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Sample records for abbe sine condition

  1. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  2. SINEs.

    PubMed

    Kramerov, Dmitri A; Vassetzky, Nikita S

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are mobile genetic elements that invade the genomes of many eukaryotes. Since their discovery about 30 years ago, many gaps in our understanding of the biology and function of SINEs have been filled. This review summarizes the past and recent advances in the studies of SINEs. The structure and origin of SINEs as well as the processes involved in their amplification, transcription, RNA processing, reverse transcription, and integration of a SINE copy into the genome are considered. Then we focus on the significance of SINEs for the host genomes. While these genomic parasites can be deleterious to the cell, the long-term being in the genome has made SINEs a valuable source of genetic variation providing regulatory elements for gene expression, alternative splice sites, polyadenylation signals, and even functional RNA genes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: TWO-ZONE PCE BIOREMEDIATION SYSTEM - ABB ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC. - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABB Environmental Services, Inc.'s (ABB-ES), research has demonstrated that sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is feasible if the proper conditions can be established. The anaerobic process can potentially completely dechlorinate PCE. Howeve...

  4. ABB's advanced steam turbine program

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    Demand for industrial steam turbines for combined-cycle applications and cogeneration plants has influenced turbine manufacturers to standardize their machines to reduce delivery time and cost. ABB, also a supplier of turnkey plants, manufactures steam turbines in Finspong, Sweden, at the former ASEA Stal facilities and in Nuernberg, Germany, at the former AEG facilities. The companies have joined forces, setting up the advanced Steam Turbine Program (ATP) that, once completed, will cover a power range from two to 100 MW. The company decided to use two criteria as a starting point, the high efficiency design of the Swedish turbines and themore » high reliability of the German machines. Thus, the main task was combining the two designs in standard machines that could be assembled quickly into predefined packages to meet specific needs of combined-cycle and cogeneration plants specified by customers. In carrying out this project, emphasis was put on cost reduction as one of the main goals. The first results of the ATP program, presented by ABB Turbinen Nuernberg, is the range of 2-30 MW turbines covered by two frame sizes comprising standard components supporting the thermodynamic module. An important feature is the standardization of the speed reduction gearbox.« less

  5. Effect of Impact Damage on the Fatigue Response of TiAl Alloy-ABB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Nazmy, M. Y.; Staubli, M.; Clemens, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gamma-TiAl to withstand potential foreign or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma-TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. In the present study, the impact resistance of TiAl alloy ABB-2 was determined and compared to the impact resistance of Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr. Specimens were impacted with four different impact conditions with impact energies ranging from 0.22 to 6.09 J. After impacting, the impact damage was characterized by crack lengths on both the front and backside of the impact. Due to the flat nature of gamma-TiAl's S-N (stress vs. cycles to failure) curve, step fatigue tests were used to determine the fatigue strength after impacting. Impact damage increased with increasing impact energy and led to a reduction in the fatigue strength of the alloy. For similar crack lengths, the fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 was similar to the fatigue strength of impacted Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, even though the tensile properties of the two alloys are significantly different. Similar to Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, ABB-2 showed a classical mean stress dependence on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 could be accurately predicted using a threshold analysis.

  6. AbbVie Ltd., Barceloneta, PR Amended Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Region 2 Office (EPA) received an October 11,2017 submittal from the law firm of Toro, Colon, Mullet, Rivera & Sifre, P.S.c. on behalf of AbbVieLtd.

  7. Selective repression of SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J; Cairns, Bradley R; White, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A million copies of the Alu short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) are scattered throughout the human genome, providing ∼11% of our total DNA. SINEs spread by retrotransposition, using a transcript generated by RNA polymerase (pol) III from an internal promoter. Levels of these pol III-dependent Alu transcripts are far lower than might be expected from the abundance of the template. This was believed to reflect transcriptional suppression through DNA methylation, denying pol III access to most SINEs through chromatin-mediated effects. Contrary to expectations, our recent study found no evidence that methylation of SINE DNA reduces its occupancy or expression by pol III. However, histone H3 associated with SINEs is prominently methylated on lysine 9, a mark that correlates with transcriptional silencing. The SUV39 methyltransferases that deposit this mark can be found at many SINEs. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of SUV39 stimulates pol III recruitment to these loci, as well as SINE expression. These data suggest that methylation of histone H3 rather than DNA may mediate repression of SINE transcription by pol III, at least under the conditions we studied.

  8. Impact of workstations on criticality analyses at ABB combustion engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, L.B.; Freeman, R.S.; O'Donnell, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    During 1991, ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB C-E) made the transition from a CDC Cyber 990 mainframe for nuclear criticality safety analyses to Hewlett Packard (HP)/Apollo workstations. The primary motivation for this change was improved economics of the workstation and maintaining state-of-the-art technology. The Cyber 990 utilized the NOS operating system with a 60-bit word size. The CPU memory size was limited to 131 100 words of directly addressable memory with an extended 250000 words available. The Apollo workstation environment at ABB consists of HP/Apollo-9000/400 series desktop units used by most application engineers, networked with HP/Apollo DN10000 platforms that use 32-bitmore » word size and function as the computer servers and network administrative CPUS, providing a virtual memory system.« less

  9. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-02-12

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3' tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3′ tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  11. Open innovation at the Abbe School of Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgert, Christian; Geiss, Reinhard; Nolte, Stefan; Eilenberger, Falk; Zakoth, David; Mauroner, Oliver; Pertsch, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Abbe School of Photonics (ASP) provides and coordinates the optics and photonics education of graduate and doctoral students at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. The internationalized Master's degree program is the key activity in training students in the optical sciences. The program is designed to provide them with the skills necessary to fill challenging positions in industry and academia. Here, an essential factor is ASP's close collaboration with more than 20 German photonics companies. To sustain these partners' future economic development, the availability of highly qualified employees is constantly required. Accordingly, these industrial partners, the European Union, the local state and the federal German government are strongly involved in the sustainable development of ASP's curriculum by both conceptual and financial engagements. The main goal is to promote the students' academic careers and job experience in the photonics industry as well as in academia. To open up the program to students from all over the world, all ASP lectures and courses are taught in English. ASP's qualification strategy is fully research-oriented and based on the principles of academic freedom, competitive research conditions and internationalization at all levels. The education program is complemented by a structured doctoral student support and a prestigious guest professorship program. Recently, ASP and partners have started a project to build an open photonics laboratory in order to foster innovative and co-creative processes. The idea follows well-established open innovation schemes e.g. in electronics. This Photon Garage (German: "Lichtwerkstatt") will bring together professionals and interested laymen from different backgrounds to approach pertinent challenges in photonics. Here, we will share our latest insights into the potentials and opportunities offered by this novel educative approach.

  12. Sines and Cosines. Part 1 of 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Applying the concept of similarities, the mathematical principles of circular motion and sine and cosine waves are presented utilizing both film footage and computer animation in this 'Project Mathematics' series video. Concepts presented include: the symmetry of sine waves; the cosine (complementary sine) and cosine waves; the use of sines and cosines on coordinate systems; the relationship they have to each other; the definitions and uses of periodic waves, square waves, sawtooth waves; the Gibbs phenomena; the use of sines and cosines as ratios; and the terminology related to sines and cosines (frequency, overtone, octave, intensity, and amplitude).

  13. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  14. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, J T; Saxton, J; Hoffman, G

    1976-01-01

    A patient presented with unilateral findings of night blindness shown by impaired rod function and dark adaptation, constricted visual fields with good central acuity, a barely recordable electro-retinographic b-wave, and a unilaterally impaired electro-oculogram. There were none of the pigmentary changes usually associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected right eye was normal in all respects. Therefore the case is most probably one of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento. Images PMID:952804

  15. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, J T; Saxton, J; Hoffman, G

    1976-05-01

    A patient presented with unilateral findings of night blindness shown by impaired rod function and dark adaptation, constricted visual fields with good central acuity, a barely recordable electro-retinographic b-wave, and a unilaterally impaired electro-oculogram. There were none of the pigmentary changes usually associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected right eye was normal in all respects. Therefore the case is most probably one of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

  16. PCR-based approach to SINE isolation: simple and complex SINEs.

    PubMed

    Borodulina, Olga R; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2005-04-11

    Highly repeated copies of short interspersed elements (SINEs) occur in eukaryotic genomes. The distribution of each SINE family is usually restricted to some genera, families, or orders. SINEs have an RNA polymerase III internal promoter, which is composed of boxes A and B. Here we propose a method for isolation of novel SINE families based on genomic DNA PCR with oligonucleotide identical to box A as a primer. Cloning of the size-heterogeneous PCR-products and sequencing of their terminal regions allow determination of SINE structure. Using this approach, two novel SINE families, Rhin-1 and Das-1, from the genomes of great horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), respectively, were isolated and studied. The distribution of Rhin-1 is restricted to two of six bat families tested. Copies of this SINE are characterized by frequent internal insertions and significant length (200-270 bp). Das-1 being only 90 bp in length is one of the shortest SINEs known. Most of Das-1 nucleotide sequences demonstrate significant similarity to alanine tRNA which appears to be an evolutionary progenitor of this SINE. Together with three other known SINEs (ID, Vic-1, and CYN), Das-1 constitutes a group of simple SINEs. Interestingly, three SINE families of this group are alanine tRNA-derived. Most probably, this tRNA gave rise to short and simple but successful SINEs several times during mammalian evolution.

  17. Soliton evolution and radiation loss for the sine-Gordon equation.

    PubMed

    Smyth, N F; Worthy, A L

    1999-08-01

    An approximate method for describing the evolution of solitonlike initial conditions to solitons for the sine-Gordon equation is developed. This method is based on using a solitonlike pulse with variable parameters in an averaged Lagrangian for the sine-Gordon equation. This averaged Lagrangian is then used to determine ordinary differential equations governing the evolution of the pulse parameters. The pulse evolves to a steady soliton by shedding dispersive radiation. The effect of this radiation is determined by examining the linearized sine-Gordon equation and loss terms are added to the variational equations derived from the averaged Lagrangian by using the momentum and energy conservation equations for the sine-Gordon equation. Solutions of the resulting approximate equations, which include loss, are found to be in good agreement with full numerical solutions of the sine-Gordon equation.

  18. Calculating the Weather: Deductive Reasoning and Disciplinary "Telos" in Cleveland Abbe's Rhetorical Transformation of Meteorology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdik, Zoltan P.; Platt, Carrie Anne; Meister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetorical basis of a major paradigm change in meteorology, from a focus on inductive observation to deductive, mathematical reasoning. Analysis of Cleveland Abbe's "The Physical Basis of Long-Range Weather Forecasts" demonstrates how in his advocacy for a new paradigm, Abbe navigates the tension between piety to tradition…

  19. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. SINEBase: a database and tool for SINE analysis.

    PubMed

    Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2013-01-01

    SINEBase (http://sines.eimb.ru) integrates the revisited body of knowledge about short interspersed elements (SINEs). A set of formal definitions concerning SINEs was introduced. All available sequence data were screened through these definitions and the genetic elements misidentified as SINEs were discarded. As a result, 175 SINE families have been recognized in animals, flowering plants and green algae. These families were classified by the modular structure of their nucleotide sequences and the frequencies of different patterns were evaluated. These data formed the basis for the database of SINEs. The SINEBase website can be used in two ways: first, to explore the database of SINE families, and second, to analyse candidate SINE sequences using specifically developed tools. This article presents an overview of the database and the process of SINE identification and analysis.

  1. SINEBase: a database and tool for SINE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vassetzky, Nikita S.; Kramerov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    SINEBase (http://sines.eimb.ru) integrates the revisited body of knowledge about short interspersed elements (SINEs). A set of formal definitions concerning SINEs was introduced. All available sequence data were screened through these definitions and the genetic elements misidentified as SINEs were discarded. As a result, 175 SINE families have been recognized in animals, flowering plants and green algae. These families were classified by the modular structure of their nucleotide sequences and the frequencies of different patterns were evaluated. These data formed the basis for the database of SINEs. The SINEBase website can be used in two ways: first, to explore the database of SINE families, and second, to analyse candidate SINE sequences using specifically developed tools. This article presents an overview of the database and the process of SINE identification and analysis. PMID:23203982

  2. Functional noncoding sequences derived from SINEs in the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Smit, Arian F A; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-07-01

    Recent comparative analyses of mammalian sequences have revealed that a large number of nonprotein-coding genomic regions are under strong selective constraint. Here, we report that some of these loci have been derived from a newly defined family of ancient SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements). This is a surprising result, as SINEs and other transposable elements are commonly thought to be genomic parasites. We named the ancient SINE family AmnSINE1, for Amniota SINE1, because we found it to be present in mammals as well as in birds, and some copies predate the mammalian-bird split 310 million years ago (Mya). AmnSINE1 has a chimeric structure of a 5S rRNA and a tRNA-derived SINE, and is related to five tRNA-derived SINE families that we characterized here in the coelacanth, dogfish shark, hagfish, and amphioxus genomes. All of the newly described SINE families have a common central domain that is also shared by zebrafish SINE3, and we collectively name them the DeuSINE (Deuterostomia SINE) superfamily. Notably, of the approximately 1000 still identifiable copies of AmnSINE1 in the human genome, 105 correspond to loci phylogenetically highly conserved among mammalian orthologs. The conservation is strongest over the central domain. Thus, AmnSINE1 appears to be the best example of a transposable element of which a significant fraction of the copies have acquired genomic functionality.

  3. Functional noncoding sequences derived from SINEs in the mammalian genome

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Smit, Arian F.A.; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-01-01

    Recent comparative analyses of mammalian sequences have revealed that a large number of nonprotein-coding genomic regions are under strong selective constraint. Here, we report that some of these loci have been derived from a newly defined family of ancient SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements). This is a surprising result, as SINEs and other transposable elements are commonly thought to be genomic parasites. We named the ancient SINE family AmnSINE1, for Amniota SINE1, because we found it to be present in mammals as well as in birds, and some copies predate the mammalian-bird split 310 million years ago (Mya). AmnSINE1 has a chimeric structure of a 5S rRNA and a tRNA-derived SINE, and is related to five tRNA-derived SINE families that we characterized here in the coelacanth, dogfish shark, hagfish, and amphioxus genomes. All of the newly described SINE families have a common central domain that is also shared by zebrafish SINE3, and we collectively name them the DeuSINE (Deuterostomia SINE) superfamily. Notably, of the ∼1000 still identifiable copies of AmnSINE1 in the human genome, 105 correspond to loci phylogenetically highly conserved among mammalian orthologs. The conservation is strongest over the central domain. Thus, AmnSINE1 appears to be the best example of a transposable element of which a significant fraction of the copies have acquired genomic functionality. PMID:16717141

  4. Internationalized and research-oriented photonics education: Abbe School of Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgert, Christian; Nolte, Stefan; Pertsch, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The Abbe School of Photonics (ASP) provides and coordinates the optics and photonics education of graduate and doctoral students at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. The internationalized Master's degree program is the key activity in training students in the optical sciences. The program is designed to provide them with the skills necessary to fill challenging positions in industry and academia. Here, an essential factor is ASP's close collaboration with more than 20 German photonics companies. To sustain these partners' future economic development, the availability of highly qualified employees is constantly required. Accordingly, these industrial partners, the European Union, the local state and the federal German government are strongly involved in the sustainable development of ASP's curriculum by both conceptual and financial engagements. The main goal is to promote the students' academic careers and job experience in the photonics industry as well as in academia. To open up the program to students from all over the world, all ASP lectures and courses are taught in English. Since 2009, more than 250 graduate students from more than 40 different countries have been enrolled at the School. Almost 90% of them of non-German nationality, fulfilling the essential ASP philosophy to locally establish an international education program. ASP's qualification strategy is fully research-oriented and based on the principles of academic freedom, competitive research conditions and internationalization at all levels. The education program is complemented by a structured doctoral student support and a prestigious guest professorship program.

  5. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    PubMed

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  6. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com; Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br; Sousa, L.J.S., E-mail: luisjose@fisica.ufc.br

    2016-01-15

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a localized state to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changedmore » allowing the existence of massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.« less

  7. Carnivore-specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): distribution, evolution, and genomic impact.

    PubMed

    Walters-Conte, Kathryn B; Johnson, Diana L E; Allard, Marc W; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics.

  8. Carnivore-Specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): Distribution, Evolution, and Genomic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Diana L.E.; Allard, Marc W.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics. PMID:21846743

  9. Electro-mechanical sine/cosine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagge, B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    An electromechanical device for generating both sine and cosine functions is described. A motor rotates a cylinder about an axis parallel to and a slight distance from the central axis of the cylinder. Two noncontacting displacement sensing devices are placed ninety degrees apart, equal distances from the axis of rotation of the cylinder and short distances above the surface of cylinder. Each of these sensing devices produces an electrical signal proportional to the distance that it is away from the cylinder. Consequently, as the cylinder is rotated the outputs from the two sensing devices are the sine and cosine functions.

  10. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  11. Sines and Cosines. Part 3 of 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics' series video, the addition formulas of sines and cosines are explained and their real life applications are demonstrated. Both film footage and computer animation is used. Several mathematical concepts are discussed and include: Ptolemy's theorem concerned with quadrilaterals; the difference between a central angle and an inscribed angle; sines and chord lengths; special angles; subtraction formulas; and a application to simple harmonic motion. A brief history of the city Alexandria, its mathematicians, and their contribution to the field of mathematics is shown.

  12. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  13. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  14. SINE_scan: an efficient tool to discover short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in large-scale genomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are transposable elements (TEs) that amplify through a copy-and-paste mode via RNA intermediates. The computational identification of new SINEs are challenging because of their weak structural signals and rapid diversification in sequences. Here we report SINE_Scan, a highly efficient program to predict SINE elements in genomic DNA sequences. SINE_Scan integrates hallmark of SINE transposition, copy number and structural signals to identify a SINE element. SINE_Scan outperforms the previously published de novo SINE discovery program. It shows high sensitivity and specificity in 19 plant and animal genome assemblies, of which sizes vary from 120 Mb to 3.5 Gb. It identifies numerous new families and substantially increases the estimation of the abundance of SINEs in these genomes. The code of SINE_Scan is freely available at http://github.com/maohlzj/SINE_Scan , implemented in PERL and supported on Linux. wangh8@fudan.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. SINE_scan: an efficient tool to discover short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in large-scale genomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are transposable elements (TEs) that amplify through a copy-and-paste mode via RNA intermediates. The computational identification of new SINEs are challenging because of their weak structural signals and rapid diversification in sequences. Results: Here we report SINE_Scan, a highly efficient program to predict SINE elements in genomic DNA sequences. SINE_Scan integrates hallmark of SINE transposition, copy number and structural signals to identify a SINE element. SINE_Scan outperforms the previously published de novo SINE discovery program. It shows high sensitivity and specificity in 19 plant and animal genome assemblies, of which sizes vary from 120 Mb to 3.5 Gb. It identifies numerous new families and substantially increases the estimation of the abundance of SINEs in these genomes. Availability and Implementation: The code of SINE_Scan is freely available at http://github.com/maohlzj/SINE_Scan, implemented in PERL and supported on Linux. Contact: wangh8@fudan.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28062442

  16. [Hypochondria sine materia as a psychosomatic problem: a model of hypochondriac disorders realized in the cutaneous sphere].

    PubMed

    Smulevich, A B; Dorozhenok, I Iu; Romanov, D V; L'vov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Hypochondria sine materia is a disorder with physical complains corresponding to no any somatic diagnosis. Hypochondria sine materia is a more complicated psychopathological condition compared to hypochondria cum materia. Hypochondria sine materia could be diagnosed not only in psychiatry, but mainly in general medicine. It is especially prevalent in dermatology. As a result of analysis of hypochondriac disorders involving cutaneous sphere in patients without dermatological diseases, a binary model of psychodermatological syndromes presenting with hypochondria sine materia in dermatology was developed. The binary structure of the psychodermatological syndromes includes secondary psychiatric symptoms based on primary coenesthesiopathic phenomena. The heterogeneous psychodermatological syndromes (cutaneous organ neurosis, impulsive excoriations syndrome, circumscripta hypochondria, coenesthesiopathic paranoia) could be arranged in a continuum of consecutively worsening conditions from neurotic to psychotic severity register. The syndromes differ in clinical and social prognosis requiring different approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Talua SINE biology in the genome of the Reticulitermes subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Studies on transposable elements in termites are of interest because their genome is in a permanent condition of inbreeding. In this situation, an increase in transposon copy number should be mainly due to a Muller's ratchet effect, with selection against deleterious insertions playing a major role. Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, known to be stable components of eukaryotic genomes. The SINE Talua, first isolated from Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rhinotermitidae), is the only mobile element described so far in termites. In the present survey, Talua has been found widespread in the Isoptera order. In comparison with other non-termite SINEs, Talua diversity and distribution in the Reticulitermes genome demonstrate that Talua is an ancient component of termite genome and that it is significantly associated with other repeats. In particular, the element is found to be involved with microsatellite motifs either as their generator or because inserted in their nearby. Further, two new SINEs and a putative retrotranscriptase-like sequence were found linked to Talua. Talua's genomic distribution is discussed in the light of the available models on transposable element dynamics within inbred genomes, also taking into account SINE role as drivers of genetic diversity in counteracting inbreeding depression.

  18. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    PubMed

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  19. The stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs: Exact analytical solutions for simple topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirov, K.; Rakhmanov, S.; Matrasulov, D.; Susanto, H.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies. Exact analytical solutions are obtained for different vertex boundary conditions. It is shown that the method can be extended for tree and other simple graph topologies. Applications of the obtained results to branched planar Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with tricrystal boundaries are discussed.

  20. The sine method as a more accurate height predictor for hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2007-01-01

    Most hypsometers apply a mathematical technique that utilizes the tangent of angles and a horizontal distance to deliver the exact height of a tree under idealized circumstances. Unfortunately, these conditions are rarely met for hardwoods in the field. A “new” predictor based on sine and slope distance and discussed here does not require the same assumptions for...

  1. Conserved domains and SINE diversity during animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbour a number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs); moving from one genomic location to another, they are known to impact on the host genome. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are well-represented, non-autonomous retroelements and they are likely the most diversified MGEs. In some instances, sequence domains conserved across unrelated SINEs have been identified; remarkably, one of these, called Nin, has been conserved since the Radiata-Bilateria splitting. Here we report on two new domains: Inv, derived from Nin, identified in insects and in deuterostomes, and Pln, restricted to polyneopteran insects. The identification of Inv and Pln sequences allowed us to retrieve new SINEs, two in insects and one in a hemichordate. The diverse structural combination of the different domains in different SINE families, during metazoan evolution, offers a clearer view of SINE diversity and their frequent de novo emergence through module exchange, possibly underlying the high evolutionary success of SINEs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inverse Abbe-method for observing small refractive index changes in liquids.

    PubMed

    Räty, Jukka; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2015-05-01

    This study concerns an optical method for the detection of minuscule refractive index changes in the liquid phase. The proposed method reverses the operation of the traditional Abbe refractometer and thus utilizes the light dispersion properties of materials, i.e. it involves the dependence of the refractive index on light wavelength. In practice, the method includes the detection of light reflection spectra in the visible spectral range. This inverse Abbe method is suitable for liquid quality studies e.g. for monitoring water purity. Tests have shown that the method reveals less than per mil NaCl or ethanol concentrations in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abbe's number and Cauchy's constant of iodine and selenium doped poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Sheetal, E-mail: smehta-29@yahoo.com; Das, Kallol, E-mail: smehta-29@yahoo.com; Keller, Jag Mohan, E-mail: smehta-29@yahoo.com

    2014-04-24

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) / Polystyrene and iodine / selenium hybrid matrixes have been prepared and characterized. Refractive index measurements were done at 390, 535, 590, 635 nm wavelengths. Abbe's number and Cauchy's constants of the iodine / selenium doped poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene samples are being reported. The results also showed that the refractive index of the composite varies non-monotonically with the doping concentration at low iodine concentration or in the region of nanoparticles formation and is also dependent on thermal annealing.

  4. Bov-B-mobilized SINEs in vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2008-01-15

    Two new short retroposon families (SINEs) have been found in the genome of springhare Pedetes capensis (Rodentia). One of them, Ped-1, originated from 5S rRNA, while the other one, Ped-2, originated from tRNA-derived SINE ID. In contrast to most currently active mammalian SINEs mobilized by L1 long retrotransposon (LINE), Ped-1 and Ped-2 are mobilized by Bov-B, a LINE family of the widely distributed RTE clade. The 3' part of these SINEs originates from two sequences in the 5' and 3' regions of Bov-B. Such bipartite structure of the LINE-derived part has been revealed in all Bov-B-mobilized SINEs known to date (AfroSINE, Bov-tA, Mar-1, and Ped-1/2), which distinguishes them from other SINEs with only a 3' LINE-derived part. Structural analysis and the distribution of Bov-B LINEs and partner SINEs supports the horizontal transfer of Bov-B, while the SINEs emerged independently in lineages with this LINE.

  5. Sines and Cosines. Part 2 of 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines are introduced and demonstrated in this 'Project Mathematics' series video using both film footage and computer animation. This video deals primarily with the mathematical field of Trigonometry and explains how these laws were developed and their applications. One significant use is geographical and geological surveying. This includes both the triangulation method and the spirit leveling method. With these methods, it is shown how the height of the tallest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, was determined.

  6. Measuring Differential Delays With Sine-Squared Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Robert N.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for measuring differential delays among red, green, and blue components of video signal transmitted on different parallel channels exploits sine-squared pulses that are parts of standard test signals transmitted during vertical blanking interval of frame period. Technique does not entail expense of test-signal generator. Also applicable to nonvideo signals including sine-squared pulses.

  7. Origin and evolution of SINEs in eukaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kramerov, D A; Vassetzky, N S

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are one of the two most prolific mobile genomic elements in most of the higher eukaryotes. Although their biology is still not thoroughly understood, unusual life cycle of these simple elements amplified as genomic parasites makes their evolution unique in many ways. In contrast to most genetic elements including other transposons, SINEs emerged de novo many times in evolution from available molecules (for example, tRNA). The involvement of reverse transcription in their amplification cycle, huge number of genomic copies and modular structure allow variation mechanisms in SINEs uncommon or rare in other genetic elements (module exchange between SINE families, dimerization, and so on.). Overall, SINE evolution includes their emergence, progressive optimization and counteraction to the cell's defense against mobile genetic elements. PMID:21673742

  8. Origin and evolution of SINEs in eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Kramerov, D A; Vassetzky, N S

    2011-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are one of the two most prolific mobile genomic elements in most of the higher eukaryotes. Although their biology is still not thoroughly understood, unusual life cycle of these simple elements amplified as genomic parasites makes their evolution unique in many ways. In contrast to most genetic elements including other transposons, SINEs emerged de novo many times in evolution from available molecules (for example, tRNA). The involvement of reverse transcription in their amplification cycle, huge number of genomic copies and modular structure allow variation mechanisms in SINEs uncommon or rare in other genetic elements (module exchange between SINE families, dimerization, and so on.). Overall, SINE evolution includes their emergence, progressive optimization and counteraction to the cell's defense against mobile genetic elements.

  9. SINE sequences detect DNA fingerprints in salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Spruell, P; Thorgaard, G H

    1996-04-01

    DNA probes homologous to two previously described salmonid short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) detected DNA fingerprint patterns in 14 species of salmonid fishes. The probes showed more homology to some species than to others and little homology to three nonsalmonid fishes. The DNA fingerprint patterns derived from the SINE probes are individual-specific and inherited in a Mendelian manner. Probes derived from different regions of the same SINE detect only partially overlapping banding patterns, reflecting a more complex SINE structure than has been previously reported. Like the human Alu sequence, the SINEs found in salmonids could provide useful genetic markers and primer sites for PCR-based techniques. These elements may be more desirable for some applications than traditional DNA fingerprinting probes that detect tandemly repeated arrays.

  10. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) constitute a group of retroposons propagating in the genome via a mechanism of reverse transcription, in which they depend on the enzymatic machinery of long retroposons (LINEs). Over 70 SINE families have been described to date from the genomes of various eukaryotes. Here, we characterize two novel SINEs from salmons (Actinopterygii: Salmonoidei). The first family, termed SlmI, was shown to be widespread among all genera of the suborder. These SINEs have a tRNA(Leu)-related promoter region at their 5'-end, a unique central conserved domain with a subfamily-specific region, and an end with RSg-1-LINE-derived 3'-terminus preceding the A/T-rich tail. The same LINE-related segment is also shared by two other salmonid SINEs: HpaI and OS-SINE1. The structural peculiarities and overall sequence identity of the SlmI 3'-terminus suggest that it has been acquired from HpaI SINEs but not directly from the partner LINE. This region plays a crucial role in the process of retrotransposition of short interspersed elements, and the case of its SINE-to-SINE transmission is the first recorded to date. Possible scenarios and potential evolutionary implications of the observed interaction between short retroposons are discussed. Apart from the above, we found a copy of the SlmI SINE in the GenBank entry for the blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Strigeiformes) -- a trematode causing one of the most important human helminth infections, with its genome known to host other groups of salmonoid retroposons. In the present article, we suggest our views with regard to possible ways in which such an intensive horizontal transfer of salmonoid retroposons to the schistosomal genome occurs. The second novel SINE family, termed SlmII, originates from one of the SlmI subfamilies, with which it shares the same tRNA-related region, central domain, and a part of RSg-1-derived segment, but has a different 3'-tail of unidentified origin. Its distribution

  11. Pair and triple correlations in the A+B-->B diffusion-controlled reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovkov, Vladimir; Kotomin, Eugene

    1994-03-01

    An exact solution for the one-dimensional kinetics of the diffusion-controlled reaction A+B-->B is obtained by means of the three-particle correlation functions. Because of a lattice discreteness each site could be occupied by a single particle only which leads to the so-called ``bus effect'': Recombination of any particle A is defined by a spatial configuration of two nearest particles B only surrounding A from its left and right. This results in the unusual algebraic decay law, n(t)~t-1, which asymptotically (as t-->∞) does not depend on the trap B concentration.

  12. Possible involvement of SINEs in mammalian-specific brain formation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hirakawa, Mika; Fujimura, Koji; Tanaka, Mikiko; Kokubo, Nobuhiro; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Matsuo, Isao; Sumiyama, Kenta; Saitou, Naruya; Shimogori, Tomomi; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-03-18

    Retroposons, such as short interspersed elements (SINEs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), are the major constituents of higher vertebrate genomes. Although there are many examples of retroposons' acquiring function, none has been implicated in the morphological innovations specific to a certain taxonomic group. We previously characterized a SINE family, AmnSINE1, members of which constitute a part of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in mammalian genomes. We proposed that this family acquired genomic functionality or was exapted after retropositioning in a mammalian ancestor. Here we identified 53 new AmnSINE1 loci and refined 124 total loci, two of which were further analyzed. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we demonstrate that one SINE locus, AS071, 178 kbp from the gene FGF8 (fibroblast growth factor 8), is an enhancer that recapitulates FGF8 expression in two regions of the developing forebrain, namely the diencephalon and the hypothalamus. Our gain-of-function analysis revealed that FGF8 expression in the diencephalon controls patterning of thalamic nuclei, which act as a relay center of the neocortex, suggesting a role for FGF8 in mammalian-specific forebrain patterning. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the locus, AS021, 392 kbp from the gene SATB2, controls gene expression in the lateral telencephalon, which is thought to be a signaling center during development. These results suggest important roles for SINEs in the development of the mammalian neuronal network, a part of which was initiated with the exaptation of AmnSINE1 in a common mammalian ancestor.

  13. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  14. SINEs, evolution and genome structure in the opossum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wanjun; Ray, David A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Barnes, Erin W; Gentles, Andrew J; Samollow, Paul B; Jurka, Jerzy; Batzer, Mark A; Pollock, David D

    2007-07-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, usually between 100 and 500 base pairs (bp) in length, which are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. Their activity, distribution, and evolution can be highly informative on genomic structure and evolutionary processes. To determine recent activity, we amplified more than one hundred SINE1 loci in a panel of 43 M. domestica individuals derived from five diverse geographic locations. The SINE1 family has expanded recently enough that many loci were polymorphic, and the SINE1 insertion-based genetic distances among populations reflected geographic distance. Genome-wide comparisons of SINE1 densities and GC content revealed that high SINE1 density is associated with high GC content in a few long and many short spans. Young SINE1s, whether fixed or polymorphic, showed an unbiased GC content preference for insertion, indicating that the GC preference accumulates over long time periods, possibly in periodic bursts. SINE1 evolution is thus broadly similar to human Alu evolution, although it has an independent origin. High GC content adjacent to SINE1s is strongly correlated with bias towards higher AT to GC substitutions and lower GC to AT substitutions. This is consistent with biased gene conversion, and also indicates that like chickens, but unlike eutherian mammals, GC content heterogeneity (isochore structure) is reinforced by substitution processes in the M. domestica genome. Nevertheless, both high and low GC content regions are apparently headed towards lower GC content equilibria, possibly due to a relative shift to lower recombination rates in the recent Monodelphis ancestral lineage. Like eutherians, metatherian (marsupial) mammals have evolved high CpG substitution rates, but this is apparently a convergence in process rather than a shared ancestral state.

  15. Analysis of swept-sine runs during modal identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloth, G.; Sinapius, M.

    2004-11-01

    Experimental modal analysis of large aerospace structures in Europe combine nowadays the benefits of the very reliable but time-consuming phase resonance method and the application of phase separation techniques evaluating frequency response functions (FRF). FRFs of a test structure can be determined by a variety of means. Applied excitation signal waveforms include harmonic signals like stepped-sine excitation, periodic signals like multi-sine excitation, transient signals like impulse and swept-sine excitation, and stochastic signals like random. The current article focuses on slow swept-sine excitation which is a good trade-off between magnitude of excitation level needed for large aircraft and testing time. However, recent ground vibration tests (GVTs) brought up that reliable modal data from swept-sine test runs depend on a proper data processing. The article elucidates the strategy of modal analysis based on swept-sine excitation. The standards for the application of slowly swept sinusoids defined by the international organisation for standardisation in ISO 7626 part 2 are critically reviewed. The theoretical background of swept-sine testing is expounded with particular emphasis to the transition through structural resonances. The effect of different standard procedures of data processing like tracking filter, fast Fourier transform (FFT), and data reduction via averaging are investigated with respect to their influence on the FRFs and modal parameters. Particular emphasis is given to FRF distortions evoked by unsuitable data processing. All data processing methods are investigated on a numerical example. Their practical usefulness is demonstrated on test data taken from a recent GVT on a large aircraft. The revision of ISO 7626 part 2 is suggested regarding the application of slow swept-sine excitation. Recommendations about the proper FRF estimation from slow swept-sine excitation are given in order to enable the optimisation on these applications for

  16. What is the diffraction limit? From Airy to Abbe using direct numerical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, Y. M.; Merlo, J. M.; Burns, M. J.; Kempa, K.; Naughton, M. J.

    The resolution of a conventional optical microscope is sometimes taken from Airy's point spread function (PSF), 0 . 61 λ / NA , and sometimes from Abbe, λ / 2 NA , where NA is the numerical aperture, however modern fluorescence and near-field optical microscopies achieve spatial resolution far better than either of these limits. There is a new category of 2D metamaterials called planar optical elements (POEs), which have a microscopic thickness (< λ), macroscopic transverse dimensions (> 100 λ), and are composed of an array of nanostructured light scatterers. POEs are found in a range of micro- and nano-photonic technologies, and will influence the future optical nanoscopy. With this pretext, we shed some light on the 'diffraction limit' by numerically evaluating Kirchhoff's scalar formulae (in their exact form) and identifying the features of highly non-paraxial, 3D PSFs. We show that the Airy and Abbe criteria are connected, and we comment on the design rules for a particular type of POE: the flat lens. This work is supported by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. The Perception of "Sine-Wave Speech" by Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Burton S.; Talcott, Joel B.; Witton, Caroline; Hogg, James D.; Richardson, Alexandra J.; Hansen, Peter C.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    "Sine-wave speech" sentences contain only four frequency-modulated sine waves, lacking many acoustic cues present in natural speech. Adults with (n=19) and without (n=14) dyslexia were asked to reproduce orally sine-wave utterances in successive trials. Results suggest comprehension of sine-wave sentences is impaired in some adults with…

  18. Wide-band doubler and sine wave quadrature generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Phase-locked loop with photoresistive control, which provides both sine and cosine outputs for subcarrier demodulation, serves as a telemetry demodulator signal conditioner with a second harmonic signal for synchronization with the locally generated code.

  19. Athermalization and achromatization of visible/SWIR optics using instantaneous Abbe number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    With the move to more and more lightweight and cost-effective design, a move to multiband or multi-spectral optics is required. These systems are becoming more prevalent in the market as new detector technologies have been developed. However, the lens designs are only starting to be considered with the addition of new materials in the MWIR and the LWIR. For the VIS/SWIR region the designs have been possible, but a lack of detector technology has resulted in few designs being considered for actual manufacturing. These designs are also difficult due to changes in the Abbe number in the different wavebands. Where the glass map is robust in the visible region, there exists a lack of crown glasses in the SWIR, and one is left with mostly flint glasses. This proves challenging from a chromatic perspective. The challenge becomes even more difficult if one wants to incorporate athermalization.

  20. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    PubMed

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  1. 75 FR 20384 - ABB, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion Staffing, Dividend Staffing, Mystaff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...-Site Leased Workers From Spherion Staffing, Dividend Staffing, Mystaff, and Zero Chaos, Wichita Falls... from Spherion Staffing, Dividend Staffing, MyStaff, and Zero Chaos were employed on-site by the Wichita..., Dividend Staffing, MyStaff, and Zero Chaos working on-site at the Wichita Falls, Texas location of ABB, Inc...

  2. Synchrony of two uncoupled neurons under half wave sine current stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yueping; Wang, Jue; Jian, Zhong

    2009-04-01

    Two uncoupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons under different initial discharge patterns are stimulated by the half wave sine current; and the synchronization mechanism of the two neurons is discussed by analyzing their membrane potentials and their interspike interval (ISI) distribution. Under the half wave sine current stimulation, the two uncoupled neurons under different initial conditions, whose parameter r (the parameter r is related to the membrane penetration of calcium ion, and reflects the changing speed of the slow adaptation current) is different or the same, can realize discharge synchronization (phase synchronization) or the full synchronization (state synchronization). The synchronization characteristics are mainly related to the frequency and the amplitude of the half wave sine current, and are little related to the parameter r and the initial state of the two neurons. This investigation shows the mechanism of the current's amplitude and its frequency affecting the synchronization process of neurons, and the neurons' discharge patterns and synchronization process can be adjusted and controlled by the current's amplitude and its frequency. This result is of far reaching importance to study synchronization and encode of many neurons or neural network, and provides the theoretic basis for studying the mechanism of some nervous diseases such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease by the slow wave of EEG.

  3. Guinea Pig ID-Like Families of SINEs

    PubMed Central

    Kass, David H.; Schaetz, Brian A.; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M.; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A–B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents. PMID:19232383

  4. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  5. Possible involvement of SINEs in mammalian-specific brain formation

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hirakawa, Mika; Fujimura, Koji; Tanaka, Mikiko; Kokubo, Nobuhiro; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Matsuo, Isao; Sumiyama, Kenta; Saitou, Naruya; Shimogori, Tomomi; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-01

    Retroposons, such as short interspersed elements (SINEs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), are the major constituents of higher vertebrate genomes. Although there are many examples of retroposons' acquiring function, none has been implicated in the morphological innovations specific to a certain taxonomic group. We previously characterized a SINE family, AmnSINE1, members of which constitute a part of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in mammalian genomes. We proposed that this family acquired genomic functionality or was exapted after retropositioning in a mammalian ancestor. Here we identified 53 new AmnSINE1 loci and refined 124 total loci, two of which were further analyzed. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we demonstrate that one SINE locus, AS071, 178 kbp from the gene FGF8 (fibroblast growth factor 8), is an enhancer that recapitulates FGF8 expression in two regions of the developing forebrain, namely the diencephalon and the hypothalamus. Our gain-of-function analysis revealed that FGF8 expression in the diencephalon controls patterning of thalamic nuclei, which act as a relay center of the neocortex, suggesting a role for FGF8 in mammalian-specific forebrain patterning. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the locus, AS021, 392 kbp from the gene SATB2, controls gene expression in the lateral telencephalon, which is thought to be a signaling center during development. These results suggest important roles for SINEs in the development of the mammalian neuronal network, a part of which was initiated with the exaptation of AmnSINE1 in a common mammalian ancestor. PMID:18334644

  6. Recombinant SINEs are formed at high frequency during induced retrotransposition in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vijay Pal; Mandal, Prabhat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2012-05-22

    Non-long terminal repeat Retrotransposons are referred to as long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and their non-autonomous partners are short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). It is believed that an active SINE copy, upon retrotransposition, generates near identical copies of itself, which subsequently accumulate mutations resulting in sequence polymorphism. Here we show that when a retrotransposition-competent cell line of the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, transfected with a marked SINE copy, is induced to retrotranspose, >20% of the newly retrotransposed copies are neither identical to the marked SINE nor to the mobilized resident SINEs. Rather they are recombinants of resident SINEs and the marked SINE. They are a consequence of retrotransposition and not DNA recombination, as they are absent in cells not expressing the retrotransposition functions. This high-frequency recombination provides a new explanation for the existence of mosaic SINEs, which may impact on genetic analysis of SINE lineages, and measurement of phylogenetic distances.

  7. High cleanliness globe valve with sine mechanism drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hu

    2018-06-01

    This paper gives a new type of quick-opening globe valve for life support pneumatic control system of the safety cabin at underground coal mine. The valve adopts the sine mechanism to transmit the rotating of the handle in the range of 90° to the reciprocating motion of the spool. The mechanism implements the quick-opening function of the valve through controlling the contact and separation between the O-ring and the end face of the valve. Since there is no relative sliding between the sealing interfaces, the valve solute uncontrollable disadvantage wear particles which produced by package ball valve, to ensure high cleanliness in flow path. Traditional transmission mechanism has a reinforcement effect and reduce handle open torque. By the finite element method, the relationship between the contact force and the compression of O-ring is analyzed to provide the boundary condition for the calculation of the rotational torque. Meanwhile the velocity field and pressure field along the flow path are simulated. The caliber size of the valve and the flow resistance coefficient are obtained. There is higher cleanliness, more reliable sealing, smaller handle open torque advantage compared with existing packing ball valve. The above work presents a new technical approach for the design of pneumatic control valve of the safety cabin.

  8. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) in plants: origin, classification, and use as phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Deragon, Jean-Marc; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2006-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermediate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their use as molecular makers to retrace phylogenetic relations among wild and cultivated Oryza and Brassica species. In Brassicaceae, further use of SINE markers is limited by our partial knowledge of endogenous SINE families (their origin and evolution histories) and by the absence of a clear classification. To solve this problem, phylogenetic relations among all known Brassicaceae SINEs were analyzed and a new classification, grouping SINEs in 15 different families, is proposed. The relative age and size of each Brassicaceae SINE family was evaluated and new phylogenetically supported subfamilies were described. We also present evidence suggesting that new potentially active SINEs recently emerged in Brassica oleracea from the shuffling of preexisting SINE portions. Finally, the comparative evolution history of SINE families present in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea revealed that SINEs were in general more active in the Brassica lineage. The importance of these new data for the use of Brassicaceae SINEs as molecular markers in future applications is discussed.

  9. Application of the sine-Poisson equation in solar magnetostatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the sine-Poisson equations are used to construct a class of isothermal magnetostatic atmospheres, with one ignorable coordinate corresponding to a uniform gravitational field in a plane geometry. The distributed current in the model (j) is directed along the x-axis, where x is the horizontal ignorable coordinate; (j) varies as the sine of the magnetostatic potential and falls off exponentially with distance vertical to the base with an e-folding distance equal to the gravitational scale height. Solutions for the magnetostatic potential A corresponding to the one-soliton, two-soliton, and breather solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are studied. Depending on the values of the free parameters in the soliton solutions, horizontally periodic magnetostatic structures are obtained possessing either a single X-type neutral point, multiple neural X-points, or solutions without X-points.

  10. Dynamics of generalized sine-Gordon soliton in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaati, A.; Khordad, R.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we introduce a few novel generalized sine-Gordon equations and study the dynamics of its solitons in inhomogeneous media. We consider length, mass, gravitational acceleration and spring stiffness of a coupled pendulums chain as a function of position x. Then in the continuum limit we derive semi-analytical and numerical soliton solutions of the modified sine-Gordon equation in the inhomogeneous media. The obtained results confirm that the behavior of solitons in these media is similar to that of a classical point particle moved in an external potential.

  11. 5S rRNA-derived and tRNA-derived SINEs in fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2009-05-01

    Most short retroposons (SINEs) descend from cellular tRNA of 7SL RNA. Here, four new SINEs were found in megabats (Megachiroptera) but neither in microbats nor in other mammals. Two of them, MEG-RS and MEG-RL, descend from another cellular RNA, 5S rRNA; one (MEG-T2) is a tRNA-derived SINE; and MEG-TR is a hybrid tRNA/5S rRNA SINE. Insertion locus analysis suggests that these SINEs were active in the recent fruit bat evolution. Analysis of MEG-RS and MEG-RL in comparison with other few 5S rRNA-derived SINEs demonstrates that the internal RNA polymerase III promoter is their most invariant region, while the secondary structure is more variable. The mechanisms underlying the modular structure of these and other SINEs as well as their variation are discussed. The scenario of evolution of MEG SINEs is proposed.

  12. Implementing the sine transform of fermionic modes as a tensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, Hannes; Fries, Pascal; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2017-09-01

    Based on the algebraic theory of signal processing, we recursively decompose the discrete sine transform of the first kind (DST-I) into small orthogonal block operations. Using a diagrammatic language, we then second-quantize this decomposition to construct a tensor network implementing the DST-I for fermionic modes on a lattice. The complexity of the resulting network is shown to scale as 5/4 n logn (not considering swap gates), where n is the number of lattice sites. Our method provides a systematic approach of generalizing Ferris' spectral tensor network for nontrivial boundary conditions.

  13. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  14. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    PubMed

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  15. Long-life electromechanical sine-cosine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagge, B.

    1971-01-01

    Sine-cosine generator with no sliding parts is capable of withstanding a 20 Hz oscillation for more than 14 hours. Tests show that generator is electrically equal to potentiometer and that it has excellent dynamic characteristics. Generator shows promise of higher-speed applications than was previously possible.

  16. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  17. Sauria SINEs: Novel short interspersed retroposable elements that are widespread in reptile genomes.

    PubMed

    Piskurek, Oliver; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-05-01

    SINEs are short interspersed retrotransposable elements that invade new genomic sites. Their retrotransposition depends on reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activities encoded by partner LINEs (long interspersed elements). Recent genomic research has demonstrated that retroposons account for at least 40% of the human genome. Hitherto, more than 30 families of SINEs have been characterized in mammalian genomes, comprising approximately 4600 extant species; the distribution and extent of SINEs in reptilian genomes, however, are poorly documented. With more than 7400 species of lizards and snakes, Squamata constitutes the largest and most diverse group of living reptiles. We have discovered and characterized a novel SINE family, Sauria SINEs, whose members are widely distributed among genomes of lizards, snakes, and tuataras. Sauria SINEs comprise a 5' tRNA-related region, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a 3' tail region (containing short tandem repeats) derived from LINEs. We distinguished eight Sauria SINE subfamilies in genomes of four major squamate lineages and investigated their evolutionary relationships. Our data illustrate the overall efficacy of Sauria SINEs as novel retrotransposable markers for elucidation of squamate evolutionary history. We show that all Sauria SINEs share an identical 3' sequence with Bov-B LINEs and propose that they utilize the enzymatic machinery of Bov-B LINEs for their own retrotransposition. This finding, along with the ubiquity of Bov-B LINEs previously demonstrated in squamate genomes, suggests that these LINEs have been an active partner of Sauria SINEs since this SINE family was generated more than 200 million years ago.

  18. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  19. EISCAT observations during MAC/SINE and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hall, C.

    1989-01-01

    The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The VHF (224 MHz) radar operations during MAC/SINE yielded most interesting observations of strong coherent echoes from the mesopause region. Characteristic data of these polar mesospheric summer echoes are presented. The UHF (933 MHz) radar operations during MAC/Epsilon were done with 18 deg off zenith beam and allows the deduction of meridonal and horizontal wind components as well as radial velocity spectra in addition to the usual electron density profiles in the D and lower E regions. Some results from the VHF and UHF radars indicating the presence of gravity waves are examined.

  20. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  1. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  2. Multifocal amelanotic conjunctival melanoma and acquired melanosis sine pigmento.

    PubMed Central

    Paridaens, A D; McCartney, A C; Hungerford, J L

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological features of four cases of multifocal amelanotic malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva in association with 'acquired melanosis sine pigmento' are reported. The absence of conjunctival pigmentation in this extremely rare combination of lesions prevented early diagnosis and clinical monitoring. As a result orbital exenteration was required in three cases. This multicentric non-pigmented variety of conjunctival malignant melanoma tends to present later than pigmented forms and may require exenteration of the orbit as a primary procedure. Images PMID:1540561

  3. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M

    1991-01-01

    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  4. Multifocal amelanotic conjunctival melanoma and acquired melanosis sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, A D; McCartney, A C; Hungerford, J L

    1992-03-01

    Clinical and histopathological features of four cases of multifocal amelanotic malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva in association with 'acquired melanosis sine pigmento' are reported. The absence of conjunctival pigmentation in this extremely rare combination of lesions prevented early diagnosis and clinical monitoring. As a result orbital exenteration was required in three cases. This multicentric non-pigmented variety of conjunctival malignant melanoma tends to present later than pigmented forms and may require exenteration of the orbit as a primary procedure.

  5. [Non-LTR retrotransposons: LINEs and SINEs in plant genome].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-06-01

    Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.

  6. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    PubMed

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of active LINE and SINEs from the eel.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masaki; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Tanaka, Nozomu; Okada, Norihiro

    2005-03-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons. These elements can mobilize by the "copy-and-paste" mechanism, in which their own RNA is reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA). LINEs and SINEs not only are components of eukaryotic genomes but also drivers of genomic evolution. Thus, studies of the amplification mechanism of LINEs and SINEs are important for understanding eukaryotic genome evolution. Here we report the characterization of one LINE family (UnaL2) and two SINE families (UnaSINE1 and UnaSINE2) from the eel (Anguilla japonica) genome. UnaL2 is approximately 3.6 kilobases (kb) and encodes only one open reading frame (ORF). UnaL2 belongs to the stringent type--thought to be a major group of LINEs--and can mobilize in HeLa cells. We also show that UnaL2 and the two UnaSINEs have similar 3' tails, and that both UnaSINE1 and UnaSINE2 can be mobilized by UnaL2 in HeLa cells. These elements are thus useful for delineating the amplification mechanism of stringent type LINEs as well as that of SINEs.

  8. The Evolution of SINEs and LINEs in the genus Chironomus (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Papusheva, Ekaterina; Gruhl, Mary C; Berezikov, Eugene; Groudieva, Tatiana; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Martin, Jon; Blinov, Alexander; Bergtrom, Gerald

    2004-03-01

    Genomic DNA amplification from 51 species of the family Chironomidae shows that most contain relatives of NLRCth1 LINE and CTRT1 SINE retrotransposons first found in Chironomus thummi. More than 300 cloned PCR products were sequenced. The amplified region of the reverse transcriptase gene in the LINEs is intact and highly conserved, suggesting active elements. The SINEs are less conserved, consistent with minimal/no selection after transposition. A mitochondrial gene phylogeny resolves the Chironomus genus into six lineages (Guryev et al. 2001). LINE and SINE phylogenies resolve five of these lineages, indicating their monophyletic origin and vertical inheritance. However, both the LINE and the SINE tree topologies differ from the species phylogeny, resolving the elements into "clusters I-IV" and "cluster V" families. The data suggest a descent of all LINE and SINE subfamilies from two major families. Based on the species phylogeny, a few LINEs and a larger number of SINEs are cladisitically misplaced. Most misbranch with LINEs or SINEs from species with the same families of elements. From sequence comparisons, cladistically misplaced LINEs and several misplaced SINEs arose by convergent base substitutions. More diverged SINEs result from early transposition and some are derived from multiple source SINEs in the same species. SINEs from two species (C. dorsalis, C. pallidivittatus), expected to belong to the clusters I-IV family, branch instead with cluster V family SINEs; apparently both families predate separation of cluster V from clusters I-IV species. Correlation of the distribution of active SINEs and LINEs, as well as similar 3' sequence motifs in CTRT1 and NLRCth1, suggests coevolving retrotransposon pairs in which CTRT1 transposition depends on enzymes active during NLRCth1 LINE mobility.

  9. Monitoring of temperature-mediated phase transitions of adipose tissue by combined optical coherence tomography and Abbe refractometry.

    PubMed

    Yanina, Irina Y; Popov, Alexey P; Bykov, Alexander V; Meglinski, Igor V; Tuchin, Valery V

    2018-01-01

    Observation of temperature-mediated phase transitions between lipid components of the adipose tissues has been performed by combined use of the Abbe refractometry and optical coherence tomography. The phase transitions of the lipid components were clearly observed in the range of temperatures from 24°C to 60°C, and assessed by quantitatively monitoring the changes of the refractive index of 1- to 2-mm-thick porcine fat tissue slices. The developed approach has a great potential as an alternative method for obtaining accurate information on the processes occurring during thermal lipolysis. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  11. Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Jurka, Jerzy; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs such as the primate Alu or the rodent B1 elements have hitherto been obscure. We established an unambiguous phylogenetic tree for Supraprimates, and derived intraordinal relationships of the 7SL RNA-derived SINEs. As well as new elements in Tupaia and primates, we also found that the purported ancestral fossil Alu monomer was restricted to Primates, and provide here the first description of a potential chimeric promoter box region in SINEs.

  12. SINE Retrotransposition: Evaluation of Alu Activity and Recovery of De Novo Inserts.

    PubMed

    Ade, Catherine; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile element activity is of great interest due to its impact on genomes. However, the types of mobile elements that inhabit any given genome are remarkably varied. Among the different varieties of mobile elements, the Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) populate many genomes, including many mammalian species. Although SINEs are parasites of Long Interspersed Elements (LINEs), SINEs have been highly successful in both the primate and rodent genomes. When comparing copy numbers in mammals, SINEs have been vastly more successful than other nonautonomous elements, such as the retropseudogenes and SVA. Interestingly, in the human genome the copy number of Alu (a primate SINE) outnumbers LINE-1 (L1) copies 2 to 1. Estimates suggest that the retrotransposition rate for Alu is tenfold higher than LINE-1 with about 1 insert in every twenty births. Furthermore, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human retroelement insertion-induced disease. However, little is known on what contributes to these observed differences between SINEs and LINEs. The development of an assay to monitor SINE retrotransposition in culture has become an important tool for the elucidation of some of these differences. In this chapter, we present details of the SINE retrotransposition assay and the recovery of de novo inserts. We also focus on the nuances that are unique to the SINE assay.

  13. Evidence for convergent evolution of SINE-directed Staufen-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Bronwyn A; Lavi, Eitan; Shiue, Lily; Cho, Hana; Katzman, Sol; Miyoshi, Keita; Siomi, Mikiko C; Carmel, Liran; Ares, Manuel; Maquat, Lynne E

    2018-01-30

    Primate-specific Alu short interspersed elements (SINEs) as well as rodent-specific B and ID (B/ID) SINEs can promote Staufen-mediated decay (SMD) when present in mRNA 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs). The transposable nature of SINEs, their presence in long noncoding RNAs, their interactions with Staufen, and their rapid divergence in different evolutionary lineages suggest they could have generated substantial modification of posttranscriptional gene-control networks during mammalian evolution. Some of the variation in SMD regulation produced by SINE insertion might have had a similar regulatory effect in separate mammalian lineages, leading to parallel evolution of the Staufen network by independent expansion of lineage-specific SINEs. To explore this possibility, we searched for orthologous gene pairs, each carrying a species-specific 3'-UTR SINE and each regulated by SMD, by measuring changes in mRNA abundance after individual depletion of two SMD factors, Staufen1 (STAU1) and UPF1, in both human and mouse myoblasts. We identified and confirmed orthologous gene pairs with 3'-UTR SINEs that independently function in SMD control of myoblast metabolism. Expanding to other species, we demonstrated that SINE-directed SMD likely emerged in both primate and rodent lineages >20-25 million years ago. Our work reveals a mechanism for the convergent evolution of posttranscriptional gene regulatory networks in mammals by species-specific SINE transposition and SMD.

  14. Statistical properties of two sine waves in Gaussian noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, R.; Wilson, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of some statistical properties of a stochastic process that consists of the sum of two sine waves of unknown relative phase and a normal process. Since none of the statistics investigated seem to yield a closed-form expression, all the derivations are cast in a form that is particularly suitable for machine computation. Specifically, results are presented for the probability density function (pdf) of the envelope and the instantaneous value, the moments of these distributions, and the relative cumulative density function (cdf).

  15. Retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmenti. Debut with macular oedema.

    PubMed

    de la Mata Pérez, G; Ruiz-Moreno, O; Fernández-Pérez, S; Torrón Fernández-Blanco, C; Pablo-Júlvez, L

    2014-09-01

    A 25-year-old woman, with metamorphopsia in her left eye of one year onset. The examination revealed a bilateral cystoid macular oedema (CME) and vascular attenuation. We describe the diagnostic tests, as well as differential diagnosis and treatment response with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The retinitis pigmentosa sine pigment is a subtype of atypical retinitis pigmentosa characterised by the absence of pigment deposits. The night blindness is milder, and perimetric and electroretinographic impairment is lower. CME is an important cause of central vision loss, and responds to anhydrase carbonic inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyadenylation of RNA transcribed from mammalian SINEs by RNA polymerase III: Complex requirements for nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Borodulina, Olga R; Golubchikova, Julia S; Ustyantsev, Ilia G; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that only transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase II (e.g., mRNA) were subject to AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. However, we previously showed that RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) from mouse B2 SINE could be polyadenylated in an AAUAAA-dependent manner. Many species of mammalian SINEs end with the pol III transcriptional terminator (TTTTT) and contain hexamers AATAAA in their A-rich tail. Such SINEs were united into Class T(+), whereas SINEs lacking the terminator and AATAAA sequences were classified as T(-). Here we studied the structural features of SINE pol III transcripts that are necessary for their polyadenylation. Eight and six SINE families from classes T(+) and T(-), respectively, were analyzed. The replacement of AATAAA with AACAAA in T(+) SINEs abolished the RNA polyadenylation. Interestingly, insertion of the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) and pol III transcription terminator in T(-) SINEs did not result in polyadenylation. The detailed analysis of three T(+) SINEs (B2, DIP, and VES) revealed areas important for the polyadenylation of their pol III transcripts: the polyadenylation signal and terminator in A-rich tail, β region positioned immediately downstream of the box B of pol III promoter, and τ region located upstream of the tail. In DIP and VES (but not in B2), the τ region is a polypyrimidine motif which is also characteristic of many other T(+) SINEs. Most likely, SINEs of different mammals acquired these structural features independently as a result of parallel evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Linear sine wave profiling to machine instability targets

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Derek William; Martinez, John Israel

    2016-08-01

    Specialized machining processes and programming have been developed to deliver thin tin and copper Richtmyer-Meshkov instability targets that have different amplitude perturbations across the face of one 4-in.-diameter target. Typical targets have anywhere from two to five different regions of sine waves that have different amplitudes varying from 4 to 200 μm across the face of the target. The puck is composed of multiple rings that are zero press fit together and diamond turned to create a flat platform with a tolerance of 2 μm for the shock experiment. A custom software program was written in Labview to write themore » point-to-point program for the diamond-turning profiler through the X-Y-Z movements to cut the pure planar straight sine wave geometry. As a result, the software is optimized to push the profile of the whole part into the face while eliminating any unneeded passes that do not cut any material.« less

  18. A difference tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, HaoPeng; Yao, Yong; Lei, HeBing; Wu, HaoKun

    2018-04-01

    Target tracking is an important field of computer vision. The template matching tracking algorithm based on squared difference matching (SSD) and standard correlation coefficient (NCC) matching is very sensitive to the gray change of image. When the brightness or gray change, the tracking algorithm will be affected by high-frequency information. Tracking accuracy is reduced, resulting in loss of tracking target. In this paper, a differential tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform is proposed to reduce the influence of image gray or brightness change. The algorithm that combines the discrete sine transform and the difference algorithm maps the target image into a image digital sequence. The Kalman filter predicts the target position. Using the Hamming distance determines the degree of similarity between the target and the template. The window closest to the template is determined the target to be tracked. The target to be tracked updates the template. Based on the above achieve target tracking. The algorithm is tested in this paper. Compared with SSD and NCC template matching algorithms, the algorithm tracks target stably when image gray or brightness change. And the tracking speed can meet the read-time requirement.

  19. Scenario Based Approach for Multiple Source Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, Martin; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal one the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean to the southwest facing the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, a total of five scenarios were selected to assess tsunami impact at the test site. These scenarios correspond to the worst-case credible scenario approach based upon the largest events of the historical and paleo tsunami catalogues. The tsunami simulations from the source area towards the coast is carried out using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. The code solves the non-linear shallow water equations using the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme, in a Cartesian or Spherical frame. The initial sea surface displacement is assumed to be equal to the sea bottom deformation that is computed by Okada equations. Both uniform and non-uniform slip conditions are used. The presented results correspond to the models using non-uniform slip conditions. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water) MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawdown, run-up and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gages at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results consist of Aggregate Scenario Maps presented for the different inundation parameters. This work is funded by ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  20. RUDI, a short interspersed element of the V-SINE superfamily widespread in molluscan genomes.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Šatović, Eva; Mantovani, Barbara; Plohl, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. They exhibit a chimeric sequence structure consisting of a small RNA-related head, an anonymous body and an AT-rich tail. Although their turnover and de novo emergence is rapid, some SINE elements found in distantly related species retain similarity in certain core segments (or highly conserved domains, HCD). We have characterized a new SINE element named RUDI in the bivalve molluscs Ruditapes decussatus and R. philippinarum and found this element to be widely distributed in the genomes of a number of mollusc species. An unexpected structural feature of RUDI is the HCD domain type V, which was first found in non-amniote vertebrate SINEs and in the SINE from one cnidarian species. In addition to the V domain, the overall sequence conservation pattern of RUDI elements resembles that found in ancient AmnSINE (~310 Myr old) and Au SINE (~320 Myr old) families, suggesting that RUDI might be among the most ancient SINE families. Sequence conservation suggests a monophyletic origin of RUDI. Nucleotide variability and phylogenetic analyses suggest long-term vertical inheritance combined with at least one horizontal transfer event as the most parsimonious explanation for the observed taxonomic distribution.

  1. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    PubMed

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization.

  2. LINEs Contribute to the Origins of Middle Bodies of SINEs besides 3′ Tails

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Short interspersed elements (SINEs), which are nonautonomous transposable elements, require the transposition machinery of long interspersed elements (LINEs) to mobilize. SINEs are composed of two or more independently originating parts. The 5′ region is called the “head” and is derived mainly from small RNAs, and the 3′ region (“tail”) originates from the 3′ region of LINEs and is responsible for being recognized by counterpart LINE proteins. The origin of the middle “body” of SINEs is enigmatic, although significant sequence similarities among SINEs from very diverse species have been observed. Here, a systematic analysis of the similarities among SINEs and LINEs deposited on Repbase, a comprehensive database of eukaryotic repeat sequences was performed. Three primary findings are described: 1) The 5′ regions of only two clades of LINEs, RTE and Vingi, were revealed to have contributed to the middle parts of SINEs; 2) The linkage of the 5′ and 3′ parts of LINEs can be lost due to occasional tail exchange of SINEs; and 3) The previously proposed Ceph-domain was revealed to be a fusion of a CORE-domain and a 5′ part of RTE clade of LINE. Based on these findings, a hypothesis that the 5′ parts of bipartite nonautonomous LINEs, which possess only the 5′ and 3′ regions of the original LINEs, can contribute to the undefined middle part of SINEs is proposed. PMID:29325122

  3. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    PubMed

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-06

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  6. V-SINEs: A New Superfamily of Vertebrate SINEs That Are Widespread in Vertebrate Genomes and Retain a Strongly Conserved Segment within Each Repetitive Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ogiwara, Ikuo; Miya, Masaki; Ohshima, Kazuhiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a new superfamily of vertebrate short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated V-SINEs, that are widespread in fishes and frogs. Each V-SINE includes a central conserved domain preceded by a 5′-end tRNA-related region and followed by a potentially recombinogenic (TG)n tract, with a 3′ tail derived from the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the corresponding partner long interspersed repetitive element (LINE) that encodes a functional reverse transcriptase. The central domain is strongly conserved and is even found in SINEs in the lamprey genome, suggesting that V-SINEs might be ∼550 Myr old or older in view of the timing of divergence of the lamprey lineage from the bony fish lineage. The central conserved domain might have been subject to some form of positive selection. Although the contemporary 3′ tails of V-SINEs differ from one another, it is possible that the original 3′ tail might have been replaced, via recombination, by the 3′ tails of more active partner LINEs, thereby retaining retropositional activity and the ability to survive for long periods on the evolutionary time scale. It seems plausible that V-SINEs may have some function(s) that have been maintained by the coevolution of SINEs and LINEs during the evolution of vertebrates. [The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the DDBJ/GenBank database under accession nos. AB072981–AB073004. Supplemental figures are available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11827951

  7. Seismostratigraphic model of the Sines Contourite Drift (SW Portuguese Margin) - depositional evolution, structural control and paleoceanographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Sara; Roque, Cristina; Terrinha, Pedro; Hernández-Molina, Francisco J.; Llave, Estefania; Ercilla, Gemma; Casas, David; Farran, Marcelli

    2017-04-01

    conditioned its overall architecture. The N-S horsts built during the Mesozoic rifting confined drift formation and did not allow lateral migration. The formation of the Sines Drift has also been influenced, in short-term, by climatic fluctuations and sea-level changes especially during the Quaternary. The succession of sinuous paleomoats beneath the present-day moat suggests a persistent and northward flowing MOW with several phases of enhancement. It was also perceived that the São Vicente and Setúbal canyons took most of the downslope sediment supply, as well as the occurrence of mass-movement processes in the west associated with the steep gradient of the Pereira de Sousa escarpment. All these results suggest the Sines Drift had a complex evolution controlled by several and varied factors at different scales.

  8. Evolutionary modes of emergence of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families in grasses.

    PubMed

    Kögler, Anja; Schmidt, Thomas; Wenke, Torsten

    2017-11-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for de novo (or improvement of) annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations. We comparatively analyzed the structural features, distribution, evolutionary relation and abundance of 32 SINE families and subfamilies within grasses, comprising 11 052 individual copies. The investigation of activity profiles within the Poaceae provides insights into their species-specific diversification and amplification. We found that Poaceae SINEs (PoaS) fall into two length categories: simple SINEs of up to 180 bp and dimeric SINEs larger than 240 bp. Detailed analysis at the nucleotide level revealed that multimerization of related and unrelated SINE copies is an important evolutionary mechanism of SINE formation. We conclude that PoaS families diversify by massive reshuffling between SINE families, likely caused by insertion of truncated copies, and provide a model for this evolutionary scenario. Twenty-eight of 32 PoaS families and subfamilies show significant conservation, in particular either in the 5' or 3' regions, across Poaceae species and share large sequence stretches with one or more other PoaS families. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Optical solitons to the resonance nonlinear Schrödinger equation by Sine-Gordon equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inc, Mustafa; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the optical solitons to the resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation (R-NLSE) which describes the propagation of solitons through optical fibers. Three types of nonlinear media fibers are studied. They are; quadratic-cubic law, Kerr law and parabolic law. Dark, bright, dark-bright or combined optical and singular soliton solutions are derived using the sine-Gordon equation method (SGEM). The constraint conditions that naturally fall out of the solution structure which guarantee the existence of these solitons are also reported.

  10. New optical solitons of space-time conformable fractional perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation by sine-Gordon equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaşar, Elif; Yıldırım, Yakup; Yaşar, Emrullah

    2018-06-01

    This paper devotes to conformable fractional space-time perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov (GI) equation which appears in nonlinear fiber optics and photonic crystal fibers (PCF). We consider the model with full nonlinearity in order to give a generalized flavor. The sine-Gordon equation approach is carried out to model equation for retrieving the dark, bright, dark-bright, singular and combined singular optical solitons. The constraint conditions are also reported for guaranteeing the existence of these solitons. We also present some graphical simulations of the solutions for better understanding the physical phenomena of the behind the considered model.

  11. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  12. SINEs of progress: Mobile element applications to molecular ecology.

    PubMed

    Ray, David A

    2007-01-01

    Mobile elements represent a unique and under-utilized set of tools for molecular ecologists. They are essentially homoplasy-free characters with the ability to be genotyped in a simple and efficient manner. Interpretation of the data generated using mobile elements can be simple compared to other genetic markers. They exist in a wide variety of taxa and are useful over a wide selection of temporal ranges within those taxa. Furthermore, their mode of evolution instills them with another advantage over other types of multilocus genotype data: the ability to determine loci applicable to a range of time spans in the history of a taxon. In this review, I discuss the application of mobile element markers, especially short interspersed elements (SINEs), to phylogenetic and population data, with an emphasis on potential applications to molecular ecology.

  13. Scattering of the double sine-Gordon kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, Vakhid A.; Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi; Askari, Alidad; Belendryasova, Ekaterina; Saadatmand, Danial

    2018-04-01

    We study the scattering of kink and antikink of the double sine-Gordon model. There is a critical value of the initial velocity v_{{cr}} of the colliding kinks, which separates different regimes of the collision. At v_{in}>v_{cr} we observe kinks reflection, while at v_{in}

  14. The Sines industrial complex monitoring programme: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Jones, M P; Catarino, F M; Sérgio, C; Bento-Pereira, F

    1981-06-01

    It is anticipated that the establishment of the industrial complex at Sines, Alentejo, Portugal, will have some impact on the environment. Details of the methods used in the monitoring programme are provided. Records of the epiphytic lichen vegetation in permanent quadrats have been made and changes shown in selected sites over a three year period are discussed. Material has been collected for analysis for heavy metals and the results discussed. There is considerable variation in replicates and in interspecies values. The problem of age and bio-accumulation is mentioned. Scanning electron microscopy has shown the accumulation of particulates, as yet unidentified, the quantity varying with increase in age and surface texture. A broadly based study of the local epiphytic flora is being carried out to record the present day diversity. There appears, as yet, to be no detectable influence of the industrial complex on the epiphytic flora of the permanent quadrats.

  15. Sine-Gordon solitonic scalar stars and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzin, Edgardo; Cadoni, Mariano; Tuveri, Matteo

    2018-06-01

    We study exact, analytic, static, spherically symmetric, four-dimensional solutions of minimally coupled Einstein-scalar gravity, sourced by a scalar field whose profile has the form of the sine-Gordon soliton. We present a horizonless, everywhere regular and positive-mass solution—a solitonic star—and a black hole. The scalar potential behaves as a constant near the origin and vanishes at infinity. In particular, the solitonic scalar star interpolates between an anti-de Sitter and an asympototically flat spacetime. The black-hole spacetime is unstable against linear perturbations, while due to numerical issues, we were not able to determine with confidence whether or not the starlike background solution is stable.

  16. Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma in Mexican Patients. Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sauceda-Casas, Christian Alexis; Domínguez, María Del Pilar Cruz; Alvarez, Sergio Alberto Mendoza; Sepulceda-Delgado, Jesús

    2017-01-03

    Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is a form of systemic sclerosis that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), visceral involvement without thickening of skin and anticentromere antibodies (ACA). We studied 10 ssSsc patients with a prevalence of 2%. The clinical signs were: RP 9/10, esophageal manifestations 8/10, pulmonary arterial hypertension 4/10, interstitial lung disease 4/10, cardiac signs 3/10 and ACA 8/10. In patients with RP, esophageal dysmotility, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension should be tested for ACA in order to establish a prompt diagnosis and treatment of ssSSc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrete cosine and sine transforms generalized to honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnák, Jiří; Motlochová, Lenka

    2018-06-01

    The discrete cosine and sine transforms are generalized to a triangular fragment of the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb point sets are constructed by subtracting the root lattice from the weight lattice points of the crystallographic root system A2. The two-variable orbit functions of the Weyl group of A2, discretized simultaneously on the weight and root lattices, induce a novel parametric family of extended Weyl orbit functions. The periodicity and von Neumann and Dirichlet boundary properties of the extended Weyl orbit functions are detailed. Three types of discrete complex Fourier-Weyl transforms and real-valued Hartley-Weyl transforms are described. Unitary transform matrices and interpolating behavior of the discrete transforms are exemplified. Consequences of the developed discrete transforms for transversal eigenvibrations of the mechanical graphene model are discussed.

  18. Characterization of Three Novel SINE Families with Unusual Features in Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Aina; Han, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zan; Li, Fei; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5′ -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3′ -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3′ -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3′-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer. PMID:22319625

  19. Epigenetic regulation of transcription and possible functions of mammalian short interspersed elements, SINEs.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of retrotransposons, which amplify their copy numbers in their host genomes by retrotransposition. More than a million copies of SINEs are present in a mammalian genome, constituting over 10% of the total genomic sequence. In contrast to the other two classes of retrotransposons, long interspersed elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeat (LTR) elements, SINEs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. However, like LINEs and LTR elements, the SINE transcription is likely regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, at least for human Alu and mouse B1. Whereas SINEs and other transposable elements have long been thought as selfish or junk DNA, recent studies have revealed that they play functional roles at their genomic locations, for example, as distal enhancers, chromatin boundaries and binding sites of many transcription factors. These activities imply that SINE retrotransposition has shaped the regulatory network and chromatin landscape of their hosts. Whereas it is thought that the epigenetic mechanisms were originated as a host defense system against proliferation of parasitic elements, this review discusses a possibility that the same mechanisms are also used to regulate the SINE-derived functions.

  20. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Greally, John M

    2002-01-08

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival.

  1. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Greally, John M.

    2002-01-01

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival. PMID:11756672

  2. Core-SINE blocks comprise a large fraction of monotreme genomes; implications for vertebrate chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Patrick J; Greaves, Ian K; Koina, Edda; Waters, Paul D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of the egg-laying platypus and echidna are of particular interest because monotremes are the most basal mammal group. The chromosomal distribution of an ancient family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs), the core-SINEs, was investigated to better understand monotreme genome organization and evolution. Previous studies have identified the core-SINE as the predominant SINE in the platypus genome, and in this study we quantified, characterized and localized subfamilies. Dot blot analysis suggested that a very large fraction (32% of the platypus and 16% of the echidna genome) is composed of Mon core-SINEs. Core-SINE-specific primers were used to amplify PCR products from platypus and echidna genomic DNA. Sequence analysis suggests a common consensus sequence Mon 1-B, shared by platypus and echidna, as well as platypus-specific Mon 1-C and echidna specific Mon 1-D consensus sequences. FISH mapping of the Mon core-SINE products to platypus metaphase spreads demonstrates that the Mon-1C subfamily is responsible for the striking Mon core-SINE accumulation in the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs and the largest X chromosome. This unusual distribution highlights the dichotomy between the seven large chromosome pairs and the 19 smaller pairs in the monotreme karyotype, which has some similarity to the macro- and micro-chromosomes of birds and reptiles, and suggests that accumulation of repetitive sequences may have enlarged small chromosomes in an ancestral vertebrate. In the forthcoming sequence of the platypus genome there are still large gaps, and the extensive Mon core-SINE accumulation on the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs may provide one explanation for this missing sequence.

  3. Distribution, Diversity, and Long-Term Retention of Grass Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs).

    PubMed

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Instances of highly conserved plant short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families and their enrichment near genes have been well documented, but little is known about the general patterns of such conservation and enrichment and underlying mechanisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive investigation of the structure, distribution, and evolution of SINEs in the grass family by analyzing 14 grass and 5 other flowering plant genomes using comparative genomics methods. We identify 61 SINE families composed of 29,572 copies, in which 46 families are first described. We find that comparing with other grass TEs, grass SINEs show much higher level of conservation in terms of genomic retention: The origin of at least 26% families can be traced to early grass diversification and these families are among most abundant SINE families in 86% species. We find that these families show much higher level of enrichment near protein coding genes than families of relatively recent origin (51%:28%), and that 40% of all grass SINEs are near gene and the percentage is higher than other types of grass TEs. The pattern of enrichment suggests that differential removal of SINE copies in gene-poor regions plays an important role in shaping the genomic distribution of these elements. We also identify a sequence motif located at 3' SINE end which is shared in 17 families. In short, this study provides insights into structure and evolution of SINEs in the grass family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  5. Mössbauer spectra linearity improvement by sine velocity waveform followed by linearization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Pavel; Frank, Tomas; Pechousek, Jiri; Kouril, Lukas

    2018-05-01

    This note reports the development of a new method for linearizing the Mössbauer spectra recorded with a sine drive velocity signal. Mössbauer spectra linearity is a critical parameter to determine Mössbauer spectrometer accuracy. Measuring spectra with a sine velocity axis and consecutive linearization increases the linearity of spectra in a wider frequency range of a drive signal, as generally harmonic movement is natural for velocity transducers. The obtained data demonstrate that linearized sine spectra have lower nonlinearity and line width parameters in comparison with those measured using a traditional triangle velocity signal.

  6. Binding of TFIIIC to SINE Elements Controls the Relocation of Activity-Dependent Neuronal Genes to Transcription Factories

    PubMed Central

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T.; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Down, Thomas A.; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes. PMID:23966877

  7. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T; Jongbloets, Bart C; Down, Thomas A; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  8. Local phytochemical response of Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. 'Bluggoe' (ABB) to colonization by Sternorrhyncha.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Vollrath, Antje; Kai, Marco; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthaguntalam; Menezes, Riya C; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of two Sternorrhyncha species, the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Aphidinae)), vector of the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), and the latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Diaspidinae)) with Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla (ABB Group) 'Bluggoe' (Musaceae) was investigated by a combination of conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques, 1 H NMR, UHPLC-MS, and matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization MS imaging. After infestation, the feeding sites of P. nigronervosa on the pseudostem and the exocarp of banana fruit developed a red tinge, in which tissue-specific accumulations of phenylphenalenones were discovered. Phenylphenalenones were also detected in the black mats of sooty molds growing on the banana aphid exudates and in the dorsal scales of H. lataniae. This suggests that although these secondary metabolites play a role in the reaction of banana plants towards attack by sucking insects, an aphid and an armored scale have established mechanisms to exude these metabolites before they deploy their deleterious effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Collaborative Defense of Transmission and Distribution Protection and Control Devices Against Cyber Attacks (CODEF) DE-OE0000674. ABB Inc. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuqui, Reynaldo

    This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-OE funded project DEOE0000674, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Ameren-Illinois (Ameren-IL) pursued the development of a system of collaborative defense of electrical substation’s intelligent electronic devices against cyber-attacks (CODEF). An electrical substation with CODEF features will be more capable of mitigating cyber-attacks especially those that seek to control switching devices. It leverages the security extensions of IEC 61850 to empower existing devices to collaborate in identifying and blocking malicious intents to trip circuit breakers, mis-coordinate devices settings, even thoughmore » the commands and the measurements comply with correct syntax. The CODEF functions utilize the physics of electromagnetic systems, electric power engineering principles, and computer science to bring more in depth cyber defense closer to the protected substation devices.« less

  10. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws.

  11. Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Nak Yong; Jeong, Seokki; Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL) for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance. PMID:27490549

  12. RNA-Seq Analysis to Measure the Expression of SINE Retroelements.

    PubMed

    Román, Ángel Carlos; Morales-Hernández, Antonio; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic features of retroelements, like their repetitive nature and disseminated presence in their host genomes, demand the use of advanced methodologies for their bioinformatic and functional study. The short length of SINE (short interspersed elements) retrotransposons makes such analyses even more complex. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are currently one of the most widely used tools to characterize the whole repertoire of gene expression in a specific tissue. In this chapter, we will review the molecular and computational methods needed to perform NGS analyses on SINE elements. We will also describe new methods of potential interest for researchers studying repetitive elements. We intend to outline the general ideas behind the computational analyses of NGS data obtained from SINE elements, and to stimulate other scientists to expand our current knowledge on SINE biology using RNA-seq and other NGS tools.

  13. The optimal digital filters of sine and cosine transforms for geophysical transient electromagnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun-wei; Zhu, Zi-qiang; Lu, Guang-yin; Han, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The sine and cosine transforms implemented with digital filters have been used in the Transient electromagnetic methods for a few decades. Kong (2007) proposed a method of obtaining filter coefficients, which are computed in the sample domain by Hankel transform pair. However, the curve shape of Hankel transform pair changes with a parameter, which usually is set to be 1 or 3 in the process of obtaining the digital filter coefficients of sine and cosine transforms. First, this study investigates the influence of the parameter on the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms based on the digital filter algorithm of Hankel transform and the relationship between the sine, cosine function and the ±1/2 order Bessel function of the first kind. The results show that the selection of the parameter highly influences the precision of digital filter algorithm. Second, upon the optimal selection of the parameter, it is found that an optimal sampling interval s also exists to achieve the best precision of digital filter algorithm. Finally, this study proposes four groups of sine and cosine transform digital filter coefficients with different length, which may help to develop the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms, and promote its application.

  14. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5′ region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes—7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)—and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5′ end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  15. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Identification of a Recently Active Mammalian SINE Derived from Ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Mark S.; Brown, Judy D.; Zhang, Chu; O’Neill, Michael J.; O’Neill, Rachel J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex eukaryotic genomes are riddled with repeated sequences whose derivation does not coincide with phylogenetic history and thus is often unknown. Among such sequences, the capacity for transcriptional activity coupled with the adaptive use of reverse transcription can lead to a diverse group of genomic elements across taxa, otherwise known as selfish elements or mobile elements. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous mobile elements found in eukaryotic genomes, typically derived from cellular RNAs such as tRNAs, 7SL or 5S rRNA. Here, we identify and characterize a previously unknown SINE derived from the 3′-end of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU or 28S rDNA) and transcribed via RNA polymerase III. This new element, SINE28, is represented in low-copy numbers in the human reference genome assembly, wherein we have identified 27 discrete loci. Phylogenetic analysis indicates these elements have been transpositionally active within primate lineages as recently as 6 MYA while modern humans still carry transcriptionally active copies. Moreover, we have identified SINE28s in all currently available assembled mammalian genome sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that these elements are frequently rederived from the highly conserved LSU rRNA sequences in a lineage-specific manner. We propose that this element has not been previously recognized as a SINE given its high identity to the canonical LSU, and that SINE28 likely represents one of possibly many unidentified, active transposable elements within mammalian genomes. PMID:25637222

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    PubMed

    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  18. RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of “retrogenes” that are derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes have been reported. A class of mammalian retroposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE1, L1), has been shown to be involved in the reverse transcription of retrogenes (or processed pseudogenes) and non-autonomous short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 3′-end sequences of various SINEs originated from a corresponding LINE. As the 3′-untranslated regions of several LINEs are essential for retroposition, these LINEs presumably require “stringent” recognition of the 3′-end sequence of the RNA template. However, the 3′-ends of mammalian L1s do not exhibit any similarity to SINEs, except for the presence of 3′-poly(A) repeats. Since the 3′-poly(A) repeats of L1 and Alu SINE are critical for their retroposition, L1 probably recognizes the poly(A) repeats, thereby mobilizing not only Alu SINE but also cytosolic mRNA. Many flowering plants only harbor L1-clade LINEs and a significant number of SINEs with poly(A) repeats, but no homology to the LINEs. Moreover, processed pseudogenes have also been found in flowering plants. I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized a specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. PMID:23984183

  19. Genome-wide mapping of infection-induced SINE RNAs reveals a role in selective mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Karijolich, John; Zhao, Yang; Alla, Ravi; Glaunsinger, Britt

    2017-06-02

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from endogenous RNA Polymerase III RNAs. Though SINE elements have undergone exaptation into gene regulatory elements, how transcribed SINE RNA impacts transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. This is partly due to a lack of information regarding which of the loci have transcriptional potential. Here, we present an approach (short interspersed nuclear element sequencing, SINE-seq), which selectively profiles RNA Polymerase III-derived SINE RNA, thereby identifying transcriptionally active SINE loci. Applying SINE-seq to monitor murine B2 SINE expression during a gammaherpesvirus infection revealed transcription from 28 270 SINE loci, with ∼50% of active SINE elements residing within annotated RNA Polymerase II loci. Furthermore, B2 RNA can form intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions with complementary mRNAs, leading to nuclear retention of the targeted mRNA via a mechanism involving p54nrb. These findings illuminate a pathway for the selective regulation of mRNA export during stress via retrotransposon activation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Genome-wide mapping of infection-induced SINE RNAs reveals a role in selective mRNA export

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Alla, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from endogenous RNA Polymerase III RNAs. Though SINE elements have undergone exaptation into gene regulatory elements, how transcribed SINE RNA impacts transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. This is partly due to a lack of information regarding which of the loci have transcriptional potential. Here, we present an approach (short interspersed nuclear element sequencing, SINE-seq), which selectively profiles RNA Polymerase III-derived SINE RNA, thereby identifying transcriptionally active SINE loci. Applying SINE-seq to monitor murine B2 SINE expression during a gammaherpesvirus infection revealed transcription from 28 270 SINE loci, with ∼50% of active SINE elements residing within annotated RNA Polymerase II loci. Furthermore, B2 RNA can form intermolecular RNA–RNA interactions with complementary mRNAs, leading to nuclear retention of the targeted mRNA via a mechanism involving p54nrb. These findings illuminate a pathway for the selective regulation of mRNA export during stress via retrotransposon activation. PMID:28334904

  1. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of squamate reptiles (Squam1 and Squam2): structure and phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Grechko, Vernata V; Kosushkin, Sergei A; Borodulina, Olga R; Butaeva, Fatima G; Darevsky, Ilya S

    2011-05-15

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are important nuclear molecular markers of the evolution of many eukaryotes. However, the SINEs of squamate reptile genomes have been little studied. We first identified two families of SINEs, termed Squam1 and Squam2, in the DNA of meadow lizard Darevskia praticola (Lacertidae) by performing DNA hybridization and PCR. Later, the same families of retrotransposons were found using the same methods in members of another 25 lizard families (from Iguania, Scincomorpha, Gekkota, Varanoidea, and Diploglossa infraorders) and two snake families, but their abundances in these taxa varied greatly. Both SINEs were Squamata-specific and were absent from mammals, birds, crocodiles, turtles, amphibians, and fish. Squam1 possessed some characteristics common to tRNA-related SINEs from fish and mammals, while Squam2 belonged to the tRNA(Ala) group of SINEs and had a more unusual and divergent structure. Squam2-related sequences were found in several unannotated GenBank sequences of squamate reptiles. Squam1 abundance in the Polychrotidae, Agamidae, Leiolepididae, Chamaeleonidae, Scincidae, Lacertidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, Helodermatidae, and two snake families were 10(2) -10(4) times higher than those in other taxa (Corytophanidae, Iguanidae, Anguidae, Cordylidae, Gerrhosauridae, Pygopodidae, and Eublepharidae). A less dramatic degree of copy number variation was observed for Squam2 in different taxa. Several Squam1 copies from Lacertidae, Chamaeleonidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, and Colubridae were sequenced and found to have evident orthologous features, as well as taxa-specific autapomorphies. Squam1 from Lacertidae and Chamaeleonidae could be divided into several subgroups based on sequence differences. Possible applications of these SINEs as Squamata phylogeny markers are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs.

    PubMed

    López-Giráldez, Francesc; Andrés, Olga; Domingo-Roura, Xavier; Bosch, Montserrat

    2006-10-23

    The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the interspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes.Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs, we recommend avoiding

  3. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs

    PubMed Central

    López-Giráldez, Francesc; Andrés, Olga; Domingo-Roura, Xavier; Bosch, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Background The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. Results We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the insterspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Conclusion Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes. Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites associated with t

  4. Large-amplitude nonlinear normal modes of the discrete sine lattices.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Valeri V; Manevitch, Leonid I

    2017-02-01

    We present an analytical description of the large-amplitude stationary oscillations of the finite discrete system of harmonically coupled pendulums without any restrictions on their amplitudes (excluding a vicinity of π). Although this model has numerous applications in different fields of physics, it was studied earlier in the infinite limit only. The discrete chain with a finite length can be considered as a well analytical analog of the coarse-grain models of flexible polymers in the molecular dynamics simulations. The developed approach allows to find the dispersion relations for arbitrary amplitudes of the nonlinear normal modes. We emphasize that the long-wavelength approximation, which is described by well-known sine-Gordon equation, leads to an inadequate zone structure for the amplitudes of about π/2 even if the chain is long enough. An extremely complex zone structure at the large amplitudes corresponds to multiple resonances between nonlinear normal modes even with strongly different wave numbers. Due to the complexity of the dispersion relations the modes with shorter wavelengths may have smaller frequencies. The stability of the nonlinear normal modes under condition of the resonant interaction are discussed. It is shown that this interaction of the modes in the vicinity of the long wavelength edge of the spectrum leads to the localization of the oscillations. The thresholds of instability and localization are determined explicitly. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of a finite-length chain is in a good agreement with obtained analytical predictions.

  5. Quasi-integrability in deformed sine-Gordon models and infinite towers of conserved charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blas, Harold; Callisaya, Hector Flores

    2018-02-01

    We have studied the space-reflection symmetries of some soliton solutions of deformed sine-Gordon models in the context of the quasi-integrability concept. Considering a dual pair of anomalous Lax representations of the deformed model we compute analytically and numerically an infinite number of alternating conserved and asymptotically conserved charges through a modification of the usual techniques of integrable field theories. The charges associated to two-solitons with a definite parity under space-reflection symmetry, i.e. kink-kink (odd parity) and kink-antikink (even parity) scatterings with equal and opposite velocities, split into two infinite towers of conserved and asymptotically conserved charges. For two-solitons without definite parity under space-reflection symmetry (kink-kink and kink-antikink scatterings with unequal and opposite velocities) our numerical results show the existence of the asymptotically conserved charges only. However, we show that in the center-of-mass reference frame of the two solitons the parity symmetries and their associated set of exactly conserved charges can be restored. Moreover, the positive parity breather-like (kink-antikink bound state) solution exhibits a tower of exactly conserved charges and a subset of charges which are periodic in time. We back up our results with extensive numerical simulations which also demonstrate the existence of long lived breather-like states in these models. The time evolution has been simulated by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method supplied with non-reflecting boundary conditions.

  6. Transcriptome-wide effects of inverted SINEs on gene expression and their impact on RNA polymerase II activity.

    PubMed

    Tajaddod, Mansoureh; Tanzer, Andrea; Licht, Konstantin; Wolfinger, Michael T; Badelt, Stefan; Huber, Florian; Pusch, Oliver; Schopoff, Sandy; Janisiw, Michael; Hofacker, Ivo; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-10-25

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels. Here, we undertake a genome-wide analysis of insertion patterns of human Alus within transcribed portions of the genome. Multiple, nearby insertions of SINEs within one transcript are more abundant in tandem orientation than in inverted orientation. Indeed, analysis of transcriptome-wide expression levels of 15 ENCODE cell lines suggests a cis-repressive effect of inverted Alu elements on gene expression. Using reporter assays, we show that the negative effect of inverted SINEs on gene expression is independent of known sensors of double-stranded RNAs. Instead, transcriptional elongation seems impaired, leading to reduced mRNA levels. Our study suggests that there is a bias against multiple SINE insertions that can promote intramolecular base pairing within a transcript. Moreover, at a genome-wide level, mRNAs harboring inverted SINEs are less expressed than mRNAs harboring single or tandemly arranged SINEs. Finally, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which inverted SINEs can impact on gene expression by interfering with RNA polymerase II.

  7. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed.

  8. Using SINEs to probe ancient explosive speciation: "hidden" radiation of African cichlids?

    PubMed

    Terai, Yohey; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Mutsumi; Sato, Tetsu; Okada, Norihiro

    2003-06-01

    Cichlid fishes of the east African Great Lakes represent a paradigm of adaptive radiation. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of cichlids including pan-African and west African species by using insertion patterns of short interspersed elements (SINEs) at orthologous loci. The monophyly of the east African cichlids was consistently supported by seven independent insertions of SINE sequences that are uniquely shared by these species. In addition, data from four other loci indicated that the genera Tilapia (pan-African) and Steatocranus (west African) are the closest relatives to east African cichlids. However, relationships among Tilapia, Steatocranus, and the east African clade were ambiguous because of incongruencies among topologies suggested by insertion patterns of SINEs at six other loci. One plausible explanation for this phenomenon is incomplete lineage sorting of alleles containing or missing a SINE insertion at these loci during ancestral speciation. Such incomplete sorting may have taken place earlier than 14 MYA, followed by random and stochastic fixation of the alleles in subsequent lineages. These observations prompted us to consider the possibility that cichlid speciation occurred at an accelerated rate during this period when the African Great Lakes did not exist. The SINE method could be useful for detecting ancient exclusive speciation events that tend to remain hidden during conventional sequence analyses because of accumulated point mutations.

  9. CORE-SINEs: eukaryotic short interspersed retroposing elements with common sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, N; Labuda, D

    1999-03-16

    A 65-bp "core" sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3' ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome.

  10. CORE-SINEs: Eukaryotic short interspersed retroposing elements with common sequence motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Nicolas; Labuda, Damian

    1999-01-01

    A 65-bp “core” sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3′ ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome. PMID:10077603

  11. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  12. Evaluation of the results of simultaneous open rhinoplasty and Abbe flap for the reconstruction of the secondary bilateral cleft and nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Eski, Muhitdin; Aykan, Andac; Alhan, Dogan; Zor, Fatih; Isik, Selcuk

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the results of simultaneous rhinoplasty and Abbe flap for the reconstruction of the secondary bilateral cleft and nasal deformity by means of a newly developed software-based method. A total of 16 patients with the bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity received Abbe flap and simultaneous open rhinoplasty between 2004 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 21 years, and the average follow-up time was 2.4 years. After the open rhinoplasty procedure, the upper lip was reconstructed with the Abbe flap. Preoperative and postoperative photographs that had been taken laterally were evaluated by using Adobe Photoshop(®) CS4 and Adobe InDesign(®) software. The length of the columella and the relative changes of the most anterior point of the upper lip to the vertical plane tangent to the most anterior point of the lower lip were measured in pixels on standardized preoperative and postoperative images. The differences were calculated and compared as a percentage (%). There was no flap loss and associated problems. The measurements of columellar length revealed an average increase of 51.8 ± 11.3%, while the relative change of the most anterior point of the upper lip revealed an average increase of 68.6 ± 11.2%. The results of the treatment modality were successfully evaluated by a newly developed software-based method. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground vibration test results of a JetStar airplane using impulsive sine excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Voracek, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural excitation is important for both ground vibration and flight flutter testing. The structural responses caused by this excitation are analyzed to determine frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Many excitation waveforms have been used throughout the years. The use of impulsive sine (sin omega t)/omega t as an excitation waveform for ground vibration testing and the advantages of using this waveform for flight flutter testing are discussed. The ground vibration test results of a modified JetStar airplane using impulsive sine as an excitation waveform are compared with the test results of the same airplane using multiple-input random excitation. The results indicated that the structure was sufficiently excited using the impulsive sine waveform. Comparisons of input force spectrums, mode shape plots, and frequency and damping values for the two methods of excitation are presented.

  14. Modified hyperbolic sine model for titanium dioxide-based memristive thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Raudah; Syahirah Kamarozaman, Nur; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Since the emergence of memristor as the newest fundamental circuit elements, studies on memristor modeling have been evolved. To date, the developed models were based on the linear model, linear ionic drift model using different window functions, tunnelling barrier model and hyperbolic-sine function based model. Although using hyperbolic-sine function model could predict the memristor electrical properties, the model was not well fitted to the experimental data. In order to improve the performance of the hyperbolic-sine function model, the state variable equation was modified. On the one hand, the addition of window function cannot provide an improved fitting. By multiplying the Yakopcic’s state variable model to Chang’s model on the other hand resulted in the closer agreement with the TiO2 thin film experimental data. The percentage error was approximately 2.15%.

  15. Tropisms of Avena coleoptiles: sine law for gravitropism, exponential law for photogravitropic equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Galland, Paul

    2002-09-01

    The quantitative relation between gravitropism and phototropism was analyzed for light-grown coleoptiles of Avena sativa (L.). With respect to gravitropism the coleoptiles obeyed the sine law. To study the interaction between light and gravity, coleoptiles were inclined at variable angles and irradiated for 7 h with unilateral blue light (466 nm) impinging at right angles relative to the axis of the coleoptile. The phototropic stimulus was applied from the side opposite to the direction of gravitropic bending. The fluence rate that was required to counteract the negative gravitropism increased exponentially with the sine of the inclination angle. To achieve balance, a linear increase in the gravitropic stimulus required compensation by an exponential increase in the counteracting phototropic stimulus. The establishment of photogravitropic equilibrium during continuous unilateral irradiation is thus determined by two different laws: the well-known sine law for gravitropism and a novel exponential law for phototropism described in this work.

  16. Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R; Daroff, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively.

  17. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  18. On the Monge-Ampere equivalent of the sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferapontov, E. V.; Nutku, Y.

    1994-12-01

    Surfaces of constant negative curvature in Euclidean space can be described by either the sine-Gordon equation for the angle between asymptotic directions, or a Monge-Ampere equation for the graph of the surface. We present the explicit form of the correspondence between these two integrable non-linear partial differential equations using their well-known properties in differential geometry. We find that the cotangent of the angle between asymptotic directions is directly related to the mean curvature of the surface. This is a Backlund-type transformation between the sine-Gordon and Monge-Ampere equations.

  19. Characterization of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbo; Lin, Xiaofei; Peddigari, Suresh; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Takio, Susumu

    2007-02-01

    Short interspersed element (SINE)-like sequences referred to as PySN1 and PySN2 were identified in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Both elements contained an internal promoter with motifs (A box and B box) recognized by RNA polymerase III, and target site duplications at both ends. Genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that both elements were widely and abundantly distributed on the genome. 3' and 5' RACE suggested that PySN1 was expressed as a chimera transcript with flanking SINE-unrelated sequences and possessed the poly-A tail at the same position near the 3' end of PySN1.

  20. [SINEs in mammalian genomes can serve as additional signals in formation of facultative heterochromatin].

    PubMed

    Usmanova, N M; Kazakov, V I; Tomilin, N V

    2008-01-01

    Using computer-based methods we determined the global distribution of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in the human and mouse X chromosomes. It has been shown that this distributions is similar to the distributions of CpG islands and genes but is different from the distribution of LINE1 elements. Since SINEs (human Alu and mouse B2) may have binding sites for Polycomb protein YY1, we suggest that these repeats can serve as additional signals ("boosters") in Polycomb-dependent silencing of gene rich segments during X inactivation.

  1. Comparison of least squares and exponential sine sweep methods for Parallel Hammerstein Models estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebillat, Marc; Schoukens, Maarten

    2018-05-01

    Linearity is a common assumption for many real-life systems, but in many cases the nonlinear behavior of systems cannot be ignored and must be modeled and estimated. Among the various existing classes of nonlinear models, Parallel Hammerstein Models (PHM) are interesting as they are at the same time easy to interpret as well as to estimate. One way to estimate PHM relies on the fact that the estimation problem is linear in the parameters and thus that classical least squares (LS) estimation algorithms can be used. In that area, this article introduces a regularized LS estimation algorithm inspired on some of the recently developed regularized impulse response estimation techniques. Another mean to estimate PHM consists in using parametric or non-parametric exponential sine sweeps (ESS) based methods. These methods (LS and ESS) are founded on radically different mathematical backgrounds but are expected to tackle the same issue. A methodology is proposed here to compare them with respect to (i) their accuracy, (ii) their computational cost, and (iii) their robustness to noise. Tests are performed on simulated systems for several values of methods respective parameters and of signal to noise ratio. Results show that, for a given set of data points, the ESS method is less demanding in computational resources than the LS method but that it is also less accurate. Furthermore, the LS method needs parameters to be set in advance whereas the ESS method is not subject to conditioning issues and can be fully non-parametric. In summary, for a given set of data points, ESS method can provide a first, automatic, and quick overview of a nonlinear system than can guide more computationally demanding and precise methods, such as the regularized LS one proposed here.

  2. Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.

  3. Cell stress and translational inhibitors transiently increase the abundance of mammalian SINE transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W M; Chu, W M; Choudary, P V; Schmid, C W

    1995-01-01

    The abundance of Alu RNA is transiently increased by heat shock in human cell lines. This effect is specific to Alu repeats among Pol III transcribed genes, since the abundance of 7SL, 7SK, 5S and U6 RNAs is essentially unaffected by heat shock. The rapid induction of Alu expression precedes the heat shock induction of mRNAs for the ubiquitin and HSP 70 heat shock genes. Heat shock mimetics also transiently induce Alu expression indicating that increased Alu expression is a general cell-stress response. Cycloheximide treatment rapidly and transiently increases the abundance of Alu RNA. Again, compared with other genes transcribed by Pol III, this increase is specific to Alu. However, as distinguished from the cell stress response, cycloheximide does not induce expression of HSP 70 and ubiquitin mRNAs. Puromycin also increases Alu expression, suggesting that this response is generally caused by translational inhibition. The response of mammalian SINEs to cell stress and translational inhibition is not limited to SINEs which are Alu homologues. Heat shock and cycloheximide each transiently induce Pol III directed expression of B1 and B2 RNAs in mouse cells and C-element RNA in rabbit cells. Together, these three species exemplify the known SINE composition of placental mammals, suggesting that mammalian SINEs are similarly regulated and may serve a common function. Images PMID:7784180

  4. Structural Qualification Testing of the WindSat Payload Using Sine Bursts Near Structural Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, Jim; Barnes, Donald; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sine burst tests are often used for structural qualification of space flight hardware. In most instances, the driving frequency of the shaker is specified far below the structure's first resonant mode, such that the entire test article sees uniform acceleration. For large structures, this limits qualification testing to lower parts of the structure, or else it over-tests the lower structure to achieve qualification of the upper structure. The WindSat payload, a 10.5 foot tall graphite/epoxy, titanium, and aluminum radiometer, experiences accelerations at the six foot diameter reflector nearly four times that at the spacecraft interface. Due to size of the payload, the number of bonded joints, and the lightweight reflector support structure design and construction, using static pull testing to qualify all of the bonded joints in the upper structure would result in large, expensive, and extensive test fixturing. Sine burst testing near the first two structural resonant modes was performed on the WindSat payload to achieve the correct load factor distribution up the stack for structural qualification. In this presentation, how finite element method (FEM) sine burst predictions were used in conjunction with low level random and sine burst tests to achieve correct qualification test load factor distribution on the WindSat payload is discussed. Also presented is the risk mitigation approach for using the uncorrelated FEM in this procedure.

  5. The LINEs and SINEs of Entamoeba histolytica: comparative analysis and genomic distribution.

    PubMed

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2005-07-01

    Autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are commonly referred to as long interspersed elements (LINEs). Short non-autonomous elements that borrow the LINE machinery are called SINES. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three classes of LINEs and SINEs. Together the EhLINEs/SINEs account for about 6% of the genome. The recognizable functional domains in all three EhLINEs included reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. A novel feature was the presence of two types of members-some with a single long ORF (less frequent) and some with two ORFs (more frequent) in both EhLINE1 and 2. The two ORFs were generated by conserved changes leading to stop codon. Computational analysis of the immediate flanking sequences for each element showed that they inserted in AT-rich sequences, with a preponderance of Ts in the upstream site. The elements were very frequently located close to protein-coding genes and other EhLINEs/SINEs. The possible influence of these elements on expression of neighboring genes needs to be determined.

  6. Analog circuit for the measurement of phase difference between two noisy sine-wave signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple circuit was designed to measure the phase difference between two noisy sine waves. It locks over a wide range of frequencies and produces an output proportional to the phase difference of rapidly varying signals. A square wave locked in frequency and phase to the first signal is produced by a phase-locked loop and is amplified by an operational amplifier.

  7. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  8. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  9. Overview of multi-input frequency domain modal testing methods with an emphasis on sine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Robert W.; Brown, David L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the current state of the art multiple-input, multiple-output modal testing technology is discussed. A very brief review of the current time domain methods is given. A detailed review of frequency and spatial domain methods is presented with an emphasis on sine testing.

  10. Stress induction of Bm1 RNA in silkworm larvae: SINEs, an unusual class of stress genes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Richard H.; Choudary, Prabhakara V.; Stone, Koni K.; Schmid, Carl W.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys the induction of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–directed expression of short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts by various stresses in an animal model, silkworm larvae. Sublethal heat shock and exposure to several toxic compounds increase the level of Bm1 RNA, the silkworm SINE transcript, while also transiently increasing expression of a well-characterized stress-induced transcript, Hsp70 messenger RNA (mRNA). In certain cases, the Bm1 RNA response coincides with that of Hsp70 mRNA, but more often Bm1 RNA responds later in recovery. Baculovirus infection and exposure to certain toxic compounds increase Bm1 RNA but not Hsp70 mRNA, showing that SINE induction is not necessarily coupled to transcription of this particular heat shock gene. SINEs behave as an additional class of stress-inducible genes in living animals but are unusual as stress genes because of their high copy number, genomic dispersion, and Pol III–directed transcription. PMID:11599568

  11. Short interspersed CAN SINE elements as prognostic markers in canine mammary neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Granzotto, Adriana; Leonel, Camila; Jardim, Bruna V; Moschetta, Marina G; Carareto, Claudia M A; Zuccari, Debora Ap P C

    2014-01-01

    The genome of mammals is characterized by a large number of non-LTR retrotransposons, and among them, the CAN SINEs are characteristics of the canine species. Small amounts of DNA freely circulate in normal blood serum and high amounts are found in human patients with cancer, characterizing it as a candidate tumor-biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate, through its absolute expression, the number of copies of CAN SINE sequences present in free circulating DNA of female dogs with mammary cancer, in order to correlate with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the follow-up period. The copy number of CAN SINE sequences was estimated by qPCR in 28 female dogs with mammary neoplasia. The univariate analysis showed an increased number of copies in female dogs with mammary tumor in female dogs >10 years old (p=0.02) and tumor time >18 months (p<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier test demonstrated a negative correlation between an increased number of copies and survival time (p=0.03). High amounts of CAN SINE fragments can be good markers for the detection of tumor DNA in blood and may characterize it as a marker of poor prognosis, being related to female dogs with shorter survival times. This estimate can be used as a prognostic marker in non-invasive breast cancer research and is useful in predicting tumor progression and patient monitoring.

  12. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  13. Conjunctival amelanotic malignant melanoma arising in primary acquired melanosis sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Jay, V; Font, R L

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe an amelanotic malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva in association with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) sine pigmento, and highlight the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies were performed on a conjunctival tumor in a 54-year-old white woman. Case report. Histopathologic examination revealed an invasive amelanotic melanoma of the conjunctiva, with anterior orbital extension arising from intraepithelial dysplastic melanocytes that lacked melanin pigment (PAM sine pigmento). Both the malignant melanoma cells and the intraepithelial dysplastic melanocytes in the areas of PAM exhibited S-100 and HMB-45 positivity. The patient underwent an orbital exenteration that disclosed tumor within the anterior orbit inferiorly. Amelanotic invasive malignant melanoma can arise in association with PAM sine pigmento, as seen in our patient who had orbital invasion necessitating exenteration. This aggressive form of conjunctival melanoma is often associated with a poor prognosis and risk of metastatic disease. Absence of conjunctival pigmentation in PAM sine pigmento prevents early clinical detection of this variant of PAM. This lack of pigmentation also makes clinical diagnosis virtually impossible, and diagnosis can only be established histopathologically. Awareness of this nonpigmented variety of PAM is crucial for early recognition and appropriate management of the associated melanoma.

  14. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4–14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140–493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3’-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50–65% and 60–75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259–343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity. PMID:27736869

  15. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    PubMed

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  16. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome. PMID:22559330

  17. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Ning, Zemin; Hallström, Björn M

    2012-05-06

    The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species' survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  18. Gyrator transform of generalized sine-Gaussian beams and conversion an edge-dislocation into a vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kaicheng; Tang, Huiqin; Tang, Ying; Xia, Hui

    2014-12-01

    We proposed a scheme that converts a sine-Gaussian beam with an edge dislocation into a dark hollow beam with a vortex. Based on the gyrator transform (GT) relation, the closed-form field distribution of generalized sine-Gaussian beams passing through a GT system is derived; the intensity distribution and the corresponding phase distribution associated with the transforming generalized sine-Gaussian beams are analyzed. According to the numerical method, the distributions are graphically demonstrated and found that, for appropriate beam parameters and the GT angle, dark hollow vortex beams with topological charge 1 can be achieved using sine-Gaussian beams carrying an edge dislocation. Moreover, the orbital angular momentum content of a GT sine-Gaussian beam is analyzed. It is proved that the GT retains the odd- or even-order spiral harmonics structures of generalized sine-Gaussian beams in the transform process. In particular, it is wholly possible to convert an edge dislocation embedded in sine-Gaussian beams into a vortex with GT. The study also reveals that to obtain a dark hollow beam making use of GT of cos-Gaussian beams is impossible.

  19. A novel abundant family of retroposed elements (DAS-SINEs) in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Smit, Arian F A; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-04-01

    About half of the mammalian genome is composed of retroposons. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are the most abundant repetitive elements and account for about 21% and 13% of the human genome, respectively. SINEs have been detected in all major mammalian lineages, except for the South American order Xenarthra, also termed Edentata (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Investigating this order, we discovered a novel high-copy-number family of tRNA derived SINEs in the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, a species that successfully crossed the Central American land bridge to North America in the Pliocene. A specific computer algorithm was developed, and we detected and extracted 687 specific SINEs from databases. Termed DAS-SINEs, we further divided them into six distinct subfamilies. We extracted tRNA(Ala)-derived monomers, two types of dimers, and three subfamilies of chimeric fusion products of a tRNA(Ala) domain and an approximately 180-nt sequence of thus far unidentified origin. Comparisons of secondary structures of the DAS-SINEs' tRNA domains suggest selective pressure to maintain a tRNA-like D-arm structure in the respective founder RNAs, as shown by compensatory mutations. By analysis of subfamily-specific genetic variability, comparison of the proportion of direct repeats, and analysis of self-integrations as well as key events of dimerization and deletions or insertions, we were able to delineate the evolutionary history of the DAS-SINE subfamilies.

  20. Efficient three-dimensional resist profile-driven source mask optimization optical proximity correction based on Abbe-principal component analysis and Sylvester equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Yu, Chun-Chang; Chen, Charlie Chung-Ping

    2015-01-01

    As one of the critical stages of a very large scale integration fabrication process, postexposure bake (PEB) plays a crucial role in determining the final three-dimensional (3-D) profiles and lessening the standing wave effects. However, the full 3-D chemically amplified resist simulation is not widely adopted during the postlayout optimization due to the long run-time and huge memory usage. An efficient simulation method is proposed to simulate the PEB while considering standing wave effects and resolution enhancement techniques, such as source mask optimization and subresolution assist features based on the Sylvester equation and Abbe-principal component analysis method. Simulation results show that our algorithm is 20× faster than the conventional Gaussian convolution method.

  1. The Effects of Using Microsoft Power Point on EFL Learners' Attitude and Anxiety: Case Study of Two Master Students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benghalem, Boualem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of using ICT tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL students' attitude and anxiety. The participants in this study were 40 Master 2 students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes Algeria. In order to find out the effects of Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL…

  2. Study on W-band sheet-beam traveling-wave tube based on flat-roofed sine waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuanzhu; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Xuebing; Lei, Xia; Wu, Gangxiong; Li, Qian; Ding, Chong; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Gong, Yubin; Wei, Yanyu

    2018-05-01

    A W-band sheet electron beam (SEB) traveling-wave tube (TWT) based on flat-roofed sine waveguide slow-wave structure (FRSWG-SWS) is proposed. The sine wave of the metal grating is replaced by a flat-roofed sine wave around the electron beam tunnel. The slow-wave characteristics including the dispersion properties and interaction impedance have been investigated by using the eigenmode solver in the 3-D electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft HFSS. Through calculations, the FRSWG SWS possesses the larger average interaction impedance than the conventional sine waveguide (SWG) SWS in the frequency range of 86-110 GHz. The beam-wave interaction was studied and particle-in-cell simulation results show that the SEB TWT can produce output power over 120 W within the bandwidth ranging from 90 to 100 GHz, and the maximum output power is 226 W at typical frequency 94 GHz, corresponding electron efficiency of 5.89%.

  3. The development of sine vibration test requirements for Viking lander capsule components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, S.

    1974-01-01

    In connection with the Viking project for exploring the planet Mars, two identical spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander, will be launched in the third quarter of 1975. Upon arrival at the planet, the Viking lander will separate from the Viking orbiter and descend to a soft landing at a selected site on the Mars surface. It was decided to perform a sine vibration test on the Viking spacecraft, in its launch configuration, to qualify it for the booster-induced transient-dynamic environment. It is shown that component-level testing is a cost- and schedule-effective prerequisite to the system-level, sine-vibration test sequences.

  4. Specification and correlation of the sine vibration environment for Viking '75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. E.; Trummel, M.; Wada, B. K.; Pohlen, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Two Viking spacecraft will be individually launched on a new Titan IIIE/Centaur D-1T launch vehicle in August 1975. The method for the establishment of spacecraft sine vibration test levels prior to availability of any Titan IIIE/Centaur D-1T flight data by use of both computer simulations and data from previous Titan and Atlas Centaur vehicles is described. The specification level is compared with actual flight data obtained from a proof flight launch of the Titan IIIE/Centaur D-1T and a Viking dynamic simulator in January 1974. An objective of the proof flight launch was to obtain estimates of the flight loads and environments. The criteria used to minimize the structural weight that would result from an unmodified application of a sine test environment are described.

  5. The long (LINEs) and the short (SINEs) of it: altered methylation as a precursor to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Ammie N; Goodman, Jay I

    2003-10-01

    Although once thought of as "junk" DNA, the importance of interspersed elements in the genome has become increasingly appreciated in recent years. In a broad sense these are collectively referred to as transposable elements, which encompass both transposons and retrotransposons. The latter include long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Expression of these elements leads to genetic instability. Therefore, it is important that they remain transcriptionally silenced, and DNA methylation plays a key role in this regard. A framework for understanding the possible interplay between altered DNA methylation, an epigenetic change, and mutational events is presented. A case is made as to how retrotransposable elements, specifically LINEs and SINEs, are likely to emerge as key players in furthering our understanding of mechanisms underlying a variety of toxicities, including carcinogenesis but not limited to this endpoint.

  6. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications. PMID:27443798

  7. From sine-Gordon to vacuumless systems in flat and curved spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Moreira, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we start from the Higgs prototype model to introduce a new model, which makes a smooth transition between systems with well-located minima and systems that support no minima at all. We implement this possibility using the deformation procedure, which allows the obtaining a sine-Gordon-like model, controlled by a real parameter that gives rise to a family of models, reproducing the sine-Gordon and the so-called vacuumless models. We also study the thick brane scenarios associated with these models and investigate their stability and renormalization group flow. In particular, it is shown how gravity can change from the 5-dimensional warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent to the conventional 5-dimensional Minkowski geometry.

  8. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  9. [Short interspersed repetitive sequences (SINEs) and their use as a phylogenetic tool].

    PubMed

    Kramerov, D A; Vasetskiĭ, N S

    2009-01-01

    The data on one of the most common repetitive elements of eukaryotic genomes, short interspersed elements (SINEs), are reviewed. Their structure, origin, and functioning in the genome are discussed. The variation and abundance of these neutral genomic markers makes them a convenient and reliable tool for phylogenetic analysis. The main methods of such analysis are presented, and the potential and limitations of this approach are discussed using specific examples.

  10. On the solution of the generalized wave and generalized sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ablowitz, M. J.; Beals, R.; Tenenblat, K.

    1986-01-01

    The generalized wave equation and generalized sine-Gordon equations are known to be natural multidimensional differential geometric generalizations of the classical two-dimensional versions. In this paper, a system of linear differential equations is associated with these equations, and it is shown how the direct and inverse problems can be solved for appropriately decaying data on suitable lines. An initial-boundary value problem is solved for these equations.

  11. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  12. Retroelements (LINEs and SINEs) in vole genomes: differential distribution in the constitutive heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Acosta, M J; Marchal, J A; Fernández-Espartero, C H; Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of mobile genetic elements is scarcely known in Arvicolinae species, but could be of relevance to understand the origin and complex evolution of the sex chromosome heterochromatin. In this work we cloned two retrotransposon sequences, L1 and SINE-B1, from the genome of Chionomys nivalis and investigated their chromosomal distribution on several arvicoline species. Our results demonstrate first that both retroelements are the most abundant repeated DNA sequences in the genome of these species. L1 elements, in most species, are highly accumulated in the sex chromosomes compared to the autosomes. This favoured L1 insertion could have played an important role in the origin of the enlarged heterochromatic blocks existing in the sex chromosomes of some Microtus species. Also, we propose that L1 accumulation on the X heterochromatin could have been the consequence of different, independent and rapid amplification processes acting in each species. SINE elements, however, were completely lacking from the constitutive heterochromatin, either in autosomes or in the heterochromatic blocks of sex chromosomes. These data could indicate that some SINE elements are incompatible with the formation of heterochromatic complexes and hence are necessarily missing from the constitutive heterochromatin.

  13. A SINE in the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus is an Alu element

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Linda Z.

    2006-01-01

    Transposable elements of about 300 bp, termed “short interspersed nucleotide elements or SINEs are common in eukaryotes. However, Alu elements, SINEs containing restriction sites for the AluI enzyme, have been known only from primates. Here I report the first SINE found in the genome of the cephalochordate, amphioxus. It is an Alu element of 375 bp that does not share substantial identity with any genomic sequences in vertebrates. It was identified because it was located in the FoxD regulatory region in a cosmid derived from one individual, but absent from the two FoxD alleles of BACs from a second individual. However, searches of sequences of BACs and genomic traces from this second individual gave an estimate of 50-100 copies in the amphioxus genome. The finding of an Alu element in amphioxus raises the question of whether Alu elements in amphioxus and primates arose by convergent evolution or by inheritance from a common ancestor. Genome-wide analyses of transposable elements in amphioxus and other chordates such as tunicates, agnathans and cartilaginous fishes could well provide the answer. PMID:16733535

  14. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a major source of canine genomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kirkness, Ewen F

    2005-12-01

    SINEs are retrotransposons that have enjoyed remarkable reproductive success during the course of mammalian evolution, and have played a major role in shaping mammalian genomes. Previously, an analysis of survey-sequence data from an individual dog (a poodle) indicated that canine genomes harbor a high frequency of alleles that differ only by the absence or presence of a SINEC_Cf repeat. Comparison of this survey-sequence data with a draft genome sequence of a distinct dog (a boxer) has confirmed this prediction, and revealed the chromosomal coordinates for >10,000 loci that are bimorphic for SINEC_Cf insertions. Analysis of SINE insertion sites from the genomes of nine additional dogs indicates that 3%-5% are absent from either the poodle or boxer genome sequences--suggesting that an additional 10,000 bimorphic loci could be readily identified in the general dog population. We describe a methodology that can be used to identify these loci, and could be adapted to exploit these bimorphic loci for genotyping purposes. Approximately half of all annotated canine genes contain SINEC_Cf repeats, and these elements are occasionally transcribed. When transcribed in the antisense orientation, they provide splice acceptor sites that can result in incorporation of novel exons. The high frequency of bimorphic SINE insertions in the dog population is predicted to provide numerous examples of allele-specific transcription patterns that will be valuable for the study of differential gene expression among multiple dog breeds.

  15. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-03

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  16. Scenario based approach for multiple source Tsunami Hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines - Portugal, one of the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, runup and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite of Horseshoe and Marques Pombal fault as the worst case scenario. It governs the aggregate scenario with about 60 % and inundates an area of 3.5 km2.

  17. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.H.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L.

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome.more » However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.« less

  18. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  19. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  20. Maladie thromboembolique veineuse dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie: fréquence et facteurs de risque

    PubMed Central

    Chalal, Nourelhouda; Demmouche, Abbassia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La maladie thromboembolique veineuse (MTEV) présente par ses deux entités cliniques: thrombose veineuse profonde (TVP) et embolie pulmonaire (EP), est une pathologie fréquente ayant une forte morbi-mortalité. En Algérie, cette pathologie prend de plus en plus de l'ampleur, en l'absence de toute publication révélant sa fréquence et le pouvoir thrombogène des facteurs de risque qui lui sont corrélés. Notre étude a pour objectif de déterminer la fréquence et les facteurs de risque de ce type d'affection dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective allant du 1er janvier 2006 au 10 juin 2012 ciblant les patients hospitalisés pour TVP et /ou EP au sein du service de cardiologie du CHU de Sidi Bel Abbes. Résultats 183 patients atteints de la MTEV dont 112 femmes (61.2%) d’âge moyen 46.4 ± 17.9 et 71 hommes (38.7%) d’âge moyen 51.5 ± 17.7 ont été notés. 146 cas parmi eux (79.7%) présentaient une TVP isolée, alors que 37 autres (20.2%) étaient atteints d'EP, dont 16 cas de TVP associée. Les facteurs de risque les plus fréquents enregistrés en cas de TVP sont surtout: l'immobilité, l'hypertension, la chirurgie, et la contraception orale, tandis que: l'immobilité, la chirurgie, l'hypertension et les fractures sont les facteurs de risques les plus incriminés en cas d'EP. 24.7% des patients présentaient plusieurs facteurs de risque. L'antécédent personnel de la MTEV, était présent dans 12.02% des cas. 97.5% des TVP ont touché les membres inférieurs mais seulement 2.5% des TVP étaient localisés au niveau des membres supérieurs. Conclusion Au terme de notre étude, et en dépit de sa fréquence non alarmante, il serait indispensable d'envisager l'adoption d'une stratégie prophylactique adéquate afin de lutter contre le développement redoutable de ce genre d'affection dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes. PMID:24648858

  1. Profil épidémiologique des fibromes utérins dans la région de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie

    PubMed Central

    Chalal, Nourelhouda; Demmouche, Abbassia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les léiomyomes ou fibromyomes plus communément dénommés fibromes, sont les tumeurs les plus répandues du tractus génital féminin. Ils affectent 20 à 25% des femmes en activité génitale. Notre étude vise à élucider la réalité de ce type de pathologie dans la région de sidi bel Abbes, nord-ouest d'Algérie. Méthodes A travers une étude rétrospective allant du 1er janvier 2008 au 1 mai 2011 portant sur les patientes opérées pour fibrome au sein de la maternité de Sidi Bel Abbes, nous avons relevé les particularités épidémiologiques et cliniques de cette pathologie. Résultats Au total 323 cas de fibromes ont été recensés. La tranche d'âge la plus touchée varie de 40 à 44 ans dans une fourchette d'âge comprise entre 20 et 74 ans. 37.83% des patientes étaient nullipares. Une prédominance des patientes dont l'âge de la ménarche est précoce, a été retenue (60.3%). 3% des femmes ont présenté un terrain familial prédisposant. La symptomatologie était dominée par les hémorragies génitales (35%). La majorité des patientes (51.70%) présentaient un utérus polymyomateux dont la localisation des fibromes était principalement corporéale (96%), sous séreuse (43%). Le traitement était conservateur dans 71.82% des cas. Conclusion Sur la base des résultats obtenus, la mise au point d'un programme national de sensibilisation et de dépistage précoce, s'impose PMID:23847704

  2. First report in Africa of two clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis carrying Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) variants, SGI1-PmABB and SGI1-W.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Toshi; El-Domany, Ramadan A; Nariya, Hirofumi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2017-07-01

    Two Proteus mirabilis strains, designated PmTAN59 and PmKAF126, were isolated from two different Egyptian cities in 2014 and 2015, respectively. PmTAN59 was isolated from a sputum swab from a pneumonia patient in Tanta University Teaching Hospital. PmKAF126 was isolated from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in a hospital in the city of Kafr El-Sheikh. The two isolates were identified with bacterial small ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplification and sequencing and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. The two strains were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulante, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprime, and tetracycline, but sensitive to aztreonam, imipenem, and meropenem. Molecular characterization was used to map the entire backbone, including the multiple antibiotic resistance (MDR) region, of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). Both isolates carried a structure similar to SGI1, with two different MDR regions corresponding to SGI1-PmABB in PmTAN59 and SGI1-W in PmKAF126. SGI1-PmABB carried an integron of ~1.5kb with a two-gene cassette, aacCA5-aadA7, which confers resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, and spectinomycin, whereas SGI1-W carried an integron of ~1.9kb containing aadA2-lnuF, which confers resistance to spectinomycin, streptomycin, and lincosamides. PmKAF126 carried the entire SGI1 sequence, however PmTAN59 carried a SGI1 structure with a deletion in the region from ORF S005 to ORF S009 and accompanied by insertion of IS1359 (1258bp). Furthermore, PmTAN59 carried class 2 integron of ~2.2kb containing dfrA1-sat2-aadA1. An ERIC-PCR analysis detected no clonal relationship between the two strains. Molecular screening for other antimicrobial resistance genes and a plasmid analysis indicated that PmTAN59 carried an IncFIB plasmid type. This strain also carried bla

  3. Aplanatism and nonimaging optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2008-08-01

    We show that an aplanatic imaging system can approach theoretical maximum concentration limit following a brief review of Abbe Sine condition and aplanatism. We use a two-mirror case to demonstrate how to construct such aplanatic systems using Luneburg method. The result is useful in designing high-performance concentrators.

  4. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened

  6. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  7. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  8. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    PubMed

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  9. Chronic active VZV infection manifesting as zoster sine herpete, zoster paresis and myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Morita, Y; Osaki, Y; Doi, Y; Forghani, B; Gilden, D H

    2003-08-15

    After lumbar-distribution zoster, an HTLV-1-seropositive woman developed chronic radicular sacral-distribution pain (zoster sine herpete), cervical-distribution zoster paresis and thoracic-distribution myelopathy. Detection of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgM and VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with reduced serum/CSF ratios of anti-VZV IgG compared to normal serum/CSF ratios for albumin and total IgG, proved that VZV caused the protracted neurological complications. Diagnosis by antibody testing led to aggressive antiviral treatment and a favorable outcome.

  10. A note on a boundary sine-Gordon model at the free-Fermion point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgan, Rajan

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the free-Fermion point of a boundary sine-Gordon model with nondiagonal boundary interactions for the ground state using auxiliary functions obtained from T  -  Q equations of a corresponding inhomogeneous open spin-\\frac{1}{2} XXZ chain with nondiagonal boundary terms. In particular, we obtain the Casimir energy. Our result for the Casimir energy is shown to agree with the result from the TBA approach. The analytical result for the effective central charge in the ultraviolet (UV) limit is also verified from the plots of effective central charge for intermediate values of volume.

  11. Criteria for representing circular arc and sine wave spar webs by non-curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The basic problem of how to simply represent a curved web of a spar in a finite element structural model was addressed. The ratio of flat web to curved web axial deformations and longitudinal rotations were calculated using NASTRAN models. Multiplying factors were developed from these calculations for various web thicknesses. These multiplying factors can be applied directly to the area and moment of inertia inputs of the finite element model. This allows the thermal stress relieving configurations of sine wave and circular arc webs to be simply accounted for in finite element structural models.

  12. Fast Boundary Element Method for acoustics with the Sparse Cardinal Sine Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alouges, François; Aussal, Matthieu; Parolin, Emile

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the newly proposed method Sparse Cardinal Sine Decomposition that allows fast convolution on unstructured grids. We focus on its use when coupled with finite element techniques to solve acoustic problems with the (compressed) Boundary Element Method. In addition, we also compare the computational performances of two equivalent Matlab® and Python implementations of the method. We show validation test cases in order to assess the precision of the approach. Eventually, the performance of the method is illustrated by the computation of the acoustic target strength of a realistic submarine from the Benchmark Target Strength Simulation international workshop.

  13. Numerical analysis of soliton solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. P.

    2015-03-01

    Multisoliton solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-sine-Gordon equation (mKdV-SG) are found numerically by applying the quasi-spectral Fourier method and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The accuracy and features of the approach are determined as applied to problems with initial data in the form of various combinations of perturbed soliton distributions. Three-soliton solutions are obtained, and the generation of kinks, breathers, wobblers, perturbed kinks, and nonlinear oscillatory waves is studied.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. PMID:23855320

  15. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-10-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. © 2013 Ben-Gurion University The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. On the correct use of stepped-sine excitations for the measurement of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Louarroudi, E; Sanchez, B

    2017-02-01

    When a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance is measured using stepped-sine excitations, a compromise must be made: the temporal distortions affecting the data depend on the experimental time, which in turn sets the data accuracy and limits the temporal bandwidth of the system that needs to be measured. Here, the experimental time required to measure linear time-invariant bioimpedance with a specified accuracy is analyzed for different stepped-sine excitation setups. We provide simple equations that allow the reader to know whether LTV bioimpedance can be measured through repeated time- invariant stepped-sine experiments. Bioimpedance technology is on the rise thanks to a plethora of healthcare monitoring applications. The results presented can help to avoid distortions in the data while measuring accurately non-stationary physiological phenomena. The impact of the work presented is broad, including the potential of enhancing bioimpedance studies and healthcare devices using bioimpedance technology.

  17. Generation of dark hollow beam by focusing a sine-Gaussian beam using a cylindrical lens and a focusing lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Huiqin; Zhu, Kaicheng

    2013-12-01

    Based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral, a closed-form propagation equation related to sine-Gaussian beams through a cylindrical lens and a focusing lens is derived and illustrated with numerical methods. It is found that a sine-Gaussian beam through such a system may be converted into a dark hollow beam (DHB) with topological charge index one and its bright enclosure is approximately an elongated ellipse with very high ellipticity. Moreover, the parameter values at which the DHBs have perfect intensity patterns are designed. The optimal relative orientation between the dislocation line of the input sine-Gaussian beam and the axial orientation of the cylindrical lens is specified. And the ellipticity of the elliptical DHBs is mainly defined by the focal length of the cylindrical lens and the Fresnel number of the optical system.

  18. Evidence of slope failure in the Sines Contourite Drift area (SW Portuguese Continental Margin) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Roque, Cristina; Terrinha, Pedro; Rodrigues, Sara; Ercilla, Gemma; Casas, David

    2017-04-01

    Slope instability, expressed by landslide activity, is an important natural hazard both onshore as well as offshore. Offshore processes create great concern on coastal areas constituting one of the major and most prominent hazards, directly by the damages they generate and indirectly by the possibility of generating tsunamis, which may affect the coast line. The Southwest Portuguese Continental Margin has been identified as an area where several mass movements occurred from Late Pleistocene to Present. Recently, an area of 52 km long by 34 km wide, affected by slope failure has been recognized in the Sines contourite drift located off the Alentejo. SWIM and CONDRIBER multibeam swath bathymetry has been used for the geomorphologic analysis and for recognition of mass movement scars on the seabed. Scars' areas and volumes were calculated by reconstructing paleo-bathymetry. The net gain and net loss were calculated using both paleo and present day bathymetry. Geomorphologically, the study area presents 4 morphologic domains with landslide scars: I) Shelf and upper slope display an irregular boundary with domain II with a sharp step ( 150m - 600m); II) Smooth area with gentle slope angles making the transition from smoother area to the continental slope (scarp), with large scars, suggesting slow rate and distributed mass wasting processes over this area ( 600 - 1200m); III) Scarp with high rates of retrograding instability, where faster processes are verified and a great number of gullies is feeding downslope area (1200m - 3200m); IV) Lebre Basin where mass movements deposits accumulate (> 3200m). A total of 51 landslide scars were identified with a total affected area of 137.67 km2, with 80.9 km2 being located in the continental slope with about 59% of the disrupted area, between 1200 and 3200m, and 41% (56.6 km2) lies in the continental shelf and upper slope, on a range of depths between 150 and 800m. The mean scar area is 2.7 km2 and the maximum area recorded on a

  19. A hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine-based strategy for addressing the combinatorial test suite minimization problem

    PubMed Central

    Zamli, Kamal Z.; Din, Fakhrud; Bures, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1). In this paper, we propose a new hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine- based strategy, called the Q-learning sine-cosine algorithm (QLSCA). Within the QLSCA, we eliminate the switching probability. Instead, we rely on the Q-learning algorithm (based on the penalty and reward mechanism) to dynamically identify the best operation during runtime. Additionally, we integrate two new operations (Lévy flight motion and crossover) into the QLSCA to facilitate jumping out of local minima/maxima and enhance the solution diversity. To assess its performance, we adopt the QLSCA for the combinatorial test suite minimization problem. Experimental results reveal that the QLSCA is statistically superior with regard to test suite size reduction compared to recent state-of-the-art strategies, including the original SCA, the particle swarm test generator (PSTG), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) and the cuckoo search strategy (CS) at the 95% confidence level. However, concerning the comparison with discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO), there is no significant difference in performance at the 95% confidence level. On a positive note, the QLSCA statistically outperforms the DPSO in certain configurations at the 90% confidence level. PMID:29771918

  20. A hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine-based strategy for addressing the combinatorial test suite minimization problem.

    PubMed

    Zamli, Kamal Z; Din, Fakhrud; Ahmed, Bestoun S; Bures, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1). In this paper, we propose a new hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine- based strategy, called the Q-learning sine-cosine algorithm (QLSCA). Within the QLSCA, we eliminate the switching probability. Instead, we rely on the Q-learning algorithm (based on the penalty and reward mechanism) to dynamically identify the best operation during runtime. Additionally, we integrate two new operations (Lévy flight motion and crossover) into the QLSCA to facilitate jumping out of local minima/maxima and enhance the solution diversity. To assess its performance, we adopt the QLSCA for the combinatorial test suite minimization problem. Experimental results reveal that the QLSCA is statistically superior with regard to test suite size reduction compared to recent state-of-the-art strategies, including the original SCA, the particle swarm test generator (PSTG), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) and the cuckoo search strategy (CS) at the 95% confidence level. However, concerning the comparison with discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO), there is no significant difference in performance at the 95% confidence level. On a positive note, the QLSCA statistically outperforms the DPSO in certain configurations at the 90% confidence level.

  1. Sine-Gordon equation and its application to tectonic stress transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Victor G.

    2014-07-01

    An overview is given on remarkable progress that has been made in theoretical studies of solitons and other nonlinear wave patterns, excited during the deformation of fault block (fragmented) geological media. The models that are compliant with the classical and perturbed sine-Gordon equations have only been chosen. In these mathematical models, the rotation angle of blocks (fragments) and their translatory displacement of the medium are used as dynamic variables. A brief description of the known models and their geophysical and geodynamic applications is given. These models reproduce the kinematic and dynamic features of the traveling deformation front (kink, soliton) generated in the fragmented media. It is demonstrated that the sine-Gordon equation is applicable to the description of series of the observed seismic data, modeling of strain waves, as well as the features related to fault dynamics and the subduction slab, including slow earthquakes, periodicity of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events, and migration pattern of tremors. The study shows that simple heuristic models and analytical and numerical computations can explain triggering of seismicity by transient processes, such as stress changes associated with solitary strain waves in crustal faults. The need to develop the above-mentioned new (nonlinear) mathematical models of the deformed fault and fragmented media was caused by the reason that it is impossible to explain a lot of the observed effects, particularly, slow redistribution and migration of stresses in the lithosphere, within the framework of the linear elasticity theory.

  2. LINEs, SINEs and other retroelements: do birds of a feather flock together?

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2012-01-01

    Mobile elements account for almost half of the mass of the human genome. Only the retroelements from the non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposon family, which include the LINE-1 (L1) and its non-autonomous partners, are currently active and contributing to new insertions. Although these elements seem to share the same basic amplification mechanism, the activity and success of the different types of retroelements varies. For example, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human disease induced by insertion of retroelements. Using copy number in mammals as an indicator, some SINEs have been vastly more successful than other retroelements, such as the retropseudogenes and even L1, likely due to differences in post-insertion selection and ability to overcome cellular controls. SINE and LINE integration can be differentially influenced by cellular factors, indicating some differences between in their amplification mechanisms. We focus on the known aspects of this group of retroelements and highlight their similarities and differences that may significantly influence their biological impact.

  3. LINEs, SINEs and other retroelements: do birds of a feather flock together?

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile elements account for almost half of the mass of the human genome. Only the retroelements from the non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposon family, which include the LINE-1 (L1) and its non-autonomous partners, are currently active and contributing to new insertions. Although these elements seem to share the same basic amplification mechanism, the activity and success of the different types of retroelements varies. For example, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human disease induced by insertion of retroelements. Using copy number in mammals as an indicator, some SINEs have been vastly more successful than other retroelements, such as the retropseudogenes and even L1, likely due to differences in post-insertion selection and ability to overcome cellular controls. SINE and LINE integration can be differentially influenced by cellular factors, indicating some differences between in their amplification mechanisms. We focus on the known aspects of this group of retroelements and highlight their similarities and differences that may significantly influence their biological impact. PMID:22201808

  4. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of M. musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were either identified only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since thus far has mainly been observed in M. musculus, we then refer to this family as MMIDL. PMID:17572061

  5. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  6. A new compound control method for sine-on-random mixed vibration test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyun; Wang, Ruochen; Zeng, Falin

    2017-09-01

    Vibration environmental test (VET) is one of the important and effective methods to provide supports for the strength design, reliability and durability test of mechanical products. A new separation control strategy was proposed to apply in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) sine on random (SOR) mixed mode vibration test, which is the advanced and intensive test type of VET. As the key problem of the strategy, correlation integral method was applied to separate the mixed signals which included random and sinusoidal components. The feedback control formula of MIMO linear random vibration system was systematically deduced in frequency domain, and Jacobi control algorithm was proposed in view of the elements, such as self-spectrum, coherence, and phase of power spectral density (PSD) matrix. Based on the excessive correction of excitation in sine vibration test, compression factor was introduced to reduce the excitation correction, avoiding the destruction to vibration table or other devices. The two methods were synthesized to be applied in MIMO SOR vibration test system. In the final, verification test system with the vibration of a cantilever beam as the control object was established to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the methods proposed in the paper. The test results show that the exceeding values can be controlled in the tolerance range of references accurately, and the method can supply theory and application supports for mechanical engineering.

  7. Speech perception of sine-wave signals by children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Kuess, Jamie; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Children need to discover linguistically meaningful structures in the acoustic speech signal. Being attentive to recurring, time-varying formant patterns helps in that process. However, that kind of acoustic structure may not be available to children with cochlear implants (CIs), thus hindering development. The major goal of this study was to examine whether children with CIs are as sensitive to time-varying formant structure as children with normal hearing (NH) by asking them to recognize sine-wave speech. The same materials were presented as speech in noise, as well, to evaluate whether any group differences might simply reflect general perceptual deficits on the part of children with CIs. Vocabulary knowledge, phonemic awareness, and “top-down” language effects were all also assessed. Finally, treatment factors were examined as possible predictors of outcomes. Results showed that children with CIs were as accurate as children with NH at recognizing sine-wave speech, but poorer at recognizing speech in noise. Phonemic awareness was related to that recognition. Top-down effects were similar across groups. Having had a period of bimodal stimulation near the time of receiving a first CI facilitated these effects. Results suggest that children with CIs have access to the important time-varying structure of vocal-tract formants. PMID:25994709

  8. BPS Z{sub N} string tensions, sine law and Casimir scaling, and integrable field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kneipp, Marco A. C.; International Centre for Theoretical Physics

    We consider a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group G{yields}U(1){sup r}{yields}C{sub G}, with C{sub G} being the center of G. We study two vacua solutions of the theory which produce this symmetry breaking. We show that for one of these vacua, the theory in the Coulomb phase has the mass spectrum of particles and monopoles which is exactly the same as the mass spectrum of particles and solitons of two-dimensional affine Toda field theory, for suitable coupling constants. That result holds also for N=4 super Yang-Mills theories. On the other hand, in the Higgs phase, wemore » show that for each of the two vacua the ratio of the tensions of the BPS Z{sub N} strings satisfy either the Casimir scaling or the sine law scaling for G=SU(N). These results are extended to other gauge groups: for the Casimir scaling, the ratios of the tensions are equal to the ratios of the quadratic Casimir constant of specific representations; for the sine law scaling, the tensions are proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of Cartan matrix K{sub ij} and the ratios of tensions are equal to the ratios of the soliton masses of affine Toda field theories.« less

  9. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  10. Increased levels of B1 and B2 SINE transcripts in mouse fibroblast cells due to minute virus of mice infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, Warren P; Tamburic, Lillian; Astell, Caroline R

    2004-10-01

    Minute virus of mice (MVM), an autonomous parvovirus, has served as a model for understanding parvovirus infection including host cell response to infection. In this paper, we report the effect of MVM infection on host cell gene expression in mouse fibroblast cells (LA9 cells), analyzed by differential display. Somewhat surprisingly, our data reveal that few cellular protein-coding genes appear to be up- or downregulated and identify the murine B1 and B2 short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts as being increased upon MVM infection. Primer extension assays confirm the effect of MVM infection on SINE expression and demonstrate that both SINEs are upregulated in a roughly linear fashion throughout MVM infection. They also demonstrate that the SINE response was due to RNA polymerase III transcription and not contaminating DNA or RNA polymerase II transcription. Furthermore, expression of MVM NS1, the major nonstructural protein, by transient transfection also leads to an increase in both murine SINEs. We believe this is the first time that the B1 and B2 SINEs have been shown to be altered by viral infection and the first time parvovirus infection has been shown to increase SINE expression. The increase in SINE transcripts caused by MVM infection does not appear to be due to an increase in either of the basal transcription factors TFIIIC110 or 220, in contrast to that which has been shown for other viruses.

  11. The Crystal Structure and Magnetic Behavior of Quinary Osmate and Ruthenate Double Perovskites La ABB'O 6 ( A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os)

    DOE PAGES

    Morrow, Ryan; McGuire, Michael A.; Yan, Jiaqiang; ...

    2018-02-23

    In this work, six LaABB'O 6 (A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os) double perovskites were synthesized, several for the first time, and their crystal structures and magnetic behavior were characterized with neutron powder diffraction and direct-current and alternating-current magnetometry. All six compounds crystallize with P2 1/n space group symmetry, resulting from a –a –c + octahedral tilting and complete rock salt ordering of transition-metal ions. Despite the electronic configurations of the transition-metal ions, either d 8–d 3 or d 7–d 3, not one of the six compounds shows ferromagnetism as predicted by the Goodenough–Kanamorimore » rules. LaSrNiOsO 6, LaSrNiRuO 6, and LaCaNiRuO 6 display long-range antiferromagnetic order, while LaCaNiOsO 6, LaCaCoOsO 6, and LaSrCoOsO 6 exhibit spin-glass behavior. These compounds are compared to the previously studied LaCaCoRuO 6 and LaSrCoRuO 6, both of which order antiferromagnetically. Lastly, the observed variations in magnetic properties can be attributed largely to the response of competing superexchange pathways due to changes in B–O–B' bond angles, differences in the radial extent of the 4d (B' = Ru) and 5d (B' = Os) orbitals, and filling of the t 2g orbitals of the 3d ion.« less

  12. The Crystal Structure and Magnetic Behavior of Quinary Osmate and Ruthenate Double Perovskites La ABB'O 6 ( A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Ryan; McGuire, Michael A.; Yan, Jiaqiang

    In this work, six LaABB'O 6 (A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os) double perovskites were synthesized, several for the first time, and their crystal structures and magnetic behavior were characterized with neutron powder diffraction and direct-current and alternating-current magnetometry. All six compounds crystallize with P2 1/n space group symmetry, resulting from a –a –c + octahedral tilting and complete rock salt ordering of transition-metal ions. Despite the electronic configurations of the transition-metal ions, either d 8–d 3 or d 7–d 3, not one of the six compounds shows ferromagnetism as predicted by the Goodenough–Kanamorimore » rules. LaSrNiOsO 6, LaSrNiRuO 6, and LaCaNiRuO 6 display long-range antiferromagnetic order, while LaCaNiOsO 6, LaCaCoOsO 6, and LaSrCoOsO 6 exhibit spin-glass behavior. These compounds are compared to the previously studied LaCaCoRuO 6 and LaSrCoRuO 6, both of which order antiferromagnetically. Lastly, the observed variations in magnetic properties can be attributed largely to the response of competing superexchange pathways due to changes in B–O–B' bond angles, differences in the radial extent of the 4d (B' = Ru) and 5d (B' = Os) orbitals, and filling of the t 2g orbitals of the 3d ion.« less

  13. Spatially Extended Relativistic Particles Out of Traveling Front Solutions of Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarmi, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Slower-than-light multi-front solutions of the Sine-Gordon in (1+2) dimensions, constructed through the Hirota algorithm, are mapped onto spatially localized structures, which emulate free, spatially extended, massive relativistic particles. A localized structure is an image of the junctions at which the fronts intersect. It propagates together with the multi-front solution at the velocity of the latter. The profile of the localized structure obeys the linear wave equation in (1+2) dimensions, to which a term that represents interaction with a slower-than-light, Sine-Gordon-multi-front solution has been added. This result can be also formulated in terms of a (1+2)-dimensional Lagrangian system, in which the Sine-Gordon and wave equations are coupled. Expanding the Euler-Lagrange equations in powers of the coupling constant, the zero-order part of the solution reproduces the (1+2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon fronts. The first-order part is the spatially localized structure. PACS: 02.30.Ik, 03.65.Pm, 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Ik. PMID:26930077

  14. A method for quantification of exportin-1 (XPO1) occupancy by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds

    PubMed Central

    Crochiere, Marsha L.; Baloglu, Erkan; Klebanov, Boris; Donovan, Scott; del Alamo, Diego; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds are a family of small-molecules that inhibit nuclear export through covalent binding to cysteine 528 (Cys528) in the cargo-binding pocket of Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) and promote cancer cell death. Selinexor is the lead SINE compound currently in phase I and II clinical trials for advanced solid and hematological malignancies. In an effort to understand selinexor-XPO1 interaction and to establish whether cancer cell response is a function of drug-target engagement, we developed a quantitative XPO1 occupancy assay. Biotinylated leptomycin B (b-LMB) was utilized as a tool compound to measure SINE-free XPO1. Binding to XPO1 was quantitated from SINE compound treated adherent and suspension cells in vitro, dosed ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and PBMCs from mice dosed orally with drug in vivo. Evaluation of a panel of selinexor sensitive and resistant cell lines revealed that resistance was not attributed to XPO1 occupancy by selinexor. Administration of a single dose of selinexor bound XPO1 for minimally 72 hours both in vitro and in vivo. While XPO1 inhibition directly correlates with selinexor pharmacokinetics, the biological outcome of this inhibition depends on modulation of pathways downstream of XPO1, which ultimately determines cancer cell responsiveness. PMID:26654943

  15. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Jans, David A; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-11-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus.

  16. Remarks on the Non-Linear Differential Equation the Second Derivative of Theta Plus A Sine Theta Equals 0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; O'Neal, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors draw together a variety of facts concerning a nonlinear differential equation and compare the exact solution with approximate solutions. Then they provide an expository introduction to the elliptic sine function suitable for presentation in undergraduate courses on differential equations. (MNS)

  17. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  18. Sine-squared shifted pulses for recoupling interactions in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Mukul G.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Equbal, Asif; Mote, Kaustubh R.; Agarwal, Vipin; Madhu, P. K.

    2017-06-01

    Rotational-Echo DOuble-Resonance (REDOR) is a versatile experiment for measuring internuclear distance between two heteronuclear spins in solid-state NMR. At slow to intermediate magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies, the measurement of distances between strongly coupled spins is challenging due to rapid dephasing of magnetisation. This problem can be remedied by employing the pulse-shifted version of REDOR known as Shifted-REDOR (S-REDOR) that scales down the recoupled dipolar coupling. In this study, we propose a new variant of the REDOR sequence where the positions of the π pulses are determined by a sine-squared function. This new variant has scaling properties similar to S-REDOR. We use theory, numerical simulations, and experiments to compare the dipolar recoupling efficiencies and the experimental robustness of the three REDOR schemes. The proposed variant has advantages in terms of radiofrequency field requirements at fast MAS frequencies.

  19. Obtaining changes in calibration-coil to seismometer output constants using sine waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Gee, Lind S.; Sandoval, Leo D.; Wilson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The midband sensitivity of a broadband seismometer is one of the most commonly used parameters from station metadata. Thus, it is critical for station operators to robustly estimate this quantity with a high degree of accuracy. We develop an in situ method for estimating changes in sensitivity using sine‐wave calibrations, assuming the calibration coil and its drive are stable over time and temperature. This approach has been used in the past for passive instruments (e.g., geophones) but has not been applied, to our knowledge, to derive sensitivities of modern force‐feedback broadband seismometers. We are able to detect changes in sensitivity to well within 1%, and our method is capable of detecting these sensitivity changes using any frequency of sine calibration within the passband of the instrument.

  20. An enhanced sine dwell method as applied to the Galileo core structure modal survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth S.; Trubert, Marc

    1990-01-01

    An incremental modal survey performed in 1988 on the core structure of the Galileo spacecraft with its adapters with the purpose of assessing the dynamics of the new portions of the structure is considered. Emphasis is placed on the enhancements of the sine dwell method employed in the test. For each mode, response data is acquired at 32 frequencies in a narrow band enclosing the resonance, utilizing the SWIFT technique. It is pointed out that due to the simplicity of the data processing involved, the diagnostic and modal-parameter data is available within several minutes after data acquisition; however, compared with straight curve-fitting approaches, the method requires more time for data acquisition.

  1. Collective coordinates theory for discrete soliton ratchets in the sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Quintero, Niurka R.; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Alejo, Miguel A.

    2014-10-01

    A collective coordinate theory is developed for soliton ratchets in the damped discrete sine-Gordon model driven by a biharmonic force. An ansatz with two collective coordinates, namely the center and the width of the soliton, is assumed as an approximated solution of the discrete nonlinear equation. The dynamical equations of these two collective coordinates, obtained by means of the generalized travelling wave method, explain the mechanism underlying the soliton ratchet and capture qualitatively all the main features of this phenomenon. The numerical simulation of these equations accounts for the existence of a nonzero depinning threshold, the nonsinusoidal behavior of the average velocity as a function of the relative phase between the harmonics of the driver, the nonmonotonic dependence of the average velocity on the damping, and the existence of nontransporting regimes beyond the depinning threshold. In particular, it provides a good description of the intriguing and complex pattern of subspaces corresponding to different dynamical regimes in parameter space.

  2. Collective coordinates theory for discrete soliton ratchets in the sine-Gordon model.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Quintero, Niurka R; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Alejo, Miguel A

    2014-10-01

    A collective coordinate theory is developed for soliton ratchets in the damped discrete sine-Gordon model driven by a biharmonic force. An ansatz with two collective coordinates, namely the center and the width of the soliton, is assumed as an approximated solution of the discrete nonlinear equation. The dynamical equations of these two collective coordinates, obtained by means of the generalized travelling wave method, explain the mechanism underlying the soliton ratchet and capture qualitatively all the main features of this phenomenon. The numerical simulation of these equations accounts for the existence of a nonzero depinning threshold, the nonsinusoidal behavior of the average velocity as a function of the relative phase between the harmonics of the driver, the nonmonotonic dependence of the average velocity on the damping, and the existence of nontransporting regimes beyond the depinning threshold. In particular, it provides a good description of the intriguing and complex pattern of subspaces corresponding to different dynamical regimes in parameter space.

  3. The sine oculis homeobox (SIX) family of transcription factors as regulators of development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The sine oculis homeobox (SIX) protein family is a group of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are found in diverse organisms that range from flatworms to humans. These factors are expressed within, and play pivotal developmental roles in, cell populations that give rise to the head, retina, ear, nose, brain, kidney, muscle and gonads. Mutations within the fly and mammalian versions of these genes have adverse consequences on the development of these organs/tissues. Several SIX proteins have been shown to directly influence the cell cycle and are present at elevated levels during tumorigenesis and within several cancers. This review aims to highlight aspects of (1) the evolutionary history of the SIX family; (2) the structural differences and similarities amongst the different SIX proteins; (3) the role that these genes play in retinal development; and (4) the influence that these proteins have on cell proliferation and growth. PMID:18989625

  4. Fast and precise technique for magnet lattice correction via sine-wave excitation of fast correctors

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, X.; Smaluk, V.; Yu, L. H.; ...

    2017-05-02

    A novel technique has been developed to improve the precision and shorten the measurement time of the LOCO (linear optics from closed orbits) method. This technique, named AC LOCO, is based on sine-wave (ac) beam excitation via fast correctors. Such fast correctors are typically installed at synchrotron light sources for the fast orbit feedback. The beam oscillations are measured by beam position monitors. The narrow band used for the beam excitation and measurement not only allows us to suppress effectively the beam position noise but also opens the opportunity for simultaneously exciting multiple correctors at different frequencies (multifrequency mode). Wemore » demonstrated at NSLS-II that AC LOCO provides better lattice corrections and works much faster than the traditional LOCO method.« less

  5. Square or sine: finding a waveform with high success rate of eliciting SSVEP.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Chen, Yixin; Choong, Aik Min; Gustafson, Scott; Reichley, Christopher; Lawhead, Pamela; Waddell, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is the brain's natural electrical potential response for visual stimuli at specific frequencies. Using a visual stimulus flashing at some given frequency will entrain the SSVEP at the same frequency, thereby allowing determination of the subject's visual focus. The faster an SSVEP is identified, the higher information transmission rate the system achieves. Thus, an effective stimulus, defined as one with high success rate of eliciting SSVEP and high signal-noise ratio, is desired. Also, researchers observed that harmonic frequencies often appear in the SSVEP at a reduced magnitude. Are the harmonics in the SSVEP elicited by the fundamental stimulating frequency or by the artifacts of the stimuli? In this paper, we compare the SSVEP responses of three periodic stimuli: square wave (with different duty cycles), triangle wave, and sine wave to find an effective stimulus. We also demonstrate the connection between the strength of the harmonics in SSVEP and the type of stimulus.

  6. A parameter estimation algorithm for spatial sine testing - Theory and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, R. W.; Deblauwe, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and an evaluation of a spatial sine testing parameter estimation algorithm that uses directly the measured forced mode of vibration and the measured force vector. The parameter estimation algorithm uses an ARMA model and a recursive QR algorithm is applied for data reduction. In this first evaluation, the algorithm has been applied to a frequency response matrix (which is a particular set of forced mode of vibration) using a sliding frequency window. The objective of the sliding frequency window is to execute the analysis simultaneously with the data acquisition. Since the pole values and the modal density are obtained from this analysis during the acquisition, the analysis information can be used to help determine the forcing vectors during the experimental data acquisition.

  7. Digging into the Elusive Localised Solutions of (2+1) Dimensional sine-Gordon Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Senthil Kumar, C.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the (2+1) dimensional sine-Gordon equation analysed earlier [R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 29, 1551 (1996)] employing the Truncated Painlevé Approach. We then generate the solutions in terms of lower dimensional arbitrary functions of space and time. By suitably harnessing the arbitrary functions present in the closed form of the solution, we have constructed dromion solutions and studied their collisional dynamics. We have also constructed dromion pairs and shown that the dynamics of the dromion pairs can be turned ON or OFF desirably. In addition, we have also shown that the orientation of the dromion pairs can be changed. Apart from the above classes of solutions, we have also generated compactons, rogue waves and lumps and studied their dynamics.

  8. Ancient Exaptation of a CORE-SINE Retroposon into a Highly Conserved Mammalian Neuronal Enhancer of the Proopiomelanocortin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5′ distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution. PMID:17922573

  9. The Influence of LINE-1 and SINE Retrotransposons on Mammalian Genomes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sandra R; Doucet, Aurélien J; Kopera, Huira C; Moldovan, John B; Garcia-Perez, José Luis; Moran, John V

    2015-04-01

    Transposable elements have had a profound impact on the structure and function of mammalian genomes. The retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), by virtue of its replicative mobilization mechanism, comprises ∼17% of the human genome. Although the vast majority of human LINE-1 sequences are inactive molecular fossils, an estimated 80-100 copies per individual retain the ability to mobilize by a process termed retrotransposition. Indeed, LINE-1 is the only active, autonomous retrotransposon in humans and its retrotransposition continues to generate both intra-individual and inter-individual genetic diversity. Here, we briefly review the types of transposable elements that reside in mammalian genomes. We will focus our discussion on LINE-1 retrotransposons and the non-autonomous Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) that rely on the proteins encoded by LINE-1 for their mobilization. We review cases where LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events have resulted in genetic disease and discuss how the characterization of these mutagenic insertions led to the identification of retrotransposition-competent LINE-1s in the human and mouse genomes. We then discuss how the integration of molecular genetic, biochemical, and modern genomic technologies have yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition, the impact of LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events on mammalian genomes, and the host cellular mechanisms that protect the genome from unabated LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events. Throughout this review, we highlight unanswered questions in LINE-1 biology that provide exciting opportunities for future research. Clearly, much has been learned about LINE-1 and SINE biology since the publication of Mobile DNA II thirteen years ago. Future studies should continue to yield exciting discoveries about how these retrotransposons contribute to genetic diversity in mammalian genomes.

  10. Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana: violation of the sine- and resultant-law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Paul

    We investigated the gravitropic bending of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings of Arabidopsis tha-liana in response to long-term centrifugal accelerations in a range of 5 x 10-3 to 4 x g. The so-cal-led resultant law of gravitropism, a corollary of the so called sine law, claims that during centri-fugation a gravitropic organ aligns itself parallel to the resultant stimulus vector. We show here that neither of the two empirical “laws” is apt to describe the complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabidopsis. Hypocotyls obey reasonably well the resultant law while roots display a complex behaviour that is clearly at variance with it. Horizontally centrifuged seedlings sense minute accelerations acting parallel to the longitudinal axis. If the centrifugal vector points to-ward the cotyledons, then the bending of hypocotyls and roots is greatly enhanced. If the centri-fugal vector points, however, toward the root tip, then only the bending of roots is enhanced by accelerations as low as 5 x 10-3 x g (positive tonic effect). The absolute gravitropic thresholds were determined for hypocotyls and roots in a clinostat-centrifuge and found to be near 1.5 x 10-2 x g. A behavioural mutant, ehb1-2 (Knauer et al. 2011), displays a lower gravitropic threshold for roots, not however, for hypocotyls. The complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabi-dopsis is at odds with the classical sine- as well as the resultant law and can indicates the eminent role that is played by the acceleration vector operating longitudinally to the seedling axis.

  11. Boundary Conditions for Infinite Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenhaus, V.; Bruzón, M. S.; Gandarias, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Regular soliton equations (KdV, sine-Gordon, NLS) are known to possess infinite sets of local conservation laws. Some other classes of nonlinear PDE possess infinite-dimensional symmetries parametrized by arbitrary functions of independent or dependent variables; among them are Zabolotskaya-Khokhlov, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili, Davey-Stewartson equations and Born-Infeld equation. Boundary conditions were shown to play an important role for the existence of local conservation laws associated with infinite-dimensional symmetries. In this paper, we analyze boundary conditions for the infinite conserved densities of regular soliton equations: KdV, potential KdV, Sine-Gordon equation, and nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and compare them with boundary conditions for the conserved densities obtained from infinite-dimensional symmetries with arbitrary functions of independent and dependent variables.

  12. Quantum corrections to quasi-periodic solution of Sine-Gordon model and periodic solution of phi4 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, G.; Leble, S.

    2014-03-01

    Analytical form of quantum corrections to quasi-periodic solution of Sine-Gordon model and periodic solution of phi4 model is obtained through zeta function regularisation with account of all rest variables of a d-dimensional theory. Qualitative dependence of quantum corrections on parameters of the classical systems is also evaluated for a much broader class of potentials u(x) = b2f(bx) + C with b and C as arbitrary real constants.

  13. Pstl repeat: a family of short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE)-like sequences in the genomes of cattle, goat, and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Faruk G; Mukhopadhyay, Sudit S; Gupta, Prabhakar

    2002-02-01

    The PstI family of elements are short, highly repetitive DNA sequences interspersed throughout the genome of the Bovidae. We have cloned and sequenced some members of the PstI family from cattle, goat, and buffalo. These elements are approximately 500 bp, have a copy number of 2 x 10(5) - 4 x 10(5), and comprise about 4% of the haploid genome. Studies of nucleotide sequence homology indicate that the buffalo and goat PstI repeats (type II) are similar types of short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) sequences, but the cattle PstI repeat (type I) is considerably more divergent. Additionally, the goat PstI sequence showed significant sequence homology with bovine serine tRNA, and is therefore likely derived from serine tRNA. Interestingly, Southern hybridization suggests that both types of SINEs (I and II) are present in all the species of Bovidae. Dendrogram analysis indicates that cattle PstI SINE is similar to bovine Alu-like SINEs. Goat and buffalo SINEs formed a separate cluster, suggesting that these two types of SINEs evolved separately in the genome of the Bovidae.

  14. Detection of briefly flashed sine-gratings in dark-adapted vision.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M I; Barnes, C S; Hallett, P E

    1990-01-01

    Scotopic contrast sensitivity was measured near 20 deg retinal eccentricity for briefly flashed (10 or 20 msec) sine-wave gratings presented in darkness to dark-adapted subjects. For very low spatial frequencies (0.2-0.5 c/deg), curves of contrast sensitivity vs luminous energy show evidence of a low rod plateau and a high scotopic region, with an intervening transition at around -2 to -2.5 log scot td sec. Similar measurements made using long flashed or flickering gratings do not show a plateau. The results suggest that vision in the low rod region is impaired for brief flashes. For the briefly flashed stimuli, curves of contrast sensitivity versus spatial frequency in the low region were best fit by simple Gaussian functions with a variable centre size (sigma c = 0.5----0.25 deg), size decreasing with increasing flash energy. Difference-of-Gaussian functions with constant centre size (sigma c = 0.25 deg) provided the best fit in the high region. Overt input from the cones and grating area artefacts are excluded by appropriate tests. Calculation of photon flux into the receptive field centres suggests that signal compression in P alpha ganglion cells contributes to the low rod plateau.

  15. Control of myogenesis by rodent SINE-containing lncRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiashi; Gong, Chenguang; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) degrades mRNAs that harbor a Staufen1-binding site (SBS) in their 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Human SBSs can form by intermolecular base-pairing between a 3′ UTR Alu element and an Alu element within a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called a ½-sbsRNA. Since Alu elements are confined to primates, it was unclear how SMD occurs in rodents. Here we identify mouse mRNA 3′ UTRs and lncRNAs that contain a B1, B2, B4, or identifier (ID) element. We show that SMD occurs in mouse cells via mRNA–lncRNA base-pairing of partially complementary elements and that mouse ½-sbsRNA (m½-sbsRNA)-triggered SMD regulates C2C12 cell myogenesis. Our findings define new roles for lncRNAs as well as B and ID short interspersed elements (SINEs) in mice that undoubtedly influence many developmental and homeostatic pathways. PMID:23558772

  16. Emotional intelligence: the Sine Qua Non for a clinical leadership toolbox.

    PubMed

    Rao, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of emotional intelligence...and can also be linked to strong performance." The original five dimensions of EIQ are described and applied to both supervisory and clinical scenarios. As a result of reading this work, you will be able to: (1) define and provide an illustration of each of the five components of emotional intelligence (EIQ); (2) outline the relationship of EIQ to success in your profession and your personal life; (3) create a strategic action plan to enhance each dimension of EIQ in your daily life; (4) list at least three real-life experiences that could have resulted a favorable outcome with an improved EIQ; (5) complete a self-evaluation of your EIQ.

  17. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A sharp lower bound for the sum of a sine series with convex coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    The sum of a sine series g(\\mathbf b,x)=\\sumk=1^∞ b_k\\sin kx with coefficients forming a convex sequence \\mathbf b is known to be positive on the interval (0,π). Its values near zero are conventionally evaluated using the Salem function v(\\mathbf b,x)=x\\sumk=1m(x) kb_k, m(x)=[π/x]. In this paper it is proved that 2π-2v(\\mathbf b,x) is not a minorant for g(\\mathbf b,x). The modified Salem function v_0(\\mathbf b,x)=x\\bigl(\\sumk=1m(x)-1 kb_k+(1/2)m(x)bm(x)\\bigr) is shown to satisfy the lower bound g(\\mathbf b,x)>2π-2v_0(\\mathbf b,x) in some right neighbourhood of zero. This estimate is shown to be sharp on the class of convex sequences \\mathbf b. Moreover, the upper bound for g(\\mathbf b,x) is refined on the class of monotone sequences \\mathbf b. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  19. Swept sine testing of rotor-bearing system for damping estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Many types of rotating components commonly operate above the first or second critical speed and they are subjected to run-ups and shutdowns frequently. The present study focuses on developing FRF of rotor bearing systems for damping estimation from swept-sine excitation. The principle of active vibration control states that with increase in angular acceleration, the amplitude of vibration due to unbalance will reduce and the FRF envelope will shift towards the right (or higher frequency). The frequency response function (FRF) estimated by tracking filters or Co-Quad analyzers was proved to induce an error into the FRF estimate. Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and stationary wavelet transform (SWT) decomposition FRF distortion can be reduced. To obtain a theoretical clarity, the shifting of FRF envelope phenomenon is incorporated into conventional FRF expressions and validation is performed with the FRF estimated using the Fourier Transform approach. The half-power bandwidth method is employed to extract damping ratios from the FRF estimates. While deriving half-power points for both types of responses (acceleration and displacement), damping ratio (ζ) is estimated with different approximations like classical definition (neglecting damping ratio of order higher than 2), third order (neglecting damping ratios with order higher than 4) and exact (no assumptions on damping ratio). The use of stationary wavelet transform to denoise the noise corrupted FRF data is explained. Finally, experiments are performed on a test rotor excited with different sweep rates to estimate the damping ratio.

  20. Asymptotics for the Fredholm determinant of the sine kernel on a union of intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, Harold

    1995-07-01

    In the bulk scaling limit of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble of hermitian matrices the probability that an interval of length s contains no eigenvalues is the Fredholm determinant of the sine kernel{sin (x - y)}/{π (x - y)} over this interval. A formal asymptotic expansion for the determinant as s tends to infinity was obtained by Dyson. In this paper we replace a single interval of length s by sJ, where J is a union of m intervals and present a proof of the asymptotics up to second order. The logarithmic derivative with respect to s of the determinant equals a constant (expressible in terms of hyperelliptic integrals) times s, plus a bounded oscillatory function of s (zero if m=1, periodic if m=2, and in general expressible in terms of the solution of a Jacobi inversion problem), plus o(1). Also determined are the asymptotics of the trace of the resolvent operator, which is the ratio in the same model of the probability that the set contains exactly one eigenvalue to the probability that it contains none. The proofs use ideas from orthogonal polynomial theory.

  1. Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1 Regulates Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway Via Caspase-7 In Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Peizhun; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yongchao; Ren, Hong; Patel, Rajan; Hu, Cheng'en; Zhang, Wenhong; Huang, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (Six1) is crucial in normal organ development. Recently, Six1 is reported to display aberrant expression in various cancers and plays important roles in cancer development. However, the regulatory mechanism of Six1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Six1 was increased in gastric cancer tissues, and its upregulation significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.042) and poor differentiation (p=0.039). Next, we took advantage of public available microarray data to assess Six1 prognostic value with online K-M Plotter software in gastric cancer, which demonstrated that patients with higher Six1 expression had shorter survival time (p=0.02). To explore the underlying mechanism of Six1, we silenced its upregulation in gastric cells to detect cellular functions. Our results indicated that knock-down Six1 could decrease colony formation number and rendered cells sensitive to 5- Fluorouracil drug treatment. The flow cytometry analyses showed that Six1 silence could promote apoptosis but had little effect on cell cycle transition. Along this clue, we tested mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1 assay, which suggested that Six1 inhibition could trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. Our subsequent results revealed that Six1 knock-down could reduce the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and caspase-7 but not caspase-3 was involved to execute the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, we find Six1 has oncogenic role in gastric cancer development, and silenced Six1 expression can promote mitochondrial apoptosis by repressing Bcl-2 and activating executor caspase-7. These findings suggest that Six1 may become a valuable prognostic and therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

  2. Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1 Regulates Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway Via Caspase-7 In Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peizhun; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yongchao; Ren, Hong; Patel, Rajan; Hu, Cheng'en; Zhang, Wenhong; Huang, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (Six1) is crucial in normal organ development. Recently, Six1 is reported to display aberrant expression in various cancers and plays important roles in cancer development. However, the regulatory mechanism of Six1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Six1 was increased in gastric cancer tissues, and its upregulation significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.042) and poor differentiation (p=0.039). Next, we took advantage of public available microarray data to assess Six1 prognostic value with online K-M Plotter software in gastric cancer, which demonstrated that patients with higher Six1 expression had shorter survival time (p=0.02). To explore the underlying mechanism of Six1, we silenced its upregulation in gastric cells to detect cellular functions. Our results indicated that knock-down Six1 could decrease colony formation number and rendered cells sensitive to 5- Fluorouracil drug treatment. The flow cytometry analyses showed that Six1 silence could promote apoptosis but had little effect on cell cycle transition. Along this clue, we tested mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1 assay, which suggested that Six1 inhibition could trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. Our subsequent results revealed that Six1 knock-down could reduce the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and caspase-7 but not caspase-3 was involved to execute the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, we find Six1 has oncogenic role in gastric cancer development, and silenced Six1 expression can promote mitochondrial apoptosis by repressing Bcl-2 and activating executor caspase-7. These findings suggest that Six1 may become a valuable prognostic and therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28367243

  3. Specific sine-Gordon soliton dynamics in the presence of external driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Gilbert; Fernandez, Jean Claude

    1981-07-01

    We consider the acceleration of a single sine-Gordon (SG) soliton kink wave by an external time-dependent force χ(t), first without any dissipation, and then in the presence of a weak damping effect. We use the method of Fogel, Trullinger, Bishop, and Krumhansl [FTBK,

    Phys. Rev. B 45, 1578 (1977)]
    which consists in perturbing the SG equation about its kink solution and solving the resulting linear inhomogeneous equation for the perturbation function by expanding it in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger operator with potential 1-2 2x. Our results concerning the accelerated soliton dynamics strongly disagree with the FTBK conclusion that the soliton should undergo an acceleration proportional to χ (this is the so-called Newtonian dynamical behavior of SG soliton, which is also predicted by all existing perturbation theories dealing with the perturbed SG equation). On the contrary, we find that this Newtonian acceleration is exactly balanced by a reaction effect of the continuous phonon spectrum excited by the external force χ, upon the moving kink, so that there is no soliton acceleration at all within the frame of this linear perturbation theory, i.e., for small time values. Actually, we show by the simple example of a static external force that the acceleration of an initially static kink is a higher-order effect (proportional to χt2, where t is the time, instead of being constant and proportional to χ). We emphasize that this last result has already been checked by numerical experiments and show, both by theory and by numerical simulations, that it does not qualitatively change when a small damping effect is taken into account.

  4. Internal tide transformation across a continental slope off Cape Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Justin

    2002-04-01

    During the INTIFANTE 99 experiment in July 1999, observations were made of a prominent internal undular bore off Cape Sines, Portugal. The feature was always present and dominant in a collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the area covering the period before, during and after the trial. During the trial, rapid dissemination of SAR data to the survey ship enabled assessment of the progression of the feature, and the consequent planning of a survey of the bore coincident with a new SAR image. Large amplitude internal waves of 50 m amplitude in 250 m water depth, and 40 m in 100 m depth, were observed. The images show that the position of the feature is linked to the phase of the tide, suggesting an internal tide origin. The individual packets of internal waves contain up to seven waves with wavelengths in the range of 500-1500 m, and successive packets are separated by internal tide distances of typically 16-20 km, suggesting phase speeds of 0.35-0.45 m s -1. The internal waves were coherent over crest lengths of between 15 and 70 km, the longer wavefronts being due to the merging of packets. This paper uses the SAR data to detail the transformation of the wave packet as it passes across the continental slope and approaches the coast. The generation sites for the feature are discussed and reasons for its unusually large amplitude are hypothesised. It is concluded that generation at critical slopes of the bathymetry and non-linear interactions are the likely explanations for the large amplitudes.

  5. Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Lorena; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Cobo, Pedro; Cediel-Algovia, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Rivera, Teresa; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Avendaño, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (“violet” noises) to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) inhibitors P17 and P144 on NIHL. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise (VS) with different frequency ranges (2–20 or 9–13 kHz) and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL) for 30 min. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by VS depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9–13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift (TS) in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of NIHL, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair. PMID:25762930

  6. Spatial and temporal structure of fish assemblages in an ''inverse estuary'', the Sine Saloum system (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simier, M.; Blanc, L.; Aliaume, C.; Diouf, P. S.; Albaret, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of the Sahelian drought, the Sine Saloum, a large estuarine system located in Senegal (West Africa), has become an "inverse estuary" since the late sixties, i.e. salinity increases upstream and reaches 100 in some places. To study the fish assemblages of such a modified system, a survey was conducted in 1992, collecting fish every two months with a purse seine at eight sites spread over the three main branches of the estuary. A total of 73 species belonging to 35 families were identified. Eight species comprised 97% of the total numbers of fish. The predominant species was a small clupeid, Sardinella maderensis, representing more than half of the total biomass and nearly 70% of the total number of fish. The spatio-temporal structure of the fish assemblages was studied using the STATIS-CoA method, which combines the multitable approach with the correspondence analysis method. Whatever the season, a strong spatial organization of fish assemblages was observed, mainly related to depth and salinity. Three types of assemblages were identified. In shallow water areas, fish assemblages were dominated by Mugilidae, Gerreidae and Cichlidae and were stable with time. In open water areas, large fluctuations in the species composition were observed, due to the occasional presence of large schools of pelagic species: in the southern area, where salinity and water transparency were the lowest, the main species were Ilisha africana, Brachydeuterus auritus and Chloroscombrus chrysurus, associated with a few Sciaenidae and Tetraodontidae, while the poorest areas were characterized by only two dominant species, S. maderensis and Scomberomorus tritor.

  7. Light redirecting system using sine-wave based panels for dense urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed W. N.; Mashaly, Islam A.; Mohamed, Osama N.; El-Henawy, Sally I.; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cities and towns around the world are becoming more condensed due to the shrinking amount of buildable areas, which significantly reduces the amount of light that occupants have access to. This lack of natural lighting results in health, safety and quality of life degradation. This paper presents a new technique of transmitting sunlight downward into narrow alleys and streets, by using a daylighting guiding acrylic panel that is capable of changing the direction and distribution of the incident light. The core of the proposed daylight guidance system is made up of light transmission panels with high quality. The corrugations have sine wave shaped cross-section so that the panel functions as an optical diffuser perpendicular to the direction of sunlight propagation. The day lighting system consists of the corrugated panels and a lattice frame, which supports the panel. The proposed system is to be mounted on the building roof facing the sun so as to redirect the incident sunlight downward into the narrow alleys or streets. Since building sizes and orientations are different the frame is arranged such that substantially deep light penetration and high luminance level can be achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter, respectively, provides fan-out angle that exceeds 80° for certain solar altitudes and the transmitted power percentage varies from 40% to 90% as the solar altitude varies from 10° to 80°. Experimental results are in a good agreement with the simulations.

  8. Retroposition of the AFC family of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) before and during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and related inferences about phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Nishida, M; Yuma, M; Okada, N

    2001-01-01

    Lake Malawi is home to more than 450 species of endemic cichlids, which provide a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these fish, we examined the presence and absence of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) at orthologous loci. We identified six loci at which a SINE sequence had apparently been specifically inserted by retroposition in the common ancestor of all the investigated species of endemic cichlids in Lake Malawi. At another locus, unique sharing of a SINE sequence was evident among all the investigated species of endemic non-Mbuna cichlids with the exception of Rhamphochromis sp. The relationships were in good agreement with those deduced in previous studies with various different markers, demonstrating that the SINE method is useful for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among cichlids in Lake Malawi. We also characterized a locus that exhibited transspecies polymorphism with respect to the presence or absence of the SINE sequence among non-Mbuna species. This result suggests that incomplete lineage sorting and/or interspecific hybridization might have occurred or be occurring among the species in this group, which might potentially cause misinterpretation of phylogenetic data, in particular when a single-locus marker, such as a sequence in the mitochondrial DNA, is used for analysis.

  9. lsjk—a C++ library for arbitrary-precision numeric evaluation of the generalized log-sine functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, M. Yu.; Sheplyakov, A.

    2005-10-01

    Generalized log-sine functions Lsj(k)(θ) appear in higher order ɛ-expansion of different Feynman diagrams. We present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of these functions for real arguments. This algorithm is implemented as a C++ library with arbitrary-precision arithmetics for integer 0⩽k⩽9 and j⩾2. Some new relations and representations of the generalized log-sine functions are given. Program summaryTitle of program:lsjk Catalogue number:ADVS Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVS Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing terms: GNU General Public License Computers:all Operating systems:POSIX Programming language:C++ Memory required to execute:Depending on the complexity of the problem, at least 32 MB RAM recommended No. of lines in distributed program, including testing data, etc.:41 975 No. of bytes in distributed program, including testing data, etc.:309 156 Distribution format:tar.gz Other programs called:The CLN library for arbitrary-precision arithmetics is required at version 1.1.5 or greater External files needed:none Nature of the physical problem:Numerical evaluation of the generalized log-sine functions for real argument in the region 0<θ<π. These functions appear in Feynman integrals Method of solution:Series representation for the real argument in the region 0<θ<π Restriction on the complexity of the problem:Limited up to Lsj(9)(θ), and j is an arbitrary integer number. Thus, all function up to the weight 12 in the region 0<θ<π can be evaluated. The algorithm can be extended up to higher values of k(k>9) without modification Typical running time:Depending on the complexity of problem. See text below.

  10. Retrobulbar optic neuritis and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in a fourteen-year-old girl with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Hatta, M; Hayasaka, S; Kato, T; Kadoi, C

    2000-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl complained of a sudden decrease in right visual acuity. The patient had night blindness, a mottled retina but no pigments, extinguished scotopic electroretinographic response, central scotoma in the right eye and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. She had initially received laser photocoagulation around the retinal tear and then corticosteroid therapy, cryoretinopexy and segmental buckling. Her right visual acuity increased to 1.0. The association of retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento, retrobulbar optic neuritis and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, as demonstrated in our patient, may be uncommon. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Determinism and randomness in the evolution of introns and sine inserts in mouse and human mitochondrial solute carrier and cytokine receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Panaro, Maria A

    2015-04-01

    In the homologous genes studied, the exons and introns alternated in the same order in mouse and human. We studied, in both species: corresponding short segments of introns, whole corresponding introns and complete homologous genes. We considered the total number of nucleotides and the number and orientation of the SINE inserts. Comparisons of mouse and human data series showed that at the level of individual relatively short segments of intronic sequences the stochastic variability prevails in the local structuring, but at higher levels of organization a deterministic component emerges, conserved in mouse and human during the divergent evolution, despite the ample re-editing of the intronic sequences and the fact that processes such as SINE spread had taken place in an independent way in the two species. Intron conservation is negatively correlated with the SINE occupancy, suggesting that virus inserts interfere with the conservation of the sequences inherited from the common ancestor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Facteurs de risques de mortalité néonatale dans l'hôpital de gynécologie-obstétrique de la wilaya de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie

    PubMed Central

    Noria, Harir; Sarah, Ourrad; Asmaa, Ourrad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Il s'est agit ici de déterminer la fréquence et les facteurs de risques de mortalité néonatale au service néonatologie de l'Etablissement Hospitalier Spécialisé Gynécologie Obstétrique de la wilaya de Sidi Bel Abbés (Ouest Algérien). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective a visée descriptive et analytique porté sur tous les décès de 2011-2012 survenus au service de néonatologie de Sidi Bel Abbes. Résultats Au total 1209 cas de mortalité néonatale ont été enregistré durant les deux années (2011-2012), soit une fréquence de 5.3%. Il s'agissait dans 96,85% des cas de mortalité précoce. La mortalité néonatale étant multifactorielle, l'analyse statistique a pu incriminer de façon majoritaire: l’âge maternel avancé (>35) (OR = 3.1; IC 95% (2.30 -4.40); p = 0.001); la multiparité (OR = 8.15; IC 95% (2.85-10.05); p = 0.001); l'infection génitale(OR = 5.3; IC 95% (2.5-6.7); p = 0.001); la prématurité (OR = 10.08; IC 95% (3.45-12.02); p = 0.001); le faible poids de naissance (OR = 4.5; IC 95% (1.6-10.5); p = 0.001); l'ictère (OR = 4.8; IC 95% (1.26-6.02; p = 0.001) et la souffrance fœtale aigue (OR = 3.4; IC 95% (0.89-5.14); p = 0.001). Conclusion Une prise en charge efficace de la grossesse et du nouveau-né dans sa première semaine de vie, devraient amélioraient le pronostic néonatal. PMID:26185577

  13. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  14. Genomic relationship between SINE retrotransposons, Pol III–Pol II transcription, and chromatin organization: the journey from junk to jewel

    PubMed Central

    Lunyak, Victoria V.; Atallah, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A typical eukaryotic genome harbors a rich variety of repetitive elements. The most abundant are retrotransposons, mobile retroelements that utilize reverse transcriptase and an RNA intermediate to relocate to a new location within the cellular genomes. A vast majority of the repetitive mammalian genome content has originated from the retrotransposition of SINE (100–300 bp short interspersed nuclear elements that are derived from the structural 7SL RNA or tRNA), LINE (7kb long interspersed nuclear element), and LTR (2–3 kb long terminal repeats) transposable element superfamilies. Broadly labeled as “evolutionary junkyard” or “fossils”, this enigmatic “dark matter” of the genome possesses many yet to be discovered properties. PMID:21916613

  15. Comparison of modal test results - Multipoint sine versus single-point random. [for Mariner Jupiter/Saturn spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leppert, E. L.; Lee, S. H.; Day, F. D.; Chapman, P. C.; Wada, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS) spacecraft was subjected to the traditional multipoint sine dwell (MPSD) modal test using 111 accelerometer channels, and also to single-point random (SPR) testing using 26 accelerometer channels, and the two methods are compared according to cost, schedule, and technical criteria. A measure of comparison between the systems was devised in terms of the cumulative difference in the kinetic energy distribution of the common accelerometers. The SPR and MPSD method show acceptable agreement with respect to frequencies and mode damping. The merit of the SPR method is that the excitation points are minimized and the test article can be committed to other uses while data analysis is performed. The MPSD approach allows validity of the data to be determined as the test progresses. Costs are about the same for the two methods.

  16. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  17. A Mammalian Conserved Element Derived from SINE Displays Enhancer Properties Recapitulating Satb2 Expression in Early-Born Callosal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yan, Kuo; Tarabykin, Victor; Vigier, Lisa; Sumiyama, Kenta; Hirakawa, Mika; Nishihara, Hidenori; Pierani, Alessandra; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered “junk DNA”. However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1−/NPY+) portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, a eutherian

  18. Palaeomagnetism in the Sines massif (SW Iberia) revisited: evidences for Late Cretaceous hydrothermal alteration and associated partial remagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, P.; Silva, P. F.; Moita, P.; Kratinová, Z.; Marques, F. O.; Henry, B.

    2013-10-01

    This study revisits the palaeomagnetism of the Sines massif (˜76 Ma) in the southwestern Iberian Margin (Portugal). The palaeomagnetic analysis was complemented by a comprehensive study of the magnetic mineralogy by means of rock magnetic measurements and petrographic observations. The overall dispersion of palaeomagnetic directions (declination ranging between ˜N0° and ˜N50°) and their migration observed during stepwise demagnetizations have revealed the superposition of remanence components. We interpret this complex palaeomagnetic behaviour as related to the regional hydrothermalism associated with the last stages of Late Cretaceous magmatic activity. This environment favoured mineralogical alteration and a partial chemical remagnetization, giving in most samples a composite magnetization, which has been erroneously interpreted as the primary one in a previous study, then leading to a questionable model for Cretaceous Iberia rotation. Nonetheless, for some samples a single component has been isolated. Interesting rock magnetic properties and microscopic observations point to a well-preserved magnetic mineralogy for these samples, with magnetite clearly of primary origin. The associated ChRM mean direction (D/I = 3.9°/46.5°, α95 = 1.7°, N = 31 samples) then represents the true primary magnetization of the Sines massif. This new palaeomagnetic direction and the corresponding palaeomagnetic pole (long = 332.0°, lat = -79.5°, A95 = 1.7°) agrees with those from the other palaeomagnetic works for the same period and region (e.g. the Sintra and Monchique massifs), yielding a lack of significant rotation of Iberia relative to stable Europe since the uppermost Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian).

  19. Towards mitigating the effect of sine-Gaussian noise transients on searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sukanta; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Gravitational wave signals were recently detected directly by LIGO from the coalescences of two stellar mass black hole pairs. These detections have strengthened our long held belief that compact binary coalescences (CBCs) are the most promising gravitational wave detection prospects accessible to ground-based interferometric detectors. For detecting CBC signals, it is of vital importance to characterize and identify non-Gaussian and nonstationary noise in these detectors. In this work, we model two important classes of transient artifacts that contribute to this noise and adversely affect the detector sensitivity to CBC signals. One of them is the sine-Gaussian "glitch," characterized by a central frequency f0 and a quality factor Q and the other is the chirping sine-Gaussian glitch, which is characterized by f0, Q as well as a chirp parameter. We study the response that a bank of compact binary inspiral templates has to these two families of glitches when they are used to match filter data containing any of these glitches. Two important characteristics of this response are the distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio and the time lag (i.e., how long after the occurrence of a glitch the signal-to-noise ratio of a trigger arises from its matched filtering by a template peaks) of individual templates. We show how these distributions differ from those when the detector data has a real CBC signal instead of a glitch. We argue that these distinctions can be utilized to develop useful signal-artifact discriminators that add negligibly to the computational cost of a CBC search. Specifically, we show how the central frequency of a glitch can be used to set adaptive time windows around it so that any template trigger occurring in that window can be quarantined for further vetting of its supposed astrophysical nature. Second, we recommend focusing efforts on reducing the incidence of glitches with low central-frequency values because they create CBC triggers with the

  20. On the efficiency of the image encryption and decryption by using logistic-sine chaotic system and logistic-tent chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiun, Lee Chia; Mandangan, Arif; Daud, Muhamad Azlan; Hussin, Che Haziqah Che

    2017-04-01

    We may secure the content of text, audio, image and video during their transmission from one party to another party via an open channel such as the internet by using cryptograph. Logistic-Sine System (LSS) is a combination on two 1D chaotic maps which are Logistic Map and Sine Map. By applying the LSS into cryptography, the image encryption and decryption can be performed. This study is focusing on the performance test of the image encryption and decryption processes by using the LSS. For comparison purpose, we compare the performance of the encryption and decryption by using two different chaotic systems, which are the LSS and Logistic-Tent System (LTS). The result shows that system with LSS is less efficient than LTS in term of encryption time but both systems have similar efficiency in term of decryption time.

  1. A Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE)-Based Real-Time PCR Approach to Detect and Quantify Porcine Component in Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Fang, Xin; Qiu, Haopu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification of mitochondria gene could not be used for DNA quantification, and that of single copy DNA did not allow an ideal sensitivity. Moreover, cross-reactions among similar species were commonly observed in the published methods amplifying repetitive sequence, which hindered their further application. The purpose of this study was to establish a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-based real-time PCR approach having high specificity for species detection that could be used in DNA quantification. After massive screening of candidate Sus scrofa SINEs, one optimal combination of primers and probe was selected, which had no cross-reaction with other common meat species. LOD of the method was 44 fg DNA/reaction. Further, quantification tests showed this approach was practical in DNA estimation without tissue variance. Thus, this study provided a new tool for qualitative detection of porcine component, which could be promising in the QC of meat products.

  2. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV) Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1)

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmer, Michaela; Oevermann, Anna; Borer-Germann, Stephanie E.; Gorgas, Daniela; Shelton, G. Diane; Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Henke, Diana; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV). The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1), which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs. PMID:26596647

  3. Short interspersed element (SINE) depletion and long interspersed element (LINE) abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Michael; de Burca, Anna; McCole, Ruth B; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J; Schulz, Reiner

    2011-04-20

    Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  4. Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

    2010-03-01

    The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in δ13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

  5. Synthesis of Sine-on-Random vibration profiles for accelerated life tests based on fatigue damage spectrum equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2018-03-01

    In many real life environments, mechanical and electronic systems are subjected to vibrations that may induce dynamic loads and potentially lead to an early failure due to fatigue damage. Thus, qualification tests by means of shakers are advisable for the most critical components in order to verify their durability throughout the entire life cycle. Nowadays the trend is to tailor the qualification tests according to the specific application of the tested component, considering the measured field data as reference to set up the experimental campaign, for example through the so called "Mission Synthesis" methodology. One of the main issues is to define the excitation profiles for the tests, that must have, besides the (potentially scaled) frequency content, also the same damage potential of the field data despite being applied for a limited duration. With this target, the current procedures generally provide the test profile as a stationary random vibration specified by a Power Spectral Density (PSD). In certain applications this output may prove inadequate to represent the nature of the reference signal, and the procedure could result in an unrealistic qualification test. For instance when a rotating part is present in the system the component under analysis may be subjected to Sine-on-Random (SoR) vibrations, namely excitations composed of sinusoidal contributions superimposed to random vibrations. In this case, the synthesized test profile should preserve not only the induced fatigue damage but also the deterministic components of the environmental vibration. In this work, the potential advantages of a novel procedure to synthesize SoR profiles instead of PSDs for qualification tests are presented and supported by the results of an experimental campaign.

  6. Identification of a novel p.R1443W mutation in RP1 gene associated with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sheng, Xun-Lun; Li, Hui-Ping; Zhang, Fang-Xia; Liu, Ya-Ni; Rong, Wei-Ning; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2013-01-01

    To screen mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) gene and the rhodopsin (RHO) gene in Chinese patients with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP) and describe the genotype-phenotype relationship of the mutations. Twenty affected, unrelated Chinese individuals with RPSP (4 autosomal dominant RPSP, 12 autosomal recessive RPSP and 4 unknown inheritance pattern) were recruited between 2009 and 2012. The clinical features were determined by complete ophthalmologic examinations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing were used to screen the entire coding region and splice junctions of the RP1 gene and the RHO gene. The cosegregation analysis and population frequency studies were performed for patients with identified mutations. Five variants in the RP1 gene and one in the RHO gene were detected in 20 probands. Four missense changes (rs444772, rs446227, rs414352, rs441800) and one non-coding variant (rs56340615) were common SNPs and none of them showed a significant relationship with RPSP. A missense mutation p.R1443W was identified in the RP1 gene in three affected individuals from a family with autosomal dominant RPSP and was found to cosegregate with the phenotype in this family, suggestive of pathogenic. In addition, population frequency analysis showed the p.R1443W mutation was absent in 300 healthy controls. The identification of p.R1443W mutation cosegregating in a family with autosomal dominant RPSP highlights an atypical phenotype of the RP1 gene mutation, while RHO gene is not associated with the pathogenesis of RPSP in this study. To our knowledge, this is the fist mutation identified to associate with RPSP.

  7. Identification of a novel p.R1443W mutation in RP1 gene associated with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Sheng, Xun-Lun; Li, Hui-Ping; Zhang, Fang-Xia; Liu, Ya-Ni; Rong, Wei-Ning; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2013-01-01

    AIM To screen mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) gene and the rhodopsin (RHO) gene in Chinese patients with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP) and describe the genotype-phenotype relationship of the mutations. METHODS Twenty affected, unrelated Chinese individuals with RPSP (4 autosomal dominant RPSP, 12 autosomal recessive RPSP and 4 unknown inheritance pattern) were recruited between 2009 and 2012. The clinical features were determined by complete ophthalmologic examinations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing were used to screen the entire coding region and splice junctions of the RP1 gene and the RHO gene. The cosegregation analysis and population frequency studies were performed for patients with identified mutations. RESULTS Five variants in the RP1 gene and one in the RHO gene were detected in 20 probands. Four missense changes (rs444772, rs446227, rs414352, rs441800) and one non-coding variant (rs56340615) were common SNPs and none of them showed a significant relationship with RPSP. A missense mutation p.R1443W was identified in the RP1 gene in three affected individuals from a family with autosomal dominant RPSP and was found to cosegregate with the phenotype in this family, suggestive of pathogenic. In addition, population frequency analysis showed the p.R1443W mutation was absent in 300 healthy controls. CONCLUSION The identification of p.R1443W mutation cosegregating in a family with autosomal dominant RPSP highlights an atypical phenotype of the RP1 gene mutation, while RHO gene is not associated with the pathogenesis of RPSP in this study. To our knowledge, this is the fist mutation identified to associate with RPSP. PMID:23991373

  8. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  9. 125 GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-01

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  10. Microscope Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes problems using the Jenkins and White approach and standard diffraction theory when dealing with the topic of finite conjugate, point-source resolution and how they may be resolved using the relatively obscure Abbe's sine theorem. (JN)

  11. Truncated Painlevé expansion: Tanh-traveling wave solutions and reduction of sine-Poisson equation to a quadrature for stationary and nonstationary three-dimensional collisionless cold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, R. S.; El-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2006-10-01

    The relativistic nonlinear self-consistent equations for a collisionless cold plasma with stationary ions [R. S. Ibrahim, IMA J. Appl. Math. 68, 523 (2003)] are extended to 3 and 3+1 dimensions. The resulting system of equations is reduced to the sine-Poisson equation. The truncated Painlevé expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the traveling wave solutions of the sine-Poisson equation for stationary and nonstationary equations in 3 and 3+1 dimensions describing the charge-density equilibrium configuration model.

  12. Receiver Signal to Noise Ratios for IPDA Lidars Using Sine-wave and Pulsed Laser Modulation and Direct Detections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    seeder lasers, one on-line and one offline that are intensity modulated by two different frequency sine-waves signals before being amplified by a common laser amplifier. The receiver uses narrowband amplitude demodulation, or lock-in, Signal processing at the given laser modulation frequencies [3,4]. The laser transmitter operates in a quasi CW mode with the peak power equal to twice the average power. The on-line and off-line lasers can be transmitted at the same time without interference. Another direct detection technique uses a low duty cycle pulsed laser modulation [5,6] with the laser wavelengths alternating between on-line and off-line on successive pulses. The receiver uses time resolved detection and can also provide simultaneous target range measurement. With a lower laser duty cycle it requires a much higher peak laser power for the same average power.

  13. 76 FR 8785 - ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    .... Electronic Submissions (E-Filing) All documents filed in NRC adjudicatory proceedings, including a request... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... requirements of E-FilingFiling, at least ten (10) days prior to the filing deadline, the participant should...

  14. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R.; Jafari, Amir H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1%) was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1) yrs) were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated. Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005). Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  15. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1%) was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23-30 (25 ± 2.1) yrs) were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated. Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P < 0.0005). Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  16. On the transfer matrix of the supersymmetric eight-vertex model. I. Periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagendorf, Christian; Liénardy, Jean

    2018-03-01

    The square-lattice eight-vertex model with vertex weights a, b, c, d obeying the relation (a^2+ab)(b^2+ab) = (c^2+ab)(d^2+ab) and periodic boundary conditions is considered. It is shown that the transfer matrix of the model for L  =  2n  +  1 vertical lines and periodic boundary conditions along the horizontal direction possesses the doubly degenerate eigenvalue \\Thetan = (a+b){\\hspace{0pt}}2n+1 . This proves a conjecture by Stroganov from 2001. The proof uses the supersymmetry of a related XYZ spin-chain Hamiltonian. The eigenstates of the transfer matrix corresponding to \\Thetan are shown to be the ground states of the spin-chain Hamiltonian. Moreover, for positive vertex weights \\Thetan is the largest eigenvalue of the transfer matrix.

  17. Detection of sub-threshold periodic signal by multiplicative and additive cross-correlated sine-Wiener noises in the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuangen; Ma, Chengzhang; Wang, Canjun; Yi, Ming; Gui, Rong

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of multiplicative and additive cross-correlated sine-Wiener (CCSW) noises on the performance of sub-threshold periodic signal detection in the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron by calculating Fourier coefficients Q for measuring synchronization between sub-threshold input signal and the response of system. CCSW noises-induced transitions of electrical activity in the FHN neuron model can be observed. Moreover, the performance of sub-threshold periodic signal detection is achieved at moderate noise strength, cross-correlation time and cross-correlation strength of CCSW noises, which indicate the occurrence of CCSW noises-induced stochastic resonance. Furthermore, the performance of sub-threshold signal detection is strongly sensitive to cross-correlation time of CCSW noises. Therefore, the performance can be effectively controlled by regulating cross-correlation time of CCSW noises. These results provide a possible mechanism for amplifying or detecting the sub-threshold signal in the nervous system.

  18. FM-to-AM modulations induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in inertial confinement fusion laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Dongxia; Guo, Huaiwen; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Bowang; Zhong, Wei; Deng, Wu

    2018-02-01

    We report on frequency to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in a complex laser system. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that when weak residual reflected pulses stack on the main pulse, the spectral intensity changes in the stacked region, which then converts to obvious AM. This kind of FM-to-AM effect often occurs in the tail of the pulse and cannot be eliminated by common compensation methods, which even enhance the modulation depth. Furthermore, the actual intensity modulation frequency and depth induced by the residual reflection stack are much higher and deeper than observed on the oscilloscope, which is harmful for safe operation of the laser facility and the driving power balance during inertial confinement fusion. To eliminate this kind of FM-to-AM effect, any possible on-axis and near-axis residual reflection in laser systems must be avoided.

  19. Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions: Existence and Classification of Traveling-Wave Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zarmi, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions.

  20. Micro-optic lens for data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Trusty, R. M.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Erwin, J. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    A new type of microlens for data storage applications that has improved off-axis performance is described. The lens consists of a micro Fresnel pattern on a curved substrate. The radius of the substrate is equal to the focal length of the lens. If the pattern and substrate are thin, the combination satisfies the Abbe sine condition. Therefore, the lens is free of coma. We analyze a 0.5 numerical aperture, 0.50 mm focal length lens in detail. A 0.16 numerical aperture lens was fabricated holographically, and results are presented.

  1. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  2. 1.25  GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. The gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing the module size are important challenges for the design of such a detector system. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating (SWG) using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15  mm×15  mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency SWG. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of the MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5% photon detection efficiency, a 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1% afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  3. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation with bidirectional modulated sine waves in patients with chronic back pain: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Koki; Takahashi, Norio; Nishio, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Mika; Aida, Sumihisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.  Newly developed bidirectional modulated sine waves (BMW) might provide some derived benefit to patients with low back pain. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) with BMWs was tested. Materials and Methods.  Analgesic effects of BMWs and conventional bidirectional pulsed waves on chronic back pain in 28 patients were compared, and effects of repeated TENS using BMWs on chronic back pain were investigated in 21 patients by means of a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group method. Pain intensity was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS). Results.  There was significant immediate reduction in NRS in patients receiving BMWs, and 60 min after treatment compared to sham TENS. Weekly repeated treatments using massage and TENS with BMWs for 5 weeks resulted in a decrease of NRS, but there were no significant differences between the TENS plus massage and sham TENS plus massage groups. Conclusions.  This study shows that TENS with BMWs significantly inhibits chronic back pain, and treatment effects are attained within a day. The results also suggest that there were no statistically significant long-term effects of TENS with BMW in the repeated treatment.

  4. Electro-optic modulator based gate transient suppression for sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xuping; Shi, Yuanlei; Ying, Zhoufeng; Wang, Shun

    2014-06-01

    Capacitive gate transient noise has been problematic for the high-speed single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD), especially when the operating frequency extends to the gigahertz level. We proposed an electro-optic modulator based gate transient noise suppression method for sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP SPAD. With the modulator, gate transient is up-converted to its higher-order harmonics that can be easily removed by low pass filtering. The proposed method enables online tuning of the operating rate without modification of the hardware setup. At 250 K, detection efficiency of 14.7% was obtained with 4.8×10-6 per gate dark count and 3.6% after-pulse probabilities for 1550-nm optical signal under 1-GHz gating frequency. Experimental results have shown that the performance of the detector can be maintained within a designated frequency range from 0.97 to 1.03 GHz, which is quite suitable for practical high-speed SPAD applications operated around the gigahertz level.

  5. Genetic variation and demographic history of the Haplochromis laparogramma group of Lake Victoria-An analysis based on SINEs and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mzighani, Semvua I; Nikaido, Masato; Takeda, Miyuki; Seehausen, Ole; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Katunzi, Egid F B; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mizoiri, Shinji; Sato, Tetsu; Tachida, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2010-01-15

    More than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid species inhabit Lake Victoria. This striking species diversity is a classical example of recent explosive adaptive radiation thought to have happened within the last approximately 15,000 years. In this study, we examined the population structure and historical demography of 3 pelagic haplochromine cichlid species that resemble in morphology and have similar niche, Haplochromis (Yssichromis) laparogramma, Haplochromis (Y.) pyrrhocephalus, and Haplochromis (Y.) sp. "glaucocephalus". We investigated the sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region and the insertion patterns of short interspersed elements (SINEs) of 759 individuals. We show that sympatric forms are genetically differentiated in 4 of 6 cases, but we also found apparent weakening of the genetic differentiation in areas with turbid water. We estimated the timings of population expansion and species divergence to coincide with the refilling of the lake at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. We also found that estimates can be altered significantly by the choice of the shape of the molecular clock. If we employ the nonlinear clock model of evolutionary rates in which the rates are higher towards the recent, the population expansion was dated at around the event of desiccation of the lake ca. 17,000 YBP. Thus, we succeeded in clarifying the species and population structure of closely related Lake Victoria cichlids and in showing the importance of applying appropriate clock calibrations in elucidating recent evolutionary events.

  6. A comparison of 15 Hz sine on-line and off-line magnetic stimulation affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Lei; Gao, Yang; Dou, Jun-Rong; Li, Ze-yan

    2016-10-01

    Combined with the use of patch-clamp techniques, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has proven to be a noninvasive neuromodulation tool that can inhibit or facilitate excitability of neurons after extensive research. The studies generally focused on the method: the neurons are first stimulated in an external standard magnetic exposure device, and then moved to the patch-clamp to record electrophysiological characteristics (off-line magnetic exposure). Despite its universality, real-time observation of the effects of magnetic stimulation on the neurons is more effective (on-line magnetic stimulation). In this study, we selected a standard exposure device for magnetic fields acting on mouse prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons, and described a new method that a patch-clamp setup was modified to allow on-line magnetic stimulation. By comparing the off-line exposure and on-line stimulation of the same magnetic field intensity and frequency affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents, we succeeded in proving the feasibility of the new on-line stimulation device. We also demonstrated that the sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons increased significantly under the 15 Hz sine 1 mT, and 2 mT off-line magnetic field exposure and under the 1 mT and 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation, and the rate of acceleration was most significant on 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation. This study described the development of a new on-line magnetic stimulator and successfully demonstrated its practicability for scientific stimulation of neurons.

  7. Assessment of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis (head lice infestation) in rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leulmi, Hamza; Diatta, Georges; Sokhna, Cheikh; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2016-12-01

    Reports of treatment failure and the emergence of resistance to topical head lice treatments have become increasingly common, driving the need for continued development of new therapeutic options for pediculosis. Ivermectin has been proposed as a potential alternative for the treatment of pediculosis but has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this study, the effectiveness of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis in Senegal was compared. The study was conducted in two neighbouring villages of Sine-Saloum, Senegal: Dielmo (ivermectin trial group; 201 female participants) and Ndiop (shampoo trial group; 239 female participants). In the ivermectin group, patients received two doses of oral ivermectin (400 µg/kg body weight; Mectizan ® ) 7 days apart. In contrast, the shampoo group received a shampoo treatment based on d-phenothrin (0.23%; Hégor ® ). At the beginning of the study, 70 (34.8%) of 201 participants in the ivermectin group were infested by head lice versus 145 (60.7%) of 239 participants in the shampoo group. At Day 15 post-treatment, the efficacy of the treatment against head lice reached 41/53 (77.4%) in the ivermectin group (53 patients were tested in this group) versus 42/130 (32.3%) in the shampoo group (130 patients were tested in this group) (P <10 -7 ). However, 4 (7.5%) of the 53 females in the ivermectin group exhibited probable ivermectin treatment failure, suggesting the emergence of ivermectin-resistant lice. This study demonstrates that oral ivermectin is highly effective for the treatment of pediculosis compared with shampoo, but also suggests that ivermectin resistance may emerge during treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  9. Ecological Condition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For ecological condition there are 5 questions.

  10. Crown Condition

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is dependent upon the size and condition of the tree crown. Trees with full, vigorous crowns are generally associated with more vigorous growth rates (Zarnoch and others 2004). Therefore, the Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program measures a suite of crown condition indicators to evaluate forest health. Among the crown...

  11. CFD analysis of linear compressors considering load conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sanghyun; Oh, Wonsik

    2017-08-01

    This paper is a study on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of linear compressor considering load conditions. In the conventional CFD analysis of the linear compressor, the load condition was not considered in the behaviour of the piston. In some papers, behaviour of piston is assumed as sinusoidal motion provided by user defined function (UDF). In the reciprocating type compressor, the stroke of the piston is restrained by the rod, while the stroke of the linear compressor is not restrained, and the stroke changes depending on the load condition. The greater the pressure difference between the discharge refrigerant and the suction refrigerant, the more the centre point of the stroke is pushed backward. And the behaviour of the piston is not a complete sine wave. For this reason, when the load condition changes in the CFD analysis of the linear compressor, it may happen that the ANSYS code is changed or unfortunately the modelling is changed. In addition, a separate analysis or calculation is required to find a stroke that meets the load condition, which may contain errors. In this study, the coupled mechanical equations and electrical equations are solved using the UDF, and the behaviour of the piston is solved considering the pressure difference across the piston. Using the above method, the stroke of the piston with respect to the motor specification of the analytical model can be calculated according to the input voltage, and the piston behaviour can be realized considering the thrust amount due to the pressure difference.

  12. Energy conditions and junction conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Marolf, Donald; Yaida, Sho; Mathematics Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106

    2005-08-15

    We consider the familiar junction conditions described by Israel for thin timelike walls in Einstein-Hilbert gravity. One such condition requires the induced metric to be continuous across the wall. Now, there are many spacetimes with sources confined to a thin wall for which this condition is violated and the Israel formalism does not apply. However, we explore the conjecture that the induced metric is in fact continuous for any thin wall which models spacetimes containing only positive energy matter. Thus, the usual junction conditions would hold for all positive energy spacetimes. This conjecture is proven in various special cases, includingmore » the case of static spacetimes with spherical or planar symmetry as well as settings without symmetry which may be sufficiently well approximated by smooth spacetimes with well-behaved null geodesic congruences.« less

  13. Aquatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  14. Influence of forming conditions on fiber tilt

    Treesearch

    David W. Vahey; John M. Considine; Michael A. and MacGregor

    2013-01-01

    Fiber tilt describes the projection of fiber length in the thickness direction of paper. The projection is described by the tilt angle of fibers with respect to the plane of the sheet. A simple model for fiber tilt is based on jet-to-wire velocity differential in combination with cross-flows on the wire. The tilt angle of a fiber is found to vary as the sine of its in-...

  15. Hand-Held Refractometer-Based Measurement and Excess Permittivity Analysis Method for Detection of Diesel Oils Adulterated by Kerosene in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-01-01

    Adulteration of fuels is a major problem, especially in developing and third world countries. One such case is the adulteration of diesel oil by kerosene. This problem contributes to air pollution, which leads to other far-reaching adverse effects, such as climate change. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively easy measurement method based on an inexpensive, handheld Abbe refractometer for the detection of adulteration and estimation of the ascending order of the amount of kerosene present in adulterated samples in field conditions. We achieved this by increasing the volume of pure diesel sample in the adulterated diesel oil, and measuring the trend of refractive index change, and next, exploiting the true and ideal permittivities of the binary mixture. The permittivity can be obtained with the aid of the measured refractive index of a liquid. Due to the molecular interactions, the true and ideal permittivities of diesel–kerosene binary liquid mixture have a mismatch which can be used to screen for adulterated diesel oils. The difference between the true and the ideal permittivity is the so-called excess permittivity. We first investigated a training set of diesel oils in laboratory in Finland, using the accurate table model Abbe refractometer and depicting the behavior of the excess permittivity of the mixture of diesel oil and kerosene. Then, we measured same samples in the laboratory using a handheld refractometer. Finally, preliminary field measurements using the handheld device were performed in Tanzania to assess the accuracy and possibility of applying the suggested method in field conditions. We herein show that it is not only possible to detect even relatively low adulteration levels of diesel in kerosene—namely, 5%, 10%, and 15%—but also it is possible to monitor the ascending order of adulteration for different adulterated diesel samples. We propose that the method of increasing the volume of an unknown (suspected) diesel oil

  16. Hand-Held Refractometer-Based Measurement and Excess Permittivity Analysis Method for Detection of Diesel Oils Adulterated by Kerosene in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kanyathare, Boniphace; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-05-14

    Adulteration of fuels is a major problem, especially in developing and third world countries. One such case is the adulteration of diesel oil by kerosene. This problem contributes to air pollution, which leads to other far-reaching adverse effects, such as climate change. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively easy measurement method based on an inexpensive, handheld Abbe refractometer for the detection of adulteration and estimation of the ascending order of the amount of kerosene present in adulterated samples in field conditions. We achieved this by increasing the volume of pure diesel sample in the adulterated diesel oil, and measuring the trend of refractive index change, and next, exploiting the true and ideal permittivities of the binary mixture. The permittivity can be obtained with the aid of the measured refractive index of a liquid. Due to the molecular interactions, the true and ideal permittivities of diesel⁻kerosene binary liquid mixture have a mismatch which can be used to screen for adulterated diesel oils. The difference between the true and the ideal permittivity is the so-called excess permittivity. We first investigated a training set of diesel oils in laboratory in Finland, using the accurate table model Abbe refractometer and depicting the behavior of the excess permittivity of the mixture of diesel oil and kerosene. Then, we measured same samples in the laboratory using a handheld refractometer. Finally, preliminary field measurements using the handheld device were performed in Tanzania to assess the accuracy and possibility of applying the suggested method in field conditions. We herein show that it is not only possible to detect even relatively low adulteration levels of diesel in kerosene-namely, 5%, 10%, and 15%-but also it is possible to monitor the ascending order of adulteration for different adulterated diesel samples. We propose that the method of increasing the volume of an unknown (suspected) diesel oil sample by

  17. Synthesis, structure and magnetic property of a two-dimensional coordination polymer decorated with sine wave-like 1D double chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Dan-Yang; Xiao, Guo-Bin; Ma, Heng-Chang; Lei, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Jia-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    A new compound, {[Co(BPFI)(NDC)]H2O·0.5DMF}n (1) has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition by the self-assembly of V-shaped N-containing rigid ligand BPFI with Co(II) ions in the presence of H2NDC acid, where BPFI = 2,8-di(1H-imidazole-1-yl)dibenzo[b,d]furan, H2NDC = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-visible spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compound 1 is a unique dinuclear Co-based 2D (4,4) layer structure decorated with parallel double chains. In addition, magnetic study reveals the existence of antiferromagnetic coupling interactions between the Co(II) ions within the dinuclear unit of 1.

  18. Modified Taylor series method for solving nonlinear differential equations with mixed boundary conditions defined on finite intervals.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Filobello-Nino, Uriel Antonio; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Herrera-May, Agustin Leobardo; Diaz-Sanchez, Alejandro; Huerta-Chua, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose the application of a modified Taylor series method (MTSM) for the approximation of nonlinear problems described on finite intervals. The issue of Taylor series method with mixed boundary conditions is circumvented using shooting constants and extra derivatives of the problem. In order to show the benefits of this proposal, three different kinds of problems are solved: three-point boundary valued problem (BVP) of third-order with a hyperbolic sine nonlinearity, two-point BVP for a second-order nonlinear differential equation with an exponential nonlinearity, and a two-point BVP for a third-order nonlinear differential equation with a radical nonlinearity. The result shows that the MTSM method is capable to generate easily computable and highly accurate approximations for nonlinear equations. 34L30.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of efficacy and ST change following use of the Welch-Allyn MRL PIC biphasic waveform versus damped sine monophasic waveform for external DC cardioversion.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Jonathan J S; Deakin, Charles D

    2006-11-01

    Biphasic waveforms have similar or greater efficacy at cardioverting atrial and ventricular arrhythmias at lower energy levels than monophasic waveforms, and cause less ST depression following defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation. No studies have investigated this effect on ST change with atrial arrhythmias. We studied the efficacy of the Welch Allyn-MRL PIC biphasic defibrillator. One hundred and thirty-nine patients undergoing elective DC cardioversion for atrial arrhythmias were randomised to cardioversion by monophasic (Hewlett Packard Codemaster XL; 100, 200, 300, 360 and 360J) or biphasic (Welch Allyn-MRL PIC; 70, 100, 150, 200 and 300J) defibrillator. We analysed success of cardioversion after 0 and 30min, cumulative energy, number of shocks and energy at successful cardioversion. The ST change in the recorded electrocardiogram was measured at 15s after all shocks using electronic callipers. Immediately after cardioversion 59/68 (86.8%) of the monophasic group versus 56/60 (93.3%) of the biphasic group were in sinus rhythm. Of the monophasic group, 55/67 (82.1%) remained in sinus rhythm at 30min versus 53/58 (91.4%) of the biphasic group. These differences were not significant at 0min (P=0.35) or 30min (P=0.21). The biphasic group required significantly fewer shocks (P=0.006), less cumulative energy (P<0.0001) and required lower total energy for successful cardioversion (P<0.0001). Of the 102 patients with electrocardiogram recordings suitable for analysis, ST segment change was greater in the monophasic group (P=0.037). The Welch Allyn-MRL biphasic waveform for DC cardioversion results in fewer shocks, with less cumulative energy delivered and less post shock ST change than with a Hewlett Packard Codemaster XL damped sine wave monophasic waveform.

  20. Survival condition for low-frequency quasi-one-dimensional breathers in a two-dimensional strongly anisotropic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A. V.; Zubova, E. A.; Manevitch, L. I.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate a two-dimensional (2D) strongly anisotropic crystal (2D SAC) on substrate: 2D system of coupled linear chains of particles with strong intrachain and weak interchain interactions, each chain being subjected to the sine background potential. Nonlinear dynamics of one of these chains when the rest of them are fixed is reduced to the well known Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. Depending on strengh of the substrate, the 2D SAC models a variety of physical systems: polymer crystals with identical chains having light side groups, an array of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions, anisotropic crystals having light and heavy sublattices. Continuum limit of the FK model, the sine-Gordon (sG) equation, allows two types of soliton solutions: topological solitons and breathers. It is known that the quasi-one-dimensional topological solitons can propagate also in a chain of 2D system of coupled chains and even in a helix chain in a three-dimensional model of polymer crystal. In contrast to this, numerical simulation shows that the long-living breathers inherent to the FK model do not exist in the 2D SAC with weak background potential. The effect changes scenario of kink-antikink collision with small relative velocity: at weak background potential the collision always results only in intensive phonon radiation while kink-antikink recombination in the FK model results in long-living low-frequency sG breather creation. We found the survival condition for breathers in the 2D SAC on substrate depending on breather frequency and strength of the background potential. The survival condition bears no relation to resonances between breather frequency and frequencies of phonon band—contrary to the case of the FK model.

  1. The Influence of Different Operating Conditions on the Blood Damage of a Pulsatile Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zihao; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xianghui; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Because of pulsatile blood flow's benefit for myocardial recovery, perfusion of coronary arteries and end organs, pulsatile ventricular assist devices (VADs) are still widely used as paracorporeal mechanical circulatory support devices in clinical applications, especially in pediatric heart failure patients. However, severe blood damage limits the VAD's service period. Besides optimizing the VAD geometry to reduce blood damage, the blood damage may also be decreased by changing the operating conditions. In this article, a pulsatile VAD was used to investigate the influence of operating conditions on its blood damage, including hemolysis, platelet activation, and platelet deposition. Three motion profiles of pusher plate (sine, cosine, and polynomial), three stroke volumes (ejection fractions) (56 ml [70%], 42 ml [52.5%], and 28 ml [35%]), three pulsatile rates (75, 100, and 150 bpm), and two assist modes (copulsation and counterpulsation) were implemented respectively in VAD fluid-structure interaction simulations to calculate blood damage. The blood damage indices indicate that cosine motion profile, higher ejection fraction, higher pulsatile rate, and counterpulsation can decrease platelet deposition whereas increase hemolysis and platelet activation, and vice versa. The results suggest that different operating conditions have different effects on pulsatile VAD's blood damage and may be beneficial to choose suitable operating condition to reduce blood damage in clinical applications.

  2. The Role of Test Context in Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Inhibition: Part of a Search for General Principles of Associative Interference

    PubMed Central

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Soares, Julia S.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Two lick-suppression experiments with rats assessed interference with behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition by a latent inhibition treatment as a function of test context. We asked what effect the test context has, given identical latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 and identical conditioned inhibition training in Phase 2. In Experiment 1, an AAA vs. AAB context-shift design determined that latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 attenuated behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition training administered in Phase 2 regardless of the test context, which could reflect a failure to either acquire or express conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 2, an ABA vs. ABB design found that test performance in Contexts A and B reflected the treatments that had been administered in those contexts (i.e., conditioned inhibition was observed in Context B but not A), which could reflect either context specificity of latent inhibition or context specificity of conditioned inhibition. In either case, latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition training in at least some situations was seen to reflect an expression deficit rather than an acquisition deficit. These data, in conjunction with prior reports, suggest that latent inhibition is relatively specific to the context in which it was administered, whereas conditioned inhibition is specific to its training context only when it is the second learned relationship concerning the target cue. These experiments are part of a larger effort to delineate control by the test context of two-phase associative interference as a function of the nature of target training and the nature of interference training. PMID:25875792

  3. The role of test context in latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition: Part of a search for general principles of associative interference.

    PubMed

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Soares, Julia S; Miller, Ralph R

    2015-09-01

    In two lick suppression experiments with rats, we assessed interference with behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition by a latent inhibition treatment as a function of test context. We asked what effect the test context has, given identical latent inhibition treatments in Phase 1 and identical conditioned inhibition trainings in Phase 2. In Experiment 1, an AAA versus AAB context-shift design determined that the latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 attenuated behavior indicative of the conditioned inhibition training administered in Phase 2, regardless of the test context, which could reflect a failure to either acquire or express conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 2, an ABA versus ABB design showed that test performance in Contexts A and B reflected the treatments that had been administered in those contexts (i.e., conditioned inhibition was observed in Context B but not A), which could reflect either the context specificity of either latent inhibition or conditioned inhibition. In either case, latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition training in at least some situations was seen to reflect an expression deficit rather than an acquisition deficit. These data, in conjunction with prior reports, suggest that latent inhibition is relatively specific to the context in which it was administered, whereas conditioned inhibition is specific to its training context only when it is the second-learned relationship concerning the target cue. These experiments are part of a larger effort to delineate control by the test context of two-phase associative interference, as a function of the nature of target training and the nature of interference training.

  4. Benign Breast Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... common benign breast condition in men is called gynecomastia. This condition causes enlarged breast tissue. Female breasts ... with these less common, benign breast conditions. Male gynecomastia: A man’s breast will feel swollen and tender ...

  5. Chinese Conditionals and the Theory of Conditionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierchia, Gennaro

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main features of discourse representation theory, situation-based approaches, and dynamic semantics, and discusses the role the novelty condition plays in each of them, providing the main theoretical coordinates against which to try an assessment of the role of the Chinese conditional and a proposal put forth by Chang and Huang…

  6. The Hyperbolic Sine Cardinal and the Catenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The hyperbolic function sinh(x)/x receives scant attention in the literature. We show that it admits a clear geometric interpretation as the ratio between length and chord of a symmetric catenary segment. The inverse, together with the use of dimensionless parameters, furnishes a compact, explicit construction of a general catenary segment of…

  7. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  8. [Molecular variability in the commom shrew Sorex araneus L. from European Russia and Siberia inferred from the length polymorphism of DNA regions flanked by short interspersed elements (Inter-SINE PCR) and the relationships between the Moscow and Seliger chromosome races].

    PubMed

    Bannikova, A A; Bulatova, N Sh; Kramerov, D A

    2006-06-01

    Genetic exchange among chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus and the problem of reproductive barriers have been extensively studied by means of such molecular markers as mtDNA, microsatellites, and allozymes. In the present study, the interpopulation and interracial polymorphism in the common shrew was derived, using fingerprints generated by amplified DNA regions flanked by short interspersed repeats (SINEs)-interSINE PCR (IS-PCR). We used primers, complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: mammalian element MIR and the SOR element from the genome of Sorex araneus. Genetic differentiation among eleven populations of the common shrew from eight chromosome races was estimated. The NP and MJ analyses, as well as multidimensional scaling showed that all samples examined grouped into two main clusters, corresponding to European Russia and Siberia. The bootstrap support of the European Russia cluster in the NJ and MP analyses was respectively 76 and 61%. The bootstrap index for the Siberian cluster was 100% in both analyses; the Tomsk race, included into this cluster, was separated with the bootstrap support of NJ/MP 92/95%.

  9. Conditional knockout of retinal determination genes in differentiating cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Eblimit, Aiden; Pulikkathara, Merlyn; Corr, Stuart; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-08-01

    Conditional gene knockout in postmitotic cells is a valuable technique which allows the study of gene function with spatiotemporal control. Surprisingly, in contrast to its long-term and extensive use in mouse studies, this technology is lacking in Drosophila. Here, we use a novel method for generating complete loss of eyes absent (eya) or sine oculis (so) function in postmitotic cells posterior to the morphogenetic furrow (MF). Specifically, genomic rescue constructs with flippase recognition target (FRT) sequences flanking essential exons are used to generate conditional null alleles. By removing gene function in differentiating cells, we show that eya and so are dispensable for larval photoreceptor differentiation, but are required for differentiation during pupal development. Both eya and so are necessary for photoreceptor survival and the apoptosis caused by loss of eya or so function is likely a secondary consequence of inappropriate differentiation. We also confirm their requirement for cone cell development and reveal a novel role in interommatidial bristle (IOB) formation. In addition, so is required for normal eye disc morphology. This is the first report of a knockout method to study eya and so function in postmitotic cells. This technology will open the door to a large array of new functional studies in virtually any tissue and at any stage of development or in adults. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. A gaze-contingent display to study contrast sensitivity under natural viewing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.

    2011-03-01

    Contrast sensitivity has been extensively studied over the last decades and there are well-established models of early vision that were derived by presenting the visual system with synthetic stimuli such as sine-wave gratings near threshold contrasts. Natural scenes, however, contain a much wider distribution of orientations, spatial frequencies, and both luminance and contrast values. Furthermore, humans typically move their eyes two to three times per second under natural viewing conditions, but most laboratory experiments require subjects to maintain central fixation. We here describe a gaze-contingent display capable of performing real-time contrast modulations of video in retinal coordinates, thus allowing us to study contrast sensitivity when dynamically viewing dynamic scenes. Our system is based on a Laplacian pyramid for each frame that efficiently represents individual frequency bands. Each output pixel is then computed as a locally weighted sum of pyramid levels to introduce local contrast changes as a function of gaze. Our GPU implementation achieves real-time performance with more than 100 fps on high-resolution video (1920 by 1080 pixels) and a synthesis latency of only 1.5ms. Psychophysical data show that contrast sensitivity is greatly decreased in natural videos and under dynamic viewing conditions. Synthetic stimuli therefore only poorly characterize natural vision.

  11. Road condition reporting.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the road condition reporting project where the feasibility of live reporting of the road : conditions with an Android camera and computer vision algorithms was tested. An app was developed that can collect videos...

  12. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    It is important to monitor coastal waters for potentially harmful trends and to identify areas in good condition. That is the purpose of the National Coastal Condition Assessment, which EPA conducts every few years.

  13. Breast Changes and Conditions

    Cancer.gov

    Breast changes include benign conditions and those that increase the risk of breast cancer. Symptoms and treatment of breast conditions such as ADH, ALH, cysts, DCIS, and LCIS are explained to women who may have received an abnormal mammogram finding.

  14. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  15. Conditional uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  16. [Conditioning mechanisms and psychoneuroimmunology].

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    This chapter deals with the role of conditioning principles in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). We will first describe the paradigms of classical and instrumental conditioning and classify immune parameters that are subject to conditioning (chapter 1). So far, PNI research mainly uses classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning. We will summarize some of the paradigmatic studies, mainly animal studies (chapter 2) and also describe studies that support the clinical relevance of classical conditioning, i. e., in the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and tumor chemotherapy (chapter 3). A study of our group on anticipatory immunomodulation in pediatric cancer patients is reported. Mechanisms mediating conditioned immunomodulation are summarized (chapter 4). We also describe studies that analyze the impact of instrumental conditioning contingencies on immune functioning (chapter 5). Finally, research perspectives are summarized (chapter 6).

  17. Was That Assumption Necessary? Reconsidering Boundary Conditions for Analytical Solutions to Estimate Streambed Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Charles H.; Tonina, Daniele; Applebee, Ralph; DeWeese, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Two common refrains about using the one-dimensional advection diffusion equation to estimate fluid fluxes and thermal conductivity from temperature time series in streambeds are that the solution assumes that (1) the surface boundary condition is a sine wave or nearly so, and (2) there is no gradient in mean temperature with depth. Although the mathematical posing of the problem in the original solution to the problem might lead one to believe these constraints exist, the perception that they are a source of error is a fallacy. Here we develop a mathematical proof demonstrating the equivalence of the solution as developed based on an arbitrary (Fourier integral) surface temperature forcing when evaluated at a single given frequency versus that derived considering a single frequency from the beginning. The implication is that any single frequency can be used in the frequency-domain solutions to estimate thermal diffusivity and 1-D fluid flux in streambeds, even if the forcing has multiple frequencies. This means that diurnal variations with asymmetric shapes or gradients in the mean temperature with depth are not actually assumptions, and deviations from them should not cause errors in estimates. Given this clarification, we further explore the potential for using information at multiple frequencies to augment the information derived from time series of temperature.

  18. THE FAILURE OF STRUCTURAL METALS SUBJECTED TO STRAIN-CYCLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Douglas, D.A.

    1958-11-01

    Data showing the isothermal strain-cycling capacity of three metals, inconel, Hastelloy "B," and beryllium, are presented. It is noted that at frequencies of 0.5 cycles per minute the data satisfied am equation of the form N/ sup alpha / epsilon /sub p/ = K, where N is the number of cycles to failure, epsilon /sub p/ is the plastic strain per cycle, and alpha and K are constants whose values depend on the structure and test conditions. Data on Ihconel are given to establish the effect of grain size, specimen geometry, temperature, and frequency. It is found that at temperaturesmore » above 1300 F, grain sine amd frequency exert a pronounced effect on the rupture life. Fine-gralned metal survives more cycles before failure than coarsegrained material. Lomg time cycles shorten the number of cycles to failure when the strain per cycle is low. Thermal strain cycling dain for ihconel are compared to strain cycling data at the same mean temperature. Good correlation is found to exist between the two types of data. (auth)« less

  19. Effect of extraction condition on properties of pectin from banana peels and its function as fat replacer in salad cream.

    PubMed

    Maneerat, Nitjaree; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Nitithamyong, Anadi

    2017-02-01

    Banana peels are wasted from banana processing industry. Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre usually prepared from fruit and vegetable processing wastes. Pectin extraction from banana peels thus should be an effective way of waste utilization. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction condition on the properties of pectin from peels of Nam Wa banana ( Musa (ABB group) 'Kluai Nam Wa') and its role as fat replacer in salad cream. Banana peel pectin (BPP) was extracted with HCl (pH 1.5) and water (pH 6.0) for 30-120 min at 90 ± 5 °C. Acid extraction yielded 7-11% pectin on a dry basis with galacturonic acid content (GalA), degree of methylation (DM), and viscosity-average molecular weight (M v ) of 42-47, 57-61%, and 17-40 kDa, respectively; while water-extracted BPP contained lower DM but higher GalA and M v . Prolonged extraction raised the pectin yield but lowered the M v of BPP and the viscosity of their solutions. Incorporation of BPP obtained from 60 min acid- and water-extraction into salad cream at 30% oil substitution level resulted in the decreases in viscosity and lightness. All reduced-fat samples were stable to cream separation during 3-weeks storage although the formula containing water-extracted BPP had larger oil droplet size and greater extent of droplet flocculation. There was no difference in sensory scores rated by 50 panelists on thickness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the full- and reduced-fat salad creams. Therefore, Nam Wa banana peels can be an alternative source of pectin with potential application as fat replacer in food products.

  20. Chapter 7 - Crown condition

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2018-01-01

    Tree crown conditions are visually assessed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program as an indicator of forest health. These assessments are useful because individual tree photosynthetic capacity is dependent upon the size and condition of the crown. In general, trees with full, vigorous crowns are associated...

  1. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  2. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  3. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be linked to other conditions, such as cerebral palsy, muscle weakness disorders, autism, or other nervous system ... be related to existing medical problems such as cerebral palsy. Doctors rarely have to treat pigeon-toed feet. ...

  4. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  5. National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NWCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's wetlands. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  6. Conditional data watchpoint management

    DOEpatents

    Burdick, Dean Joseph; Vaidyanathan, Basu

    2010-08-24

    A method, system and computer program product for managing a conditional data watchpoint in a set of instructions being traced is shown in accordance with illustrative embodiments. In one particular embodiment, the method comprises initializing a conditional data watchpoint and determining the watchpoint has been encountered. Upon that determination, examining a current instruction context associated with the encountered watchpoint prior to completion of the current instruction execution, further determining a first action responsive to a positive context examination; otherwise, determining a second action.

  7. Conditional Belief Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    event is the same as conditioning on the event being certain, which formalizes the standard informal interpretation of conditional probability. The game ...theoretic application of our model, discussed within an example, sheds light on a number of issues in the analysis of extensive form games . Type...belief types Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2014 . Published in Games and Economic Behavior, Vol. Ed. 0 87, (0) (2014), (, (0). DoD Components

  8. OPAL Land Condition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL S R- 14 -7 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses OPAL Land Condition Model Co ns tr uc tio n En...Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ERDC/CERL SR-14-7 August 2014 OPAL Land Condition Model Daniel Koch, Scott Tweddale...programmer information supporting the Op- timal Programming of Army Lands ( OPAL ) model, which was designed for use by trainers, Integrated Training

  9. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  10. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  11. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R A; Williams, W A

    1991-01-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice. PMID:2037826

  12. Causal conditionals and counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Caren A.; Byrne, Ruth M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Causal counterfactuals e.g., ‘if the ignition key had been turned then the car would have started’ and causal conditionals e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ are understood by thinking about multiple possibilities of different sorts, as shown in six experiments using converging evidence from three different types of measures. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that conditionals that comprise enabling causes, e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ primed people to read quickly conjunctions referring to the possibility of the enabler occurring without the outcome, e.g., ‘the ignition key was turned and the car did not start’. Experiments 2a and 2b showed that people paraphrased causal conditionals by using causal or temporal connectives (because, when), whereas they paraphrased causal counterfactuals by using subjunctive constructions (had…would have). Experiments 3a and 3b showed that people made different inferences from counterfactuals presented with enabling conditions compared to none. The implications of the results for alternative theories of conditionals are discussed. PMID:22858874

  13. Conditional E-Cash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Larry; Carbunar, Bogdan; Sion, Radu

    We introduce a novel conditional e-cash protocol allowing future anonymous cashing of bank-issued e-money only upon the satisfaction of an agreed-upon public condition. Payers are able to remunerate payees for services that depend on future, yet to be determined outcomes of events. Once payment complete, any double-spending attempt by the payer will reveal its identity; no double-spending by the payee is possible. Payers can not be linked to payees or to ongoing or past transactions. The flow of cash within the system is thus both correct and anonymous. We discuss several applications of conditional e-cash including online trading of financial securities, prediction markets, and betting systems.

  14. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  15. Teachers and Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey was conducted of 406 elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers to determine their understanding, acceptance, and use of the principle of operant conditioning. The treatment of data was by percent and chi square analysis primarily according to sex, experience, degree, and position. Subjects reported that a) they believed that the…

  16. Conditions for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Examines aspects of initial teacher education and continuing professional development in Scotland against the backdrop of McCrone Report recommendations on teaching conditions. Discusses teachers' attitudes toward their own professional development; the nature of professional knowledge, skills, and values; and some principles to promote genuine…

  17. Impacts of sociopolitical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finney, Ben R.

    1992-01-01

    Space development scenarios and the choice of technologies to carry them out depend upon the future social, economic, and political factors. A brief discussion concerning the impact of sociopolitical conditions on space exploration is presented. Some of the topics mentioned include: space weapons/warfare, international cooperation, NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Program, and superpower rivelry.

  18. Forest condition in Latvia

    Treesearch

    Madis Sipols

    1998-01-01

    Systematic assessment and observation (survey, inventory) of forests in Latvia has been underway since the 1700's. Latvia's forests are in the boreal/temperate forest zone and cover 44 percent of the country. Forest growing conditions are subdivided into five site class types: forests on dry mineral, wet mineral, wet peat, drained mineral, drained peat soils...

  19. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  20. From Airy to Abbe: quantifying the effects of wide-angle focusing for scalar spherical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, Yitzi M.; Merlo, Juan M.; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in optical microscopy have enabled imaging with spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit. This limit is sometimes taken as one of several different criteria according to different conventions, including Rayleigh’s 0.61λ /NA, Abbe’s 0.5λ /NA, and Sparrow’s 0.47λ /NA. In this paper, we perform a parametric study, numerically integrating the scalar Kirchhoff diffraction integrals, and we propose new functional forms for the resolution limits derived from scalar focusing. The new expressions remain accurate under wide angle focusing, up to 90^\\circ . Our results could materially impact the design of high intensity focused ultrasound systems, and can be used as a qualitative guideline for the design of a particular type of planar optical element: the flat lens metasurface.

  1. Interferometer scanning mechanisms and metrology at ABB: recent developments and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandmont, Frédéric; Buijs, Henry; Mandar, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Interferometers are devices meant to create an interference pattern between photons emitted from a given target of interest. In most cases, this interference pattern must be scanned over time or space to reveal useful information about the target (ex.: radiance spectra or a star diameter). This scanning is typically achieved by moving mirrors at a precision a few orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength under study. This sometimes leads to mechanism requirements of especially high dynamic range equivalent to 30 bits or more (ex. Sub-nanometer precision over stoke of tens of cms for spectroscopy or tens of meters for astronomical spatial interferometry). On top of this mechanical challenge, the servo control of the mirror position involves obtaining relative distance measurement between distant optical elements with similar if not better dynamic range. The feedback information for such servo-control loop is usually the optical path difference (OPD) measured with a metrology laser beam injected in the interferometer. Over the years since the establishement of the Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) in the 60's as a standard spectroscopic tools, many different approaches have been used to accomplish this task. When it comes to space however, not all approaches are successful. The design challenge can be viewed as analogous to that of scene scanning modules with the exception that the sensitivity and precision are much finer. These mechanisms must move freely to allow fine corrections while remaining stiff to reject external perturbations with frequencies outside of the servo control system reach. Space also brings the additional challenges of implementing as much redundancy as possible and offering protection during launch for these sub-systems viewed as critical single point failures of the payloads they serve.

  2. ETV REPORT AND STATEMENT, ABB INC. BIOTEMP VETABLE OIL - BASED INSULATING DIELECTRIC FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE USEPA has created the ETV program to facilitate the deployment of innovative of improved environmental technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environmental protection by substantially acceleratin...

  3. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessmentmore » of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.« less

  4. Bending the Rules: Widefield Microscopy and the Abbe Limit of Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien S.; Stephens, Andrew D.; Haase, Julian; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    One of the most fundamental concepts of microscopy is that of resolution–the ability to clearly distinguish two objects as separate. Recent advances such as structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and point localization techniques including photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) strive to overcome the inherent limits of resolution of the modern light microscope. These techniques, however, are not always feasible or optimal for live cell imaging. Thus, in this review, we explore three techniques for extracting high resolution data from images acquired on a widefield microscope–deconvolution, model convolution, and Gaussian fitting. Deconvolution is a powerful tool for restoring a blurred image using knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) describing the blurring of light by the microscope, although care must be taken to ensure accuracy of subsequent quantitative analysis. The process of model convolution also requires knowledge of the PSF to blur a simulated image which can then be compared to the experimentally acquired data to reach conclusions regarding its geometry and fluorophore distribution. Gaussian fitting is the basis for point localization microscopy, and can also be applied to tracking spot motion over time or measuring spot shape and size. All together, these three methods serve as powerful tools for high-resolution imaging using widefield microscopy. PMID:23893718

  5. Standoff aircraft IR characterization with ABB dual-band hyper spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lantagne, Stéphane; Bullis, Ritchie D.; Roy, Claude; Vallières, Christian; Levesque, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing infrared characterization of rapidly evolving events generally involves the combination of a spectro-radiometer and infrared camera(s) as separated instruments. Time synchronization, spatial coregistration, consistent radiometric calibration and managing several systems are important challenges to overcome; they complicate the target infrared characterization data processing and increase the sources of errors affecting the final radiometric accuracy. MR-i is a dual-band Hyperspectal imaging spectro-radiometer, that combines two 256 x 256 pixels infrared cameras and an infrared spectro-radiometer into one single instrument. This field instrument generates spectral datacubes in the MWIR and LWIR. It is designed to acquire the spectral signatures of rapidly evolving events. The design is modular. The spectrometer has two output ports configured with two simultaneously operated cameras to either widen the spectral coverage or to increase the dynamic range of the measured amplitudes. Various telescope options are available for the input port. Recent platform developments and field trial measurements performances will be presented for a system configuration dedicated to the characterization of airborne targets.

  6. Do Conditional Reinforcers Count?

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2006-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven components arranged different food-delivery ratios on concurrent variable-interval schedules each session. The components were unsignaled, lasted for 10 food deliveries, and occurred in random order with a 60-s blackout between components. The schedules were arranged using a switching-key procedure in which two responses on a center key changed the schedules and associated stimuli on two side keys. In Experiment 1, over five conditions, an increasing proportion of food deliveries accompanied by a magazine light was replaced with the presentation of the magazine light only. Local analyses of preference showed preference pulses toward the alternative that had just produced either a food-plus-magazine-light or magazine-light-only presentation, but pulses after food deliveries were always greater than those after magazine lights. Increasing proportions of magazine lights did not change the size of preference pulses after food or magazine-light presentations. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of correlations between food ratios and magazine-light ratios: In Condition 6, magazine-light ratios in components were inversely correlated (−1.0) with food ratios, and in Condition 7, magazine-light ratios were uncorrelated with food ratios. In Conditions 8 and 9, pecks also produced occasional 2.5-s flashes of a green keylight. In Condition 8, food and magazine-light ratios were correlated 1.0 whereas food and green-key ratios were correlated −1.0. In Condition 9, food and green-key ratios were correlated 1.0 whereas food and magazine-light ratios were correlated −1.0. Preference pulses toward alternatives after magazine lights and green keys depended on the correlation between these event ratios and the food ratios: If the ratios were correlated +1.0, positive preference pulses resulted; if the correlation was −1.0, preference pulses were negative. These results suggest that the Law of Effect has more to do with

  7. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  8. Time, rate, and conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Gibbon, J

    2000-04-01

    The authors draw together and develop previous timing models for a broad range of conditioning phenomena to reveal their common conceptual foundations: First, conditioning depends on the learning of the temporal intervals between events and the reciprocals of these intervals, the rates of event occurrence. Second, remembered intervals and rates translate into observed behavior through decision processes whose structure is adapted to noise in the decision variables. The noise and the uncertainties consequent on it have both subjective and objective origins. A third feature of these models is their timescale invariance, which the authors argue is a very important property evident in the available experimental data. This conceptual framework is similar to the psychophysical conceptual framework in which contemporary models of sensory processing are rooted. The authors contrast it with the associative conceptual framework.

  9. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  10. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  11. Lightning-channel conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, R.; da Silva, C. L.; Eack, K.; Edens, H. E.; Harley, J.; McHarg, M.; Contreras Vidal, L.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "conditioning" has several distinct applications in understanding lightning. It is commonly associated to the greater speed of dart-leaders vs. stepped leaders and the retrace of a cloud-to-ground channel by later return strokes. We will showadditional examples of conditioning: (A) High-speed videos of triggered flashes show "dark" periods of up to 50 ms between rebrightenings of an existing channel. (B) Interferometer (INTF) images of intra-cloud (IC) flashes demonstrate that electric-field "K-changes" correspond to rapid propagation of RF impulses along a previously formed channel separated by up to 20 ms with little RF emission on that channel. (C) Further, INTF images (like the one below) frequently show that the initial IC channel is more branched and "fuzzier'' than its later incarnations. Also, we contrast high-speed video, INTF observations, and spectroscopic measurements with possible physical mechanisms that can explain how channel conditioning guides and facilitates dart leader propagation. These mechanisms include: (1) a plasmochemical effect where electrons are stored in negative ions and released during the dart leader propagation via field-induced detachment; (2) small-amplitude residual currents that can maintain electrical conductivity; and (3) slow heat conduction cooling of plasma owing to channel expansion dynamics.

  12. Principles of signal conditioning.

    PubMed

    Finkel, A; Bookman, R

    2001-05-01

    It is rare for biological, physiological, chemical, electrical, or physical signals to be measured in the appropriate format for recording and interpretation. Usually, a signal must be conditioned to optimize it for both of these functions. This overview describes the fundamentals of signal filtering, how to prepare signals for A/D conversion, signal averaging to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, line frequency pickup (hum), peak-to-peak and rms noise measurements, blanking, audio monitoring, testing of electrodes and the common-mode rejection ratio.

  13. Diurnal Variability of the inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamas, Luisa; Peliz, Álvaro; Marchesiello, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The circulation over the inner-shelf is a key component of shelf dynamics and an important mechanism for cross-shore exchange on most shelves. Yet our understanding of the cross-shore circulation and how it depends on different forcing conditions, bathymetry and stratification remains poor due in part to sparse observations and the difficulty of resolving spatial and temporal scales within the inner-shelf. Most studies of cross-shore transport on the inner-shelf consider only a 2D circulation, due to coastal upwelling or downwelling and assume along-shore uniformity. However, divergence in the along-shore and cross-shore flows may occur with the presence of complex coastline topography or subtle bathymetric features, and can drive substantial horizontal cross-shore exchange, with same order of magnitude as coastal upwelling and downwelling. A recent study using observational data collected near cape Sines, Portugal, showed that not only wind, waves and tides are important forcing mechanisms of the inner-shelf circulation, but also that the along-shore pressure gradient plays a major role on driving cross-shore exchange. A modeling study was conducted in order to study the complexity of the inner-shelf dynamics, in the presence of a cape. A simplified configuration was used in order to isolate the effects of individual processes: wind, heat fluxes, tides and waves. The preliminary results of the effects of these processes on the inner-shelf circulation will be presented.

  14. How Are Genetic Conditions Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consultation How are genetic conditions diagnosed? How are genetic conditions diagnosed? A doctor may suspect a diagnosis ... and advocacy resources. For more information about diagnosing genetic conditions: Genetics Home Reference provides information about genetic ...

  15. SUMO Chamber Conditions

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sevanto, Sanna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powers, Heath [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickman, Turin L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Collins, Adam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grossiord, Charlotte [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research; Adams, Henry [Oklahoma State University; Borrego, Isaac [USGS Southwest Biological Science Center; McDowell, Nate [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Stockton, Elizabeth [University of New Mexico; Ryan, Max [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Slentz, Matthew [Mohle Adams; Briggs, Sam [Fossil Creek Nursery; McBranch, Natalie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Bryn [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2018-01-01

    The Los Alamos Survival–Mortality experiment (SUMO) is located on Frijoles Mesa near Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, at an elevation of 2150 m. This was a tree manipulation study that investigated the relative impacts of drought and warming on plant function and reveals how trees adapt to drought and heat in semi-arid regions. The study factored the role of tree hydraulic acclimation to both precipitation and temperature and separated their effects.The experiment is located in a pinon-juniper woodland near the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest ecotone. Chamber conditions (temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit) for SUMO Open Top Chambers (OTCs) used to control air temperatures surrounding heated and control chamber trees. See SUMO Target Tree Information data package (doi:10.15485/1440544) for additional information. Data released by Los Alamos National Lab for public use under LA-UR-18-23656.

  16. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  17. Explaining Verification Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The Hoare approach to program verification relies on the construction and discharge of verification conditions (VCs) but offers no support to trace, analyze, and understand the VCs themselves. We describe a systematic extension of the Hoare rules by labels so that the calculus itself can be used to build up explanations of the VCs. The labels are maintained through the different processing steps and rendered as natural language explanations. The explanations can easily be customized and can capture different aspects of the VCs; here, we focus on their structure and purpose. The approach is fully declarative and the generated explanations are based only on an analysis of the labels rather than directly on the logical meaning of the underlying VCs or their proofs. Keywords: program verification, Hoare calculus, traceability.

  18. Evapotranspiration under advective conditions.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Patricia I; Berliner, Pedro R

    2005-07-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are heterogeneous landscapes in which irrigated fields are surrounded by arid areas. The advection of sensible heat flux from dry surfaces is a significant source of energy that has to be taken into consideration when evaluating the evaporation from crops growing in these areas. The basic requirement of most of the common methods for estimating evapotranspiration [Bowen ratio, aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith (PM) equation] is that the horizontal fluxes of sensible and latent heat are negligible when compared to the corresponding vertical fluxes. We carried out measurements above an irrigated tomato field in a desert area. Latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured using a four-level Bowen machine with aspirated psychrometers. Our results indicate that under advective conditions only measurements carried out in the lowest layer are satisfactory for the estimation of latent heat fluxes and that the use of the PM equation with an appropriately parameterized canopy resistance may be preferable.

  19. Proposition d'un modèle expérimental pour la caractérisation de la réponse mécanique d'un composite (tissu de verre / résine époxyde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naceri, A.; Vautrin, A.

    2005-05-01

    L'objet de cet article est de proposer une géométrie d'éprouvette pour la caractérisation de la réponse mécanique d'un composite constitué de 12 plis de tissus de fibres de verre noyé dans une résine époxyde. Des essais de traction uniaxiale en rampe monotone réalisés sur différentes configurations géométriques d'éprouvettes avec différentes vitesses d'essais et le calcul numérique par éléments finis de la répartition des contraintes dans la zone centrale du modèle expérimental proposé, nous ont permis de justifier le choix d'une éprouvette profilée avec un rayon de 1000 mm qui présente une section réduite au centre et pour laquelle la rupture survient dans la zone centrale sans chute notable des caractéristiques mécaniques ultimes par rapport à l'éprouvette de forme parallélépipédique.

  20. The Negated Conditional: A Litmus Test for the Suppositional Conditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Simon J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    Under the suppositional account of conditionals, when people think about a conditional assertion, "if p then q," they engage in a mental simulation in which they imagine p holds and evaluate the probability that q holds under this supposition. One implication of this account is that belief in a conditional equates to conditional probability…

  1. Acoustic Source Characteristics, Across-Formant Integration, and Speech Intelligibility Under Competitive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An important aspect of speech perception is the ability to group or select formants using cues in the acoustic source characteristics—for example, fundamental frequency (F0) differences between formants promote their segregation. This study explored the role of more radical differences in source characteristics. Three-formant (F1+F2+F3) synthetic speech analogues were derived from natural sentences. In Experiment 1, F1+F3 were generated by passing a harmonic glottal source (F0 = 140 Hz) through second-order resonators (H1+H3); in Experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal (sine-wave) analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). In some conditions, the target formants were presented alone, either monaurally or dichotically (left ear = F1+F3; right ear = F2). In others, they were accompanied by a competitor for F2 (F1+F2C+F3; F2), which listeners must reject to optimize recognition. Competitors (H2C or T2C) were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Dichotic presentation of F2 and F2C ensured that the impact of the competitor arose primarily through informational masking. In the absence of F2C, the effect of a source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2 was relatively modest. When F2C was present, intelligibility was lowest when F2 was tonal and F2C was harmonic, irrespective of which type matched F1+F3. This finding suggests that source type and context, rather than similarity, govern the phonetic contribution of a formant. It is proposed that wideband harmonic analogues are more effective informational maskers than narrowband tonal analogues, and so become dominant in across-frequency integration of phonetic information when placed in competition. PMID:25751040

  2. Flue gas conditioning today

    SciTech Connect

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. Onemore » result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.« less

  3. Counterfactual and prefactual conditionals.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth M J; Egan, Suzanne M

    2004-06-01

    We consider reasoning about prefactual possibilities in the future, for example, "if I were to win the lottery next year I would buy a yacht" and counterfactual possibilities, for example, "if I had won the lottery last year, I would have bought a yacht." People may reason about indicative conditionals, for example, "if I won the lottery I bought a yacht" by keeping in mind a few true possibilities, for example, "I won the lottery and I bought a yacht." They understand counterfactuals by keeping in mind two possibilities, the conjecture, "I won the lottery and I bought a yacht" and the presupposed facts, "I did not win the lottery and I did not buy a yacht." We report the results of three experiments on prefactuals that examine what people judge them to imply, the possibilities they judge to be consistent with them, and the inferences they judge to follow from them. The results show that reasoners keep a single possibility in mind to understand a prefactual.

  4. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  5. Advanced Power Conditioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. L.

    1971-01-01

    The second portion of the advanced power conditioning system development program is reported. Five 100-watt parallel power stages with majority-vote-logic feedback-regulator were breadboarded and tested to the design goals. The input voltage range was 22.1 to 57.4 volts at loads from zero to 500 watts. The maximum input ripple current was 200 mA pk-pk (not including spikes) at 511 watts load; the output voltage was 56V dc with a maximum change of 0.89 volts for all variations of line, load, and temperature; the maximum output ripple was 320 mV pk-pk at 512 watts load (dependent on filter capacitance value); the maximum efficiency was 93.9% at 212 watts and 50V dc input; the minimum efficiency was 87.2% at 80-watt load and 50V dc input; the efficiency was above 90% from 102 watts to 372 watts; the maximum excursion for an 80-watt load change was 2.1 volts with a recovery time of 7 milliseconds; and the unit performed within regulation limits from -20 C to +85 C. During the test sequence, margin tests and failure mode tests were run with no resulting degradation in performance.

  6. Iterative initial condition reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

  7. Condition Assessment of Foundation Piles and Utility Poles Based on Guided Wave Propagation Using a Network of Tactile Transducers and Support Vector Machines

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Li, Jianchun; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel non-destructive testing and health monitoring system using a network of tactile transducers and accelerometers for the condition assessment and damage classification of foundation piles and utility poles. While in traditional pile integrity testing an impact hammer with broadband frequency excitation is typically used, the proposed testing system utilizes an innovative excitation system based on a network of tactile transducers to induce controlled narrow-band frequency stress waves. Thereby, the simultaneous excitation of multiple stress wave types and modes is avoided (or at least reduced), and targeted wave forms can be generated. The new testing system enables the testing and monitoring of foundation piles and utility poles where the top is inaccessible, making the new testing system suitable, for example, for the condition assessment of pile structures with obstructed heads and of poles with live wires. For system validation, the new system was experimentally tested on nine timber and concrete poles that were inflicted with several types of damage. The tactile transducers were excited with continuous sine wave signals of 1 kHz frequency. Support vector machines were employed together with advanced signal processing algorithms to distinguish recorded stress wave signals from pole structures with different types of damage. The results show that using fast Fourier transform signals, combined with principal component analysis as the input feature vector for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with different kernel functions, can achieve damage classification with accuracies of 92.5% ± 7.5%. PMID:29258274

  8. Children with chronic conditions: perspectives on condition management.

    PubMed

    Beacham, Barbara L; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study described children's (8-13 years old) perspectives of their chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes, cystic fibrosis): how they perceived their condition, its management, and its implications for their future. The study used the family management style framework (FMSF) to examine child perspectives on the joint venture of condition management between the child and family. Children within this age group viewed condition management in ways similar to their parents and have developed their own routines around condition management. Future studies of this phenomenon comparing child and parent perspectives would further our understanding of the influence of family management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... a benign breast condition? • What is breast self-awareness? • Glossary What is a benign breast condition? A ... risks, and test results. What is breast self-awareness? Being aware of how your breasts normally look ...

  10. 76 FR 14600 - Dental Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN28 Dental Conditions AGENCY: Department of... its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes... Administration (VBA) of service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for...

  11. Teacher Working Conditions that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Ken; McAdie, Pat

    2007-01-01

    To advance understanding of the issues concerning teachers' working conditions, the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario commissioned one of the authors to do an analytical review of literature on teachers' working conditions. This resulted in the publication, "Teacher Working Conditions That Matter: Evidence for Change." The…

  12. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  13. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  14. Serotonin and conditioning: focus on Pavlovian psychostimulant drug conditioning.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert J; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin containing neurons are located in nuclei deep in the brainstem and send axons throughout the central nervous system from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The vast scope of these connections and interactions enable serotonin and serotonin analogs to have profound effects upon sensory/motor processes. In that conditioning represents a neuroplastic process that leads to new sensory/motor connections, it is apparent that the serotonin system has the potential for a critical role in conditioning. In this article we review the basics of conditioning as well as the serotonergic system and point up the number of non-associative ways in which manipulations of serotonin neurotransmission have an impact upon conditioning. We focus upon psychostimulant drug conditioning and review the contribution of drug stimuli in the use of serotonin drugs to investigate drug conditioning and the important impact drug stimuli can have on conditioning by introducing new sensory stimuli that can create or mask a CS. We also review the ways in which experimental manipulations of serotonin can disrupt conditioned behavioral effects but not the associative processes in conditioning. In addition, we propose the use of the recently developed memory re-consolidation model of conditioning as an approach to assess the possible role of serotonin in associative processes without the complexities of performance effects related to serotonin treatment induced alterations in sensory/motor systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Condition sensor system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.; Morgan, J. E.; Mandell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The condition sensor system comprises a condition detector which produces a pulse when a parameter of the monitored condition exceeds a desired threshold. A resettable condition counter counts each pulse. A resettable timer is preset to produce a particular time frame. The counter produces a condition signal when the accumulated number of pulses within the time frame is equal to or greater than a preset count. Control means responsive to the incoming pulses and to the condition signal produce control signals that control utilization devices. After a suitable delay, the last detected pulse simultaneously resets the pulse counter and the timer, and prepares them for sensing another condition occurrence within the time frame. The invention has particular utility in the process of detecting rocking motions of blind people. A controlled, audible, bio-feedback signal is provided which constitutes a warning to the blind person that he is rocking.

  16. The negated conditional: a litmus test for the suppositional conditional?

    PubMed

    Handley, Simon J; Evans, Jonathan St B T; Thompson, Valerie A

    2006-05-01

    Under the suppositional account of conditionals, when people think about a conditional assertion, "if p then q," they engage in a mental simulation in which they imagine p holds and evaluate the probability that q holds under this supposition. One implication of this account is that belief in a conditional equates to conditional probability [P(q/p)]. In this paper, the authors examine a further implication of this analysis with respect to the wide-scope negation of conditional assertions, "it is not the case that if p then q." Under the suppositional account, nothing categorically follows from the negation of a conditional, other than a second conditional, "if p then not-q." In contrast, according to the mental model theory, a negated conditional is consistent only with the determinate state of affairs, p and not-q. In 4 experiments, the authors compare the contrasting predictions that arise from each of these accounts. The findings are consistent with the suppositional theory but are incongruent with the mental model theory of conditionals.

  17. Polarity in Conditionals and Conditional-Like Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, I-Ta Chris

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the distribution of negative polarity items (henceforth, NPIs) in conditionals and conditional-like constructions. NPIs include words such as any and ever and idioms such as "give a damn" and "lift a finger"; these expressions have only a limited distribution. In this dissertation, the distribution of…

  18. How People Interpret Conditionals: Shifts toward the Conditional Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Pfeifer, Niki; Mayerhofer, Bastian; Kleiter, Gernot D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how people interpret conditionals and how stable their interpretation is over a long series of trials. Participants were shown the colored patterns on each side of a 6-sided die and were asked how sure they were that a conditional holds of the side landing upward when the die is randomly thrown. Participants were presented with 71…

  19. Fear Conditioning Increases NREM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Kevin; Abel, Ted

    2010-01-01

    To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on sleep–wake states. During the 24 hr after training, fear-conditioned mice had approximately 1 hr more of nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and less wakefulness than mice receiving exposure to conditioning stimuli or immediate shock treatment. Mice receiving conditioning stimuli had more delta power during NREM sleep, whereas mice receiving fear conditioning had less theta power during rapid-eye-movement sleep. These results demonstrate that a single trial of fear conditioning alters sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations over a 24-hr period, supporting the idea that sleep is modified by experience and that such changes in sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations may play a role in memory consolidation. PMID:17469920

  20. Measurement of a free spectral range of a Fabry-Perot cavity using frequency modulation and null method under off-resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aketagawa, Masato; Kimura, Shohei; Yashiki, Takuya; Iwata, Hiroshi; Banh, Tuan Quoc; Hirata, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method to measure the free spectral range (FSR) of a Fabry-Perot cavity (FP-cavity) using frequency modulation with one electric optical modulator (EOM) and the null method. A laser beam modulated by the EOM, to which a sine wave signal is supplied from a radio frequency (RF) oscillator, is incident on the FP-cavity. The transmitted or reflected light from the FP-cavity is observed and converted to an RF signal by a high-speed photodetector, and the RF signal is synchronously demodulated with a lock-in amplifier by referring to a cosine wave signal from the oscillator. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the lock-in amplifier signal for the transmitted or reflected light becomes null with a steep slope when the modulation frequency is equal to the FSR under the condition that the carrier frequency of the laser is slightly detuned from the resonance of the FP-cavity. To reduce the measurement uncertainty for the FSR, we also discuss a selection method for laser power, a modulation index and the detuning shift of the carrier frequency, respectively.

  1. 77 FR 4469 - Dental Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN28 Dental Conditions AGENCY: Department of... rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental... Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of...

  2. Critical conditions for rill initiation

    Treesearch

    C. Yao; T. Lei; W. J. Elliot; D. K. McCool; J. Zhao; S. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying critical conditions of rill formation can be useful for a better understanding of soil erosion processes. Current studies lack a consensus and related rationale on how to describe these conditions. This study was based on the concepts that (1) the shear stress available for erosion at any given point is a function of the runoff rate, the slope steepness,...

  3. The Condition of America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyman, David S.; Sayles, Karen

    Several studies have documented the condition of U.S. school facilities from the early 80s to the present. This report provides an overview of these major studies, presenting data that assess school construction over the decades, the levels of deferred maintenance and proportion of local school budgets devoted to maintenance, the condition and…

  4. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  5. The National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was ass...

  6. Scanning properties of large dual-shaped offset and symmetric reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Israel, Victor; Veruttipong, Watt; Norrod, Roger D.; Imbriale, William A.

    1992-04-01

    Several characteristics of dual offset (DOSR) and symmetric shaped reflectors are examined. Among these is the amelioration of the added cost of manufacturing a shaped reflector antenna, particularly a doubly curved surface for the DOSR, if adjustable panels, which may be necessary for correction of gravity and wind distortions, are also used for improving gain by shaping. The scanning properties of shaped reflectors, both offset and circularly symmetric, are examined and compared to conic section scanning characteristics. Scanning of the pencil beam is obtained by lateral and axial translation of a single point-source feed. The feed is kept pointed toward the center of the subreflector. The effects of power spillover and aperture phase error as a function of beam scanning is examined for several different types of large reflector designs including DOSR, circularly symmetric large f/D and smaller f/D dual reflector antenna systems. It is graphically illustrated that the Abbe-sine condition for improving scanning of an optical system cannot, inherently, be satisfied in a dual-shaped reflector system shaped for high gain and low feed spillover.

  7. Jump conditions in transonic equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.; Jardin, S. C.

    2013-04-15

    In the present paper, the numerical calculation of transonic equilibria, first introduced with the FLOW code in Guazzotto et al.[Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)], is critically reviewed. In particular, the necessity and effect of imposing explicit jump conditions at the transonic discontinuity are investigated. It is found that 'standard' (low-{beta}, large aspect ratio) transonic equilibria satisfy the correct jump condition with very good approximation even if the jump condition is not explicitly imposed. On the other hand, it is also found that high-{beta}, low aspect ratio equilibria require the correct jump condition to be explicitly imposed. Various numerical approaches aremore » described to modify FLOW to include the jump condition. It is proved that the new methods converge to the correct solution even in extreme cases of very large {beta}, while they agree with the results obtained with the old implementation of FLOW in lower-{beta} equilibria.« less

  8. Survey of Condition Indicators for Condition Monitoring Systems (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-29

    Hinesburg, Vermont, 05461, USA jz@renewablenrgsystems.com ABSTRACT Currently, the wind energy industry is swiftly changing its maintenance strategy...from schedule based maintenance to predictive based maintenance . Condition monitoring systems (CMS) play an important role in the predictive... maintenance cycle. As condition monitoring systems are being adopted by more and more OEM and O&M service providers from the wind energy industry, it is

  9. Compatibility Conditions of Structural Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of elasticity has camouflaged a deficiency in the compatibility formulation since 1860. In structures the ad hoc compatibility conditions through virtual "cuts" and closing "gaps" are not parallel to the strain formulation in elasticity. This deficiency in the compatibility conditions has prevented the development of a direct stress determination method in structures and in elasticity. We have addressed this deficiency and attempted to unify the theory of compatibility. This work has led to the development of the integrated force method for structures and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation for elasticity. The improved accuracy observed in the solution of numerical examples by the integrated force method can be attributed to the compliance of the compatibility conditions. Using the compatibility conditions allows mapping of variables and facile movement among different structural analysis formulations. This paper reviews and illustrates the requirement of compatibility in structures and in elasticity. It also describes the generation of the conditions and quantifies the benefits of their use. The traditional analysis methods and available solutions (which have been obtained bypassing the missed conditions) should be verified for compliance of the compatibility conditions.

  10. Medical conditions with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Margaret L; Larson, Eric B

    2014-09-01

    Medical disease sometimes affects patients through neuropsychiatric manifestations. When neuropsychiatric symptoms are predominant, identifying medical disease early in the illness course is imperative because many of these conditions are reversible with appropriate treatment. A high index of suspicion is required on the part of clinicians, particularly when patients also present with physical signs or unexplained symptoms that might suggest a broader, systemic process. The processes that most commonly cause neuropsychiatric symptoms include infectious, autoimmune, endocrinologic, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. This article focuses on the most common of these conditions, and conditions for which early diagnosis and treatment are particularly important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fixed or adapted conditioning intensity for repeated conditioned pain modulation.

    PubMed

    Hoegh, M; Petersen, K K; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-12-29

    Aims Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is used to assess descending pain modulation through a test stimulation (TS) and a conditioning stimulation (CS). Due to potential carry-over effects, sequential CPM paradigms might alter the intensity of the CS, which potentially can alter the CPM-effect. This study aimed to investigate the difference between a fixed and adaptive CS intensity on CPM-effect. Methods On the dominant leg of 20 healthy subjects the cuff pressure detection threshold (PDT) was recorded as TS and the pain tolerance threshold (PTT) was assessed on the non-dominant leg for estimating the CS. The difference in PDT before and during CS defined the CPM-effect. The CPM-effect was assessed four times using a CS with intensities of 70% of baseline PTT (fixed) or 70% of PTT measured throughout the session (adaptive). Pain intensity of the conditioning stimulus was assessed on a numeric rating scale (NRS). Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results No difference was found comparing the four PDTs assessed before CSs for the fixed and the adaptive paradigms. The CS pressure intensity for the adaptive paradigm was increasing during the four repeated assessments (P < 0.01). The pain intensity was similar during the fixed (NRS: 5.8±0.5) and the adjusted paradigm (NRS: 6.0±0.4). The CPM-effect was higher using the fixed condition compared with the adaptive condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions The current study found that sequential CPM paradigms using a fixed conditioning stimulus produced an increased CPM-effect compared with adaptive and increasing conditioning intensities.

  12. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  13. Plant Condition Remote Monitoring Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Krishen, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a radiation transfer study conducted on houseplants using controlled environmental conditions. These conditions included: (1) air and soil temperature; (2) incident and reflected radiation; and (3) soil moisture. The reflectance, transmittance, and emittance measurements were conducted in six spectral bands: microwave, red, yellow, green, violet and infrared, over a period of three years. Measurements were taken on both healthy and diseased plants. The data was collected on plants under various conditions which included: variation in plant bio-mass, diurnal variation, changes in plant pathological conditions (including changes in water content), different plant types, various disease types, and incident light wavelength or color. Analysis of this data was performed to yield an algorithm for plant disease from the remotely sensed data.

  14. 8 Conditions for Motivated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The author interviewed hundreds of adolescents about what makes them interested in learning, in and out of school. The result is a formula hinging on creating eight conditions that spur kids to take active, motivated roles in their own learning.

  15. Pavlovian conditioning and ethanol tolerance.

    PubMed

    Siegel, S

    1987-01-01

    Results of considerable amount of research indicate that Pavlovian conditional pharmacological responses, resulting from repeated pairings of ethanol-associated environmental cues with the systemic effects of ethanol, importantly contribute to ethanol tolerance.

  16. Dealing with a Health Condition

    MedlinePlus

    ... to feel angry at themselves and those they love. These feelings are the start of the coping ... school play, or participate in other activities I love? What can I expect — will my condition be ...

  17. Quantitative Reasoning and the Sine Function: The Case of Zac

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has identified quantitative and covariational reasoning as critical for secondary and undergraduate student learning, particularly for topics that require students to make sense of relationships between quantities. The present study extends this body of literature by characterizing an undergraduate precalculus…

  18. Rockets and spacecraft: Sine qua non of space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of the national launch vehicle stable is presented along with lists of launch vehicles used in NASA programs. A partial list of spacecraft used throughout the world is also given. Scientific spacecraft costs are presented along with an historial overview of project development and funding in NASA.

  19. Low-frequency sine wave hard-limiting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.

    1977-01-01

    Circuit includes serial-in/parallel-out shift register and weighting network that are used to eliminate effects of noise and other nonrepetitive circuit transients. Register and weighting network average decisions from section of signal where decisions are more dependable or where differences between two consecutive samples are larger.

  20. Spaghetti Sine Curves: Virtual Environments for Reasoning and Sense Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Edwards, Michael Todd; Meagher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a recent collaboration with an area high school teacher, the authors were asked to develop an introductory sinusoidal curves lesson for a group of second-year algebra students. Because the topic was abstract and unfamiliar to these tenth graders, they looked for hands-on lessons to support their learning. One lesson that they found, which they…

  1. Sine Qua Non: Indispensable Resources for Ed Tech Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Kate

    2004-01-01

    This is the third and final article in the series on indispensable resources compiled from suggestions provided by ISTE members and affiliates; staff; and board, committee, and advocate network members. These essential resources deal directly with the challenges of designing successful instructional activities incorporating technology to engage…

  2. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  3. Retinitis Pigmentosa Sine Pigmento Mimicking a Chiasm Disease.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Prosdocimo, Giovanni; Romano, Francesco; Interlandi, Emanuela

    2017-08-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist complaining of visual loss for several years. The ophthalmic examination was remarkable for a bitemporal visual field defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was normal without evidence of chiasm compression. Neuro-ophthalmic examination was consistent with a retinal rather than a chiasmal disease. Retinal multimodal imaging helped in the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa, later confirmed by genetic testing.

  4. Retinitis Pigmentosa Sine Pigmento Mimicking a Chiasm Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Prosdocimo, Giovanni; Romano, Francesco; Interlandi, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 75-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist complaining of visual loss for several years. The ophthalmic examination was remarkable for a bitemporal visual field defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was normal without evidence of chiasm compression. Neuro-ophthalmic examination was consistent with a retinal rather than a chiasmal disease. Retinal multimodal imaging helped in the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa, later confirmed by genetic testing. PMID:29344059

  5. Dynamical interpretation of conditional patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, R. J.; Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.

    1988-01-01

    While great progress is being made in characterizing the 3-D structure of organized turbulent motions using conditional averaging analysis, there is a lack of theoretical guidance regarding the interpretation and utilization of such information. Questions concerning the significance of the structures, their contributions to various transport properties, and their dynamics cannot be answered without recourse to appropriate dynamical governing equations. One approach which addresses some of these questions uses the conditional fields as initial conditions and calculates their evolution from the Navier-Stokes equations, yielding valuable information about stability, growth, and longevity of the mean structure. To interpret statistical aspects of the structures, a different type of theory which deals with the structures in the context of their contributions to the statistics of the flow is needed. As a first step toward this end, an effort was made to integrate the structural information from the study of organized structures with a suitable statistical theory. This is done by stochastically estimating the two-point conditional averages that appear in the equation for the one-point probability density function, and relating the structures to the conditional stresses. Salient features of the estimates are identified, and the structure of the one-point estimates in channel flow is defined.

  6. Monetary effects on fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chen; Zhang, Aiyi; Chen, Qishan

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has found that the loss of money as a negative secondary reinforcer was as effective as a primary reinforcer during fear conditioning. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of monetary gain as a positive secondary reinforcer in fear conditioning. Participants were assigned to a high-reward group or low-reward group. Three kinds of squares prompting non-compensation shock, compensation shock, and no shock were presented. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) and self-ratings were recorded. The results revealed that (a) both SCRs and self-ratings in the compensation shock condition were lower than in the non-compensation shock condition, suggesting that money might block the learning stage of fear conditioning; and (b) a higher ratio of fear reduction was present in self-rating when compared to SCRs, suggesting that people might overstate the utility of money, subjectively. Monetary effects, the effects of different amounts of money, and the differences between subjective and physiological levels are discussed.

  7. Contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Justin W; Scott, Ian C; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction. Furthermore, fish of various background strains (AB, Tu, and TL) are able to acquire fear conditioning, but differ in fear extinction rates. Taken together, we find that contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish shares many similarities with the widely used contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rodents. Combined with the amenability of genetic manipulation in zebrafish, we anticipate that our paradigm will prove to be a useful complementary system in which to examine the molecular basis of vertebrate learning and memory. © 2017 Kenney et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration. PMID:20885815

  9. Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-03-01

    Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.

  10. Conditions for Fully Autonomous Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, John

    2006-06-01

    Anticipation allows a system to adapt to conditions that have not yet come to be, either externally to the system or internally. Autonomous systems actively control the conditions of their own existence so as to increase their overall viability. This paper will first give minimal necessary and sufficient conditions for autonomous anticipation, followed by a taxonomy of autonomous anticipation. In more complex systems, there can be semi-autonomous subsystems that can anticipate and adapt on their own. Such subsystems can be integrated into a system's overall autonomy, typically with greater efficiency due to modularity and specialization of function. However, it is also possible that semi-autonomous subsystems can act against the viability of the overall system, and have their own functions that conflict with overall system functions.

  11. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  12. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  13. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  14. Incubation of conditioned fear in the conditioned suppression model in rats: role of food-restriction conditions, length of conditioned stimulus, and generality to conditioned freezing

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Charles L.; Navarre, Brittany M.; Nair, Sunila G.

    2010-01-01

    We recently adapted the conditioned suppression of operant responding method to study fear incubation. We found that food-restricted rats show low fear 2 days after extended (10 d; 100 30-sec tone-shock pairings) fear training and high fear after 1–2 months. Here, we studied a potential mechanism of fear incubation: extended food-restriction stress. We also studied whether fear incubation is observed after fear training with a prolonged-duration (6-min) tone conditioned stimulus (CS), and whether conditioned freezing incubates after extended training in rats with or without a concurrent operant task. Conditioned fear was assessed 2 days and 1 month after training. In the conditioned suppression method, fear incubation was reliably observed in rats under moderate food-restriction conditions (18–20 g food/day) that allowed for weight gain, and after extended (10 d), but not limited (1 d), fear training with the 6-min CS. Incubation of conditioned freezing was observed after extended fear training in rats lever-pressing for food and, to a lesser degree, in rats not performing an operant task. Results indicate that prolonged hunger-related stress does not account for fear incubation in the conditioned suppression method, and that fear incubation occurs to a longer-duration (6-min) fear CS. Extended training also leads to robust fear incubation of conditioned freezing in rats performing an operant task and weaker fear incubation in rats not performing an operant task. PMID:20600654

  15. Conditional Reasoning in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Brevers, Damien; Tecco, Juan; Campanella, Salvatore; Noël, Xavier; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on all conditional reasoning tasks compared to depressives and controls. However, the social contract and precautions tasks yielded better results than the descriptive tasks. Differences between groups disappeared for social contract but remained for precautions and descriptive tasks when verbal intelligence was used as a covariate. These results suggest that domain-specific reasoning mechanisms, proposed by evolutionary psychologists, are relatively resilient in the face of brain network disruptions that impair more general reasoning abilities. Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia could encounter difficulties understanding precaution rules and social contracts in real-life situations resulting in unwise risk-taking and misunderstandings in the social world.

  16. [Working conditions of community nurses].

    PubMed

    Kułagowska, Ewa; Kosińska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the most efficient workplace health promotion it is essential to identify and monitor health conditions of employees and all components of the work process, as well as to recognize their cause-effect relationships. Community nurses form an occupational group with a specific type of workplace that is usually located in the patient's place of residence and thus not inspected in terms of safety and hygiene. The aim of the study was to identify working conditions of community nurses with special reference to occupational hazards. An anonymous questionnaire was used as a major tool of this survey. It contained 33 questions, concerning the work process, working conditions, work loads and arduousness, hazards and work-related complaints. The questionnaire was completed by 86 community nurses working in the Upper Silesia region. Community nurses generally assessed their work as hard. A more thorough analysis revealed that nursing and curative care, nursing and hygienic care and rehabilitation were regarded by community nurses as hard, whereas social diagnostics and curative diagnostics were assessed as much easier tasks. Excessive physical load, forced position at work, aggressive patients, patients' aggressive family members, dangerous domestic animals, low quality of technical devices in patients' homes were reported as the greatest hazards. The obtained results reveal that working conditions of community nurses do not ensure their safety at work.

  17. Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research was designed to investigate the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they…

  18. Thermocouple-Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Thermocouple-signal-conditioning circuit acting in conjunction with thermocouple, exhibits electrical behavior of voltage in series with resistance. Combination part of input bridge circuit of controller. Circuit configured for either of two specific applications by selection of alternative resistances and supply voltages. Includes alarm circuit detecting open circuit in thermocouple and provides off-scale output to signal malfunctions.

  19. Selective Influence through Conditional Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a generalization and improvement for the definition proposed by E. Dzhafarov (2001) for selectiveness in the dependence of several random variables on several (sets of) external factors. This generalization links the notion of selective influence with that of conditional independence. (SLD)

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  1. Conditions of Democracy: Elementary Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCompte, Karon N.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ideas helps young children articulate their own beliefs and sharpens their connections. Teachers can provide opportunities for children to advance their knowledge about democratic conditions through sustained discourse, or, as described in this article, purposeful class discussions followed by hands-on activities. The author describes…

  2. Germination Conditions For Poison Ivy

    Treesearch

    Nathan M. Schiff; Kristina F. Connor; Margaret S. Devall

    2004-01-01

    Several scarification and stratification treatments were tested to optimize germination conditions for poison ivy [Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kunst]. Fall-collected seeds soaked for 1 hour in water showed increasing germination with increasing stratification. Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid for 30 minutes resulted in approximately 65...

  3. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…

  4. Ferreting Out Terms and Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbinghouse, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems for information professionals arising from traditional copyright legislation, as well as from the proposed Uniform Commercial Code 2B on information licensing. Highlights include responsibility of information consumers; World Wide Web terms and conditions, including those of newspapers and publishers; privacy issues; database…

  5. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    PubMed

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  6. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  7. The content of compound conditioning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Andrew, Benjamin J; Livesey, Evan J

    2012-04-01

    In three experiments using Pavlovian conditioning of magazine approach, rats were trained with a compound stimulus, AB, and were concurrently trained with stimulus B on its own. The reinforcement rate of B, rB, was either 1/2, 2/3, or 2/5 of rAB. After extended training, the conditioning strength of A was assessed using probe trials in which A was presented alone. Responding during A was compared with that during AB, B, and a third stimulus, C, for which rC = rAB - rB. In each experiment, the rats' response rate during A was almost identical to that during C (and during B, when rB = 1/2rAB). This suggests that, during AB conditioning, the rats had learned about rA as being equal to [rAB - rB], and implies that the content of their learning was a linear function of r. The findings provide strong support for rate-based models of conditioning (e.g., Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000). They are also consistent with the associative account of learning defined in the Rescorla and Wagner (1972) model, but only if the learning rate during reinforcement equals that during nonreinforcement. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  9. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  10. [Working conditions in operating rooms].

    PubMed

    Kułagowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get acquainted with the opinions of the nursing staff on working conditions at their workplace. The study was carried out in a group of 398 nurses working in various kinds of operating rooms at 11 public hospitals. A questionnaire was used as a major tool of this study. The questionnaires were filled in by 259 operating room nurses (circulating nurses) and 139 nurse-anesthetists. The collected data show that working conditions in operating rooms do not ensure safety of the nursing staff at work. The main sources of problems are: work organization, technical factors, work equipment, work space, knowledge of hazards and strenuous factors among nurses, ways of preventing and/or limiting them. These elements are serious occupational risk factors influencing the work process and health status of nurses.

  11. Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard-Olsen, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a statistical model called logistic regression. This approach is illustrated by the development of a model for the conditional inference task using Spohn's (2013) ranking theoretic approach to conditionals. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Condition assessment of nonlinear processes

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.

  13. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  14. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Lawon, Michael J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consistedmore » of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .« less

  15. Monitoring Thermal Conditions in Footwear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Moreno, Alejandra. A.; Lopez Vela, Martín; Alcalá Ochoa, Noe

    2006-09-01

    Thermal conditions inside the foot were evaluated on a volunteer subject. We have designed and constructed an electronic system which can monitors temperature and humidity of the foot inside the shoe. The data is stored in a battery-powered device for later uploading to a host computer for data analysis. The apparatus potentially can be used to provide feedback to patients who are prone to having skin breakdowns.

  16. Condition Assessment Methodology for Spillways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    G. R., and V. H. Torrey III. 1995. Function-based condition indexing for embankment dams. J. Geotech . Engrg. ASCE, 121(8):579–588. Andersen, G.R...L. E. Chouinard, W. H. Hover, and C. W. Cox. 2001a. Risk indexing tool to assist in prioritizing improvements to embankment dams, J. Geotech . and...according to physical deficiencies. J. Geotech . and Geoenvir. Engrg., ASCE, 127(4):335–345. Chouinard, L. E., J. G. Robichaud, G. Blanchette, and R

  17. Standard Terms and Conditions | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    and Technical Services Subcontracts, Cost-Type (1) Cost Sharing (2) Cost Reimbursement (3) Cost Plus Than Foreign) (1) Cost Sharing (2) Cost Reimbursement (2) Cost Plus Fixed Fee. Appendix B-10 (12/15/16 /15/16) Standard Terms and Conditions for Travel Requirements (1) Cost Sharing (2) Cost Reimbursement

  18. OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-15

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 14 -1 2 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model...Fulton, Natalie Myers, Scott Tweddale, Dick Gebhart, Ryan Busby, Anne Dain-Owens, and Heidi Howard August 2014 OPAL team measuring above and...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) ERDC/CERL TR-14-12

  19. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

  20. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  1. Lightning injuries during snowy conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cherington, M.; Breed, D. W.; Yarnell, P. R.; Smith, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    Skiers and other snow sports enthusiasts can become lightning casualties. Two such accidents are reported, one being fatal. There are fewer warning signals of impending lightning strikes in winter-like conditions. However, outdoor activists should be aware of at least two suspicious clues: the appearance of convective clouds, and the presence of graupel (snow pellets) during precipitation. 




 PMID:9865407

  2. A dangerous seaplane landing condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas

    1928-01-01

    A peculiar phenomena in seaplane landing is observed and reported. The seaplane having executed a normal fast landing at low incidence, a forward movement of the control stick effected an unusual condition in that the seaplane left the water suddenly in an abnormal attitude. The observations describing this phenomena are offered as a warning against possible accident and as a conjectural cause of seaplane landing accidents of a certain kind.

  3. Inbreeding, energy use and condition.

    PubMed

    Ketola, T; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-04-01

    In energetic terms, fitness may be seen to be dependent on successful allocation of energy between life-history traits. In addition, fitness will be constrained by the energy allocation ability, which has also been defined as condition. We suggest here that the allocation ability, estimated as the difference between total energy budget and maintenance metabolism, may be used as a measure of condition. We studied this possibility by measuring the resting metabolic rate and metabolism during forced exercise in Gryllodes sigillatus crickets. To verify that these metabolic traits are closely related to fitness, we experimentally manipulated the degree of inbreeding of individuals belonging to the same pedigree, hence enabling analysis of both inbreeding depression and heritability of traits. We found that inbreeding increased maintenance metabolism, whereas total energy budget was rather insensitive to inbreeding. Despite this, inbreeding led to decreased allocation ability. Overall, metabolic traits exhibited strong inbreeding depression and rather low heritabilities, a pattern that is typical of traits under strong selection. However, traditionally used condition indices were not affected by inbreeding and did not covary with metabolic traits. Moreover, in contrast to the common, but largely untested, tenet, it seems that high resting metabolic rate is indicative of low rather than high quality.

  4. Congenital hydronephrosis: disease or condition?

    PubMed

    Petrovski, Mile; Simeonov, Risto; Todorovikj, Lazar; Chadikovski, Vladimir; Memeti, Shaban; Petrovska, Branka; Risteski, Toni; Cvetanovska, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address the dilemmas of the paediatric surgeon when facing an isolated, unilateral, congenital hydronephrosis and discuss the strategic options for the management of this condition. Congenital hydronephrosis, the most commonly diagnosed uropathy in children, is usually a benign and self-resolving condition. Nonobstructive hydronephrosis does not require operative treatment, while timely treatment is imperative for obstructive hydronephrosis before significant renal damage ensues. Managing congenital hydronephrosis is a challenging task. Thirty-two children with unilateral, isolated hydronephrosis and nonobstructed renography curves were followed up for 3 years. On the initial evaluation according to the grade of hydronephrosis: 22.6% were grade I, 54.8% grade II and 22.6% grade III. After 12 months of follow-up: 30% were grade I, 51 .5% grade II and 18.5% grade III, respectively. After the three-year follow-up, there were no hydroneproses greater than grade II. The mean value of the separate GFR of the affected kidney at initial evaluation was 42.83%, and 40.33% after three years. In three children the treatment was converted from conservative to surgical. Nonobstructive, congenital hydronephrosis is a benign condition not requiring any medical treatment, but aggressive observation is indicated.

  5. Incubation of conditioned fear in the conditioned suppression model in rats: role of food-restriction conditions, length of conditioned stimulus, and generality to conditioned freezing.

    PubMed

    Pickens, C L; Navarre, B M; Nair, S G

    2010-09-15

    We recently adapted the conditioned suppression of operant responding method to study fear incubation. We found that food-restricted rats show low fear 2 days after extended (10 d; 100 30-s tone-shock pairings) fear training and high fear after 1-2 months. Here, we studied a potential mechanism of fear incubation: extended food-restriction stress. We also studied whether fear incubation is observed after fear training with a prolonged-duration (6-min) tone conditioned stimulus (CS), and whether conditioned freezing incubates after extended training in rats with or without a concurrent operant task. Conditioned fear was assessed 2 days and 1 month after training. In the conditioned suppression method, fear incubation was reliably observed in rats under moderate food-restriction conditions (18-20 g food/day) that allowed for weight gain, and after extended (10 d), but not limited (1 d), fear training with the 6-min CS. Incubation of conditioned freezing was observed after extended fear training in rats lever-pressing for food and, to a lesser degree, in rats not performing an operant task. Results indicate that prolonged hunger-related stress does not account for fear incubation in the conditioned suppression method, and that fear incubation occurs to a longer-duration (6-min) fear CS. Extended training also leads to robust fear incubation of conditioned freezing in rats performing an operant task and weaker fear incubation in rats not performing an operant task. (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Mathematical modeling for conditionality of cardiovascular disease by housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A

    2014-01-01

    There was studied the influence of living conditions (housing area per capita, availability of housing water supply, sewerage and central heating) on the morbidity of the cardiovascular diseases in child and adult population. With the method of regression analysis the morbidity rate was established to significantly decrease with the increase in the area of housing, constructed models are statistically significant, respectively, p = 0.01 and p = 0.02. There was revealed the relationship of the morbidity rate of cardiovascular diseases in children and adults with the supply with housing central heating (p = 0.02 and p = 0.009).

  7. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that antioxidation mechanisms contribute to cold tolerance in plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-12-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by proteomic analysis.

  8. First-principles study of band gap engineering via oxygen vacancy doping in perovskite ABB'O₃ solid solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, Tingting; Curnan, Matthew T.; Kim, Seungchul; ...

    2011-12-15

    Oxygen vacancies in perovskite oxide solid solutions are fundamentally interesting and technologically important. However, experimental characterization of the vacancy locations and their impact on electronic structure is challenging. We have carried out first-principles calculations on two Zr-modified solid solutions, Pb(Zn 1/3Nb 2/3)O₃ and Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O₃, in which vacancies are present. We find that the vacancies are more likely to reside between low-valent cation-cation pairs than high-valent cation-cation pairs. Based on the analysis of our results, we formulate guidelines that can be used to predict the location of oxygen vacancies in perovskite solid solutions. Our results show that vacancies canmore » have a significant impact on both the conduction and valence band energies, in some cases lowering the band gap by ≈0.5 eV. The effects of vacancies on the electronic band structure can be understood within the framework of crystal field theory.« less

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals that Antioxidation Mechanisms Contribute to Cold Tolerance in Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) Seedlings*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A.; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by proteomic analysis. PMID:22982374

  10. 78 FR 52974 - Gamesa Technology Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From A & A Wind Pros Inc., ABB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Power Blades (ND) Inc., Matrix Service Industrial Contract, Mistras Group, Onion ICS LLC, Power Climber Wind, Rope Partner, Inc., Run Energy LP, SERENA USA, Inc., Spherion ``The Mergis Group,'' System One Up... facility on Spain and ``increased blade outsourcing of 65%.'' The attachment to the request included a...

  11. Chromatic X-ray magnifying method and apparatus by Bragg reflective planes on the surface of Abbe sphere

    DOEpatents

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing sharp, chromatic, magnified images of X-ray emitting objects, are provided. The apparatus, which constitutes an X-ray microscope or telescope, comprises a connected collection of Bragg reflecting planes, comprised of either a bent crystal or a synthetic multilayer structure, disposed on and adjacent to a locus determined by a spherical surface. The individual Bragg planes are spatially oriented to Bragg reflect radiation from the object location toward the image location. This is accomplished by making the Bragg planes spatially coincident with the surfaces of either a nested series of prolate ellipsoids of revolution, or a nested series of spheres. The spacing between the Bragg reflecting planes can be tailored to control the wavelengths and the amount of the X-radiation that is Bragg reflected to form the X-ray image.

  12. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  13. Saddlepoint Approximations in Conditional Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-11

    Then the inverse transform can be written as (%, Y) = (T, q(T, Z)) for some function q. When the transform is not one to one, the domain should be...general regularity conditions described at the beginning of this section hold and that the solution t1 in (9) exists. Denote the inverse transform by (X, Y...density hn(t 0 l z) are desired. Then the inverse transform (Y, ) = (T, q(T, Z)) exists and the variable v in the cumulant generating function K(u, v

  14. Conditions for successful data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzfeld, M.; Chorin, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many applications in science and engineering require that the predictions of uncertain models be updated by information from a stream of noisy data. The model and the data jointly define a conditional probability density function (pdf), which contains all the information one has about the process of interest and various numerical methods can be used to study and approximate this pdf, e.g. the Kalman filter, variational methods or particle filters. Given a model and data, each of these algorithms will produce a result. We are interested in the conditions under which this result is reasonable, i.e. consistent with the real-life situation one is modeling. In particular, we show, using idealized models, that numerical data assimilation is feasible in principle only if a suitably defined effective dimension of the problem is not excessive. This effective dimension depends on the noise in the model and the data, and in physically reasonable problems it can be moderate even when the number of variables is huge. In particular, we find that the effective dimension being moderate induces a balance condition between the noises in the model and the data; this balance condition is often satisfied in realistic applications or else the noise levels are excessive and drown the underlying signal. We also study the effects of the effective dimension on particle filters in two instances, one in which the importance function is based on the model alone, and one in which it is based on both the model and the data. We have three main conclusions: (1) the stability (i.e., non-collapse of weights) in particle filtering depends on the effective dimension of the problem. Particle filters can work well if the effective dimension is moderate even if the true dimension is large (which we expect to happen often in practice). (2) A suitable choice of importance function is essential, or else particle filtering fails even when data assimilation is feasible in principle with a sequential algorithm

  15. The acquisition of conditioned responding.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the acquisition of conditioned responses in rats trained in a magazine approach paradigm. Following the suggestion by Gallistel, Fairhurst, and Balsam (2004), Weibull functions were fitted to the trial-by-trial response rates of individual rats. These showed that the emergence of responding was often delayed, after which the response rate would increase relatively gradually across trials. The fit of the Weibull function to the behavioral data of each rat was equaled by that of a cumulative exponential function incorporating a response threshold. Thus, the growth in conditioning strength on each trial can be modeled by the derivative of the exponential--a difference term of the form used in many models of associative learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972). Further analyses, comparing the acquisition of responding with a continuously reinforced stimulus (CRf) and a partially reinforced stimulus (PRf), provided further evidence in support of the difference term. In conclusion, the results are consistent with conventional models that describe learning as the growth of associative strength, incremented on each trial by an error-correction process.

  16. A Ranking-Theoretic Approach to Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief,…

  17. Firing system modification to alter ash properties for reduction of deposition and slagging under low NOx firing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.; Lewis, R.; Tobiasz, R.

    1998-07-01

    The composition and properties of ash formed during coal firing have a major impact on boiler performance. Higher ash content in the coal can mean higher costs associated with coal handling, transportation, ash removal and ash disposal along with higher costs due to the increased ash content's deleterious effects on pulverizing, combustion and heat transfer. ABB C-E Services, Inc. has conducted research what might be done to minimize the adverse effects of ash on boiler performance for many years. Recently, ABB C-E Services has studied the effects of firing system modifications on ash composition and properties and the effect thesemore » firing system modifications have on overall furnace performance. The subject of this paper is the impact of the installation of the CFS{trademark} yaw angles were varied and particle samples were collected at the waterwalls for the different yaw angles tested. These ash samples were analyzed for ash composition. The results showed that with a larger CFS{trademark} yaw angle (the air stream directed more towards the boiler walls) the base/acid ratio, iron content and sulfur content of the particle samples collected at the waterwall were reduced. This effect is due to several contributing factors: (1) an oxidizing environment produced by injecting more air toward the walls; and (2) an aerodynamic change which impacts the particle combustion time/temperature history.« less

  18. Firing system modification to alter ash properties for reduction of deposition and slagging under low NOx firing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.; Lewis, R.; Tobiasz, R.

    1998-12-31

    The composition and properties of ash formed during coal firing have a major impact on boiler performance. Higher ash content in the coal can mean higher costs associated with coal handling, transportation, ash removal and ash disposal along with higher costs due to the increased ash content`s deleterious effects on pulverizing, combustion and heat transfer. ABB C-E Services, Inc. has conducted research for many years on what might be done to minimize the adverse effects of ash on boiler performance. Recently, ABB C-E Services has studied the effects of firing system modifications on ash composition and properties and the effectmore » these firing system modifications have on overall furnace performance. The subject of this paper is the impact of the installation of the CFS Concentric Firing System on the propensity for boiler wall ash deposition. For this study, CFS yaw angles were varied and particle samples were collected at the waterwalls for the different yaw angles tested. These ash samples were analyzed for ash composition. The results showed that with a larger CFS yaw angle (the air stream directed more towards the boiler walls) the base/acid ratio, iron content and sulfur content of the particle samples collected at the waterwall were reduced. This effect is due to several contributing factors: (1) an oxidizing environment produced by injecting more air toward the walls; and (2) an aerodynamic change which impacts the particle combustion time/temperature history.« less

  19. Pavement condition survey guide for city streets

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-06-01

    The Pavement Condition Survey Guide for City Streets was developed to provide an easy, consistent means of assessing city street pavement conditions, both within a community and statewide. The guide includes an easy-to-use subjective condition rating...

  20. Boundary Condition for Modeling Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Oyafuso, Fabiano; von Allmen, Paul; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    A recently proposed boundary condition for atomistic computational modeling of semiconductor nanostructures (particularly, quantum dots) is an improved alternative to two prior such boundary conditions. As explained, this boundary condition helps to reduce the amount of computation while maintaining accuracy.

  1. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  2. 14 CFR 25.349 - Rolling conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(b): (1) Conditions corresponding to steady rolling velocities must be investigated. In addition, conditions corresponding to maximum angular acceleration must be investigated for airplanes with engines or other weight concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the angular acceleration conditions, zero...

  3. 14 CFR 25.349 - Rolling conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(b): (1) Conditions corresponding to steady rolling velocities must be investigated. In addition, conditions corresponding to maximum angular acceleration must be investigated for airplanes with engines or other weight concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the angular acceleration conditions, zero...

  4. 14 CFR 25.349 - Rolling conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(b): (1) Conditions corresponding to steady rolling velocities must be investigated. In addition, conditions corresponding to maximum angular acceleration must be investigated for airplanes with engines or other weight concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the angular acceleration conditions, zero...

  5. 14 CFR 25.349 - Rolling conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(b): (1) Conditions corresponding to steady rolling velocities must be investigated. In addition, conditions corresponding to maximum angular acceleration must be investigated for airplanes with engines or other weight concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the angular acceleration conditions, zero...

  6. Uncertain deduction and conditional reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.; Over, David E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of deductive reasoning. Many researchers no longer think it is appropriate to ask people to assume premises and decide what necessarily follows, with the results evaluated by binary extensional logic. Most every day and scientific inference is made from more or less confidently held beliefs and not assumptions, and the relevant normative standard is Bayesian probability theory. We argue that the study of “uncertain deduction” should directly ask people to assign probabilities to both premises and conclusions, and report an experiment using this method. We assess this reasoning by two Bayesian metrics: probabilistic validity and coherence according to probability theory. On both measures, participants perform above chance in conditional reasoning, but they do much better when statements are grouped as inferences, rather than evaluated in separate tasks. PMID:25904888

  7. Uncertain deduction and conditional reasoning.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Thompson, Valerie A; Over, David E

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of deductive reasoning. Many researchers no longer think it is appropriate to ask people to assume premises and decide what necessarily follows, with the results evaluated by binary extensional logic. Most every day and scientific inference is made from more or less confidently held beliefs and not assumptions, and the relevant normative standard is Bayesian probability theory. We argue that the study of "uncertain deduction" should directly ask people to assign probabilities to both premises and conclusions, and report an experiment using this method. We assess this reasoning by two Bayesian metrics: probabilistic validity and coherence according to probability theory. On both measures, participants perform above chance in conditional reasoning, but they do much better when statements are grouped as inferences, rather than evaluated in separate tasks.

  8. Physical conditions in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Neal J., II

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments have complicated the picture of the physical conditions in molecular clouds. The discoveries of widespread emission from high-J lines of CD and 12-micron IRAS emission have revealed the presence of considerably hotter gas and dust near the surfaces of molecular clouds. These components can complicate interpretation of the bulk of the cloud gas. Commonly assumed relations between column density or mean density and cloud size are called into question by conflicting results and by consideration of selection effects. Analysis of density and density structure through molecular excitation has shown that very high densities exist in star formation regions, but unresolved structure and possible chemical effects complicate the interpretation. High resolution far-IR and submillimeter observations offer a complementary approach and are beginning to test theoretical predictions of density gradients in clouds.

  9. Wall conditioning in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, V.; Dux, R.; Kallenbach, A.; Krieger, K.; Neu, R.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2007-06-01

    An overview on wall conditioning in ASDEX Upgrade is presented. Helium glow discharges (HeGD) are needed mostly for plasma start up after high density discharges, disruptions and disruption mitigation gas puffs. Boronisation is routinely applied. The reduction of the oxygen content is a minor effect. Strong variation of the wall pumping is observed for tungsten first wall materials. The uncoated tungsten surface stores and releases large amounts of He, which can disturb the plasma. The released He causes the modification in the wall pumping. By reducing HeGD this effect could be minimized. Advanced and natural density scenarios are sensitive to the status of the wall coating. Accumulation of impurities at the pedestal influences the ELM frequency and finally causes radiation unstable discharges.

  10. Centaur Propellant Thermal Conditioning Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Pleasant, R. L.; Erickson, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A wicking investigation revealed that passive thermal conditioning was feasible and provided considerable weight advantage over active systems using throttled vent fluid in a Centaur D-1s launch vehicle. Experimental wicking correlations were obtained using empirical revisions to the analytical flow model. Thermal subcoolers were evaluated parametrically as a function of tank pressure and NPSP. Results showed that the RL10 category I engine was the best candidate for boost pump replacement and the option showing the lowest weight penalty employed passively cooled acquisition devices, thermal subcoolers, dry ducts between burns and pumping of subcooler coolant back into the tank. A mixing correlation was identified for sizing the thermodynamic vent system mixer. Worst case mixing requirements were determined by surveying Centaur D-1T, D-1S, IUS, and space tug vehicles. Vent system sizing was based upon worst case requirements. Thermodynamic vent system/mixer weights were determined for each vehicle.

  11. Conditional dynamics driving financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguñá, M.; Masoliver, J.

    2004-08-01

    We revisit the problem of daily correlations in speculative prices and report empirical evidences on the existence of what we term a conditional or dual dynamics driving the evolution of financial assets. This dynamics is detected in several markets around the world and for different historical periods. In particular, we have analyzed the DJIA database from 1900 to 2002 as well as 65 companies trading in the LIFFE market of futures and 12 of the major European and American treasury bonds. In all cases, we find a twofold dynamics driving the financial evolution depending on whether the previous price went up or down. We conjecture that this effect is universal and intrinsic to all markets.

  12. Azerbaijan: environmental conditions and outlook.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Napier

    2003-06-01

    The author describes present environmental conditions in Azerbaijan in relation to the Soviet legacy and measures taken since independence. Environmental projects have been financed largely by international organizations and foreign companies. The most serious problems are contaminants in the Caspian Sea; air, water, and soil pollution in Sumgait; illegal fishing; poor quality of drinking water; cutting of forests for fuel and pasture; overgrazing; and soil erosion and salinization. Progress in developing an environmental conscience, necessary for sustained protection of the environment, will depend most importantly on environmental education, growth of democratic institutions and attitudes that encourage both governmental and citizen responsibility for the environment, and economic development that produces a substantial middle class. Positive advances include a Constitution and laws that require protection of the environment, and individuals who speak out for environmental care. Negative factors include poverty and the present government's low priority for environmental protection.

  13. Bare Quantum Null Energy Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2018-02-01

    The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured relation between a null version of quantum field theory energy and derivatives of quantum field theory von Neumann entropy. In some cases, divergences cancel between these two terms and the QNEC is intrinsically finite. We study the more general case here where they do not and argue that a QNEC can still hold for bare (unrenormalized) quantities. While the original QNEC applied only to locally stationary null congruences in backgrounds that solve semiclassical theories of quantum gravity, at least in the formal perturbation theory at a small Planck length, the quantum focusing conjecture can be viewed as the special case of our bare QNEC for which the metric is on shell.

  14. Macroeconomic conditions and opioid abuse.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Alex; Ruhm, Christopher J; Simon, Kosali

    2017-12-01

    We examine how deaths and emergency department (ED) visits related to use of opioid analgesics (opioids) and other drugs vary with macroeconomic conditions. As the county unemployment rate increases by one percentage point, the opioid death rate per 100,000 rises by 0.19 (3.6%) and the opioid overdose ED visit rate per 100,000 increases by 0.95 (7.0%). Macroeconomic shocks also increase the overall drug death rate, but this increase is driven by rising opioid deaths. Our findings hold when performing a state-level analysis, rather than county-level; are primarily driven by adverse events among whites; and are stable across time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bare Quantum Null Energy Condition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2018-02-16

    The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured relation between a null version of quantum field theory energy and derivatives of quantum field theory von Neumann entropy. In some cases, divergences cancel between these two terms and the QNEC is intrinsically finite. We study the more general case here where they do not and argue that a QNEC can still hold for bare (unrenormalized) quantities. While the original QNEC applied only to locally stationary null congruences in backgrounds that solve semiclassical theories of quantum gravity, at least in the formal perturbation theory at a small Planck length, the quantum focusing conjecture can be viewed as the special case of our bare QNEC for which the metric is on shell.

  16. Ocean climate and seal condition.

    PubMed

    Le Boeuf, Burney J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2005-03-28

    The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  17. Personalized Support for Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    D’Antrassi, Pierluigi; Ajčević, Miloš; Stellato, Kira; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Marceglia, Sara; Accardo, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Solutions for improving management of chronic conditions are under the attention of healthcare systems, due to the increasing prevalence caused by demographic change and better survival, and the relevant impact on healthcare expenditures. The objective of this study was to propose a comprehensive architecture of a mHealth system aimed at boosting the active and informed participation of patients in their care process, while at the same time overcoming the current technical and psychological/clinical issues highlighted by the existing literature. Methods After having studied the current challenges outlined in the literature, both in terms of technological and human requirements, we focused our attention on some specific psychological aspects with a view to providing patients with a comprehensive and personalized solution. Our approach has been reinforced through the results of a preliminary assessment we conducted on 22 patients with chronic conditions. The main goal of such an assessment was to provide a preliminary understanding of their needs in a real context, both in terms of self-awareness and of their predisposition toward the use of IT solutions. Results According to the specific needs and features, such as mindfulness and gamification, which were identified through the literature and the preliminary assessment, we designed a comprehensive open architecture able to provide a tailor-made solution linked to specific individuals’ needs. Conclusion The present study represents the preliminary step towards the development of a solution aimed at enhancing patients’ actual perception and encouraging self-management and self-awareness for a better lifestyle. Future work regards further identification of pathology-related needs and requirements through focus groups including all stakeholders in order to describe the architecture and functionality in greater detail. PMID:27452661

  18. Optimising Extinction of Conditioned Disgust.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Renske C; Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Maladaptive disgust responses are tenacious and resistant to exposure-based interventions. In a similar vein, laboratory studies have shown that conditioned disgust is relatively insensitive to Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-only extinction procedures. The relatively strong resistance to extinction might be explained by disgust's adaptive function to motivate avoidance from contamination threats (pathogens) that cannot be readily detected and are invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, the mere visual presentation of unreinforced disgust eliciting stimuli might not be sufficient to correct a previously acquired threat value of the CS+. Following this, the current study tested whether the efficacy of CS-only exposure can be improved by providing additional safety information about the CS+. For the CSs we included two neutral items a pea soup and a sausage roll, whereas for the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) we used one video clip of a woman vomiting and a neutral one about glass blowing. The additional safety information was conveyed by allowing actual contact with the CS+ or by observing an actress eating the food items representing the CS+. When additional safety information was provided via allowing direct contact with the CS+, there was a relatively strong post-extinction increase in participants' willingness-to-eat the CS+. This beneficial effect was still evident at one-week follow up. Also self-reported disgust was lower at one-week follow up when additional safety information was provided. The current findings help explain why disgust is relatively insensitive to CS-only extinction procedures, and provide helpful starting points to improve interventions that are aimed to reduce distress in disgust-related psychopathology.

  19. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hotmore » Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.« less

  20. Signal-Conditioning Amplifier Recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John

    2003-01-01

    Signal-conditioning amplifier recorders (SCAmpRs) have been proposed as a means of simplifying and upgrading the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Measurement System (GMS), which is a versatile data-acquisition system that gathers and records a variety of measurement data before and during the launch of a space shuttle. In the present version of the GMS system, signal conditioning amplifiers digitize and transmit data to a VME chassis that multiplexes up to 416 channels. The data is transmitted via a high-speed data bus to a second VME chassis where it is available for snapshots. The data is passed from the second VME chassis to a high-speed data recorder. This process is duplicated for installations at two launch pads and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Since any failure of equipment in the data path results in loss of data, much of the system is redundant. The architecture of the existing GMS limits expansion or any modification to the system to meet changing requirements because of the cost and time required. A SCAmpR-based system is much more flexible. The basis of the simplification, flexibility, and reliability is the shifting of the recording function to the individual amplifier channels. Each SCAmpR is a self-contained single channel data acquisition system, which in its current implementation, has a data storage capacity of up to 30 minutes when operating at the fastest data sampling rates. The SCAmpR channels are self-configuring and self-calibrating. Multiple SCAmpR channels are ganged on printed circuit boards and mounted in a chassis that provides power, a network hub, and Inter-Range Instrument Group (IRIG) time signals. The SCAmpR channels share nothing except physical mounting on a circuit board. All circuitry is electrically separate for each channel. All that is necessary to complete the data acquisition system is a single master computer tied to the SCAmpR channels by standard network equipment. The size of the data acquisition system