable solvents and subsequently in separating them again from their solutes by means of thermal energy obtained from any available heat source. The discussion covers osmotic phenomena and the CCOPP, as well as important features of the CCOPP.

  18. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  19. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  20. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  1. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  2. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  3. Modeling mercury in power plant plumes.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Kristen; Seigneur, Christian; Edgerton, Eric; Jansen, John

    2006-06-15

    Measurements of speciated mercury (Hg) downwind of coal-fired power plants suggest that the Hg(II)/(Hg0 + HgII) ratio (where HgII is divalent gaseous Hg and Hg0 is elemental Hg) decreases significantly between the point of emission and the downwind ground-level measurement site, but that the SO2/(Hg0 + HgII) ratio is conserved. We simulated nine power plant plume events with the Reactive & Optics Model of Emissions (ROME), a reactive plume model that includes a comprehensive treatment of plume dispersion, transformation, and deposition. The model simulations fail to reproduce such a depletion in HgII. A sensitivity study of the impact of the HgII dry deposition velocity shows that a difference in dry deposition alone cannot explain the disparity. Similarly, a sensitivity study of the impact of cloud chemistry on results shows that the effect of clouds on Hg chemistry has only minimal impact. Possible explanations include HgII reduction to Hg0 in the plume, rapid reduction of HgII to Hg0 on ground surfaces, and/or an overestimation of the HgII fraction in the power plant emissions. We propose that a chemical reaction not included in current models of atmospheric mercury reduces HgII to Hg0 in coal-fired power plant plumes. The incorporation of two possible reduction pathways for HgII (pseudo-first-order decay and reaction with SO2) shows better agreement between the model simulations and the ambient measurements. These potential HgII to Hg0 reactions need to be studied in the laboratory to investigate this hypothesis. Because the speciation of Hg has a significant effect on Hg deposition, models of the fate and transport of atmospheric Hg may need to be modified to account for the reduction of HgII in coal-fired power plant plumes if such a reaction is confirmed in further experimental investigations.

  4. Acoustic monitoring of power-plant valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Robinson, J. C.

    1982-06-01

    Advanced surveillance diagnostics were applied to key nuclear power plant valves to improve the availability of the power plant. Two types of valves were monitored: BWR three-stage, pilot-operated safety/relief valves and PWR feedwater control valves. Excessive leakage across the pilot-disc seat in BWR safety/relief valves can cause the second-stage pressure to reach the critical value that activates the valve, even though the set pressure was not exceeded. Acoustic emissions created by the leak noise were monitored and calibrated to indicate incipient activation of the safety/relief valve. Hydrodynamic, vibration, control and process signals from PWR feedwater control valves were monitored by a mini-computer based surveillance system. On-line analysis of these signals coupled with earlier analytic modelling identified: (1) cavitation, (2) changes in steam packaging tightness, (3) valve stem torquing, (4) transducer oscillations, and (5) peak vibration levels during power transients.

  5. MCFC and microturbine power plant simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchini, F.; Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.

    The consistent problem of the CO 2 emissions and the necessity to find new energy sources, are motivating the scientific research to use high efficiency electric energy production's technologies that could exploit renewable energy sources too. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) due to its high efficiencies and low emissions seems a valid alternative to the traditional plant. Moreover, the high operating temperature and pressure give the possibility to use a turbine at the bottom of the cells to produce further energy, increasing therefore the plant's efficiencies. The basic idea using this two kind of technologies (MCFC and microturbine), is to recover, via the microturbine, the necessary power for the compressor, that otherwise would remove a consistent part of the MCFC power generated. The purpose of this work is to develop the necessary models to analyze different plant configurations. In particular, it was studied a plant composed of a MCFC 500 kW Ansaldo at the top of a microturbine 100 kW Turbec. To study this plant it was necessary to develop: (i) MCFC mathematical model, that starting from the geometrical and thermofluidodynamic parameter of the cell, analyze the electrochemical reaction and shift reaction that take part in it; (ii) plate reformer model, a particular compact reformer that exploit the heat obtained by a catalytic combustion of the anode and part of cathode exhausts to reform methane and steam; and (iii) microturbine-compressor model that describe the efficiency and pressure ratio of the two machines as a function of the mass flow and rotational regime. The models developed was developed in Fortran language and interfaced in Chemcad © to analyze the power plant thermodynamic behavior. The results show a possible plant configuration with high electrical and global efficiency (over 50 and 74%).

  6. DIRECT FUELCELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Shezel-Ayagh

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed for mechanical and piping layouts and for structural drawings. Procurement activities continued with delivery of major equipment items. Fabrication of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been initiated. Details of the process control philosophy were defined and control software programming was initiated.

  7. America's top fifty power plant mercury pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The fifty most-polluting coal-burning power plants in the United States emitted twenty tons of mercury into the air in 2007. Of the ten highest-emitting plants, all but one reported an increase as compared to 2006. Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury air pollution in the U.S., accounting for roughly 40 per cent of all mercury emissions. This report rates the power plants both in terms of sheer mercury pollution and mercury pollution adjusted per kilowatt hour. It also outlines the ways in which mercury removal is achievable with existing technology. Activated carbon injection, which is commercially available and has been tested, can achieve mercury reductions of 90 per cent (and better when coupled with a fabric filter for particulate control) on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. In addition, mercury can be significantly reduced as a 'co-benefit' of controls for other pollutants, such as fabric filters, flue gas desulphurization, and selective catalytic reduction. 3 tabs.

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Space power plants and power-consuming industrial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Latyshev, L.; Semashko, N.

    1996-12-31

    An opportunity to create the space power production on the basis of solar, nuclear and fusion energies is analyzed. The priority of solar power production as the most accessible and feasible in comparison with others is emphasized. However, later on, it probably will play an auxiliary role. The possibilities of fusion power production, as a basic one in future, are also considered. It is necessary to create reactors using the fueling cycle with helium-3 (instead of tritium and deuterium, later on). The reaction products--charged particles, mainly--allow one to organize the system of direct fusion energy conversion into electricity. The produced energy is expected not to be transmitted to Earth, but an industry in space is expected to be produced on its basis. The industrial (power and science-consuming) objects located on a whole number of space apparatus will form a single complex with its own basic power plant. The power transmission within the complex will be realized with high power density fluxes of microwave radiation to short distances with their receivers at the objects. The necessary correction of the apparatus positions in the complex will be done with ion and plasma thrusters. The materials present on the Moon, asteroids and on other planets can serve as raw materials for industrial objects. Such an approach will help to improve the ecological state on Earth, to eliminate the necessity in the fast energy consumption growth and to reduce the hazard of global thermal crisis.

  12. The ARCO 1 megawatt Photovoltaic Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, G. W.; Reilly, M. R.

    The world's largest Photovoltaic Power Plant is in operation and meeting performance specifications on the Southern California Edison (SCE) grid near Hesperia, California. The 1 MW plant designed and constructed by The BDM Corporation, for ARCO Solar Inc., occupies a 20 acre site adjacent to the SCE Lugo substation. The entire design and construction process took 7 1/2 months and was not only on schedule but below budget. Because of its vast photovoltaic experience, BDM was chosen over several engineering firms to perform this complex job. We were provided a conceptual design from ARCO which we quickly refined and immediately initiated construction.

  13. Performance Characteristics of Actinide-Burning Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T

    2005-05-15

    Performance characteristics were summarized of two molten salt based fusion power plants. One of them is to burn spent fuel actinides, the other is to burn U{sup 238}. Both power plants produce output energy larger than a fusion power plant would normally produce without including actinides. Additional features, obtainable by design for these actinide burning power plants, are adequate tritium breeding, sub-critical condition, and stable power output.

  14. GDA steamboat power plant: a case history

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, G.M. III

    1987-08-01

    Located 10 mi south of Reno, Nevada, Steamboat Springs has long been recognized as a prime geothermal resource for electric power generation potential by the US Geological Survey and numerous energy companies. Extensive leasing and exploration by Phillips and Gulf led to the discovery of a high-temperature (over 400/sup 0/F) reservoir in 1979. Geothermal Development Associates obtained a geothermal resources lease on a 30-acre parcel and a 10-year power sales agreement for 5 MW from the local utility, Sierra Pacific Power Company, in late 1983. Drilling commenced in March 1985, modular power plant construction began in October, and initial plant startup with power to the grid was accomplished in December 1985. Owing to cooling-water access and treatment costs, air-cooled condensers replaced the planned cooling towers, and full-time scale continuous production at rated capacity did not begin until late 1986. Three production wells and two injection wells, completed in highly fractured Cretaceous granodiorite and Tertiary andesite at depths of less than 1000 ft, produce 340/sup 0/F water having a salinity of 2300 ppm. Production well line-shaft pumps deliver in excess of 3000 gpm water to seven 1.2 MW-Rankine cycle binary power plant modules. The heat extracted from the geothermal water vaporizes the low boiling point N-pentane working fluid that expands to drive the turbines. The geothermal water is injected back into the reservoir. Both the pentane and the geothermal water are in separate closed-loop systems, which provides for an environmentally clean operation in this sensitive, highly visible site on the periphery of a metropolitan area.

  15. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Consideration (73 FR 17148; March 31, 2008), states that ``Plant emergencies are extraordinary circumstances... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of...

  16. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  17. Acoustic monitoring of power plant valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Robinson, J. C.

    1982-06-01

    Advanced surveillance diagnostics were applied to key nuclear power plant valves to improve the availability of the power plant. Two types of valves were monitored: boiling water reactor (BWR) three-stage, pilot-operated safety/relief valves and pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater control valves. Excessive leakage across the pilot-disc seat in BWR safety/relief valves can cause the second-stage pressure to reach the critical value that activates the valve, even though the set pressure was not exceeded. Acoustic emission created by the leak noise were monitored and calibrated to indicate incipient activation of the safety/relief valve. Hydrodynamic, vibration, control and process signals frm PWR feedwater control valves were monitored by a mini-computer based surveillance system.

  18. Heavy water physical verification in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morsy, S.; Schuricht, V.; Beetle, T.; Szabo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a report on the Agency experience in verifying heavy water inventories in power plants. The safeguards objectives and goals for such activities are defined in the paper. The heavy water is stratified according to the flow within the power plant, including upgraders. A safeguards scheme based on a combination of records auditing, comparing records and reports, and physical verification has been developed. This scheme has elevated the status of heavy water safeguards to a level comparable to nuclear material safeguards in bulk facilities. It leads to attribute and variable verification of the heavy water inventory in the different system components and in the store. The verification methods include volume and weight determination, sampling and analysis, non-destructive assay (NDA), and criticality check. The analysis of the different measurement methods and their limits of accuracy are discussed in the paper.

  19. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  20. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  1. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  2. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  3. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  4. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  5. Power plant material characterization by lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The EPRI Nuclear Division undertook examination of the feasibility of utilizing lasers to perform in situ operations within power plants in 1983. The Nd- Yag laser was of particular interest because flexible fiber optics cabling could be utilized for beam transport; the end effectors could be made small enough to access power plant components remotely. Beam management for welding and metal conditioning in confined spaces; the first issue examined, lead to the application for steam generator repairs that is now in common usage. This report examines the laser beam as a source of information about the material property condition; an application made feasible by advances in fiber and laser technology that were achieved beginning in 1989. This work, examines the prospects for determination of material condition properties within power plants because the laser beam can be utilized for sampling and as a source of optical, thermal, ultrasonic, spectrographic and mensuration data that may be obtained nondestructively. Both application evaluations and feasibility testing is described.

  6. Power plant efficiency and combustion optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.K.; Nema, N.; Jain, A.

    1998-07-01

    Grasim, a leader producer of Rayon grade staple fiber has, with time come up with its own Captive Electric Power Generation Industry with a capacity of generating 113 MW Thermal Power for its in-house use involving state of the art technology and system. In the present paper, it is desired to share the technical development in the global environment and receive expert feedback for its own upgrade. The on site power plants have a variety of steam turbines and boilers of different capacities. At times the plants had to face power crisis due to number of reasons and has always come up with number of solutions for performance enhancement and efficiency improvement. It is desired to present the following cases: (1) Development of spiral coal caps--for atmospheric fluidized bed boilers, it is often experienced that unburned carbon is high in ash. The reason being that coal particles do not get sufficient retention time after being injected into the bed. Attempt has been made to increase the retention time and better mixing by creating a cyclone around the coal cap with help of spiral coal caps. (2) Combustion optimization--in view of the inherent design deficiency, combustion was optimized by controlling the three parameters i.e., time, temperature and turbulence. In pulverized fuel combustion boilers this was done by providing air damper regulation and in atmospheric fluidized bed combustion boilers this was done by creating a vortex and regulating fluidizing air. The details shall be given in paper. (3) Power plant efficiency improvement--by introducing online monitoring system and identifying various areas of losses for various operating reasons and the cost associated with each operating parameter and the impact of each variation.

  7. Central-station solar hydrogen power plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2005-04-01

    Solar power towers can be used to make hydrogen on a large scale. Electrolyzers could be used to convert solar electricity produced by the power tower to hydrogen, but this process is relatively inefficient. Rather, efficiency can be much improved if solar heat is directly converted to hydrogen via a thermochemical process. In the research summarized here, the marriage of a high-temperature ({approx}1000 C) power tower with a sulfuric acid/hybrid thermochemical cycle was studied. The concept combines a solar power tower, a solid-particle receiver, a particle thermal energy storage system, and a hybrid-sulfuric-acid cycle. The cycle is 'hybrid' because it produces hydrogen with a combination of thermal input and an electrolyzer. This solar thermochemical plant is predicted to produce hydrogen at a much lower cost than a solar-electrolyzer plant of similar size. To date, only small lab-scale tests have been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of a few of the subsystems and a key immediate issue is demonstration of flow stability within the solid-particle receiver. The paper describes the systems analysis that led to the favorable economic conclusions and discusses the future development path.

  8. Worldwide supercritical power plants: Status and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhov, V.A.; Ramezan, M.; Ruth, L.A.; Kim, S.S.

    1999-07-01

    During the last decade leading industrial countries initiated a new wave of research and development on supercritical (SC) steam power plants. This new interest is accompanied by the jump from SC steam parameters to ultra-supercritical (USC) parameters and was initiated mostly due to the increase in cost of fuel on the world market, and by increased environmental regulations including reduction of greenhouse gases. As a result, a significant number of new pulverized coal (PC) power units with increased efficiency and reduced emissions were installed in the last two decades, and a few more are planned to be installed in the near future. Different driving forces are responsible for development and implementation of highly efficient advanced PC-fired systems: need for new capacity, quality and cost of fuel, level of technology development, environmental requirements, and internal situation with regard to power supply (deregulation). For example, in Europe, Germany in particular, controlling CO{sub 2} is a major issue in any new installation, while in Japan economics is the major issue as the costs of imported fuels are high, and there are greater economic incentives for efficiency improvement. This paper discusses the status of existing and planned SC and USC power plants worldwide and their technical and environmental performance.

  9. Power plant IV - Them-Thek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    A 10 MWe solar thermal hybrid central receiver-parabolic concentrator power plant is described. The THEK field of parabolic concentrators is employed to preheat and vaporize the water for heating the primary loop, while the THEM central receiver receives solar flux input from a field of heliostats to superheat fused salt, hitec, for the steam-powered generation of electricity. The preheat system also serves to maintain latent heat in the fused salt reservoir. An extra bypass with separation allows the vaporized portion of salt to return to the superheater as condensed salt descends to the reservoir to gain heat, thereby increasing the system efficiency by 8 percent to 33.8 percent. The power unit is coupled to turbines spinning at 9000 rpm. The central aperture closes during cloudy conditions to avoid heat losses in the primary loop.

  10. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  11. 9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels in place in center of photograph, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  12. 14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  13. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST STAND REMNANTS OF BUILDING-BLANK WHITE WALL ONLY ORIGINAL REMAINS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 2. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF POWER PLANT SHOWING THREE GE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF POWER PLANT SHOWING THREE GE DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS WITH STEAM PIPES TO RIGHT. - Pratt Institute, Power Generating Plant, Willoughby Avenue between Classen & Hall Streets, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. 4. View of south elevation of power plant, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of south elevation of power plant, looking north - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 2. View of north elevation of power plant, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of north elevation of power plant, looking south - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 18. Power plant engine piping floor plan, sheet 71 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Power plant engine piping floor plan, sheet 71 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. 20. Power plant engine piping details and schedules, sheet 82 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Power plant engine piping details and schedules, sheet 82 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  20. 8. View of power plant and radar tower, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of power plant and radar tower, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. 19. Power plant engine pipinglower level plan, sheet 80 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Power plant engine piping-lower level plan, sheet 80 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  4. 11. Interior view, east side of power plant, close of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view, east side of power plant, close of up fuel tanks, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. 1. View of east elevation of power plant, radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of east elevation of power plant, radar tower in background, looking west - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  6. 16. Power plant roof plan and wall sections, sheet 65 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Power plant roof plan and wall sections, sheet 65 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  8. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

  9. Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hocheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    As the size and number of wind power plants (also called wind farms) increases, power system planners will need to study their impact on the power system in more detail. As the level of wind power penetration into the grid increases, the transmission system integration requirements will become more critical [1-2]. A very large wind power plant may contain hundreds of megawatt-size wind turbines. These turbines are interconnected by an intricate collector system. While the impact of individual turbines on the larger power system network is minimal, collectively, wind turbines can have a significant impact on the power systems during a severe disturbance such as a nearby fault. Since it is not practical to represent all individual wind turbines to conduct simulations, a simplified equivalent representation is required. This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies. The layout of the wind power plant, the size and type of conductors used, and the method of delivery (overhead or buried cables) all influence the performance of the collector system inside the wind power plant. Our effort to develop an equivalent representation of the collector system for wind power plants is an attempt to simplify power system modeling for future developments or planned expansions of wind power plants. Although we use a specific large wind power plant as a case study, the concept is applicable for any type of wind power plant.

  10. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    PubMed

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  12. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    PubMed

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  13. Pollution on the rise: local trends in power plant pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, Z.; Emily Figdor, E.

    2005-01-15

    More than 1,200 power plants report emissions to US EPA, which compiles the information in its acid rain database. To examine trends in power plant pollution, this report analyzes the data for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions since 1995, the first year the Acid Rain Program capped SO{sub 2} emissions from the electricity-generating sector. Power plants contribute 39% of the USA's CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2003, power plants released 2.5 billion tons of CO{sub 2}, a 9% increase over 1995 levels. Power plants in Texas, Ohio, Florida, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, West Virginia, Alabama, and Georgia released the most CO{sub 2} in 2003. Power plants contribute 67%t of sootforming SO{sub 2} emissions. Although federal law caps SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants, more than half (216 of 400, or 54 percent) of the nation's dirtiest power plants increased their annual emissions from 1995 to 2003, even while annual SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants decreased by 10% nationwide. Power plants in Ohio had highest emissions, releasing 1.2 million tons in 2003, with Pennsylvania a close second. Power plants contribute 22% of smog-forming NOx emissions. NOx also contributes to fine particle pollution. Though regional initiatives limit NOx emissions from power plants, 38% (188 of 500) of the nation's dirtiest power plants increased their annual NOx emissions from 1995 to 2003, even while annual NOx emissions from power plants declined by 29 percent nationwide. Power plants in Ohio also led the nation for the most NOx emissions in 2003. The report recommends that tighter national caps should be accompanied by rigorous enforcement of New Source Review and other Clean Air Act programs that ensure that every plant installs modern pollution controls. 57 refs., 5 apps.

  14. Osmo-power - Theory and performance of an osmo-power pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.; Masuda, H.

    A theoretical and experimental study of the production of useful energy by the natural process of osmosis is presented. Using the results of the study a conceptual design of an osmotic pilot plant is performed. The power produced by a 1.6 MW/sq km plant has a competitive cost with that produced by both fossil power plants and nuclear power plants.

  15. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  16. Construction poses highest power plant fire threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Power plants are more vulnerable to fire during the construction period than at any other time. Data gathered from fires at plant construction sites show that 65% result from cutting and welding activities and that the Control of combustible materials and work processes is the key factor. Contractors need to cooperate on cleanup and to upgrade the quality of temporary buildings on the site. Among the steps which could reduce fire risks are the early installation of water for fire hydrants and automatic sprinklers, testing of tarpaulins for flame retardency, the use of metal or fire retardant scaffolding and forms, approved temporary heating equipment, flushing turbine oil systems before startup, and the use of non-flammable water pipe tubing. Seven safety rules are outlined for welding and cutting procedures. (DCK)

  17. Modularization Technology in Power Plant Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kenji Akagi; Kouichi Murayama; Miki Yoshida; Junichi Kawahata

    2002-07-01

    Since the early 1980's, Hitachi has been developing and applying modularization technology to domestic nuclear power plant construction, and has achieved great rationalization. Modularization is one of the plant construction techniques which enables us to reduce site labor by pre-assembling components like equipment, pipes, valves and platforms in congested areas and installing them using large capacity cranes for cost reduction, better quality, safety improvement and shortening of construction time. In this paper, Hitachi's modularization technologies are described especially from with respect to their sophisticated design capabilities. The application of 3D-CAD at the detailed layout design stage, concurrent design environment achieved by the computer network, module design quantity control and the management system are described. (authors)

  18. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  19. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  20. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  1. Single stage rankine and cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.J.

    1981-10-13

    The specification describes a Rankine cycle power plant of the single stage type energized by gasified freon, the latter being derived from freon in the liquid state in a boiler provided in the form of a radio frequency heating cell adapted at low energy input to effect a rapid change of state from liquid freon at a given temperature and pressure to gaseous freon of relatively large volume, thereby to drive a Rankine cycle type of engine recognized in the prior art as a steam engine type of engine of the piston or turbine type.

  2. Nuclear power plant with cooling circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Kastl, H.; Gugel, G.

    1983-11-22

    A nuclear power plant is disclosed with a metallic, circulatory cooling loop formed with welding seams and including, as components thereof, a reactor pressure vessel, a heat consumer and a pump, as well as a coolant line connecting the components to one another, and thermal insulation provided on the cooling loop, the welding seams being testable by a track-traversing testing device, including a multiplicity of fixedly installed tracks having like profile and being associated, respectively, with welding seams on the components and the cooling line, at least part of the thermal insulation being in vicinity of the tracks and being formed as removable cassettes.

  3. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  4. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  5. Production simulator for wave power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsethaugen, K.

    1994-07-01

    The report gives plans and specifications for a wave power production simulator. The simulator is a computer program that computes how much of the energy in the open ocean that can be converted to usable energy at a site off or onshore. The production of wave power from sea waves is not an easy task. Efforts have been made in several countries to develop devices that can extract energy from the ocean, but very few have so far been successful. During the last 15 years a considerable know-how has been established in Norway on wave energy utilization. Part of this know-how will be included in the proposed production simulator. Evaluation of new devices and new sites can be done in a more comparative and efficient way by this tool. It will contribute to interdisciplinary activity in the field of wave power utilization, and should be applicable for the nonexpert. The simulator consists of several modules, joined together by computer software. The plans so far include purpose, needs and background for the development of a wave power plant simulator and a high level specification of the software and scope of work.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  10. Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Winhold, M.

    1984-08-01

    In this report, the concept of exergy and the general methodology of the exergetic analysis and the thermoeconomic (combined exergetic and economic) analysis of energy conversion systems are presented. The THESIS (THermodynamic and Economc SImulation System) computer program used for these analyses is briefly described. Detailed mass, energy, exergy and money balances for a reference steam power plant (Harry Allen Station) are shown. The effect of the most important process parameters on the overall efficiency is investigated. A year-by-year and a levelized revenue requirement analysis are presented. The costs of exergy losses are compared with the capital costs and other expenses due to owning and operating each particular plant component. The question whether it is profitable to reduce the exergy losses by increasing these costs and vice versa is investigated. A cost sensitivity analysis including the effect of coal price and average annual capacity factor is performed. The methodology applied in this report appears to be useful in analyzing and evaluating energy conversion systems. The analyses presented here allow identification and evaluation of the inefficiencies and the opportunities for improvement of an energy conversion process. Results indicate that modifications in certain process parameters can lead to a decrease in the cost of electricity produced by the reference plant.

  11. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees` performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  12. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  13. Calculating the Weather: Deductive Reasoning and Disciplinary "Telos" in Cleveland Abbe's Rhetorical Transformation of Meteorology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdik, Zoltan P.; Platt, Carrie Anne; Meister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetorical basis of a major paradigm change in meteorology, from a focus on inductive observation to deductive, mathematical reasoning. Analysis of Cleveland Abbe's "The Physical Basis of Long-Range Weather Forecasts" demonstrates how in his advocacy for a new paradigm, Abbe navigates the tension between piety to tradition…

  14. Effect of power plant emissions on plant community structure.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Agrawal, M; Narayan, D

    1994-06-01

    A field study was conducted around two coal-fired thermal power plants (TPP) to analyse the impact of their emission on the structure of herbaceous communities in a dry tropical area. Phytosociological studies reflected that Cassia tora, Cynodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum dominate at heavily polluted sites. Alsycarpus monilifer, Convolvulus pluricaulis, and Desmodium triflorum are uniformly distributed, whereas Paspalidium flavidum, Phyllanthus simplex, and Rungia repens are dominant at less polluted sites. On the basis of Importance Value Index, the species were classified as sensitive, intermediate and resistant to TPP emissions. Shannon-Wiener Index of species diversity, species richness and evenness were inversely related, whereas concentration of dominance was directly related to the pollution load in the area. Significant negative correlation between ambient SO2 concentration and species diversity suggested selective elimination of sensitive species from the heavily polluted sites.

  15. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  16. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  17. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  18. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  19. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  20. A method for the in situ determination of Abbe errors and their correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köning, R.; Flügge, J.; Bosse, H.

    2007-02-01

    Often Abbe errors are the most important uncertainty sources in dimensional metrology applications aiming for measurement uncertainties of only a few nanometres. Abbe errors are caused by the angle deviations of relative translations between measurement object and sensing device—either in moving object or moving sensing device configuration—and the offset between the measurement axes of the machine and the measurement point of the structure localization device or the displacement sensor under investigation. The angle deviations of the motion stage can usually be determined, e.g. by an electronic autocollimator with sufficient accuracy. Unfortunately, in many cases, the Abbe offset cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy or varies over the measurement range. In order to reduce the influence of the Abbe error many length measuring machines are equipped with control loops to reduce the angle deviations. However, in order to specify the uncertainty contribution of the residual Abbe errors, the Abbe offsets are still required. In these cases, in principle, an in situ determination of the Abbe errors is possible by the following method. First the measurement is conducted in the common way. Then two further measurements are performed during which one angle, consecutively the yaw and the pitch angle, is scanned by the angle actuators and measured by the angle sensors of the control loop. The differences of these two measurements from the first should reflect the influence of the Abbe errors and the dependence of the length measurement results on the angles can be determined. This predication was tested during the measurements of a high resolution encoder with the Nanometer Comparator. Contrary to the classical perception, the observed dependence of the Abbe error on the angle variation applied was nonlinear. However, using a polynomial of third order it is possible to correct the artificially introduced Abbe errors of up to 20 nm almost down to the noise level.

  1. Small power plant reverse trade mission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-06

    This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

  2. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  3. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  4. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  5. 9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #214, control room; showing central monitoring station console in foreground. Well and booster control panel in left background and electric power management panel on far right - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. 8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment room; showing battery racks. The dc power of these batteries is distributed to motor-control centers, the annunciator system, and fire alarm and tripping circuits - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34). PMID:24378494

  8. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  9. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  10. Monitoring biofilm formation in power plant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Licina, G.J.; Nekoksa, G.

    1997-12-31

    Power plants have experienced severe general corrosion, pitting, under deposit corrosion, and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems, resulting in decreased plant availability and significantly increased operations and maintenance costs. MIC has been a particularly difficult problem since corrosion resistant alloys in relatively benign environments have failed as a result of microbiological influences in short times. Copper base alloys, carbon steels and stainless steels have all been susceptible. In a number of instances, replacement of piping and heat exchangers has been required to alleviate corrosion-related problems. Monitoring is a key element to improved corrosion control in cooling water systems. On-line methods provide evaluations of corrosion rates in real time and are sensitive to localized corrosion. Electrochemical methods of corrosion measurement are readily automated, both for acquisition of corrosion data and for process control. An electrochemical probe for on-line monitoring of biofilm activity has been shown to provide an early warning of biofilm formation and incipient MIC in fresh and saline waters.

  11. Condenser performance recovery in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, G. Jr.; Putman, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Fouling of the tubes in the main condenser can have a significant impact on nuclear plant performance. Recent experiences suggest that the effects of fouling have been underestimated and that the results of an effective tube cleaning can be measured in improved unit capacity. In particular two nuclear power plants have reported recovery of 20 and 25 MW respectively. While the types of deposition often vary as they did in these two cases, the deposit elements were accurately identified, the deposits` impact on heat transfer was evaluated and an effective cleaning methodology was developed for successful deposit removal. These experiences have prompted the development of a number of diagnostic monitoring and inspection methods which can be utilized in the field or in the laboratory; to detect, identify and quantify the presence of fouling and its impact on heat transfer, to determine the relative effectiveness of a cleaning method and to evaluate condenser performance as related to MW capacity for both single and multiple compartment condensers.

  12. The 125 MW Upper Mahiao geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, N.

    1996-12-31

    The 125 MW Upper Mahiao power plant, the first geothermal power project to be financed under a Build-Own-Operate-and-Transfer (BOOT) arrangement in the Philippines, expected to complete its start-up testing in August of this year. This plant uses Ormat`s environmentally benign technology and is both the largest geothermal steam/binary combined cycle plant as well as the largest geothermal power plant utilizing air cooled condensers. The Ormat designed and constructed plant was developed under a fast track program, with some two years from the April 1994 contract signing through design, engineering, construction and startup. The plant is owned and operated by a subsidiary of CalEnergy Co., Inc. and supplies power to PNOC-Energy Development Corporation for the National Power Corporation (Napocor) national power grid in the Philippines.

  13. Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

    2010-06-01

    Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

    1984-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

  15. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  16. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  17. Treating waste water from heat and electrical power plants and state regional power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beigel`drud, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    Water is often contaminated with oil and other petroleum products when used by local and regional power plants. This article outlines the various methods of treating oil contaminated water and removing emulsions. Coagulation and flocculation are commonly used methods of treatment, but there are other means including flotation and electrochemical methods. Ammonium nitrite was used to accelerates the oil removal with an electrochemical method, which was chosen as the most efficient path towards removal.

  18. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  19. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Gas turbine integration reduces ethylene plant's energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Albano, J.V.; Olszewski, E.F. ); Fukushima, T. )

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports on the use of gas turbines to produce power while using their hot, oxygen-poor exhaust gas as combustion air in the cracking furnaces which is an attractive means of reducing energy requirements per unit of ethylene production. At Osaka Petrochemical's (OPC) plant in Japan, ABB Lummus Crest Inc.'s turbine integration system was retrofitted. A Korean plant was newly constructed to utilize the system. The two plants have been operating successfully for approximately 2 years. Two new plants based on Lummus technology started up last year, one is scheduled for start-up in early 1992, and four are in various stages of design and construction.

  1. Evaluation of the ECAS open cycle MHD power plant design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Staiger, P. J.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) MHD/steam power plant is described. The NASA critical evaluation of the design is summarized. Performance of the MHD plant is compared to that of the other type ECAS plant designs on the basis of efficiency and the 30-year levelized cost of electricity. Techniques to improve the plant design and the potential performance of lower technology plants requiring shorter development time and lower development cost are then discussed.

  2. Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant Project. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of the engineering aspects of a hybrid wood-fired geothermal electrical generating plant is presented. The proposed plant location is in Lassen County, California, near the Wendel Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area. This power plant uses moderate temperature geothermal fluid to augment the heat supplied from a wood waste fired boiler. This report defines major plant systems for implementation into the plant conceptual design and provides sufficient design information for development of budgetary cost estimates. Emphasis is placed on incorporation of geothermal heat into the power generation process. Plant systems are designed and selected based on economic justification and on proven performance. The culminating economic analysis provides the financial information to establish the incentives for construction of the plant. The study concludes that geothermal energy and energy from wood can be combined in a power generating plant to yield attractive project economics.

  3. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.

  4. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  5. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  6. 10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases in foreground, electrical panels and fuel tanks in background looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. 15. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BACK SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BACK SIDE OF ELECTRICAL PANEL ON LEFT, AND C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER ON RIGHT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14637; dated March 26, 2010... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  9. 8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND DURING AN ENGINE FIRING. DATE UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. Geoproducts hybrid geothermal/wood fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  11. Session 7: Geoproducts Hybrid Geothermal / Wood Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, Tom

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  12. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  13. 5. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT BUILDING. GRATE COVERED 'TRASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT BUILDING. GRATE COVERED 'TRASH RACK' VISIBLE IN CENTER. THE STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE SUPPORTS MACHINES TO CLEAR DEBRIS CAUGHT ON THE TRASH RACK. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  14. 13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, WITH C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER IN BACKGROUND. STEEL FRAME SUPPORTS HOISTING MECHANISM USED TO MOVE, REPAIR, OR REPLACE GENERATORS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  15. JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

    1978-01-01

    The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

  16. Systems Modeling for Z-IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2006-11-08

    A preliminary systems model has been developed for Z-IFE power plants. The model includes cost and performance scaling for the target physics, z-pinch driver, chamber, power conversion system and target/RTL manufacturing plant. As the base case we consider the dynamic hohlraum target and a thick liquid wall chamber with flibe as the working fluid. Driver cost and efficiency are evaluated parametrically since various options are still being considered. The model allows for power plants made up of multiple chambers and power conversion units supplied by a central target/RTL manufacturing plant. Initial results indicate that plants with few chambers operating at high yield are economically more attractive than the 10-unit plant previously proposed. Various parametric and sensitivity studies have been completed and are discussed.

  17. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Noboru

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  18. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  19. Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

  20. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  1. EMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DISASTERS

    PubMed Central

    Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and over-utilization of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that nonmental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics. PMID:24378494

  2. Versatility of Abbe-Estlander Flap in Lip Reconstruction – A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Premlatha M; Bhambar, Rohan Suhas; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Redddy; Kumar, Ram Mohan; Kumar, Harsh

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Objectives: Aim of this study was to evaluate the versatility of Abbe-Estlander flap in lip reconstruction with regard to function and aesthetic outcome and objectives were to present our experience and result in series of 10 cases of lip reconstruction by Abbe-Estlander flap. Materials and Methods: A total number of 10 patients were taken up in the study, age ranging from 35-71 y, mean age being 60. Out of 10 patients, 6 (60%) were male and 4 (40%) female. In all these patients, Abbe-Estlander flap that involved the commissure was used for reconstruction. Patients were recalled at intervals of three weeks, three months and six months for follow up. Results: All patients had satisfactory results in terms of aesthetic and functional outcome. Conclusion: Abbe-Estlander flap is safe and a reliable flap which is technically simple to perform, and provides functionally and aesthetically pleasing result and affords versatility in flap design. PMID:25478393

  3. Wind power plants in the weather conditions of Northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmeke, Georg

    Lappland's fells and highlands feature a notable wind power potential due to special meteorological circumstances. The wind power plants for these sites must be equipped with special means against icing and low temperatures. Icing events monitored on a small test machine are described and compared with general load assumptions. Different means of ice detection and ice removal from rotor blades are presented. Low temperature and anti-icing requirements for wind power plant components and operation control are discussed.

  4. 7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment room; showing battery room (in background) and multiple source power converter (in foreground). The picture offers another look at the shock-isolation system developed for each platform - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Modelling of some parameters from thermoelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Maksay, Şt; Popa, I.

    2016-02-01

    Paper proposing new mathematical models for the main electrical parameters (active power P, reactive power Q of power supplies) and technological (mass flow rate of steam M from boiler and dust emission E from the output of precipitator) from a thermoelectric power plants using industrial plate-type electrostatic precipitators with three sections used in electrical power plants. The mathematical models were used experimental results taken from industrial facility, from boiler and plate-type electrostatic precipitators with three sections, and has used the least squares method for their determination. The modelling has been used equations of degree 1, 2 and 3. The equations were determined between dust emission depending on active power of power supplies and mass flow rate of steam from boiler, and, also, depending on reactive power of power supplies and mass flow rate of steam from boiler. These equations can be used to control the process from electrostatic precipitators.

  6. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  7. Conceptual design of first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, T.D.; Melaku, M.; Betemariam, G.

    1996-12-31

    The Aluto-Langano Geothermal Pilot Plant will be the first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia. Its purpose is to utilize existing wells, drilled about a decade ago, to generate additional electricity for the power system and to prove the capability of the Aluto-Langano field to support expansion to 30 MWe. This paper discusses the evaluation of possible production wells, in combination with three power cycle options, leading to selection of a preferred development concept. Despite the small size of the pilot plant, the high elevation of the site, and the very high gas content of the field, a condensing unit was selected. Particular design features proposed for the steamfield and power plant are explained, including those that reflect the pilot plant nature of the project.

  8. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three different reference power plant configurations were considered with parametric variations of the various design parameters for each plant. Two of the reference plant designs were based on the use of high temperature regenerative air preheaters separately fired by a low Btu gas produced from a coal gasifier which was integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design was based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to a more moderate temperature in a tubular type metallic recuperative heat exchanger which is part of the bottoming plant heat recovery system. Comparative information was developed on plant performance and economics. The highest net plant efficiency of about 45 percent was attained by the reference plant design with the use of a high temperature air preheater separately fired with the advanced entrained bed gasifier. The use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air yielded the lowest cost of generating electricity at a slightly lower plant efficiency. Both of these two reference plant designs are identified as potentially attractive for early MHD power plant applications.

  9. Performance calculations for 1000 MWe MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of MHD generator operating conditions and constraints on the performance of MHD/steam power plants are investigated. Power plants using high temperature combustion air preheat (2500 F) and plants using intermediate temperature preheat (1100 F) with oxygen enrichment are considered. Variations of these two types of power plants are compared on the basis of fixed total electrical output (1000 MWe). Results are presented to show the effects of generator plant length and level of oxygen enrichment on the plant thermodynamic efficiency and on the required generator mass flow rate. Factors affecting the optimum levels of oxygen enrichment are analyzed. It is shown that oxygen enrichment can reduce magnet stored energy requirement.

  10. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Uhrig, R.E. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, nuclear power plant operating status recognition is investigated using a self-optimizing stochastic learning algorithm artificial neutral network (ANN) with dynamic node architecture learning. The objective is to train the ANN to classify selected nuclear power plant accident conditions and assess the potential for future success in this area. The network is trained on normal operating conditions as well as on potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator-generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include hot-and cold-leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, total loss of off-site power, main streamline break, main feedwater line break, and steam generator tube leak accidents as well as the normal operating condition. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results. continued research work indicated.

  11. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PG E grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  14. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  15. Preliminary Identification of Accident Initiating Events for IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Latkowsk, J. F.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents initial results of a task to identify accident initiating events for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs. Initiating events (IEs) are a fundamental building block of a probabilistic risk assessment; they are the ‘accident starters’ that are analyzed to determine the risks posed to members of the public in the vicinity of the power plant. The IE results for the SOMBRERO design are presented in tabular form. The SOMBRERO design was analyzed since it is representative of dry chamber wall, laser driven designs. This work is used to characterize IFE plant risk and to identify potential design changes that would mitigate the plant risk.

  16. Searching transients in large-scale surveys. A method based on the Abbe value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowlavi, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A new method is presented to identify transient candidates in large-scale surveys based on the variability pattern in their light curves. Methods: The method is based on the Abbe value, Ab, that estimates the smoothness of a light curve, and on a newly introduced value called the excess Abbe and denoted excessAb, that estimates the regularity of the light curve variability pattern over the duration of the observations. Results: Based on simulated light curves, transients are shown to occupy a specific region in the {diagram} diagram, distinct from sources presenting pulsating-like features in their light curves or having featureless light curves. The method is tested on real light curves taken from EROS-2 and OGLE-II surveys in a 0.50° × 0.17° field of the sky in the Large Magellanic Cloud centered at RA(J2000) = 5h25m56.5s and Dec(J2000) = -69d29m43.3s. The method identifies 43 EROS-2 transient candidates out of a total of 1300 variable stars, and 19 more OGLE-II candidates, 10 of which do not have any EROS-2 variable star matches and which would need further confirmation to assess their reliability. The efficiency of the method is further tested by comparing the list of transient candidates with known Be stars in the literature. It is shown that all Be stars known in the studied field of view with detectable bursts or outbursts are successfully extracted by the method. In addition, four new transient candidates displaying bursts and/or outbursts are found in the field, of which at least two are good new Be candidates. Conclusions: The new method proves to be a potentially powerful tool to extract transient candidates from large-scale multi-epoch surveys. The better the photometric measurement uncertainties are, the cleaner the list of detected transient candidates is. In addition, the diagram diagram is shown to be a good diagnostic tool to check the data quality of multi-epoch photometric surveys. A trend of instrumental and/or data reduction origin

  17. Commercial ballard PEM fuel cell natural gas power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.S.; Dunnison, D.; Cohen, R.

    1996-12-31

    The electric utility industry is in a period of rapid change. Deregulation, wholesale and retail wheeling, and corporate restructuring are forcing utilities to adopt new techniques for conducting their business. The advent of a more customer oriented service business with tailored solutions addressing such needs as power quality is a certain product of the deregulation of the electric utility industry. Distributed and dispersed power are fundamental requirements for such tailored solutions. Because of their modularity, efficiency and environmental benefits, fuel cells are a favored solution to implement distributed and dispersed power concepts. Ballard Power Systems has been working to develop and commercialize Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants for stationary power markets. PEM`s capabilities of flexible operation and multiple market platforms bodes well for success in the stationary power market. Ballard`s stationary commercialization program is now in its second phase. The construction and successful operation of a 10 kW natural gas fueled, proof-of-concept power plant marked the completion of phase one. In the second phase, we are developing a 250 kW market entry power plant. This paper discusses Ballard`s power plant development plan philosophy, the benefits from this approach, and our current status.

  18. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  19. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  20. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

  1. The optimization air separation plants for combined cycle MHD-power plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Springmann, H.; Greenberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the design approaches being employed during a current supported study directed at developing an improved air separation process for the production of oxygen enriched air for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combustion are outlined. The ultimate objective is to arrive at conceptual designs of air separation plants, optimized for minimum specific power consumption and capital investment costs, for integration with MHD combined cycle power plants.

  2. Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

  3. The application of NERVA technology to Martian power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farbman, G. H.; Pierce, B. L.

    1991-09-01

    A Martian Nuclear Power Plant is described, based on the nuclear technologies developed and demonstrated in the NERVA nuclear propulsion program. The reactor is in a closed-cycle system, employing an inert gas coolant, while the power-turbine generator system is an open-cycle gas turbine which uses the Martian atmosphere as a working fluid. The two systems are connected by a double-walled heat exchanger which transfers energy from the reactor to the power turbine system. The plant is rated at 3 MWe and is capable of three years of power operation, at a capacity factor of 90 percent, before the fuel is depleted. The plant is arranged in modules, which are fully constructed on earth and then interconnected on the surface of Mars. A preliminary estimate of the module contents and masses leads to a total plant specific mass of 25.3 kg/kWe.

  4. Analysis of UF6 breeder reactor power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous UF6 fueled breeder reactor design and technical applications of such concepts are summarized. Special attention was given to application in nuclear power plants and to reactor efficiency and safety factors.

  5. 58. HAIWEE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH ALONG PATH OF AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. HAIWEE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH ALONG PATH OF AQUEDUCT - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. CONTEXT VIEW FROM POWER PLANT TOP FLOOR AT REST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW FROM POWER PLANT TOP FLOOR AT REST OF CLEVELAND TERMINAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  8. 52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING EAST. CURRENT LOCATION OF THE REAL-TIME WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATION Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM VALVES INSIDE CENTRAL POWER PLANT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM VALVES INSIDE CENTRAL POWER PLANT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 16. VIEW LOOKING DOWN WALKWAY INSIDE CENTRAL POWER PLANT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW LOOKING DOWN WALKWAY INSIDE CENTRAL POWER PLANT SHOWING BOTTOM OF COAL HOPPERS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.

  12. Combined oil gun and coal guide for power plant boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wiest, M.R.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses apparatus for introducing fuel into the combustion chamber of a power plant boiler. It comprises a coal guide; a coal disperser; tubular disperser support means; an oil gun; first actuator means; and second actuator means.

  13. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-03-01

    The technical results of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant evelopment program are presented which establish the necessary technology base and demonstrate readiness to proceed with the fabrication and test of full size prototype stacks for coal fueled molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. The effort covered power plant systems studies, fuel cell component technology development, fuel cell stack design and analysis, manufacturing process definition, and an extensive experimental program. The reported results include: the definition and projected costs for a reference coal fueled power plant system based on user requirements, state-of-the-art advances in anode and electrolyte matrix technology, the detailed description of an internally manifolded stack design concept offering a number of attractive advantages, and the specification of the fabrication processes and methods necessary to produce and assemble this design. Results from the experimental program are documented.

  14. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park. PMID:15362633

  15. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review plan-draft section revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  16. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing...

  17. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  18. Ground-based testing of space nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.G.

    1990-10-22

    Small nuclear power plants for space applications are evaluated according to their testability in this two part report. The first part introduces the issues involved in testing these power plants. Some of the concerns include oxygen embrittlement of critical components, the test environment, the effects of a vacuum environment on materials, the practically of racing an activated test chamber, and possible testing alternative the SEHPTR, king develop at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 2. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant accessway 101, showing equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant accessway 101, showing equipment blast lock #102 entrance for fire trucks and equipment. An underground structure at its origin, the 177-foot long accessway is above ground at its south end, terminating in the parking lot of service road B - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  1. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  2. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  3. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  4. Reliability of the emergency ac-power system at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.; Baranowsky, P.W.

    1982-08-19

    The reliability of the emergency ac-power systems typical of several nuclear power plants was estimated, the costs of several possible improvements was estimated. Fault trees were constructed based on a detailed design review of the emergency ac-power systems of 18 nuclear plants. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. It was found that there are not one or two improvements that can be made at all plants to significantly increase the industry-average emergency ac-power-system reliability, but the improvements are varied and plant-specific. Estimates of the improvements in reliability and the associated cost are estimated using plant-specific designs and failure probabilities.

  5. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein.

  6. The development of combined-cycle power plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Guoyu

    1996-10-01

    In order to reduce environmental pollution and meet the needs of peak load regulation and power load increase, according to China`s ``The Ninth Five-Year Plan`` and ``The Development Plan of Electric Power Industry for 2010,`` oil and gas may be imported to build properly sized combined-cycle power plants in southeast coastal areas where there is fuel shortage while the economy develops relatively fast. In the past 17 years, China`s reform and opening to the outside world has brought about continuous, quick, and healthy development of the national economy. The people`s living standard has been improving progressively, while the commercial power consumption and the power consumption for livelihood have also been increased swiftly and significantly. This year, due to the practice of working 5 days a week and some other reasons, the peak-valley load difference of the power grid has become larger, being generally above 35%. This just calls for improving the peak-load regulating capability of the grid. However, the small-unit capacity thermal power generating units within the grid have poor peak-load regulating capability, while most of the hydropower plants in the grid provide run-off generation and have no peak-load regulating capability. Therefore, in some power grids, pumped-storage hydropower plants are built to meet this requirement. Accordingly, it seems quite necessary and suitable to build a number of combined-cycle power plants.

  7. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  8. Radial fryers. [Used tire power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Experience has shown that tires have their limits as a primary power generation fuel. As a supplemental fuel, however, they may prove to be cost effective. This article discusses the use of tires as a alternate fuel source.

  9. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.; Kasper, J.; Sheehan, T.; Lang, D.; Roberts, V.; Mau, D.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  10. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Containment Pressure Boundary Research

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.C.; Costello, J.F.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1999-09-15

    Research to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants is summarized. This research is aimed at understanding the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containment and liners of concrete containment. This understanding will lead to improvements in risk-informed regulatory decision making. Containment pressure boundary components are described and potential aging factors identified. Quantitative tools for condition assessments of aging structures to maintain an acceptable level of reliability over the service life of the plant are discussed. Finally, the impact of aging (i.e., loss of shell thickness due to corrosion) on steel containment fragility for a pressurized water reactor ice-condenser plant is presented.

  12. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  13. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  14. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  15. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  16. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains chapters on each of the following topics: (1) radioactivity, (2) heat transport and energy conversion, (3) tritium systems, (4) electrical storage and power supplies, (5) support structure, (6) cryogenics, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) maintenance and operation, (9) balance of plant design, (10) safety and environmental analysis, (11) economic analysis, and (12) plant construction.

  17. Investment and operating costs of binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, B.; Brugman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Typical investment and operating costs for geothermal power plants employing binary cycle technology and utilizing the heat energy in liquid-dominated reservoirs are discussed. These costs are developed as a function of reservoir temperature. The factors involved in optimizing plant design are discussed. A relationship between the value of electrical energy and the value of the heat energy in the reservoir is suggested.

  18. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  19. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  20. Winter study of power plant effects

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1980-10-01

    As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.

  1. License renewal for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory requirements for license renewal fall into two categories - technical and environmental. Plants seeking license renewal most satisfy review requirements both at the time of renewal and during the renewal period. The NRC requirements and some of ORNL's contributions are discussed.

  2. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  3. VIEW OF LOCATION OF CHILDS POWER PLANT (SHOWING POWERHOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LOCATION OF CHILDS POWER PLANT (SHOWING POWERHOUSE AND TRANSFORMER FRAMEWORK AT LEFT, BELOW POWER LINES AND THE MAINTENANCE AND RESIDENTIAL COMPOUND UPSTREAM TO RIGHT) ALONG VERDE RIVER FROM FS ROAD #502. LOOKING UPSTREAM (WEST-SOUTHWEST) - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  4. Fire protection system HMI in power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti

    2015-05-01

    The central power station, a place where there are machines that generate power, equipped with substation where the voltage is produced by the generator and increased to a certain voltage with a step up voltage transformer. Effect on transformer oil is very important, transformer may malfunction if the oil that serves as a coolant and insulator gradually decreased its ability, over time their use. Power transformer on usability is vital, so it needs to be maintained so that the temperature rise must be overcome by applying a temperature control that can inform and control the control valve to open the hydrant tap transformer cooling. HMI implemented to facilitate the operators cope with excess heat in the transformer using thermocouple censor. Test results show that the control transformer and monitored using PLC and HMI. Transformer can maintain the condition of a maximum of 80 degrees Celsius heat.

  5. Flight Performance of a Jet Power Plant. III; operating characteristics of a jet power plant as a function of altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1951-01-01

    The performance of a jet power plant consisting of a compressor and a turbine is determined by the characteristic curves of these component parts and is controllable by the characteristics of the compressor and the turbine i n relation t o each other. The normal. output, overload, and throttled load of the Jet power plant are obtained on the basis of assumed straight-line characteristics.

  6. More on duel purpose solar-electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. F.

    Rationale for such plants is reviewed and plant elements are listed. Dual purpose solar-electric plants would generate both electricity and hydrogen gas for conversion to ammonia or methanol or direct use as a fuel of unsurpassed specific power and cleanliness. By-product oxygen would also be sold to owners of hydrogen age equipment. Evolved gasses at high pressure could be fired in compressorless gas turbines, boilerless steam-turbines or fuel-cell-inverter hydrogen-electric power drives of high thermal efficiency as well as in conventional internal combustion engines.

  7. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3942, dated January 25, 2010). This... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy...

  8. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental... facilities (76 FR 72560; November 23, 2011) (EP Final Rule). The EP Final Rule was effective on December 23, 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power...

  9. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error.

  10. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error.

  11. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  12. 16. Photocopy of a photograph1921 EASTSIDE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of a photograph--1921 EASTSIDE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  13. MSR performance enhancements and modifications at St. Lucie Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rubano, V.F.; Ugelow, A.G. ); Menocal, A.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The St. Lucie Power Plant provides an excellent historical prospective on various moisture separator/reheater improvements. Between the two essentially identical units there is a total of 14 years of operating experience with various moisture separator/reheater configurations, with a combination of four different heat transfer surfaces and three moisture removal configurations. Through various modifications and enhancements, the performance and the reliability of the moisture separator/reheaters at the St. Lucie Power Plant and consequently the overall plant performance has been improved. This improvement has taken place over several years and involves changes in both the heat transfer and moisture removal areas. This paper provides an overview of the history and description of moisture separator/reheater modifications at the St. Lucie Power Plant with the resulting performance improvements.

  14. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  15. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  16. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  17. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  18. Shuttle orbter fuel cell power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is one of the three fuel cells that make up the generating system which provides electrical power to the space shuttle orbiter. Each unit measures 14 inches (35 centimeters) high, 15 inches (38 centimeters) wide, 40 inches (101 centimeters) long and weighs 200 pounds.

  19. Environmental requirements at hydroelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Hydroelectric power is the most mature and widely implemented of the renewable energy technologies. The energy of flowing water has been used to perform work directly since ancient times, and the use of hydropower turbines to generate electricity traces back to the 19th century. Two commonly used turbine types, the Francis and Kaplan turbines, are essentially refinements of the simple reaction turbine of Hero of Alexandria, dating from about 100 B.C. (NAS 1976). Hydroelectric power production provides over 10% of the net electrical generation in the US, more than petroleum or natural gas and far more than the other renewable energy technologies combined. On a regional basis, hydroelectric power represents 14% of the net electrical power generation in the Rocky Mountain states and nearly 63% along the Pacific Coast. Those states that have the largest percentages of their electricity generated by hydropower (e.g., Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington) also tend to have the lowest average cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour.

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, J.; Prussel, M.

    1986-02-01

    EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) is being largely ignored in the design of nuclear power instrumentation and control systems. As a result, EMI (electromagnetic interference) is causing costly startup delays and spurious reactor trips. This paper describes existing problems, basic causes, and approaches to their solutions.

  1. Layouts of trigeneration plants for centralized power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Il'ina, I. P.; Rozhnatovskii, V. D.; Burmakina, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    One of the possible and, under certain conditions, sufficiently effective methods for reducing consumption of fuel and energy resources is the development of plants for combined generation of different kinds of energy. In the power industry of Russia, the facilities have become widespread in which the cogeneration technology, i.e., simultaneous generation of electric energy and heat, is implemented. Such facilities can use different plants, viz., gas- and steam-turbine plants and gas-reciprocating units. Cogeneration power supply can be further developed by simultaneously supplying the users not only with electricity and heat but also with cold. Such a technology is referred to as trigeneration. To produce electricity and heat, trigeneration plants can use the same facilities that are used in cogeneration, namely, gas-turbine plants, steam-turbine plants, and gas-reciprocating units. Cold can be produced in trigeneration plants using thermotransformers of various kinds, such as vaporcompression thermotransformers, air thermotransformers, and absorption thermotransformers, that operate as chilling machines. The thermotransformers can also be used in the trigeneration plants to generate heat. The main advantage of trigeneration plants based on gas-turbine plants or gas-reciprocating units over cogeneration plants is the increased thermodynamic power supply efficiency owing to utilization of the waste-gas heat not only in winter but also in summer. In the steam-turbine-based trigeneration plants equipped with absorption thermotransformers, the enhancement of the thermodynamic power supply efficiency is determined by the increase in the heat extraction load during the nonheating season. The article presents calculated results that demonstrate higher thermodynamic efficiency of a gas-turbine-based plant with an absorption thermotransformer that operates in the trigeneration mode compared with a cogeneration gas-turbine plant. The structural arrangements of trigeneration

  2. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  3. Terrestrial Solar Thermal Power Plants: On the Verge of Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Zarza, E.

    2004-12-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) with optical concentration technologies are important candidates for providing the bulk solar electricity needed within the next few decades, even though they still suffer from lack of dissemination and confidence among citizens, scientists and decision makers. Concentrating solar power is represented nowadays at pilot-scale and demonstration-scale by four technologies, parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel reflector systems, power towers or central receiver systems, and dish/engine systems, which are ready to start up in early commercial/demonstration plants. Even though, at present those technologies are still three times more expensive than intermediate-load fossil thermal power plants, in ten years from now, STPP may already have reduced production costs to ranges competitive. An important portion of this reduction (up to 42%) will be obtained by R&D and technology advances in materials and components, efficient integration schemes with thermodynamic cycles, highly automated control and low-cost heat storage systems.

  4. Optimal design of a pilot OTEC power plant in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.H.; Kao, K.Y. ); Yang, J.C. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, an optimal design concept has been utilized to find the best designs for a complex and large-scale ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant. THe OTEC power plant under this study is divided into three major subsystems consisting of power subsystem, seawater pipe subsystem, and containment subsystem. The design optimization model for the entire OTEC plant is integrated from these sub-systems under the considerations of their own various design criteria and constraints. The mathematical formulations of this optimization model for the entire OTEC plant are described. The design variables, objective function, and constraints for a pilot plant under the constraints of the feasible technologies at this stage in Taiwan have been carefully examined and selected.

  5. The Salton Sea 10 MWe power plant, unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.E.; Whitescarver, O.D.; Yamasaki, R.N.

    1982-10-01

    The Southern California Edison Company's Salton Sea Geothermal Electric Project is the second of two flashsteam projects located in the Imperial Valley of California to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing steam from highly saline geothermal fluids for electric power generation. The objective of Edison's Power Plant Unit 1 program at the Salton Sea KGRA is to develop design, operating, and economic criteria for commercial geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley of California. The Edison plant is designed specifically for utilization of geothermal steam and employs principles found in conventional fossil-fueled electric generating plants. This plant serves as a model of a full scale commercial plant, using systems and components which likely will be utilized in large scale follow-on units.

  6. Dynamic interaction between an OTEC power plant and a power grid. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-31

    The objectives of the research reported are: to identify and resolve potential technical problems that may arise from the incorporation of an OTEC power plant in the existing generation mix of Puerto Rico and to develop the tools and to identify the technical resources needed for dynamic analysis of island power systems to which OTEC power plants provide a substantial portion of the load demand. The issues addressed are system modelling and data gathering, network simplification, selection of OTEC plant site and power system, stability analysis, and economic dispatch when OTEC power plants contribute substantially to the island's load. The slow dynamics of the OTEC plant make it a reference for the rest of the power system during a transient, but this slowness is a drawback in terms of system recovery from fault-induced transients. It is found that simple dynamic models can, in most instances, describe the transient behavior of both the OTEC plant and the island's power system, but it was not possible to reduce the non-OTEC portion of the power system to a single generation point and a single load. (LEW)

  7. New geothermal power plants in Azores and Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, M.

    1981-10-01

    Two geothermal power plants were recently completed. One is 3 MW unit in Azores and another is 15 MW unit in Kenya. Both plants have very simple construction. For Azores, a packaged portable turbine generator is adopted to save the cost and installation term. 15 MW Olkaria plant which is adopted single flash cycle has produced first electricity by the geothermal energy in Africa. This turbine generator has been installed on a steel foundation. Special site conditions have been taken into consideration and both plants are successfully running with certification of the suitable design concept.

  8. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  9. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, A.B.; Roy, C.

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  10. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautto, A.

    1984-11-01

    The organization and presentation of information in a pressurized water reactor control room is discussed. Design of the alert function so as to reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g., during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance, is considered. Validation of the Critical Function Monitoring System on a training simulator is described. Functional decomposition of information is shown to be helpful in designing displays. Criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system, and the main interactions are presented.

  11. Nuclear power-plant safety functions

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R. III; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, P.F.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of safety functions is discussed. Ten critical safety functions and the multiple success paths available for accomplishing them are described. Use of the safety function concept in the development of emergency procedures, operator training, and control-room displays provides a systematic approach and a hierarchy of protection that an operator can use to mitigate the consequences of an event. The safety function concept can also be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear plant systems and to the evaluation of past expierience.

  12. Death, Disease, and Dirty Power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Conrad G.

    2000-10-01

    The Clean Air Task Force, on behalf of the Clear the Air campaign, commissioned Abt Associates to quantify the health impacts of fine particle air pollution, commonly known as soot, from power plants, as well as the expected benefits (avoidable deaths, hospitalizations, etc.) of policies that would reduce fine particle pollution from power plants. The health effects analyzed include death, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, asthma attacks, and a variety of lesser respiratory symptoms. This report summarizes the findings of the Abt Associates study, reviews the contribution of power plants to fine particle pollution, and discusses policies that will reduce power plant fine particle pollution and thus save thousands of lives. Key findings include: Fine particle pollution from US power plants cuts short the lives of over 30,000 people each year. In more polluted areas, fine particle pollution can shave several years off its victims' lives. Hundreds of thousands of Americans suffer from asthma attacks, cardiac problems and upper and lower respiratory problems associated with fine particles from power plants. The elderly, children, and those with respiratory disease are most severely impacted by fine particle pollution from power plants. Metropolitan areas with large populations near coal-fired power plants feel their impacts most acutely - their attributable death rates are much higher than in areas with few or no coal-fired power plants. Power plants outstrip all other polluters as the largest source of sulfates - the major component of fine particle pollution - in the US Approximately two-thirds (over 18,000) of the deaths due to fine particle pollution from power plants could be avoided by implementing policies that cut power plant sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide pollution 75 percent below 1997 emission levels. Fine particle pollution is responsible for increased risk of death and shortened life spans. Abt Associates' findings are based on a body of well

  13. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  15. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  16. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  17. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  18. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  20. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; J. Sarver; M. Borden; K. Coleman; J. Blough; S. Goodstine; R.W. Swindeman; W. Mohn; I. Perrin

    2003-04-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  6. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  7. Short Term Electricity Storage For CPV Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrumaux, C.; Auberton, A.; Gombert, A.; Heile, I.; Röttger, M.

    2011-12-01

    An initial analysis of short term electricity storage for CPV power plants is performed with respect to its functions "power output smoothing" and "end of day energy production". First, the different storage technologies are shortly discussed. Then charge and discharge of the storage device of a model CPV plant is studied by using measured DNI data for selected days at a good CPV location. The selection of days is done according to their average DNI per day classification. The power to energy ratio of the storage, the allowed minimum state of charge (SOC) and the requested power from the storage are the varying parameters of the study. With increasing capacity of the storage, the requirements can be best fulfilled with the used initial storage strategies but the power output is shifted significantly.

  8. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  9. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  10. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  11. Integrated simulation of the Escatron PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.; Martinez, D.

    1997-12-31

    The study of the phenomena in fluidized beds has a great importance for the knowledge and development of FBC technologies. But nowadays, and from an operational point of view, the interest lies not only in fluidized bed behavior, but also in the influence of fluidized bed variables in the rest of the power plant. Although there is a great variety of designs and studies on FBC power stations (AFBC, CFBC and PFBC, with different types of cycles and first and second generation fluidized beds), there is a lack of detailed studies considering the interactions between the bed variables and the performance of the cycles (steam and gas). In order to improve the knowledge from this particular standpoint, an integrated model of the Escatron PFBC 80 MWe power plant (Spain) has been developed. The model has been validated with actual plant data, being able to predict the behavior of the plant as a whole. To do this, it estimates the most important variables of the fluidized bed (i.e., bed temperature profiles, bed density, fuel feed rate, heat transfer, entrainment, gas and steam flow rates), as well as the operating parameters of the power cycles (i.e., steam and gas turbine loads, temperatures and pressures). A practical application of this model is the evaluation of operational and design changes affecting the response of the fluidized bed, the steam and gas cycles, and, in turn, the power plant efficiency and availability.

  12. Parametric analysis of closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, W.; Berg, R.; Murthy, R.; Patten, J.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric analysis of closed cycle MHD power plants was performed which studied the technical feasibility, associated capital cost, and cost of electricity for the direct combustion of coal or coal derived fuel. Three reference plants, differing primarily in the method of coal conversion utilized, were defined. Reference Plant 1 used direct coal fired combustion while Reference Plants 2 and 3 employed on site integrated gasifiers. Reference Plant 2 used a pressurized gasifier while Reference Plant 3 used a ""state of the art' atmospheric gasifier. Thirty plant configurations were considered by using parametric variations from the Reference Plants. Parametric variations include the type of coal (Montana Rosebud or Illinois No. 6), clean up systems (hot or cold gas clean up), on or two stage atmospheric or pressurized direct fired coal combustors, and six different gasifier systems. Plant sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 MWe. Overall plant performance was calculated using two methodologies. In one task, the channel performance was assumed and the MHD topping cycle efficiencies were based on the assumed values. A second task involved rigorous calculations of channel performance (enthalpy extraction, isentropic efficiency and generator output) that verified the original (task one) assumptions. Closed cycle MHD capital costs were estimated for the task one plants; task two cost estimates were made for the channel and magnet only.

  13. Electric power plant emissions and public health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Alane B; Roy, Callista

    2008-02-01

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels. PMID:18227677

  14. System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This is the Topical report for Task 6.0, Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The report describes work by Westinghouse and the subcontractor, Gilbert/Commonwealth, in the fulfillment of completing Task 6.0. A conceptual design for critical and noncritical components of the gas fired combustion turbine system was completed. The conceptual design included specifications for the flange to flange gas turbine, power plant components, and balance of plant equipment. The ATS engine used in the conceptual design is an advanced 300 MW class combustion turbine incorporating many design features and technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals. Design features of power plant equipment and balance of plant equipment are described. Performance parameters for these components are explained. A site arrangement and electrical single line diagrams were drafted for the conceptual plant. ATS advanced features include design refinements in the compressor, inlet casing and scroll, combustion system, airfoil cooling, secondary flow systems, rotor and exhaust diffuser. These improved features, integrated with prudent selection of power plant and balance of plant equipment, have provided the conceptual design of a system that meets or exceeds ATS program emissions, performance, reliability-availability-maintainability, and cost goals.

  15. Performance Assessment of Flashed Steam Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, Theodore E.

    1980-12-01

    Five years of operating experience at the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) Cerro Prieto flashed steam geothermal power plant are evaluated from the perspective of U. S. utility operations. We focus on the design and maintenance of the power plant that led to the achievement of high plant capacity factors for Units No. 1 and 2 since commercial operation began in 1973. For this study, plant capacity factor is the ratio of the average load on the machines or equipment for the period of time considered to the capacity rating of the machines or equipment. The plant capacity factor is the annual gross output in GWh compared to 657 GWh (2 x 37.5 MW x 8760 h). The CFE operates Cerro Prieto at base load consistent with the system connected electrical demand of the Baja California Division. The plant output was curtailed during the winter months of 1973-1975 when the system electric demand was less than the combined output capability of Cerro Prieto and the fossil fuel plant near Tijuana. Each year the system electric demand has increased and the Cerro Prieto units now operate at full load all the time. The CFE added Units 3 and 4 to Cerro Prieto in 1979 which increased the plant name plate capacity to 150 MW. Part of this additional capacity will supply power to San Diego Gas and Electric Company through an interconnection across the border. The achievement of a high capacity factor over an extensive operating period was influenced by operation, design, and maintenance of the geothermal flash steam power plant.

  16. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavčciče and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bošstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krško, Brežice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  17. Power plant V - Thek generating station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    The design and operating features of a 10 MWe parabolic dish concentrator steam-cycle generating plant are described. The dishes which have 75 sq m area with a concentration factor of 265, were proved in the Themis project. The total field for the 10 MWe would cover 63,100 sq m and require 842 units. Using a water-steam cycle at 50 bars, temperature would never surpass 264 C, with an after-generator condition of 33 bars at 204 C. Preheating the water is intended with a fused salt reservoir containing 570 tons in 350 cu m container, around which condensed water would flow. Maintaining the primary loop at mildly elevated temperatures would permit uninterrupted operation during cloudy periods. A total shutdown would occur if cloudy conditions last more than one hour, and start-up would involve reheating the primary loop, recharging the storage, and then respinning the turbine.

  18. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  19. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  20. Gas expander based power plant system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerija, Z.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a method for generating electricity where gas pressure from a high pressure gas transmission line is reduced with a gas expander system capable of operating with fluctuating high pressure gas conditions and maintaining required outlet gas conditions for delivery to a lower pressure gas distribution line. It comprises supplying a portion of the lower pressure gas to the combustion apparatus of a steam generator, heating feedwater in the steam generator and producing a low pressure steam, condensing the steam in a heat exchange using the heat of condensation of the steam to heat a portion of high pressure gas in a heat exchange, mixing the heated high pressure gas with unheated high pressure gas in proportion to controlled variable requirements, reducing the pressure of the combined high pressure gas by passing the gas through a gas expander which produces useful shaft power for driving an electrical generator or for mechanical drive applications.

  1. Dynamic simulation models and performance of an OTEC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wormley, D.N.; Carmichael, D.A.; Umans, S.

    1983-08-01

    In this study, the aspects of plant performance which influence the potential for integration of an OTEC plant into a utility grid are considered. A set of simulation models have been developed for the evaluation of OTEC dynamic plant performance. A detailed nonlinear dynamic model has been forumlated which is useful for the assessment of component performance including heat exchangers, turbines, pumps and control systems. A reduced order linear model has been developed which is useful for studies of plant stability, control system development and transient performance of the plant connected to a utility grid. This model is particularly suitable for transient dynamic studies of an OTEC plant as a unit in a utility grid. A quasi-steady power availability model has also been developed which is useful to determine plant ouput power as a function of ocean thermal gradients so that the influence of daily and seasonal temperature variations may be easily computed. The study has found no fundamental technical barriers which would prohibit the interconnection of an OTEC plant into a utility grid. It has also shown that detailed consideration of turbine nozzle angle control is merited and such a control has the potential to provide superior performance in comparison to turbine bypass valve control.

  2. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  3. Reliability analysis of a utility-scale solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a reliability analysis for a solar central receiver power plant that employs a salt-in-tube receiver. Because reliability data for a number of critical plant components have only recently been collected, this is the first time a credible analysis can be performed. This type of power plant will be built by a consortium of western US utilities led by the Southern California Edison Company. The 10 MW plant is known as Solar Two and is scheduled to be on-line in 1994. It is a prototype which should lead to the construction of 100 MW commercial-scale plants by the year 2000. The availability calculation was performed with the UNIRAM computer code. The analysis predicted a forced outage rate of 5.4 percent and an overall plant availability, including scheduled outages, of 91 percent. The code also identified the most important contributors to plant unavailability. Control system failures were identified as the most important cause of forced outages. Receiver problems were rated second with turbine outages third. The overall plant availability of 91 percent exceeds the goal identified by the US utility study. This paper discuses the availability calculation and presents evidence why the 91 percent availability is a credible estimate.

  4. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants.

  5. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  6. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  7. Five-megawatt geothermal-power pilot-plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    This is a report on the Raft River Geothermal-Power Pilot-Plant Project (Geothermal Plant), located near Malta, Idaho; the review took place between July 20 and July 27, 1979. The Geothermal Plant is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) overall effort to help commercialize the operation of electric power plants using geothermal energy sources. Numerous reasons were found to commend management for its achievements on the project. Some of these are highlighted, including: (a) a well-qualified and professional management team; (b) effective cost control, performance, and project scheduling; and (c) an effective and efficient quality-assurance program. Problem areas delineated, along with recommendations for solution, include: (1) project planning; (2) facility design; (3) facility construction costs; (4) geothermal resource; (5) drilling program; (6) two facility construction safety hazards; and (7) health and safety program. Appendices include comments from the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications, the Controller, and the Acting Deputy Director, Procurement and Contracts Management.

  8. Power plant VI - Sodium-air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genier, R.

    A sodium-air cycle central receiver solar electric generating plant is described. The system is designed for liquid sodium to be heated to 750 C in the central receiver heat exchangers, pumped down to the tower base to transfer heat to an air loop, then be returned to the receiver aperture. The air loop would heat to 730 C, insufficient for efficient operation of turbines, and would require a further heating by a supplementary burner to temperatures of 950 C. An efficiency of 35.4 percent is projected for a total output of 10,620 kW. The flux is furnished by a field of 743 heliostats with a total surface area of 36,425 sq m, and received by a tower 120 m tall outfitted with a receiver inclined 45 deg from the horizontal. The sodium-air heat exchange is envisioned to take place in a tank of air interpenetrated by continuous, closed, boustrophedonic loops filled with superheated sodium.

  9. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  10. Design of an energy efficient solar powered water desalting plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nadler, M.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a 6000 m/sup 3//day totally solar thermal energy powered seawater desalting plant. The objective was to design a process which would produce water at minimum cost using leading edge but commercial or near-commercial technology. Because the cost of solar energy is high, about half the cost of the plant is for solar equipment, minimum product water cost is achieved by minimizing energy consumption.

  11. Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable on the steady-state stability of the OTEC power plant is investigated using linearized analysis. The transient stability of the OTEC system is investigated through simulation. The contribution made by the motor load and the coaxial cable to the transient stability is studied. The occurrence of self excitation phenomena is analyzed using linear methods and simulation. The effects of wave and vessel motion on the electrical power output of the OTEC plant is investigated.

  12. The formation of dimethyl sulfate in power plant plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.D.; Eatough, D.J. ); Cheney, J.L. ); Eatough, N.L. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study which was designed to determine if dimethyl sulfate is a primary emission of power plants or is instead formed in the plume after mixing with the ambient atmosphere. The authors previously reported the presence of dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid in particulate matter collected from the flue lines and plumes of coal-fired power plants. The mole ratios of methylated sulfate in particles to total emitted sulfur were found to be one and two orders of magnitude higher in the plume than in the flue line of a coal- and an oil-fired plant, respectively. In addition, while only monomethyl sulfate was found in the particles collected at 150{sup 0}C in the flue line, the principal species found in the plume aerosol was dimethyl sulfate. Dimethyl sulfate has been found in particulate matter collected from the flue line of another coal-fired power plant where the sample was collected at 110{sup 0}C, however. These previously reported results can either be interpreted to indicate that primary emissions from power plants contain gas phase alkyl sulfate compounds which subsequently condense onto aerosols, or the data can be interpreted to show formation of dimethyl sulfate in the atmosphere. The data presented in this paper show the latter to be the case.

  13. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  14. Experience with organic Rankine cycles in heat recovery power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Elovic, A.; Rettger, P.

    1996-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have been increasingly employed to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not feasible or economical. These power plants have logged a total of over 100 million turbine hours of experience demonstrating the maturity and field proven technology of the ORC cycle. The cycle is well adapted to low to moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used to recover energy from geothermal resources. The above cycle technology is well established and applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles.

  15. Design considerations for an interial confinement fusion reactor power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, J. V.; Simpson, J. E.

    1981-08-01

    A conceptual design study to further define the engineering and economic concerns for inertial confinement fusion reactors is presented. Alternatives to the Livermore HYLIFE concept were examined and information from liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor power plant studies was incorporated into the design. Laser and target physics models were employed in a reactor design with a low coolant flowrate and a high driver repetition rate. An example of such a design is the JADE concept. In addition to a power plant design developed using the JADE example, the applicability of the energy absorbing gas lithium ejector concept was investigated.

  16. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  17. Neural networks and their application to nuclear power plant diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present a survey of artificial neural network-based computer systems that have been proposed over the last decade for the detection and identification of component faults in thermal-hydraulic systems of nuclear power plants. The capabilities and advantages of applying neural networks as decision support systems for nuclear power plant operators and their inherent characteristics are discussed along with their limitations and drawbacks. The types of neural network structures used and their applications are described and the issues of process diagnosis and neural network-based diagnostic systems are identified. A total of thirty-four publications are reviewed.

  18. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants.

    PubMed

    Cerva, L; Kasprzak, W; Mazur, T

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  19. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  20. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  1. Power plant VII - Air-air /tube boiler/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    An attempt to design a solar thermal electric central receiver power plant in the multi-MW size with acceptable efficiencies using air in the power loop is described. The turbine and generator are placed in the tower to reduce heat losses in the superheated gas, and the depleted gas loop is coupled to a low temperature generator powered by boiling water. The receiver cavity is configured to retain a maximum amount of flux and has brick walls. Nickel alloys are indicated for the air tubes in the receiver, with Inconel 601, Incoloy 800, and Inconel 600 considered acceptable. The gas leaving the chamber will be at 950 C to power a high pressure turbine, followed by entrance into a heat exchanger to boil the water for the low-pressure turbine, and is then discharged. Thermodynamic efficiencies between 13.9-20.3 percent for a 4700 kW plant are considered feasible with the design.

  2. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  4. Heterogonous Nanofluids for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alammar, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear reactions can be associated with high heat energy release. Extracting such energy efficiently requires the use of high-rate heat exchangers. Conventional heat transfer fluids, such as water and oils are limited in their thermal conductivity, and hence nanofluids have been introduced lately to overcome such limitation. By suspending metal nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity in conventional heat transfer fluids, thermal conductivity of the resulting homogeneous nanofluid is increased. Heterogeneous nanofluids offer yet more potential for heat transfer enhancement. By stratifying nanoparticles within the boundary layer, thermal conductivity is increased where temperature gradients are highest, thereby increasing overall heat transfer of a flowing fluid. In order to test the merit of this novel technique, a numerical study of a laminar pipe flow of a heterogeneous nanofluid was conducted. Effect of Iron-Oxide distribution on flow and heat transfer characteristics was investigated. With Iron-Oxide volume concentration of 0.009 in water, up to 50% local heat transfer enhancement was predicted for the heterogeneous compared to homogeneous nanofluids. Increasing the Reynolds number is shown to increase enhancement while having negligible effect on pressure drop. Using permanent magnets attached externally to the pipe, an experimental investigation conducted at MIT nuclear reactor laboratory for similar flow characteristics of a heterogeneous nanofluid have shown upto 160% enhancement in heat transfer. Such results show that heterogeneous nanofluids are promising for augmenting heat transfer rates in nuclear power heat exchanger systems.

  5. Dynamic behavior of PEM fuel cell and microturbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Sisworahardjo, N. S.; Uzunoglu, M.; Onar, O.; Alam, M. S.

    This paper presents a comparison between the dynamic behavior of a 250 kW stand-alone proton exchange membrane fuel cell power plant (PEM FCPP) and a 250 kW stand-alone microturbine (MT). Dynamic models for the two are introduced. To control the voltage and the power output of the PEM FCPP, voltage and power control loops are added to the model. For the MT, voltage, speed, and power control are used. Dynamic models are used to determine the response of the PEM FCPP and MT to a load step change. Simulation results indicate that the response of the MT to reach a steady state is about twice as fast as the PEM FCPP. For stand-alone operation of a PEM FCPP, a set of batteries or ultracapacitors is needed in order to satisfy the power mismatch during transient periods. Software simulation results are obtained by using MATLAB ®, Simulink ®, and SimPowerSystems ®.

  6. Status report - Salton Sea solar pond power plant

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.L.; Lin, E.I.H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar pond commercial power plants in the Salton Sea has been confirmed by a study completed in May 1981. The Salton Sea is an inland salt lake located in the Imperial Valley of Southern California. 600 MW/sub e/ of base load power can be generated if 15% of the sea's 932-km/sup 2/ (360-square mile) surface area is converted to solar ponds. 3 refs.

  7. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  8. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  9. Recurrent mistakes in power plant design, construction, and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    The mistakes made during planning and design (calculation), erection, and operation of power plants will be discussed in detail. The erection time, state of the regulatory guides and of the art are decisive for plant design. Errors with respect to materials selection, manufacturing, and welding are critical for the service life. Frequently, errors during examinations for maintenance purposes and for assessing the remaining life are due to mistakes at the beginning of the service life of a component. Last, but not least, plant cycle chemistry errors and operating errors will be discussed by examples.

  10. Remote visual inspection for nondestructive evaluation in power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Peter

    1994-02-01

    Remote visual inspection equipment such as borescopes, fiberscopes and videoimagescopes provide Power Plant NDE groups with the necessary tools for establishing superior corrective and preventative plant maintenance programs. These scopes allow the user to evaluate the condition of pipes, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers and other critical machinery without costly and time consuming disassembly. Overall plant efficiency is increased and the likelihood of catastrophic failure is reduced significantly. Ancillary equipment such as video and digital processors provide a permanent record of the inspection while employing sophisticated 3-D measurement, trend analysis, documentation and image manipulation.

  11. 75 FR 6224 - Northern States Power Company of Minnesota; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company of Minnesota; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental... Northern States Power Company of Minnesota (NSPM) for operation of Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant... Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of...

  12. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  13. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  14. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  15. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  16. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. A.; Smachlo, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Small-scale tidal power plants - having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately - possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters, so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  17. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... FR 13926), establish and update generically applicable security requirements similar to those... FR 77919 dated December 14, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption...

  18. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Peach Bottom and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    A dramatic and extraordinary instance of state and local government control of nuclear power, the purchase by New York of the Shoreham plant is nonetheless indicative of the political demands that some states confront for additional involvement in the regulation of the radiological hazards associated with commercial nuclear power plants. Although the Supreme Court has appeared to expand, in the eight years since PG&E and Silkwood, the acceptable extent of state regulation, some states, in addition to New York, have acquired, with the acquiescence of the NRC, a degree of involvement that exceeds the role for state and local governments provided by the Court. For example, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania concluded with the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in June 1989 an agreement that commits PECO to various initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, for the safe operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. In July 1991 the State of Vermont and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation (Vermont Yankee) concluded an agreement similar to that concluded between Pennsylvania and PECO. The agreement also commits Vermont Yankee to certain initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, related to its operation of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Vermont. The agreement was precipitated by a challenge to an application, submitted to the NRC by Vermont Yankee in April 1989, to amend the Vermont Yankee plant license to extend its expiration date from December 11, 2007 to March 21, 2012. The amendment would allow the Vermont Yankee plant to operate for forty full years.

  20. Development of the cost-effective IGCC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.R.; Ullrich, N.; Haupt, G.; Zimmermann, G.; Pruschek, R.; Oeljeklaus, G.

    1998-07-01

    Utilization of the world's vast coal reserves for environmentally benign power generation in plants with the highest possible efficiencies is and will remain a top priority. This made it necessary to develop the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). While the IGCC prototype plants, three in the US and two in Europe, have the task of proving what is technically achievable, advanced IGCC technology is currently being developed further to provide the basis for clean and affordable energy in a competitive market. However, efficiency is only one aspect here. In addition to reliability and availability, power generating costs are the key criterion for a power producer, which logically means that these are lower than those of today's most advanced pulverized-coal-fired (PCF) steam power plants at the same specific capital investment due to the benefit from the achieved clearly higher efficiencies. This contribution reports interim results of a comprehensive ongoing study funded by the European Commission. First, the status of the IGCC 98 technology is described. Net station efficiencies around 52% are achieved under the site conditions prevailing in Denmark, where one of the world's most modern PCF power plants (design efficiency 47%) is currently being commissioned. The IGCC 98 station will be equipped with PRENFLO gasification developed by Krupp and a Siemens Model V94.3A gas turbine-generator with 1,250 C turbine inlet temperature (ISO). Furthermore, the results of a detailed cost estimate based on Western European conditions and aimed at clearly lower specific capital investment for an IGCC power plant are depicted.

  1. Effect of Impact Damage on the Fatigue Response of TiAl Alloy-ABB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Nazmy, M. Y.; Staubli, M.; Clemens, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gamma-TiAl to withstand potential foreign or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma-TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. In the present study, the impact resistance of TiAl alloy ABB-2 was determined and compared to the impact resistance of Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr. Specimens were impacted with four different impact conditions with impact energies ranging from 0.22 to 6.09 J. After impacting, the impact damage was characterized by crack lengths on both the front and backside of the impact. Due to the flat nature of gamma-TiAl's S-N (stress vs. cycles to failure) curve, step fatigue tests were used to determine the fatigue strength after impacting. Impact damage increased with increasing impact energy and led to a reduction in the fatigue strength of the alloy. For similar crack lengths, the fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 was similar to the fatigue strength of impacted Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, even though the tensile properties of the two alloys are significantly different. Similar to Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, ABB-2 showed a classical mean stress dependence on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 could be accurately predicted using a threshold analysis.

  2. Comparison and evaluation of power plant options for geosynchronous power stations. Part 1: Synchronous solar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The present state-of-the-art is described for the development of solar power generators in far out synchronous orbit for power generation. Concepts of geosynchronous solar power satellites are discussed including photovoltaic arrays for power satellites, solar-thermal power satellites, and power transmission to earth.

  3. Supercritical power plant 600 MW with cryogenic oxygen plant and CCS installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Dryjańska, Aleksandra

    2013-09-01

    This article describes a thermodynamic analysis of an oxy type power plant. The analyzed power plant consists of: 1) steam turbine for supercritical steam parameters of 600 °C/29 MPa with a capacity of 600 MW; 2) circulating fluidized bed boiler, in which brown coal with high moisture content (42.5%) is burned in the atmosphere enriched in oxygen; 3) air separation unit (ASU); 4) CO2 capture installation, where flue gases obtained in the combustion process are compressed to the pressure of 150 MPa. The circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is integrated with a fuel dryer and a cryogenic air separation unit. Waste nitrogen from ASU is heated in the boiler, and then is used as a coal drying medium. In this study, the thermal efficiency of the boiler, steam cycle thermal efficiency and power demand were determined. These quantities made possible to determine the net efficiency of the test power plant.

  4. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  5. Radon measurements in the Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, H; Bayata, S; Baldik, R; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    The Catalağzi Thermal Power Plant (CTPP) (41(0)30'48.4('')N and 0.31(0)53'41.5('')E) is located at nearly 13 km North-east of Zonguldak city, which is located at the West Black Sea coast in Turkey. The middling products with high ash content of bituminous coals are used in this plant. Seasonal radon concentration measurements have been carried out by using CR-39 plastic track detectors in and around the CTPP. The annual average radon concentration has been found to vary from a minimum of 39.8 +/- 28.9 Bq m(-3) in the ash area to a maximum of approximately 75.0 +/- 15.7 Bq m(-3) in the service building of the power plant. The annual average radon concentration in the dwellings of the thermal power plant colony of the plant is 71.0 +/- 33.4 Bq m(-3). The effective dose has been found to vary from 0.38 to 0.71 mSv y(-1) with a mean value of 0.56 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the effective dose values 3-10 mSv given as the range of action levels recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection: Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65 (1993).

  6. Nuclear power plants and natural populations of Mexican Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Levine, L; Olvera, O; Rockwell, R F; de la Rosa, M E; Guzmán, J

    1989-01-01

    With the worldwide proliferation of nuclear power plants has come the need to study the biological effects of the operation of the reactors on surrounding populations. We have begun a long-term study of the sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in the area of Laguna Verde in the state of Veracruz in Mexico. Laguna Verde, on the Gulf of Mexico about 75 km north of the city of Veracruz, is the location of the country's first nuclear power plant. This plant has not yet gone "on-line." The species have been collected from two sites, one of which is south of the reactor and is in the path of the prevailing north to south wind flow. The other collecting site is west of the plant. The species are being studied for the following: species frequency, desiccation resistance, vagility, proportion of larvae pupating, pupation height, and egg to adult survival after irradiation. To date we have noted both spatial and seasonal differences in a number of these characteristics. The information being gathered will serve as base-line data for monitoring the future operation of the nuclear power plant.

  7. A solar thermal electric power plant for small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A solar power plant has been designed with a rating of 1000-kW electric and a 0.4 annual capacity factor. It was configured as a prototype for plants in the 1000 to 10,000-kWe size range for application to small communities or industrial users either grid-connected or isolated from a utility grid. A small central receiver was selected for solar energy collection after being compared with alternative distributed collectors. Further trade studies resulted in the selection of Hitec (heat transfer salt composed of 53 percent KNO3, 40 percent NaNO2, 7 percent NaNO3) as both the receiver coolant and the sensible heat thermal stroage medium and the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The plant is configured with road-transportable units to accommodate remote sites and minimize site assembly requirements. Results of the analyses indicate that busbar energy costs are competitive with diesel-electric plants in certain situations, e.g., off-grid, remote regions with high insolation. Sensitivity of energy costs to plant power rating and system capacity factor are given.

  8. Nuclear power plants and natural populations of Mexican Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Levine, L; Olvera, O; Rockwell, R F; de la Rosa, M E; Guzmán, J

    1989-01-01

    With the worldwide proliferation of nuclear power plants has come the need to study the biological effects of the operation of the reactors on surrounding populations. We have begun a long-term study of the sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in the area of Laguna Verde in the state of Veracruz in Mexico. Laguna Verde, on the Gulf of Mexico about 75 km north of the city of Veracruz, is the location of the country's first nuclear power plant. This plant has not yet gone "on-line." The species have been collected from two sites, one of which is south of the reactor and is in the path of the prevailing north to south wind flow. The other collecting site is west of the plant. The species are being studied for the following: species frequency, desiccation resistance, vagility, proportion of larvae pupating, pupation height, and egg to adult survival after irradiation. To date we have noted both spatial and seasonal differences in a number of these characteristics. The information being gathered will serve as base-line data for monitoring the future operation of the nuclear power plant. PMID:2591737

  9. Method of optimizing performance of Rankine cycle power plants

    DOEpatents

    Pope, William L.; Pines, Howard S.; Doyle, Padraic A.; Silvester, Lenard F.

    1982-01-01

    A method for efficiently operating a Rankine cycle power plant (10) to maximize fuel utilization efficiency or energy conversion efficiency or minimize costs by selecting a turbine (22) fluid inlet state which is substantially in the area adjacent and including the transposed critical temperature line (46).

  10. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  11. OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  12. 6. View from north looking at power plant (center back), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View from north looking at power plant (center back), north elevation of mill (right back), old boiler room (center) with remnant of stack at right front corner of roof, and warehouses (left). - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  13. Within compound, from Guard Tower, looking southeast, Power Plant (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower, looking southeast, Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771) center, Supply Warehouse (Building 5768) to left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  14. Within compound, looking southeast Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southeast Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771), center - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  15. Within compound, from Gate House, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Gate House, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Electrical Substation (Building 5770) and Supply Warehouse (Building 5768) center, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771) to far left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  16. Sabah barge-mounted power plant in service

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, T.

    1995-03-01

    The world`s largest barge-mounted simple-cycle power plant, constructed by the Sabah Shipyards in Malaysia, is now in service in the Philippines. Construction of similar barges from Westinghouse should begin shortly. This paper discusses in brief the projects in progress at present and prospects in the Asian market from the perspective of the manufacturers.

  17. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. Objective: To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Methods: Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0.93 f/cm3. Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1.0 f/cm3. If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0.1 f/cm3. Conclusion: Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia. PMID:25730489

  18. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, A. I.; Serdyukov, O. V.

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  19. Increasing power plant efficiency with an ammonia bottoming cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    A Rankine cycle with ammonia as the working fluid was examined for operation between the condenser and cooling tower of a typical steam-cycle power plant. During periods of cold ambient temperature this ammonia bottoming cycle increases the net output of the plant as much as 10% by improving the net thermal efficiency. The levelized cost of this extra power was estimated to be as little as 50 mills/kWh in colder climates. This paper highlights a study conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using these ammonia bottoming cycles in air-cooled power plants. The thermodynamic and heat transfer properties of ammonia make it the best choice to serve the dual purpose of a heat transfer medium and a thermodynamic working fluid. Several operational modes are discussed, including the possibility of replacing the entire low-pressure steam turbine with an ammonia turbine. Costs, however, are estimated only for the case of a typical steam-cycle power plant with steam condensing at 120/sup 0/F or less.

  20. Increasing power plant efficiency with an ammonia bottoming cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    A Rankine cycle with ammonia as the working fluid was examined for operation between the condenser and cooling tower of a typical steam-cycle power plant. During periods of cold ambient temperature this ammonia bottoming cycle increases the net output of the plant as much as 10% by improving the net thermal efficiency. The levelized cost of this extra power was estimated to be as little as 50 mills/kWh in colder climates. This paper highlights a study conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using these ammonia bottoming cycles in air-cooled power plants. The thermodynamic and heat transfer properties of ammonia make it the best choice to serve the dual purpose of a heat transfer medium and a thermodynamic working fluid. Several operational modes are discussed, including the possibility of replacing the entire low-pressure steam turbine with an ammonia turbine. Costs, however, are estimated only for the case of a typical steam-cycle power plant with steam condensing at 120/sup 0/F or less.

  1. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1983-05-01

    The NUREG 0700 recommendations were assessed for implementation in the control rooms of Finnish nuclear power plants. Direct conclusions drawn from the American situation are misleading, because of differences in, for example, procurement of instruments or personnel training. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) is successful. It can also be used during planning to observe small discrepancies.

  2. Understanding Inertial and Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls).

  3. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuit 3, second tower from left supports Circuit 12, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second tower from right supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view southeast - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuits 7 and 14, middle tower supports Circuit 6, and right tower supports Circuit 5, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. Fundamentals of power plant performance for utility engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This three-volume, looseleaf text reviews power plant components and their operation from a performance perspective and presents the basics of performance testing. It provides the background to develop performance monitoring programs that improve component performance and provide operators with performance feedback and maintenance planning information.

  7. 1996--97 buying guide: Power plant products and services

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This is a buying guide/directory of power plant products and services. The guide includes a product index and a directory of product suppliers and manufacturers with the information necessary for making contact; and index of services and a directory of businesses providing the services with the information necessary for making contact with them.

  8. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  10. Within compound, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building 5761) and Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building 5761) and Guard Tower (Building 5762) to left, Electrical Substation to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  11. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions - Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Emission control system development includes: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on. power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO. to N02 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology

  12. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions-Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Chung, Landy

    2004-01-01

    Overview of emission control system development: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO to NO2 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology.

  13. Development of metal recycling process from decommissioned nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, T.; Abe, S.; Sakai, H.; Takahashi, J.

    1999-07-01

    Dismantling and demolition of a nuclear power plant generates a large amount of metal waste. Recycling of such waste for resource is important because of the limited capacity of the disposal site. Authors have developed metal recycling processes. It is found that pyrometallurgical separation techniques can effectively separate nickel and cobalt, which contain main contributors of radioactivity, from iron and chromium.

  14. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.

  15. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  16. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  17. 17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of spillway gates. Needle valves at lower left are for bypass. Photographer unknown, March 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. CLOSEUP OF RAIL MILL, POWER PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. CLOSE-UP OF RAIL MILL, POWER PLANT, ROD STORAGE, & MACHINE SHOP AT RIGHT OF TRACKS. BAR & BLOOMING MILL, PIT FURNACE BUILDING, OPEN HEARTH, & BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 & NO. 2 AT LEFT OF TRACKS. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. Assessment of MHD power plants with coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delallo, M. R., Jr.; Weinstein, R. E.; Cutting, J. C.; Owens, W. R.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment of the operational characteristics and cost of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants integrated with coal gasification was performed. The coal gasifier produces a slag and sulfur free fuel for the MHD combustor. This clean fuel eliminates slag and sulfur interactions with the MHD topping cycle and simplifies the design of the combustor, the MHD channel, and the heat and seed recovery (HRSR) subsystem components. This may increase MHD and HRSR system reliability and provide the potential for earlier commercial demonstration of MHD. Integration techniques with three advanced medium BTU gasifiers were evaluated and an optimum system defined. A detailed comparison was then performed with a direct coal fired MHD power plant using oxygen enrichment. Results indicate that incorporating a coal gasification process with MHD simplifies system design at the expense of lower overall net plant efficiency and higher levelized cost of electricity

  20. Design considerations for an inertial confinement fusion reactor power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.V.; Simpson, J.E.

    1981-08-10

    To further define the engineering and economic concerns for inertial confinement fusion reactors (ICR's), a conceptual design study was performed by Bechtel Group Incorporated under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study examined alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE concept and expanded the previous balance of plant design to incorporate information from recent liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) power plant studies. The majority of the effort was to incorporate present laser and target physics models into a reactor design with a low coolant flowrate and a high driver repetition rate. An example of such a design is the LLNL JADE concept. In addition to producing a power plant design for LLNL using the JADE example, Bechtel has also examined the applicability of the EAGLE (Energy Absorbing Gas Lithium Ejector) concept.

  1. The combined cycle power plant in Puertollano/Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schellberg, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes the efficient and environmentally friendly electric power generation from coal. The new IGCC technology with PRENFLO gasification is the basis for the first European plant in Spain. The IGCC plant in Puertollano/Spain will be the largest unit of this century with a capacity of 300 MWe (net). A special fuel, a 50/50 mixture of high ash raw coal and high sulphur petroleum coke will be gasified in the PRENFLO gasification unit. PRENFLO is an entrained-flow gasification system with dry fuel dust feeding. The development was partly funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology and the European Commission. Development trends in IGCC power plants will be discussed. The main equipment of the PRENFLO process as foreseen for the Spanish IGCC project is shown in the flow diagram.

  2. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  3. Modeling atmospheric mercury deposition in the vicinity of power plants.

    PubMed

    Seigneur, Christian; Lohman, Kristen; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Jansen, John; Levin, Leonard

    2006-06-01

    Two mathematical models of the atmospheric fate and transport of mercury (Hg), an Eulerian grid-based model and a Gaussian plume model, are used to calculate the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the vicinity (i.e., within 50 km) of five coal-fired power plants. The former is applied using two different horizontal resolutions: coarse (84 km) and fine (16.7 km). More than 96% of the power plant Hg emissions are calculated with the plume model to be transported beyond 50 km from the plants. The grid-based model predicts a lower fraction to be transported beyond 50 km: >91% with a coarse resolution and >95% with a fine resolution. The contribution of the power plant emissions to total Hg deposition within a radius of 50 km from the plants is calculated to be <8% with the plume model, <14% with the Eulerian model with a coarse resolution, and <10% with the Eulerian model with a fine resolution. The Eulerian grid-based model predicts greater local impacts than the plume model because of artificially enhanced vertical dispersion; the former predicts about twice as much Hg deposition as the latter when the area considered is commensurate with the resolution of the grid-based model. If one compares the local impacts for an area that is significantly less than the grid-based model resolution, then the grid-based model may predict lower local deposition than the plume model, because two compensating errors affect the results obtained with the grid-based model: initial dilution of the power plant emissions within one or more grid cells and enhanced vertical mixing to the ground.

  4. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  5. Binary Cycle Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant New Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Robert G.; Jacobson, William O.

    1980-12-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) has been associated with geothermal exploration and development in the Imperial Valley since 1971. SDG and E currently has interests in the four geothermal reservoirs shown. Major SDG and E activities have included drilling and flow testing geothermal exploration wells, feasibility and process flow studies, small-scale field testing of power processes and equipment, and pilot plant scale test facility design, construction and operation. Supporting activities have included geothermal leasing, acquisition of land and water rights, pursual of a major new transmission line to carry Imperial Valley geothermal and other sources of power to San Diego, and support of Magma Electric's 10 MW East Mesa Geothermal Power Plant.

  6. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  7. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Johnson, Jay; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Lave, Matthew Samuel; Delhotal, Jarod James

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  8. Advanced binary geothermal power plants: Limits of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliem, C. J.; Mines, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program is investigating potential improvements to power cycles utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources to produce electrical power. Investigations have specifically examined Rankine cycle binary power systems. Binary Rankine cycles are more efficient than the flash steam cycles at moderate resource temperature, achieving a higher net brine effectiveness. At resource conditions similar to those at the Heber binary plant, it has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating in a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over Rankine cycles with the pure working fluids executing single or dual boiling cycles or supercritical cycles. Recently, other types of cycles have been proposed for binary geothermal service. The feasible limits on efficiency of a plant given practical limits on equipment performance is explored and the methods used in these advanced concept plants to achieve the maximum possible efficiency are discussed. (Here feasible is intended to mean reasonably achievable and not cost effective.) No direct economic analysis was made because of the sensitivity of economic results to site specific input. The limit of performance of three advanced plants were considered. The performance predictions were taken from the developers of each concept. The advanced plants considered appear to be approaching the feasible limit of performance. Ultimately, the plant designer must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the the different cycles to find the best plant for a given service. In addition, a standard is presented of comparison of the work which has been done in the Heat Cycle Research Program and in the industrial sector by Exergy, Inc. and Polythermal Technologies.

  9. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  10. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  11. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  12. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  13. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  14. Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushong, Wilton E.; Fox, Ronald C.; Brown, Christopher S.; Biro, Ronald R.; Dreshel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinostat rotates coaxial pair of plant-growth cabinets about horizontal axis while supplying cabinets with electric power for built-in computers, lamps, fans, and auxiliary equipment, such as nutrient pumps. Each cabinet self-contained unit for growing plants in controlled environment. By rotating cabinets and contents about horizontal axis, scientists simulate and study some of effects of microgravity on growth of plants. Clinostat includes vertical aluminum mounting bracket on horizontal aluminum base. Bearings on bracket hold shaft with V-belt pulley. At each end of shaft, circular plate holds frame mount for cabinet. Mounting plates also used to hold transparent sealed growth chambers described in article, "Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat" (KSC-11538).

  15. Optimal scheduling of sootblowers in power plant boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez-Urbano, Pedro Manuel

    1997-11-01

    Burning coal or other fossil fuels in a utility boiler fouls the surfaces of its heat exchangers with ash and soot residues. These deposits affect the performance of the power plant since they reduce heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water or steam. Fouling can be removed during the operation of the plant with the use of lances, called sootblowers, that direct high-pressure air or steam onto the fouled surfaces. Sootblowing operations are key to plant efficiency and boiler maintenance, but they also incur operating costs. A utility boiler may have a hundred or so sootblowers placed in fixed locations. Deciding which of these should be used at any moment is complicated by the lack of instrumentation that can monitor fouling levels. This dissertation studies the optimization problem of scheduling sootblowing activities at a utility plant. The objective is to develop an optimization approach to determine which sootblowers should be activated at any moment in order to maximize plant efficiency. To accomplish this, three issues are addressed. First, models are developed that can estimate fouling conditions indirectly during plant operation using commonly available data. The approach used relies on a sequential application of linear regression fits. Secondly, autoregressive exogenous (ARX) models are used to describe the dynamics of the fouling process and to estimate the consequences of fouling on plant efficiency. All the foregoing empirical models are developed using data from a power plant. Finally, using the empirical models, an optimization model is formulated for the sootblowing scheduling problem and different optimization approaches that combine nonlinear programming with heuristics methods are investigated for its solution. The applicability of dynamic programming to this optimization problem is also explored.

  16. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants. Final report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P.E.; McDonald, A.T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J.T.

    1985-05-01

    The focus of this report is on closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems under research at Purdue University. The working operations of an OTEC power plant are briefly discussed. Methods of improving the performance of OTEC power systems are presented. Brief discussions on the methods of heat exchanger analysis and design are provided, as are the thermophysical properties of the working fluids and seawater. An interactive code capable of analyzing OTEC power system performance is included for use with an IBM personal computer.

  17. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P. E.; McDonald, A. T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J. T.

    1985-05-01

    The focus of this report is on closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems under research at Purdue University. The working operations of an OTEC power plant are briefly discussed. Methods of improving the performance of OTEC power systems are presented. Brief discussions on the methods of heat exchanger analysis and design are provided, as are the thermophysical properties of the working fluids and seawater. An interactive code capable of analyzing OTEC power system performance is included for use with an IBM personal computer.

  18. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - Technology and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bulawka, A.

    1985-01-01

    Central-Station (CS) Photovoltaic (PV) systems have the potential of economically displacing significant amounts of centrally generated electricity. However, the technical viability and, to some extent, the economic viability of central-station PV generation technology will depend upon the availability of large power conditioners that are efficient, safe, reliable, and economical. This paper is an overview of the technical and cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for central-station power plants. The paper also examines various already commercially available PCS hardware that may be suitable for use in today's central PV power stations.

  19. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  20. Increased efficiency of topping cycle PCFB power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.

    1996-05-01

    Pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) power plants offer the power industry significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions. When topping combustion is incorporated in the plant, these advantages are enhanced. In the plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates and a packed bed of emathelite pellets to remove alkali vapors. the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator combustor, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the PCFB and the exhaust gas passes through its own cyclone, ceramic barrier filter, and alkali getter and supports combustion of the fuel gas in the topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the PCFB drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant.

  1. Revised seismic and geologic siting regulations for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, A.J.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    The primary regulatory basis governing the seismic design of nuclear power plants is contained in Appendix A to Part 50, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). General Design Criteria (GDC) 2 defines requirements for design bases for protection against natural phenomena. GDC 2 states the performance criterion that {open_quotes}Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, . . . without loss of capability to perform their safety functions. . .{close_quotes}. Appendix A to Part 100, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, has been the principal document which provided detailed criteria to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites and suitability of the plant design basis established in consideration of the seismic and geologic characteristics of the proposed sites. Appendix A defines required seismological and geological investigations and requirements for other design conditions such as soil stability, slope stability, and seismically induced floods and water waves, and requirements for seismic instrumentation. The NRC staff is in the process of revising Appendix A. The NRC has recently revised seismic siting and design regulations for future applications. These revisions are discussed in detail in this paper.

  2. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  3. Overview of past, present and future marine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy El-Gohary, M.

    2013-06-01

    In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies, reserves; economic variations facing the world, and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels, an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable, safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative. The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world. Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NO x and SO x emissions. These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem. In this paper, the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed. The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second. Also, the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past, present and future of the marine power plants development. Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions, many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem, including the adoption of new cleaner fuels. This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine, gas turbines, and fuel cells.

  4. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  5. Forecast Inaccuracies in Power Plant Projects From Project Managers' Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Orlando

    Guided by organizational theory, this phenomenological study explored the factors affecting forecast preparation and inaccuracies during the construction of fossil fuel-fired power plants in the United States. Forecast inaccuracies can create financial stress and uncertain profits during the project construction phase. A combination of purposeful and snowball sampling supported the selection of participants. Twenty project managers with over 15 years of experience in power generation and project experience across the United States were interviewed within a 2-month period. From the inductive codification and descriptive analysis, 5 themes emerged: (a) project monitoring, (b) cost control, (c) management review frequency, (d) factors to achieve a precise forecast, and (e) factors causing forecast inaccuracies. The findings of the study showed the factors necessary to achieve a precise forecast includes a detailed project schedule, accurate labor cost estimates, monthly project reviews and risk assessment, and proper utilization of accounting systems to monitor costs. The primary factors reported as causing forecast inaccuracies were cost overruns by subcontractors, scope gaps, labor cost and availability of labor, and equipment and material cost. Results of this study could improve planning accuracy and the effective use of resources during construction of power plants. The study results could contribute to social change by providing a framework to project managers to lessen forecast inaccuracies, and promote construction of power plants that will generate employment opportunities and economic development.

  6. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  7. Understanding the nature of nuclear power plant risk

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of understanding of severe accident consequences from the non-mechanistic assumptions of WASH-740 to WASH-1400, NUREG-1150, SOARCA and today in the interpretation of the consequences of the accident at Fukushima. As opposed to the general perception, the radiological human health consequences to members of the Japanese public from the Fukushima accident will be small despite meltdowns at three reactors and loss of containment integrity. In contrast, the radiation-related societal impacts present a substantial additional economic burden on top of the monumental task of economic recovery from the nonnuclear aspects of the earthquake and tsunami damage. The Fukushima accident provides additional evidence that we have mis-characterized the risk of nuclear power plant accidents to ourselves and to the public. The human health risks are extremely small even to people living next door to a nuclear power plant. The principal risk associated with a nuclear power plant accident involves societal impacts: relocation of people, loss of land use, loss of contaminated products, decontamination costs and the need for replacement power. Although two of the three probabilistic safety goals of the NRC address societal risk, the associated quantitative health objectives in reality only address individual human health risk. This paper describes the types of analysis that would address compliance with the societal goals. (authors)

  8. Power harmonic problems at a plastics extrusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Medora, N.K.; Kusko, A.

    1995-12-31

    A plastics extrusion plant in Massachusetts operated a 250-hp thyristor dc-adjustable speed drive from a 300-kVA 13.8 kV to 480 V utility service transformer on two miles of 13.8-kV line. The operation was marginal. Tripping of the drive occurred on undervoltage dips. To raise the power factor and reduce the voltage drop, the plant personnel installed 300 kvar of capacitors on the 480-V system. The installation was made without a power-harmonic study. The result was frequent tripping of the drives and noisy operation. It was apparent that a resonance occurred between the capacitors and the source impedance. To gain insight into the system operation, a PSpice computer simulation was performed on the plant electrical system. It was determined that the modified power system, with the capacitors installed, had a resonance frequency at the 5th harmonic. This resonance condition caused severe problems of harmonic voltage distortion, aggravated voltage drop, and caused the dc drives to trip. The PSpice computer simulation was also performed using power harmonic filters, consisting of tuning reactors in series with the capacitors.

  9. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.

    2014-12-01

    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  10. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  12. New power plants approved and novel materials -- new problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.R.; Leich, K.

    1996-12-31

    Coal-based power generation during the past decades has increased despite the adoption of nuclear power and the intensified use of oil and natural gas. Even if the primary energy natural gas experienced a greater increase over the past years as compared to coal because of the better calorific value and the lower pollutants emission, in the long run coal will remain the most important fossil energy because of the larger resources, i.e., power generation by coal will not become obsolete. However, the focus will still be on efficiency increase and resulting decrease of fuel demand. That this objective is anything but new is demonstrated by the evolution of the fuel demand and the net efficiency of power plants. While the initial plant efficiency gain was exclusively the result of commercial efficiency and of the natural curiosity of technicians and engineers, present utilities are forced to gain an efficiency increase because of the imminent climate changes due to the green house effect and because of output losses due to pollution control systems operation. In the past 60 years the plant efficiency could be raised from 17% to 45%. fuel demand per kWh decreased by more than 60% since 1930. A further increase of the efficiency and a decrease of the fuel demand per kWh become more and more difficult as the result of the stricter legal emission standards. The above goals may be followed only, as has been done in the past years, by considering the reduction of pollutants emission (also CO{sub 2}). This report will give an overview of the various power plant types, their pollutants emission, and their efficiency by considering the required materials.

  13. Thermoelectric-Driven Autonomous Sensors for a Biomass Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Gubía, E.; Sorbet, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the design and development of a thermoelectric generator intended to harness waste heat in a biomass power plant, and generate electric power to operate sensors and the required electronics for wireless communication. The first objective of the work is to design the optimum thermoelectric generator to harness heat from a hot surface, and generate electric power to operate a flowmeter and a wireless transmitter. The process is conducted by using a computational model, presented in previous papers, to determine the final design that meets the requirements of electric power consumption and number of transmissions per minute. Finally, the thermoelectric generator is simulated to evaluate its performance. The final device transmits information every 5 s. Moreover, it is completely autonomous and can be easily installed, since no electric wires are required.

  14. EURELIOS, the world's first thermomechanical helioelectric power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretz, J.

    Characteristics of the power source, design, costs and operating mechanisms and performance of the EURELIOS central receiver solar electric power plant are described. Noting that the solar input at the earth's surface is about 1 kW/sq m, 6200 sq m of float glass mirrors mounted on 182 heliostats were fabricated to focus the incoming radiation onto a receiver aperture atop a 55 m high tower. The curved mirrors permit the focus of 80% of the energy input to be deposited on a 2.2 m diam aperture which is equipped with heat exchangers imbedded in pyrex and darkened and finned to maximize absorption. Feedwater is superheated in the receiver and is transferred to a buffer tank of hot water at 19 bar and molten salt at 410 C, and then on to turbines for actual power production. The grid serves as back-up power system. Total costs are calculated at $1600/kWe.

  15. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  16. A dynamical systems model for nuclear power plant risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Stephen Michael

    The recent transition to an open access generation marketplace has forced nuclear plant operators to become much more cost conscious and focused on plant performance. Coincidentally, the regulatory perspective also is in a state of transition from a command and control framework to one that is risk-informed and performance-based. Due to these structural changes in the economics and regulatory system associated with commercial nuclear power plant operation, there is an increased need for plant management to explicitly manage nuclear safety risk. Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to model plant hardware has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events and equipment failures that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has supported improved plant operation and safety over the previous decade. However, this analytical approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. Thus, the research described in this dissertation presents a different approach to address this issue. Here we propose a dynamical model that describes the interaction of important plant processes among themselves and their overall impact on nuclear safety risk. We first provide a review of the techniques that are applied in a conventional probabilistic risk assessment of commercially operating nuclear power plants and summarize the typical results obtained. The limitations of the conventional approach and the status of research previously performed to address these limitations also are presented. Next, we present the case for the application of an alternative approach using dynamical systems theory. This includes a discussion of previous applications of dynamical models to study other important socio-economic issues. Next, we review the analytical techniques that are applicable to analysis of

  17. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  18. Effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, H.B.; Downing, R.H.

    1982-11-01

    The results are presented of two studies done on the effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values. One study, which examined property values in the vicinity of four Northeastern power plants prior to the March, 1979 TMI accident, found no significant evidence positively or negatively. Using the same analytic approach, residences in the TMI area were surveyed after the accident and again no determining evidence was found upon consideration of all of 1979. The methodology of both studies is examined along with a discussion of the hedonic price model on which they were based. It is speculated, however, that the difficulties involved in the clean up and the resultant rise in utility prices may inadvertently create long-term capitalization effects. 18 references.

  19. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  1. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  2. Expert systems and their use in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. |

    1990-12-31

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, great quantities of numeric, symbolic, and quantitative information are handled by the reactor operators even during routine operation. The sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which available raw data can be converted into, and assimilated as, meaningful knowledge. In operating a nuclear power plant, people are sometimes affected by fatigue, stress, emotion, and environmental factors that may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems provide a method of removing some of the uncertainty from operator decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. 74 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Deployment of the Topaz-II space nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, V.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Polansky, G.F. )

    1993-01-01

    The Topaz-II is a 5-kW(electric) Russian space nuclear power plant. The power plant resembles a shuttlecock standing 3.9 m high and is 1.4 m in diameter at the base. The reactor is at the top, the radiation shield is in the middle, and the radiator is at the bottom. The whole system weighs 1 tonne. The reactor core is 37.5 cm long and 26 cm in diameter. It contains 37 core-length, single-cell thermionic fuel elements embedded in a ZrH moderator. Each thermionic fuel cell is a cylindrical emitter inside a cylindrical collector. Nuclear fuel inside the emitter raises the emitter's temperature.

  4. Experiences with drug testing at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    After more than 2 yr of operation of a drug testing program at the San Onofre nuclear power plant site, the Southern California Edison Co. has had a number of experiences and lessons considered valuable. The drug testing program at San Onofre, implemented in September of 1984, continues in essentially the same form today. Prior to describing the program, the paper reviews several underlying issues that believed to be simultaneously satisfied by the program: trustworthiness, fitness and safety, public trust, and privacy and search. The overall drug testing program, periodic drug monitoring program, and unannounced drug testing program are described. In addition to the obvious features of a good drug testing program, which are described in the EEI guide, it is essential to consider such issues as the stated program rationale, employee relations, and disciplinary action measures when contemplating or engaging in drug testing at nuclear power plants.

  5. Use of a Best Estimate Power Monitoring Tool to Maximize Power Plant Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuba, Lindsey L.

    2006-07-01

    The Best Estimate Power Monitor (BEPM) is a tool that was developed to maximize nuclear power plant generation, while ensuring regulatory compliance in the face of venturi fouling, industry ultra-sonic flowmeter issues and other technical challenges. The BEPM uses ASME approved 'best estimate' methodology described in PTC 19.1-1985, 'Measurement Uncertainty', Section 3.8, 'Weighting Method'. The BEPM method utilizes many different and independent indicators of core thermal power and independently computes the core thermal power (CTP) from each parameter. The uncertainty of each measurement is used to weight the results of the best estimate computation of CTP such that those with lower uncertainties are weighted more heavily in the computed result. The independence of these measurements is used to minimize the uncertainty of the aggregate result, and the overall uncertainty can be much lower than the uncertainties of any of the individual measured parameters. Examples of the Balance of Plant parameters used in the BEPM are turbine first stage pressure, venturi feedwater flow, condensate flow, main steam flow, high pressure turbine exhaust pressure, low pressure turbine inlet pressure, the two highest pressure feedwater heater extraction pressures, and final feedwater temperature. The BEPM typically makes use of installed plant instrumentation that provide data to the plant computer. Therefore, little or no plant modification is required. In order to compute core thermal power from the independent indicators, a set of baseline data is used for comparison. These baseline conditions are taken from a day when confidence in the value of core thermal power is high (i.e., immediately post outage when venturi fouling is not an issue or from a formal tracer test). This provides the reference point on which to base the core thermal power calculations for each of the independent parameters. The BEPM is effective only at the upper end of the power range, where the independent

  6. Rocket Power Plants Based on Nitric Acid and their Specific Propulsive Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zborowski, Helmut

    1947-01-01

    Two fields are reserved for the application of rocket power plants. The first field is determined by the fact that the rocket power plant is the only type of power plant that can produce thrust without dependence upon environment. For this field,the rocket is therefore the only possible power plant and the limit of what may be done is determined by the status of the technical development of these power plants at the given moment. The second field is that in which the rocket power plant proves itself the most suitable as a high-power drive in free competition with other types of power plants. The exposition will be devoted to the demarcation of this field and its division among the various types of rocket power plants.

  7. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-09-15

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report 'Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.' The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  8. Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, F.S. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs.

  9. Integration of computer systems for California aqueduct power plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Delfin, E.L. ); Gaushell, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    The California State Water Project is one of the largest water and power systems in the world and includes over 130 hydroelectric units. This paper provides an overview of the planning and implementation of the control and communication systems replacement for the entire Project. New control system features include a multi-agency control center, off-site backup control center, four area control systems, ten major pumping/generating plant control systems, and a 400 mile fiber optic communication system.

  10. Evaluation of high-concentration photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J. ); Whisnant, R.A. ); McGowin, C.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design, and estimated cost and performance of two high-concentration, 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver.

  11. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  12. Data feature: World nuclear power plant capacity 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    At this point, the future of the nuclear power industry remains largely in doubt. The gloomy predictions about global warming have done little to convince politicians and the public of the benefits of nuclear power. Meanwhile, the setbacks to nuclear have continued apace: The United States has failed to take the expected lead in ordering new nuclear plants. And President-elect Bill Clinton does not consider nuclear a major part of his energy strategy. The situation looks equally bleak in other countries. Canada's biggest utility, Ontario Hydro, was forced under intense political pressure to defer its ambitious nuclear expansion program until after the year 2010. In Europe, the suspension of France's Superphenix fast-breeder reactor in June could stop progress on the technology indefinitely. And the Finnish parliament dropped plans for expansion of nuclear power from its national energy strategy. Developing and semi-industrialized countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, have shown little progress, taking upwards of twenty years to complete plants already under construction. Nuclear's problems seem always to hinge on economics. Nuclear has little chance of revival during the current global recession, especially in countries fighting for their long-term economic survival. That is why NUKEM believes nuclear power will not grow much in the CIS and Eastern Europe beyond the projects already in the advanced stages of construction. What's more, the longer countries such as Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and Finland keep their nuclear expansion plans on hold, the harder it will be to get the political support to restart them. So far in 1992, only two nuclear plants, with a combined capacity of 1,520 MWe, have gone into commercial operation. One more 1,330 MWe reactor may start up by year's end. By then, NUKEM expects world nuclear plant capacity to stand at 330.3 GWe.

  13. Nuclear power plant fault-diagnosis using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Keehoon; Aljundi, T.L.; Bartlett, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to various fields due to their fault and noise tolerance and generalization characteristics. As an application to nuclear engineering, we apply neural networks to the early recognition of nuclear power plant operational transients. If a transient or accident occurs, the network will advise the plant operators in a timely manner. More importantly, we investigate the ability of the network to provide a measure of the confidence level in its diagnosis. In this research an ANN is trained to diagnose the status of the San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station using data obtained from the plant's training simulator. Stacked generalization is then applied to predict the error in the ANN diagnosis. The data used consisted of 10 scenarios that include typical design basis accidents as well as less severe transients. The results show that the trained network is capable of diagnosing all 10 instabilities as well as providing a measure of the level of confidence in its diagnoses.

  14. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  15. On monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H.; Abramson, L.R.

    1993-08-11

    If offsite power is interrupted, the availability of onsite alternating current power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. To control the risk of severe care damage during station blackout accidents at a given plant, the reliability of the emergency diesel generators (EDGS) to start and load-run upon demand must be maintained at a sufficiently high level. The minimum EDG reliability, which we denote by RT, is targeted at either 0.95 or 0.975 per nuclear unit consistent with the reliability level that the plant operator assumed in the coping analysis for station blackout. In 1992 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) considered an amendment that would require licensees to test and monitor EDG reliability against performance-based criteria that indicate possible degradation from the EDG target reliability levels. They originally proposed the following set of fixed sample-size triggers for use in monitoring EDG reliability. The purpose of this report is to compare the performance of the proposed triggers with corresponding alternative sequential variable sample-size triggers which potentially permit earlier detection of EDG reliability degradation without significantly increasing the false alarm rate. The comparison is to be done in a simulated use environment by means of Monte Carlo simulation. We are also interested in the inverse conditional probabilities of reliability degradation given that a trigger has occurred.

  16. Just In-Time Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Alexander G. Parlos

    2002-01-22

    The goal of this project has been to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new technology for maintenance engineering: a Just-In-Time Maintenance (JITM) system for rotating machines. The JITM system is based on several key developments at Texas A and M over the past ten years in emerging intelligent information technologies, which if integrated into a single system could provide a revolutionary approach in the way maintenance is performed. Rotating machines, such as induction motors, range from a few horse power (hp) to several thousand hp in size, and they are widely used in nuclear power plants and in other industries. Forced outages caused by induction motor failures are the reason for as much as 15% - 40% of production costs to be attributable to maintenance, whereas plant shutdowns caused by induction motor failures result in daily financial losses to the utility and process industries of $1 M or more. The basic components of the JITM system are the available machine sensors, that is electric current sensors and accelerometers, and the computational algorithms used in the analysis and interpretation of the occurring incipient failures. The JITM system can reduce the costs attributable to maintenance by about 40% and it can lower the maintenance budgets of power and process plants by about 35%, while requiring no additional sensor installation. As a result, the JITM system can improve the competitiveness of US nuclear utilities at minimal additional cost.

  17. Power plant impact assessment: a simple fishery production model approach

    SciTech Connect

    MacCall, A.D.; Parker, K.R.; Leithiser, R.; Jessee, B.

    1983-07-01

    The relative abundance of a cohort affected by power plant entrainment mortality as a fraction (R/sub c/) of the abundance of that cohort in the absence of power plant impact can be calculated by R/sub c/ = exp (-E/sub i/t/sub i/) where t/sub i/ is the duration of life stage i, and E/sub i/ is the entrainment mortality rate at stage i. Rate E/sub i/ can be estimated by the ratio of nonsurviving entrained organisms during a given time interval to the mean standing crop of stage i organisms in the source water during that interval. An estimate of adult abundance allows calculation of equivalent adult losses. When insufficient information is available to determine the long-term effect on the population, the fishery ''potential yield'' formula provides an interim estimate. Relative equilibrium abundance of the affected population (R/sub e/) is approximated by R/sub e/ = 1-(..sigma..E/sub i/t/sub i/ + F/sub p/ + F/sub f/)/2M, where F/sub p/ is adult mortality rate due to power plant impingement, F/sub f/ is adult mortality rate due to fisheries, and M is adult natural mortality rate. As in the case of the ''potential yield'' formula, this approximation of long-term equilibrium impact should be discarded when better estimates can be developed.

  18. Power plant material characterization by lasers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The EPRI Nuclear Division undertook examination of the feasibility of utilizing lasers to perform in situ operations within power plants in 1983. The Nd- Yag laser was of particular interest because flexible fiber optics cabling could be utilized for beam transport; the end effectors could be made small enough to access power plant components remotely. Beam management for welding and metal conditioning in confined spaces; the first issue examined, lead to the application for steam generator repairs that is now in common usage. This report examines the laser beam as a source of information about the material property condition; an application made feasible by advances in fiber and laser technology that were achieved beginning in 1989. This work, examines the prospects for determination of material condition properties within power plants because the laser beam can be utilized for sampling and as a source of optical, thermal, ultrasonic, spectrographic and mensuration data that may be obtained nondestructively. Both application evaluations and feasibility testing is described.

  19. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Improving hot gas filtration behavior in PFBC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Gil, A.; Cortes, C.

    1999-07-01

    According to a previous paper, a laboratory-scale cold flow model of the hot gas filtration system in Escatron PFBC power plant has been built. The main objectives were to establish the validity of the scaling laws for cyclone separator systems (cyclone and dipleg) and to perform detailed room temperature studies in a rapid and cost effective manner. In Escatron PFBC power plant, the hot gas filtration equipment is a two-stage process performed in nine streams between the fluidized bed and the gas turbine. Due to the unsteadiness in the dipleg and the suction nozzle, and the effect of sintered deposit, the cyclone performance is modified. The performances of cyclone separator system and suction nozzle diplegs are scarcely reported in the open literature. This paper presents the results of a detailed research in which some important conclusions of well known studies about cyclones are verified. Also remarkable is the increase in cyclone efficiency and decrease in pressure drop when the solid load to the cyclone is increased. The possibility to check the fouling by means of pressure drop has not been previously addressed. Finally, the influences of gas input velocity to the cyclone, the transport gas to the ash conveying lines, the solid load and the cyclone fouling have been analyzed. This study has allowed characterizing the performance of the full-scale ash removal system, establishing safe limits of operation and testing design improvements as the two suction nozzle dipleg, pointing out important conclusions for the filtration process in PFBC power plants.