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Sample records for abbe sine condition

  1. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  2. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  3. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  4. 76 FR 8785 - ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...--Resident Farmer Thorium and Radium. August 2010. ML102310548. 5. ABB, Inc. Decommissioning Plan Revision 2.... ABB, Inc. Derivation of the Site Specific Soil DCGLs, Addendum, Soil DCGLs for thorium and...

  5. ABB`s LEBS activities -- A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Hein, R.J. von; Peletz, L.J. Jr.; Wesnor, J.D.; Bender, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. is one of three contractors executing Phases 1, 2 and 3 of the Department of Energy project entitled Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems (LEBS). Phase 1 has been completed and Phase 2 is scheduled for completion on September 30, 1996. The following major activities are being carried out in parallel in Phase 2 and this paper is a status report on this work: (1) in-furnace NOx reduction; (2) catalytic filter optimization; (3) add Kalina cycle to POCTF; and (4) POCTF design and licensing. The in-furnace NOx reduction work has been completed and, therefore, a description of this work comprises the major part of this paper.

  6. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  7. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: from the sine qua non condition of bone exposure to a non-exposed BRONJ entity.

    PubMed

    Koth, Valesca Sander; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen

    The present work aimed to review the literature focusing on the diagnostic criteria for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and its implications regarding the management of the disease. Since the report of the first cases, BRONJ concepts, diagnostic criteria and guidelines have been changed. The presence of bone exposure in the oral cavity was at first a sine qua non condition for diagnosis. However, it seems that the great concern now is the possibility of occurrence of BRONJ without this feature. Some authors warn that the bone exposure criterion leads to late diagnosis and poor response to treatment. Meanwhile, some radiographic features, such as bone sclerosis, have been postulated as early signs of the disease. Criticisms have also been raised about the clinical staging system of BRONJ. While there is no consensus on the subject, common sense recommends treating symptomatic patients taking bisphosphonate as having BRONJ despite the absence of bone exposure; and asymptomatic patients must be kept under dental follow-up, since all of them are at risk for BRONJ.

  8. Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption.

    PubMed

    Dover, J S; Hawk, J L

    1988-01-01

    We describe seven patients, four female and three male, who developed intense pruritus on sun-exposed skin without visible change. The clinical features resembled those of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) without rash. Four patients also occasionally developed typical PLE upon sun exposure, but sun-induced pruritus alone occurred most frequently. No patient was taking any drug therapy. One patient developed similar pruritus following solar simulated irradiation, and one following PUVA therapy. All other laboratory investigations were negative. Treatment with low dose UVB phototherapy or PUVA therapy was effective. The condition, which we have called polymorphic light eruption sine eruptione (PLESE), appears to be a variant of PLE not previously reported.

  9. Squared sine logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, R. Egydio; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-12-01

    A periodic time perturbation is introduced in the logistic map as an attempt to investigate new scenarios of bifurcations and new mechanisms toward the chaos. With a squared sine perturbation we observe that a point attractor reaches the chaotic attractor without following a cascade of bifurcations. One fixed point of the system presents a new scenario of bifurcations through an infinite sequence of alternating changes of stability. At the bifurcations, the perturbation does not modify the scaling features observed in the convergence toward the stationary state.

  10. The sine wave protocol: decrease movement time without increasing errors.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jason B; Kennedy, Deanna M; Wang, Chaoyi; Shea, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Practice tracking a sine wave template has been shown (J. B. Boyle, D. Kennedy, & C. H. Shea, 2012) to greatly enhance performance on a difficult Fitts task of the same amplitude. The purpose of the experiment was to replicate this finding and determine whether enhancements related to the sine wave practice are specific to the amplitude experienced during the sine wave practice. Following sine wave or Fitts task practice with amplitudes of 16° or 24°, participants were tested under the conditions they had practiced under (Test 1) and then all groups were tested under Fitts task conditions (Test 2; ID = 6, amplitude = 16°). Participants who practiced with the sine wave templates were able to move faster on Test 2 where a 16° amplitude Fitts task was used than participants that had practiced either the 16° or 24° amplitude Fitts tasks. The movements produced by the sine groups on Test 2 were not only faster than the movements of the Fitts groups on Test 2, but dwell time was lower with percent time to peak velocity and harmonicity higher for the Sine groups than for the Fitts groups. The decreased movement times for the sine groups on Test 2 were accomplished with hits or endpoint variability similar to that of the Fitts group.

  11. Effect of Impact Damage on the Fatigue Response of TiAl Alloy-ABB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Nazmy, M. Y.; Staubli, M.; Clemens, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gamma-TiAl to withstand potential foreign or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma-TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. In the present study, the impact resistance of TiAl alloy ABB-2 was determined and compared to the impact resistance of Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr. Specimens were impacted with four different impact conditions with impact energies ranging from 0.22 to 6.09 J. After impacting, the impact damage was characterized by crack lengths on both the front and backside of the impact. Due to the flat nature of gamma-TiAl's S-N (stress vs. cycles to failure) curve, step fatigue tests were used to determine the fatigue strength after impacting. Impact damage increased with increasing impact energy and led to a reduction in the fatigue strength of the alloy. For similar crack lengths, the fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 was similar to the fatigue strength of impacted Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, even though the tensile properties of the two alloys are significantly different. Similar to Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, ABB-2 showed a classical mean stress dependence on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 could be accurately predicted using a threshold analysis.

  12. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3′ tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  13. MyrSINEs: a novel SINE family in the anteater genomes.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Kuno, Shuichi; Nikaido, Masato; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Recent rapid generation of genomic sequence data has allowed many researchers to perform comparative analyses in various mammalian species. However, characterization of transposable elements, such as short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), has not been reported for several mammalian groups. Because SINEs occupy a large portion of the mammalian genome, they are believed to have contributed to the constitution and diversification of the host genomes during evolution. In the present study, we characterized a novel SINE family in the anteater genomes and designated it the MyrSINE family. Typical SINEs consist of a tRNA-related, a tRNA-unrelated and an AT-rich (or poly-A) region. MyrSINEs have only tRNA-related and poly-A regions; they are included in a group called t-SINE. The tRNA-related regions of the MyrSINEs were found to be derived from tRNA(Gly). We demonstrate that the MyrSINE family can be classified into three subfamilies. Two of the MyrSINE subfamilies are distributed in the genomes of both giant anteater and tamandua, while the other is present only in the giant anteater. We discuss the evolutionary history of MyrSINEs and their relationship to the evolution of anteaters. We also speculate that the simple structure of t-SINEs may be a potential evolutionary source for the generation of the typical SINE structure.

  14. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  15. AUDITORY-PHONETIC PROJECTION AND LEXICAL STRUCTURE IN THE RECOGNITION OF SINE-WAVE WORDS

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2010-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, though signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy/hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: 1) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; 2) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and 3) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:20865138

  16. Six years of ABB-CE, petcoke and fluid beds

    SciTech Connect

    Tanca, M.

    1994-12-31

    Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) has constructed twenty circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers and 2 bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers throughout North America. The units were designed to fire a wide range of fuels from anthracite culm to coals, lignites and biomasses. Based on fuels economics, some plants have decided to use petroleum coke as a replacement or supplemental fuel. The fluid bed boiler can inherently handle a wide range of fuel types without requiring modification or down-rating. ABB-CE units have a significant amount of petroleum coke operating experience firing 100% petroleum coke with no supplemental fuel ranging from the first commercial CFB unit at New Brunswick Power to the largest CFB unit at Texas New Mexico Power. Petroleum coke is also being co-fired with anthracite culm at the Scott Paper CFB. The world`s largest operating BFB, the 160 MWe unit at TVA`s Shawnee plant, has also been co-firing petroleum coke. The ability of the fluidized bed technology to fire low volatile fuels such as petroleum cokes, efficiently and in an environmentally acceptable manner will result in the use of this technology as a preferred means of power generation. This report gives a brief description of the petroleum coke firing experiences with ABB-CE fluid bed steam generators over the last six years.

  17. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution.

  18. Calculating the Weather: Deductive Reasoning and Disciplinary "Telos" in Cleveland Abbe's Rhetorical Transformation of Meteorology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdik, Zoltan P.; Platt, Carrie Anne; Meister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetorical basis of a major paradigm change in meteorology, from a focus on inductive observation to deductive, mathematical reasoning. Analysis of Cleveland Abbe's "The Physical Basis of Long-Range Weather Forecasts" demonstrates how in his advocacy for a new paradigm, Abbe navigates the tension between piety to tradition…

  19. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, W.T.; Maluf, R.V.; Sousa, L.J.S.; Almeida, C.A.S.

    2016-01-15

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a localized state to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changed allowing the existence of massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.

  20. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  1. Electro-mechanical sine/cosine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagge, B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    An electromechanical device for generating both sine and cosine functions is described. A motor rotates a cylinder about an axis parallel to and a slight distance from the central axis of the cylinder. Two noncontacting displacement sensing devices are placed ninety degrees apart, equal distances from the axis of rotation of the cylinder and short distances above the surface of cylinder. Each of these sensing devices produces an electrical signal proportional to the distance that it is away from the cylinder. Consequently, as the cylinder is rotated the outputs from the two sensing devices are the sine and cosine functions.

  2. Carnivore-Specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): Distribution, Evolution, and Genomic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Diana L.E.; Allard, Marc W.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics. PMID:21846743

  3. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    PubMed

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  4. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  5. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  6. Commuting Flows and Infinite-Dimensional Tori: Sine-Gordon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The present work concerns the periodic sine-Gordon equation. We explain why the complete set of conserved functionals for sine-Gordon is an infinite-dimensional torus; the periodic sine-Gordon solution is almost periodic in time on an infinite-dimensional torus.

  7. Versatility of Abbe-Estlander Flap in Lip Reconstruction – A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Premlatha M; Bhambar, Rohan Suhas; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Redddy; Kumar, Ram Mohan; Kumar, Harsh

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Objectives: Aim of this study was to evaluate the versatility of Abbe-Estlander flap in lip reconstruction with regard to function and aesthetic outcome and objectives were to present our experience and result in series of 10 cases of lip reconstruction by Abbe-Estlander flap. Materials and Methods: A total number of 10 patients were taken up in the study, age ranging from 35-71 y, mean age being 60. Out of 10 patients, 6 (60%) were male and 4 (40%) female. In all these patients, Abbe-Estlander flap that involved the commissure was used for reconstruction. Patients were recalled at intervals of three weeks, three months and six months for follow up. Results: All patients had satisfactory results in terms of aesthetic and functional outcome. Conclusion: Abbe-Estlander flap is safe and a reliable flap which is technically simple to perform, and provides functionally and aesthetically pleasing result and affords versatility in flap design. PMID:25478393

  8. Elimination of Abbe error method of large-scale laser comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianshuang; Zhang, Manshan; He, Mingzhao; Miao, Dongjing; Deng, Xiangrui; Li, Lianfu

    2015-02-01

    Abbe error is the inherent systematic error in all large-scale laser comparators because the standard laser axis is not in line with measured optical axis. Any angular error of the moving platform will result in the offset from the measured optical axis to the standard laser axis. This paper describes to an algorithm which could be used to calculate the displacement of an equivalent standard laser interferometer and to eliminate an Abbe error. The algorithm could also be used to reduce the Abbe error of a large-scale laser comparator. Experimental results indicated that the uncertainty of displacement measurement due to Abbe error could be effectively reduced when the position error of the measured optical axis was taken into account.

  9. Talua SINE biology in the genome of the Reticulitermes subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Studies on transposable elements in termites are of interest because their genome is in a permanent condition of inbreeding. In this situation, an increase in transposon copy number should be mainly due to a Muller's ratchet effect, with selection against deleterious insertions playing a major role. Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, known to be stable components of eukaryotic genomes. The SINE Talua, first isolated from Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rhinotermitidae), is the only mobile element described so far in termites. In the present survey, Talua has been found widespread in the Isoptera order. In comparison with other non-termite SINEs, Talua diversity and distribution in the Reticulitermes genome demonstrate that Talua is an ancient component of termite genome and that it is significantly associated with other repeats. In particular, the element is found to be involved with microsatellite motifs either as their generator or because inserted in their nearby. Further, two new SINEs and a putative retrotranscriptase-like sequence were found linked to Talua. Talua's genomic distribution is discussed in the light of the available models on transposable element dynamics within inbred genomes, also taking into account SINE role as drivers of genetic diversity in counteracting inbreeding depression.

  10. [Hypochondria sine materia as a psychosomatic problem: a model of hypochondriac disorders realized in the cutaneous sphere].

    PubMed

    Smulevich, A B; Dorozhenok, I Iu; Romanov, D V; L'vov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Hypochondria sine materia is a disorder with physical complains corresponding to no any somatic diagnosis. Hypochondria sine materia is a more complicated psychopathological condition compared to hypochondria cum materia. Hypochondria sine materia could be diagnosed not only in psychiatry, but mainly in general medicine. It is especially prevalent in dermatology. As a result of analysis of hypochondriac disorders involving cutaneous sphere in patients without dermatological diseases, a binary model of psychodermatological syndromes presenting with hypochondria sine materia in dermatology was developed. The binary structure of the psychodermatological syndromes includes secondary psychiatric symptoms based on primary coenesthesiopathic phenomena. The heterogeneous psychodermatological syndromes (cutaneous organ neurosis, impulsive excoriations syndrome, circumscripta hypochondria, coenesthesiopathic paranoia) could be arranged in a continuum of consecutively worsening conditions from neurotic to psychotic severity register. The syndromes differ in clinical and social prognosis requiring different approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Conserved domains and SINE diversity during animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbour a number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs); moving from one genomic location to another, they are known to impact on the host genome. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are well-represented, non-autonomous retroelements and they are likely the most diversified MGEs. In some instances, sequence domains conserved across unrelated SINEs have been identified; remarkably, one of these, called Nin, has been conserved since the Radiata-Bilateria splitting. Here we report on two new domains: Inv, derived from Nin, identified in insects and in deuterostomes, and Pln, restricted to polyneopteran insects. The identification of Inv and Pln sequences allowed us to retrieve new SINEs, two in insects and one in a hemichordate. The diverse structural combination of the different domains in different SINE families, during metazoan evolution, offers a clearer view of SINE diversity and their frequent de novo emergence through module exchange, possibly underlying the high evolutionary success of SINEs.

  12. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  13. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  14. Wide-band doubler and sine wave quadrature generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Phase-locked loop with photoresistive control, which provides both sine and cosine outputs for subcarrier demodulation, serves as a telemetry demodulator signal conditioner with a second harmonic signal for synchronization with the locally generated code.

  15. Genomic gems: SINE RNAs regulate mRNA production.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Kugel, Jennifer F; Goodrich, James A

    2010-04-01

    Mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs) are abundant retrotransposons that have long been considered junk DNA; however, RNAs transcribed from mouse B2 and human Alu SINEs have recently been found to control mRNA production at multiple levels. Upon cell stress B2 and Alu RNAs bind RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and repress transcription of some protein-encoding genes. Bi-directional transcription of a B2 SINE establishes a boundary that places the growth hormone locus in a permissive chromatin state during mouse development. Alu RNAs embedded in Pol II transcripts can promote evolution and proteome diversity through exonization via alternative splicing. Given the diverse means by which SINE encoded RNAs impact production of mRNAs, this genomic junk is proving to contain hidden gems.

  16. Chaos Suppression in a Sine Square Map through Nonlinear Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eduardo, L. Brugnago; Paulo, C. Rech

    2011-11-01

    We study a pair of nonlinearly coupled identical chaotic sine square maps. More specifically, we investigate the chaos suppression associated with the variation of two parameters. Two-dimensional parameter-space regions where the chaotic dynamics of the individual chaotic sine square map is driven towards regular dynamics are delimited. Additionally, the dynamics of the coupled system is numerically characterized as the parameters are changed.

  17. The Perception of "Sine-Wave Speech" by Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Burton S.; Talcott, Joel B.; Witton, Caroline; Hogg, James D.; Richardson, Alexandra J.; Hansen, Peter C.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    "Sine-wave speech" sentences contain only four frequency-modulated sine waves, lacking many acoustic cues present in natural speech. Adults with (n=19) and without (n=14) dyslexia were asked to reproduce orally sine-wave utterances in successive trials. Results suggest comprehension of sine-wave sentences is impaired in some adults with…

  18. Brain-wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing

    2000-01-01

    Data from three previous experiments were analyzed to test the hypothesis that brain waves of spoken or written words can be represented by the superposition of a few sine waves. First, we averaged the data over trials and a set of subjects, and, in one case, over experimental conditions as well. Next we applied a Fourier transform to the averaged data and selected those frequencies with high energy, in no case more than nine in number. The superpositions of these selected sine waves were taken as prototypes. The averaged unfiltered data were the test samples. The prototypes were used to classify the test samples according to a least-squares criterion of fit. The results were seven of seven correct classifications for the first experiment using only three frequencies, six of eight for the second experiment using nine frequencies, and eight of eight for the third experiment using five frequencies. PMID:10890906

  19. Brain-wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Han, B

    2000-07-18

    Data from three previous experiments were analyzed to test the hypothesis that brain waves of spoken or written words can be represented by the superposition of a few sine waves. First, we averaged the data over trials and a set of subjects, and, in one case, over experimental conditions as well. Next we applied a Fourier transform to the averaged data and selected those frequencies with high energy, in no case more than nine in number. The superpositions of these selected sine waves were taken as prototypes. The averaged unfiltered data were the test samples. The prototypes were used to classify the test samples according to a least-squares criterion of fit. The results were seven of seven correct classifications for the first experiment using only three frequencies, six of eight for the second experiment using nine frequencies, and eight of eight for the third experiment using five frequencies.

  20. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    PubMed

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  1. Abbe's number and Cauchy's constant of iodine and selenium doped poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Sheetal Das, Kallol Keller, Jag Mohan

    2014-04-24

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) / Polystyrene and iodine / selenium hybrid matrixes have been prepared and characterized. Refractive index measurements were done at 390, 535, 590, 635 nm wavelengths. Abbe's number and Cauchy's constants of the iodine / selenium doped poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene samples are being reported. The results also showed that the refractive index of the composite varies non-monotonically with the doping concentration at low iodine concentration or in the region of nanoparticles formation and is also dependent on thermal annealing.

  2. On integrability aspects of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we study certain integrability properties of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. We construct Lax pairs with their zero-curvature representations which are equivalent to the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. From the fermionic linear spectral problem, we derive coupled sets of super Riccati equations and the auto-Bäcklund transformation of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. In addition, a detailed description of the associated Darboux transformation is presented and non-trivial super multisoliton solutions are constructed. These integrability properties allow us to provide new explicit geometric characterizations of the bosonic supersymmetric version of the Sym–Tafel formula for the immersion of surfaces in a Lie superalgebra. These characterizations are expressed only in terms of the independent bosonic and fermionic variables.

  3. Application of the sine-Poisson equation in solar magnetostatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the sine-Poisson equations are used to construct a class of isothermal magnetostatic atmospheres, with one ignorable coordinate corresponding to a uniform gravitational field in a plane geometry. The distributed current in the model (j) is directed along the x-axis, where x is the horizontal ignorable coordinate; (j) varies as the sine of the magnetostatic potential and falls off exponentially with distance vertical to the base with an e-folding distance equal to the gravitational scale height. Solutions for the magnetostatic potential A corresponding to the one-soliton, two-soliton, and breather solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are studied. Depending on the values of the free parameters in the soliton solutions, horizontally periodic magnetostatic structures are obtained possessing either a single X-type neutral point, multiple neural X-points, or solutions without X-points.

  4. CAN--a pan-carnivore SINE family.

    PubMed

    Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2002-01-01

    Short retroposons or short interspersed elements (SINEs) constituting 5-10% genome have been isolated from various organisms. CAN SINEs initially found in American mink were named after dogs (Canis), and the range of their distribution in the genomes of carnivores and mammals in general remained topical. Here we demonstrate CAN sequences in representatives of all carnivore families, but not beyond carnivores, on the basis of sequence bank search and genomic PCR. Analysis of their distribution supports division of carnivores into caniform (dogs, mustelids, raccoons, bears, and pinnipeds) and feliform (cats, civets, and hyenas) lineages. CAN structure is considered in the context of their function and evolution.

  5. Genealogy of families of SINEs in cetaceans and artiodactyls: the presence of a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-derived families of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, M; Abe, H; Nikaido, M; Ohshima, K; Okada, N

    1999-08-01

    Several novel (sub)families of SINEs were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and artiodactyls, and their sequences were determined. From comparisons of diagnostic nucleotides among the short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in these (sub)families, we were able to draw the following conclusions. (1) After the divergence of the suborder Tylopoda (camels), the CHRS family of SINEs was newly created from tRNA(Glu) in a common ancestor of the lineages of the Suina (pigs and peccaries), Ruminantia (cows and deer), and Cetacea (whales and dolphins). (2) After divergence of the Suina lineage, the CHR-1 SINE and the CHR-2 SINE were generated successively in a common ancestor of ruminants, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans. (3) In the Ruminantia lineage, the Bov-tA SINE was generated by recombination between the CHR-2 SINE and Bov-A. (4) In the Suina lineage, the CHRS-S SINE was generated from the CHRS SINE. (5) In this latter lineage, the PRE-1 family of SINEs was created by insertion of part of the gene for tRNA(Arg) into the 5' region of the CHRS-S family. The distribution of a particular family of SINEs among species of artiodactyls and cetaceans confirmed the most recent conclusion for paraphyly of the order Artiodactyla. The present study also revealed that a newly created tRNA(Glu)-derived family of SINEs was subjected both to recombination with different units and to duplication of an internal sequence within a SINE unit to generate, during evolution, a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-related families of SINEs that are now found in the genomes of artiodactyls and cetaceans.

  6. Structure-activity relationship of (-) mammea A/BB derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Young, Maria Claudia M; Côrrea, Arlene Gonçalves; Alvim, Joel; dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2008-11-01

    To study the structure-activity relationship of coumarin (-) mammea A/BB isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of Calophyllum brasiliense leaves, we evaluated the antileishmanial activity of natural, synthetic and derivatives of this coumarin, against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, and their cytotoxicity to J774G8 murine macrophages. The derivatives were obtained by hydrogenation and methoxylation reactions. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The compounds 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbutyl)-4-phenyl-chroman-2-one (3), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4-phenylcoumarin (4) and 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-methoxy-2-methylbutyl)-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4 phenylcoumarin (6) were more biologically active than the compound (-) mammea A/BB (1) (7.4 microM), with IC(50) values from 0.9, 2.4 and 1.9 microM respectively; compound (3) displayed the highest activity. The compounds mammea B/BB (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4-phenylcoumarin (5) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-phenylcoumarin (7) were less active than (-) mammea A/BB (1), with IC(50) of 30.1, 15.1 and 60.2 microM respectively; compound (7) showed the lowest antileishmanial activity of all. Compounds (1), (3), (4) and (6) were active not only against promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, but also against intracellular amastigote forms with IC(50) of 14.3, 0.6, 34.0 and 22.2 microM, respectively. Interestingly, compound (3) showed the most antileishmanial activity of all. This study demonstrated that several aspects of the structure were important for antileishmanial activity.

  7. Intramuscular and topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis using coumarin (-) mammea A/BB.

    PubMed

    Tiuman, Tatiana Shioji; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-10-15

    Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis remains limited to a few available options. Recent studies showed in vitro antileishmanial activity of (-) mammea A/BB, a coumarin isolated from leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Moreover, the dichloromethane crude extract and hexane fraction from this plant demonstrated in vivo activity in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. We evaluated the antileishmanial activity of (-) mammea A/BB in the L. amazonensis BALB/c mice model. The animals were given intramuscular and topical treatment with (-) mammea A/BB for 30 consecutive days. The results demonstrated that 18mg/kg/d intramuscularly or 0.2% topically of (-) mammea A/BB significantly reduced the size of skin lesions in footpads of mice compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). The activity of Glucantime(®) (corresponding to 27mg/kg/d of pentavalent antimony) administered intramuscularly was similar to that of (-) mammea A/BB (p<0.05) by both routes of administration. The histopathological evaluation showed no changes in the organs analyzed. These results indicate that the coumarin obtained from C. brasiliense is the antileishmanially active compound and can be used to control the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions caused by L. amazonensis.

  8. Silk worm Bm1 SINE RNA increases following cellular insults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, R H; Choudary, P V; Schmid, C W

    1999-08-15

    The effect of cell stresses upon the expression of the Bm1 short interspersed element (SINE) family in cultured silk worm cells is examined. Primer extension analysis shows that Bm1 repeats are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) into cytoplasmic RNAs. Five consecutive T residues, which would normally terminate Pol III transcription, occur within the Bm1 consensus and are included within cDNA sequences representing these transcripts. In analogy to mammalian SINEs, the level of the Bm1 transcripts increases in response to either heat shock, inhibiting protein synthesis by cycloheximide or viral infection. The lifetime of Bm1 RNA increases following cell insults so that post-transcriptional events partially account for stress induced increases in its abundance. In the case of heat shock, the increase in Bm1 RNA follows the transient increase in hsp70 mRNA indicating that this response is temporally regulated to occur later in heat shock recovery. These results support the proposal that SINE RNAs serve a role in the cell stress response that predates the divergence of insects and mammals implying that SINEs are essentially a class of cell stress genes.

  9. A SINE-based dichotomous key for primate identification.

    PubMed

    Herke, Scott W; Xing, Jinchuan; Ray, David A; Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W; Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    For DNA samples or 'divorced' tissues, identifying the organism from which they were taken generally requires some type of analytical method. The ideal approach would be robust even in the hands of a novice, requiring minimal equipment, time, and effort. Genotyping SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) is such an approach as it requires only PCR-related equipment, and the analysis consists solely of interpreting fragment sizes in agarose gels. Modern primate genomes are known to contain lineage-specific insertions of Alu elements (a primate-specific SINE); thus, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used members of the Alu family to identify DNA samples from evolutionarily divergent primate species. For each node of a combined phylogenetic tree (56 species; n=8 [Hominids]; 11 [New World monkeys]; 21 [Old World monkeys]; 2 [Tarsiformes]; and, 14 [Strepsirrhines]), we tested loci (>400 in total) from prior phylogenetic studies as well as newly identified elements for their ability to amplify in all 56 species. Ultimately, 195 loci were selected for inclusion in this Alu-based key for primate identification. This dichotomous SINE-based key is best used through hierarchical amplification, with the starting point determined by the level of initial uncertainty regarding sample origin. With newly emerging genome databases, finding informative retrotransposon insertions is becoming much more rapid; thus, the general principle of using SINEs to identify organisms is broadly applicable.

  10. Generalized universality in the massive sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Nandori, I.; Polonyi, J.

    2008-01-15

    A nontrivial interplay of the UV and IR scaling laws, a generalization of the universality is demonstrated in the framework of the massive sine-Gordon model, as a result of a detailed study of the global behavior of the renormalization group flow and the phase structure.

  11. Differential quadrature solution of nonlinear Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekmen, B.; Tezer-Sezgin, M.

    2012-08-01

    Differential quadrature method (DQM) is proposed to solve the one-dimensional quadratic and cubic Klein-Gordon equations, and two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. We apply DQM in space direction and also blockwise in time direction. Initial and derivative boundary conditions are also approximated by DQM. DQM provides one to obtain numerical results with very good accuracy using considerably small number of grid points. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Gauss-Chebyshev-Lobatto (GCL) grid points in space intervals, and GCL grid points in each equally divided time blocks.

  12. Stochastic D-bifurcation for a damped sine-Gordon equation with noise

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qiongwei; Xue, Changfeng; Tang, Jiashi

    2015-04-15

    We investigate the stochastic bifurcation of a damped sine-Gordon equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions under the influence of multiplicative Gaussian white noise. Introducing a slow time scale, we derive the amplitude equations near the trivial solution by multiscale analysis. And the stationary probability density functions are formulated analytically using the stochastic averaging of energy envelope. The numerical calculations show that the system undergoes a stochastic D-bifurcation of energy envelope from a delta measure to new stationary measures when the control parameter crosses a critical point.

  13. An interferometric Abbe-type comparator for the calibration of internal and external diameter standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Eom, Tae Bong

    2010-07-01

    We developed an Abbe-type comparator using a laser interferometer and a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) probe as displacement sensors, which can measure the diameter of ring and plug gauges up to 300 mm. The measurement system is configured according to the Abbe principle, and consists of translation stages, a laser interferometer, an LVDT probe and an electronic controller. The main translation stage is made by using a precision ceramic guide and air bearing pads, and is driven by a backlash-free lead screw and a micro-stepping motor. The laser interferometer measures the displacement of a moving mirror aligned with the probe coaxially. The environmental effect is corrected automatically during the measurement. The effective diameter of the probe ball is calibrated using a reference gauge block. The performance of each component was evaluated through experiments and the measurement uncertainty of the overall system was analyzed. We measured three diameter artifacts, which are 11.95 mm and 100 mm ring gauges and a 98.5 mm plug gauge, and compared the measured values with the calibrated ones. They were consistent with each other within 0.3 µm, which is less than the expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2).

  14. Secondary bilateral cleft lip-nose deformity correction by rhinoplasty with simultaneous Abbe flap

    PubMed Central

    Mokal, Nitin J.; Juneja, Manpreet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to review modification and outcome of secondary rhinoplasty along with Abbé flap for correction of secondary bilateral cleft lip deformity. Materials and Methods: A total of thirteen patients of secondary bilateral cleft lip-nose deformity having tight upper lip, lack of acceptable philtral column, Cupid's bow definition, irregular lip scars, and associated nasal deformity were selected. All the patients received Abbé flap and simultaneous nasal correction. All cases were treated during a period of three years. Mean patient age at the time of the operation was 21 years, and ranged from 16 to 27 years. The average follow-up period was three years. Results: Assessment of results was based on comparing preoperative and postoperative clinical photographs done by surgeon and patient relatives and patient satisfaction questionnaires. The columellar lengthening and upper lip vermillion correction achieved was satisfactory. There were no perioperative complications such as airway obstruction, bleeding, infection, wound disruption, or flap necrosis. PMID:24987200

  15. Multiresonance modes in sine-Gordon brane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Dantas, D. M.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine-Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine-Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  16. Invariant solutions of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundland, A. M.; Hariton, A. J.; Šnobl, L.

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive symmetry analysis of the {\\cal N}=1 supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation is performed. Two different forms of the supersymmetric system are considered. We begin by studying a system of partial differential equations corresponding to the coefficients of the various powers of the anticommuting independent variables. Next, we consider the super-sine-Gordon equation expressed in terms of a bosonic superfield involving anticommuting independent variables. In each case, a Lie (super)algebra of symmetries is determined and a classification of all subgroups having generic orbits of codimension 1 in the space of independent variables is performed. The method of symmetry reduction is systematically applied in order to derive invariant solutions of the supersymmetric model. Several types of algebraic, hyperbolic and doubly periodic solutions are obtained in explicit form.

  17. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  18. Basis properties of the p, q-sine functions.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Lyonell; Lord, Gabriel J

    2015-02-08

    We improve the currently known thresholds for basisness of the family of periodically dilated p,q-sine functions. Our findings rely on a Beurling decomposition of the corresponding change of coordinates in terms of shift operators of infinite multiplicity. We also determine refined bounds on the Riesz constant associated with this family. These results seal mathematical gaps in the existing literature on the subject.

  19. Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma in Mexican Patients. Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sauceda-Casas, Christian Alexis; Domínguez, María Del Pilar Cruz; Alvarez, Sergio Alberto Mendoza; Sepulceda-Delgado, Jesús

    2017-01-03

    Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is a form of systemic sclerosis that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), visceral involvement without thickening of skin and anticentromere antibodies (ACA). We studied 10 ssSsc patients with a prevalence of 2%. The clinical signs were: RP 9/10, esophageal manifestations 8/10, pulmonary arterial hypertension 4/10, interstitial lung disease 4/10, cardiac signs 3/10 and ACA 8/10.

  20. Measurement of straightness without Abbe error using an enhanced differential plane mirror interferometer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Ji, Hudong; Hou, Wenmei; Le, Yanfen; Shen, Lu

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents an enhanced differential plane mirror interferometer with high resolution for measuring straightness. Two sets of space symmetrical beams are used to travel through the measurement and reference arms of the straightness interferometer, which contains three specific optical devices: a Koster prism, a wedge prism assembly, and a wedge mirror assembly. Changes in the optical path in the interferometer arms caused by straightness are differential and converted into phase shift through a particular interferometer system. The interferometric beams have a completely common path and space symmetrical measurement structure. The crosstalk of the Abbe error caused by pitch, yaw, and roll angle is avoided. The dead path error is minimized, which greatly enhances the stability and accuracy of the measurement. A measurement resolution of 17.5 nm is achieved. The experimental results fit well with the theoretical analysis.

  1. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  2. Variable phase sine wave generator for active phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, W. M.

    1992-09-01

    A waveform generator is provided for generating a high frequency waveform. A pulse generator provides a pulse train at a low frequency. A pulse converter converts the pulse train into an alternatingly positive and negative groups of pulses. A bandpass filter passes the alternatingly positive and negative groups of pulses in a frequency band centered at the high frequency to output the generated waveform at the high frequency. When the groups of pulses are a pair of pulses, a sine wave is output from the bandpass filter. A pulse delay circuit can be used to variably delay the pulse train and thereby cause a phase change in the generated waveform.

  3. Liouville Correspondence Between the Short-Pulse Hierarchy and the Sine-Gordon Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Liu, Xiaochuan; Qu, Changzheng

    2016-12-01

    The Liouville correspondence between the short-pulse integrable hierarchy and the sine-Gordon integrable hierarchy is studied. It is shown that the transformation relating the short-pulse equation with the sine-Gordon equation also establishes the correspondence between their flows and Hamiltonian conservation laws in respective hierarchy. This proposes an alternative approach to derive the Hamiltonian conservation laws of the short-pulse equation from the known ones of the classical sine-Gordon equation.

  4. Recognition of sine wave modeled consonants by normal hearing and hearing-impaired individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Rupa

    Sine wave modeling is a parametric tool for representing the speech signal with a limited number of sine waves. It involves replacing the peaks of the speech spectrum with sine waves and discarding the rest of the lower amplitude components during synthesis. It has the potential to be used as a speech enhancement technique for hearing-impaired adults. The present study answers the following basic questions: (1) Are sine wave synthesized speech tokens more intelligible than natural speech tokens? (2) What is the effect of varying the number of sine waves on consonant recognition in quiet? (3) What is the effect of varying the number of sine waves on consonant recognition in noise? (4) How does sine wave modeling affect the transmission of speech feature in quiet and in noise? (5) Are there differences in recognition performance between normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners? VCV syllables representing 20 consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/, /g/, /f/, /theta/, /s/, /∫/, /v/, /z/, /t∫/, /dy/, /j/, /w/, /r/, /l/, /m/, /n/) in three vowel contexts (/a/, /i/, /u/) were modeled with 4, 8, 12, and 16 sine waves. A consonant recognition task was performed in quiet, and in background noise (+10 dB and 0 dB SNR). Twenty hearing-impaired listeners and six normal hearing listeners were tested under headphones at their most comfortable listening level. The main findings were: (1) Recognition of unprocessed speech was better that of sine wave modeled speech. (2) Asymptotic performance was reached with 8 sine waves in quiet for both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. (3) Consonant recognition performance in noise improved with increasing number of sine waves. (4) As the number of sine waves was decreased, place information was lost first, followed by manner, and finally voicing. (5) Hearing-impaired listeners made more errors then normal hearing listeners, but there were no differences in the error patterns made by both groups.

  5. Searching transients in large-scale surveys. A method based on the Abbe value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowlavi, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A new method is presented to identify transient candidates in large-scale surveys based on the variability pattern in their light curves. Methods: The method is based on the Abbe value, Ab, that estimates the smoothness of a light curve, and on a newly introduced value called the excess Abbe and denoted excessAb, that estimates the regularity of the light curve variability pattern over the duration of the observations. Results: Based on simulated light curves, transients are shown to occupy a specific region in the {diagram} diagram, distinct from sources presenting pulsating-like features in their light curves or having featureless light curves. The method is tested on real light curves taken from EROS-2 and OGLE-II surveys in a 0.50° × 0.17° field of the sky in the Large Magellanic Cloud centered at RA(J2000) = 5h25m56.5s and Dec(J2000) = -69d29m43.3s. The method identifies 43 EROS-2 transient candidates out of a total of 1300 variable stars, and 19 more OGLE-II candidates, 10 of which do not have any EROS-2 variable star matches and which would need further confirmation to assess their reliability. The efficiency of the method is further tested by comparing the list of transient candidates with known Be stars in the literature. It is shown that all Be stars known in the studied field of view with detectable bursts or outbursts are successfully extracted by the method. In addition, four new transient candidates displaying bursts and/or outbursts are found in the field, of which at least two are good new Be candidates. Conclusions: The new method proves to be a potentially powerful tool to extract transient candidates from large-scale multi-epoch surveys. The better the photometric measurement uncertainties are, the cleaner the list of detected transient candidates is. In addition, the diagram diagram is shown to be a good diagnostic tool to check the data quality of multi-epoch photometric surveys. A trend of instrumental and/or data reduction origin

  6. Linear sine wave profiling to machine instability targets

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Derek William; Martinez, John Israel

    2016-08-01

    Specialized machining processes and programming have been developed to deliver thin tin and copper Richtmyer-Meshkov instability targets that have different amplitude perturbations across the face of one 4-in.-diameter target. Typical targets have anywhere from two to five different regions of sine waves that have different amplitudes varying from 4 to 200 μm across the face of the target. The puck is composed of multiple rings that are zero press fit together and diamond turned to create a flat platform with a tolerance of 2 μm for the shock experiment. A custom software program was written in Labview to write the point-to-point program for the diamond-turning profiler through the X-Y-Z movements to cut the pure planar straight sine wave geometry. As a result, the software is optimized to push the profile of the whole part into the face while eliminating any unneeded passes that do not cut any material.

  7. Linear sine wave profiling to machine instability targets

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Derek William; Martinez, John Israel

    2016-08-01

    Specialized machining processes and programming have been developed to deliver thin tin and copper Richtmyer-Meshkov instability targets that have different amplitude perturbations across the face of one 4-in.-diameter target. Typical targets have anywhere from two to five different regions of sine waves that have different amplitudes varying from 4 to 200 μm across the face of the target. The puck is composed of multiple rings that are zero press fit together and diamond turned to create a flat platform with a tolerance of 2 μm for the shock experiment. A custom software program was written in Labview to write themore » point-to-point program for the diamond-turning profiler through the X-Y-Z movements to cut the pure planar straight sine wave geometry. As a result, the software is optimized to push the profile of the whole part into the face while eliminating any unneeded passes that do not cut any material.« less

  8. Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2016-05-01

    We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1  +  1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.

  9. Comparing conventional and supercritical extraction of (-)-mammea A/BB and the antioxidant activity of Calophyllum brasiliense extracts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Renata Menoci; Lemos, Caroline Ortega Terra; Leal, Ivana Correa Ramos; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; da Silva, Edson Antonio; Cabral, Vladimir Ferreira; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio

    2013-05-24

    Calophyllum brasiliense is a rich source of bioactive coumarins, xanthones and biflavonoids. The aim of the study was to compare the phenol contents and the antioxidant activity of C. brasiliense extracts obtained by conventional and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods, as well as the quantification of crude extracts and (-)-mammea A/BB yields. Dichloromethane and hexane were used as solvents for the conventional extractions and SFE was developed using supercritical CO₂; the kinetic curves were modeled using a second-order empirical model. The dichloromethane extract presented the best total yield, although it showed the lowest content of (-)-mammea A/BB. The concentration of the coumarin was considerably higher in extracts obtained by the supercritical fluid method and a higher antioxidant activity was assigned to extracts obtained by this technique. Concerning the total phenolic contents, both the dichloro-methane and the supercritical extractions produced satisfactory amounts. The SFE method proved to be more promising than conventional methods.

  10. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS FOR PORTIONS OF THE ABB COMBUSTION ENGINEERING SITE IN WINDSOR, CONNECTICUT DURING THE FALL OF 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Wade C. Adams

    2011-12-09

    From the mid-1950s until mid-2000, the Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) site in Windsor, Connecticut (Figure A-1) was involved in the research, development, engineering, production, and servicing of nuclear fuels, systems, and services. The site is currently undergoing decommissioning that will lead to license termination and unrestricted release in accordance with the requirements of the License Termination Rule in 10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E. Asea Brown Boveri Incorporated (ABB) has been decommissioning the CE site since 2001.

  11. "CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE ABB COMBUSTION ENGINEERING SITE WINDSOR, CONNECTICUT DCN 5158-SR-02-2

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2013-03-25

    The objectives of the confirmatory activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the contractor's procedures and FSS results. ORAU reviewed ABB CE's decommissioning plan, final status survey plan, and the applicable soil DCGLs, which were developed based on an NRC-approved radiation dose assessment. The surveys include gamma surface scans, gamma direct measurements, and soil sampling.

  12. Identification of a family of SINEs and LINEs in the Pipistrellus kuhli genome: a new structural and functional symbiotic relationship.

    PubMed

    Fantaccione, Stefania; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Pontecorvo, Giovanni

    2008-02-01

    We initially describe a novel tRNA-derived SINE family, abundantly and randomly distributed in the genome of the bat Pipistrellus kuhli. We present evidence that the LINE retrotransposition machinery is recruited for the creation of a new chimerical retrotranscript constituted by the partial LINE reverse transcriptase ORF2, which is interrupted by the SINE15 retrotransposon. Structural homology between SINE15 and Homo sapiens helix 6 7SL RNA allows us to propose multiple genome partners for SINE retrotransposition, such as SRP proteins and LINE enzymatic machinery. Moreover, on the basis of the LINE and SINE/LINE chimerical transcripts, we propose a mutual relationship between SINE and LINE retrotransposons.

  13. Piping benchmark problems for the ABB/CE System 80+ Standardized Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1994-07-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the ABB/Combustion Engineering System 80+ Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the System 80+ standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solution to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set. The first System 80+ piping benchmark is a uniform support motion response spectrum solution for one section of the feedwater piping subjected to safe shutdown seismic loads. The second System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution for the feedwater piping subjected to the transient loading induced by a water hammer. The third System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution of the pressurizer surge line subjected to the accelerations induced by a main steam line pipe break. The System 80+ reactor is an advanced PWR type.

  14. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Package

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, R S; Mok, G C; Hagler, L G

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) contracted with the Packaging Review Group (PRG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a single, 30-ft shallow-angle drop test on the Combustion Engineering ABB-2901 drum-type shipping package. The purpose of the test was to determine if bolted-ring drum closures could fail during shallow-angle drops. The PRG at LLNL planned the test, and Defense Technologies Engineering Division (DTED) personnel from LLNL's Site-300 Test Group executed the plan. The test was conducted in November 2001 using the drop-tower facility at LLNL's Site 300. Two representatives from Westinghouse Electric Company in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-SC); two USNRC staff members; and three PRG members from LLNL witnessed the preliminary test runs and the final test. The single test clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of the bolted-ring drum closure to shallow-angle drops-the test package's drum closure was easily and totally separated from the drum package. The results of the preliminary test runs and the 30-ft shallow-angle drop test offer valuable qualitative understandings of the shallow-angle impact.

  15. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  16. Scenario Based Approach for Multiple Source Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, Martin; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal one the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean to the southwest facing the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, a total of five scenarios were selected to assess tsunami impact at the test site. These scenarios correspond to the worst-case credible scenario approach based upon the largest events of the historical and paleo tsunami catalogues. The tsunami simulations from the source area towards the coast is carried out using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. The code solves the non-linear shallow water equations using the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme, in a Cartesian or Spherical frame. The initial sea surface displacement is assumed to be equal to the sea bottom deformation that is computed by Okada equations. Both uniform and non-uniform slip conditions are used. The presented results correspond to the models using non-uniform slip conditions. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water) MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawdown, run-up and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gages at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results consist of Aggregate Scenario Maps presented for the different inundation parameters. This work is funded by ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  17. Frequency-controlable sine signal based on PWM and its implementation on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianzhen; Li, Jiangang; Zhang, Dongjun

    2012-09-01

    A sine generation method that the different frequent sine signals can be generated by the different Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) signals generated by Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) through low-pass filter of fixed parameters was proposed. The method just takes a few FPGA resources and was proved feasible by the theory. The experiment results and theory analysis tally.

  18. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  19. Comparison of renormalization group schemes for sine-Gordon-type models

    SciTech Connect

    Nandori, I.; Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Trombettoni, A.

    2009-07-15

    The scheme dependence of the renormalization group (RG) flow has been investigated in the local potential approximation for two-dimensional periodic, sine-Gordon type field-theoretic models discussing the applicability of various functional RG methods in detail. It was shown that scheme-independent determination of such physical parameters is possible as the critical frequency (temperature) at which Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type phase transition takes place in the sine-Gordon and the layered sine-Gordon models, and the critical ratio characterizing the Ising-type phase transition of the massive sine-Gordon model. For the latter case, the Maxwell construction represents a strong constraint on the RG flow, which results in a scheme-independent infrared value for the critical ratio. For the massive sine-Gordon model also the shrinking of the domain of the phase with spontaneously broken periodicity is shown to take place due to the quantum fluctuations.

  20. Zero temperature landscape of the random sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Cai, D.

    1997-04-01

    We present a preliminary summary of the zero temperature properties of the two-dimensional random sine-Gordon model of surface growth on disordered substrates. We found that the properties of this model can be accurately computed by using lattices of moderate size as the behavior of the model turns out to be independent of the size above certain length ({approx} 128 x 128 lattices). Subsequently, we show that the behavior of the height difference correlation function is of (log r){sup 2} type up to a certain correlation length ({xi} {approx} 20), which rules out predictions of log r behavior for all temperatures obtained by replica-variational techniques. Our results open the way to a better understanding of the complex landscape presented by this system, which has been the subject of very many (contradictory) analysis.

  1. Rapid fabrication and characterization of sine wave targets

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Armijo, E.; Gobby, P.; Hatch, D.; Rivera, G.; Salzer, L.; Townsend, J.

    1997-09-01

    The effect of surface perturbations on Inertial Confinement Fusion target performance is currently being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These perturbations can cause hydrodynamic instabilities which in turn reduce the targets` yield. To systematically measure the growth of these instabilities requires targets to be produced which have perturbations of a known amplitude and spatial frequency. The authors have recently assembled hardware onto one of their diamond turning lathes which enables them to machine and measure these sine waves in about 15 minutes. This is a significant reduction in time from the two and one half hours required by the previous method. This paper discusses the hardware, how it works, and how well the system is working for them to produce these targets.

  2. New infinite-dimensional algebras, sine brackets, and SU (infinity)

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.K.; Fairlie, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the infinite dimensional algebras we have previously introduced, which involve trigonometric functions in their structure constants. We find a realization for them which provides a basis-independent formulation, identified with the algebra of sine brackets. A special family of them, the cyclotomic ones, contain SU(N) as invariant subalgebras. In this basis, it is evident by inspection that the algebra of SU(infinity) is equivalent to the centerless algebra of SDiff/sub 0/ on two-dimensional manifolds. Gauge theories of SU(infinity) are thus simply reformulated in terms of surface (sheet) coordinates. Spacetime-independent configurations of their gauge fields describe strings through the quadratic Schild action. 11 refs.

  3. Revisiting The Effect Of Sine Sweep Rate On Modal Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nicolas; Girard, Alain

    2012-07-01

    Sine-sweep base excitation vibration tests are performed to qualify spacecraft structures in the low-frequency environment where the dynamic behavior can be characterized by a small number of modes. These modes can be extracted from the measured frequency response functions (FRF) by various modal identification methods, and then used for model validation purposes. If the sweep rate is too high, the steady-state response is not reached and the resulting FRF profile will be modified by the presence of transients. This has a direct effect on the modal parameters extracted from the FRF.Several authors have examined the effect of the sweep rate based on the response of a one-degree-of-freedom system. The goal of this paper is to adapt the approach to base-excitation vibration tests. Both increasing and decreasing exponential sweep rates are considered. The effect on the three principal modal parameters (natural frequency, damping and modal effective parameters) is examined.

  4. Can SINEs: a family of tRNA-derived retroposons specific to the superfamily Canoidea.

    PubMed Central

    Coltman, D W; Wright, J M

    1994-01-01

    A repetitive element of approximately 200 bp was cloned from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina concolour) genomic DNA. The sequence of the element revealed putative RNA polymerase III control boxes, a poly A tail and direct terminal repeats characteristic of SINEs. Sequence and secondary structural similarities suggest that the SINE is derived from a tRNA, possibly tRNA-alanine. Southern blot analysis indicated that the element is predominately dispersed in unique regions of the seal genome, but may also be present in other repetitive sequences, such as tandemly arrayed satellite DNA. Based on slot-blot hybridization analysis, we estimate that 1.3 x 10(6) copies of the SINE are present in the harbour seal genome; SINE copy number based on the number of clones isolated from a size-selected library, however, is an order of magnitude lower (1-3 x 10(5) copies), an estimate consistent with the abundance of SINEs in other mammalian genomes. Database searches found similar sequences have been isolated from dog (Canis familiaris) and mink (Mustela vison). These, and the seal SINE sequences are characterized by an internal CT dinucleotide microsatellite in the tRNA-unrelated region. Hybridization of genomic DNA from representative species of a wide range of mammalian orders to an oligonucleotide (30mer) probe complementary to a conserved region of the SINE confirmed that the element is unique to carnivores of the superfamily Canoidea. Images PMID:8052527

  5. Characterization of Three Novel SINE Families with Unusual Features in Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Aina; Han, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zan; Li, Fei; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5′ -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3′ -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3′ -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3′-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer. PMID:22319625

  6. Core-SINE blocks comprise a large fraction of monotreme genomes; implications for vertebrate chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Patrick J; Greaves, Ian K; Koina, Edda; Waters, Paul D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of the egg-laying platypus and echidna are of particular interest because monotremes are the most basal mammal group. The chromosomal distribution of an ancient family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs), the core-SINEs, was investigated to better understand monotreme genome organization and evolution. Previous studies have identified the core-SINE as the predominant SINE in the platypus genome, and in this study we quantified, characterized and localized subfamilies. Dot blot analysis suggested that a very large fraction (32% of the platypus and 16% of the echidna genome) is composed of Mon core-SINEs. Core-SINE-specific primers were used to amplify PCR products from platypus and echidna genomic DNA. Sequence analysis suggests a common consensus sequence Mon 1-B, shared by platypus and echidna, as well as platypus-specific Mon 1-C and echidna specific Mon 1-D consensus sequences. FISH mapping of the Mon core-SINE products to platypus metaphase spreads demonstrates that the Mon-1C subfamily is responsible for the striking Mon core-SINE accumulation in the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs and the largest X chromosome. This unusual distribution highlights the dichotomy between the seven large chromosome pairs and the 19 smaller pairs in the monotreme karyotype, which has some similarity to the macro- and micro-chromosomes of birds and reptiles, and suggests that accumulation of repetitive sequences may have enlarged small chromosomes in an ancestral vertebrate. In the forthcoming sequence of the platypus genome there are still large gaps, and the extensive Mon core-SINE accumulation on the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs may provide one explanation for this missing sequence.

  7. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  8. Twisted hierarchies associated with the generalized sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Wu, Derchyi

    2011-09-01

    Twisted U- and twisted U/K-hierarchies are soliton hierarchies introduced by Terng to find higher flows of the generalized sine-Gordon equation. Twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies are among the most important classes of twisted hierarchies. In this paper, we derive explicit interesting first and higher flows of twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies, justify that the one-dimensional systems of twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies for J = Iq, n - q(1 ⩽ q ⩽ n - 1), called the generalized sinh-Gordon equations, are the Gauss-Codazzi equations for n-dimensional timelike submanifolds with constant sectional curvature 1 and index q in pseudo-Euclidean (2n - 1)-dimensional space {R}^{2n-1}_{2q-1} with index 2q - 1. Furthermore, a unified treatment of the inverse scattering theory for twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies is provided.

  9. Lateral sinus thrombosis associated with zoster sine herpete.

    PubMed

    Chan, James; Bergstrom, Richard T; Lanza, Donald C; Oas, John G

    2004-01-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is an uncommon manifestation of VZV infection and presents with similar symptoms but without the vesicular rash. We describe an unusual case of lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) that developed during the clinical course of ZSH in the C2 distribution. A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of left temporal and postauricular pain, nausea, vomiting, and mild photophobia. She denied otalgia, otorrhea, and hearing loss. Examination revealed hyperesthesia in the left C2 nerve root distribution without evidence of herpetic rash. A computed tomography scan showed minimal fluid in the left mastoid cavity (not mastoiditis) and thrombus within the left lateral and sigmoid dural sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiogram confirmed these findings. Laboratory studies revealed elevated neurotrophic immunoglobulin G levels to VZV. Hypercoagulable studies were normal. She was subsequently treated with Neurontin, acyclovir, and anticoagulation. Her symptoms improved, and she was discharged 3 days later. LST is generally a complication of middle ear infection. Nonseptic LST, however, may result from dehydration, oral contraceptive use, coagulopathy, or thyroid disease. This unusual case raises the suspicion that thrombosis resulted from VZV associated thrombophlebitis in the ipsilateral cerebral venous sinuses along the second cervical nerve root distribution. A high index of suspicion is necessary in such cases so that a different treatment course can be identified and antiviral medication initiated promptly.

  10. Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma: a case report of anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Borges, T; Vilaça, J; Ferreira, S; Chora, I; Silva, S; Dias, C

    2015-06-30

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is characterized by the absence of skin involvement, despite other manifestations of systemic sclerosis are present. It is not known whether sSSc represents a forme fruste of limited cutaneous SSc or a distinct entity, but the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria for the classification of SSc have considered SSc without skin involvement to be a distinct subset. The authors present the case of a 70-year old female that was referred for a consultation for Raynaud's phenomenon and a chronic anterior uveitis (CAU). She had a history of dysphagia, diffuse pulmonary emphysema and a biopsy-documented fibrosis of the upper lobes, and an idiopathic non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricle systolic dysfunction and left bundle branch block. Anti-nuclear and anti-centromere antibodies were positive, while manometry revealed distal esophageal hypomotility. After establishing the diagnosis of ssSSc and starting immunosuppression, the ocular disease improved, while the lung and heart diseases remained stable. This case underlines that it is very important to suspect SSc when CAU is present and/or skin thickening is absent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAU in a patient with ssSSc.

  11. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws.

  12. Explicit solutions to the intrinsic generalization for the wave and sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chaohao; Hu, Hesheng

    1993-09-01

    The Darboux matrix method is used to study intrinsic generalized wave equation and intrinsic generalized sine-Gordon equation which have been studied by Beals and Tenenblat. Explicit formulas for exact solutions are obtained.

  13. Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Nak Yong; Jeong, Seokki; Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL) for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance. PMID:27490549

  14. Binding of TFIIIC to SINE Elements Controls the Relocation of Activity-Dependent Neuronal Genes to Transcription Factories

    PubMed Central

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T.; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Down, Thomas A.; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes. PMID:23966877

  15. Finite element Fourier and Abbe transform methods for generalization of aperture function and geometry in Fraunhofer diffraction theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, H.G. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper discusses methods for calculating Fraunhofer intensity fields resulting from diffraction through one- and two-dimensional apertures are presented. These methods are based on the geometric concept of finite elements and on Fourier and Abbe transforms. The geometry of the two-dimensional diffracting aperture(s) is based on biquadratic isoparametric elements, which are used to define aperture(s) of complex geometry. These elements are also used to build complex amplitude and phase functions across the aperture(s) which may be of continuous or discontinuous form. The transform integrals are accurately and efficiently integrated numerically using Gaussian quadrature. The power of these methods is most evident in two dimensions, where several examples are presented which include secondary obstructions, straight and curved secondary spider supports, multiple-mirror arrays, synthetic aperture arrays, segmented mirrors, apertures covered by screens, apodization, and phase plates. Typically, the finite element Abbe transform method results in significant gains in computational efficiency over the finite element Fourier transform method, but is also subject to some loss in generality.

  16. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar.

  17. An ancient retrovirus-like element contains hot spots for SINE insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, M A; Filanoski, B J; Ingermann, A R; Olsson, K; DiLuglio, N; Lister, Z; Wichman, H A

    2001-01-01

    Vertebrate retrotransposons have been used extensively for phylogenetic analyses and studies of molecular evolution. Information can be obtained from specific inserts either by comparing sequence differences that have accumulated over time in orthologous copies of that insert or by determining the presence or absence of that specific element at a particular site. The presence of specific copies has been deemed to be an essentially homoplasy-free phylogenetic character because the probability of multiple independent insertions into any one site has been believed to be nil. Mys elements are a type of LTR-containing retrotransposon present in Sigmodontine rodents. In this study we have shown that one particular insert, mys-9, is an extremely old insert present in multiple species of the genus Peromyscus. We have found that different copies of this insert show a surprising range of sizes, due primarily to a continuing series of SINE (short interspersed element) insertions into this locus. We have identified two hot spots for SINE insertion within mys-9 and at each hot spot have found that two independent SINE insertions have occurred at identical sites. These results have major repercussions for phylogenetic analyses based on SINE insertions, indicating the need for caution when one concludes that the existence of a SINE at a specific locus in multiple individuals is indicative of common ancestry. Although independent insertions at the same locus may be rare, SINE insertions are not homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers. PMID:11404340

  18. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5′ region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes—7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)—and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5′ end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  19. Large-amplitude nonlinear normal modes of the discrete sine lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Valeri V.; Manevitch, Leonid I.

    2017-02-01

    We present an analytical description of the large-amplitude stationary oscillations of the finite discrete system of harmonically coupled pendulums without any restrictions on their amplitudes (excluding a vicinity of π ). Although this model has numerous applications in different fields of physics, it was studied earlier in the infinite limit only. The discrete chain with a finite length can be considered as a well analytical analog of the coarse-grain models of flexible polymers in the molecular dynamics simulations. The developed approach allows to find the dispersion relations for arbitrary amplitudes of the nonlinear normal modes. We emphasize that the long-wavelength approximation, which is described by well-known sine-Gordon equation, leads to an inadequate zone structure for the amplitudes of about π /2 even if the chain is long enough. An extremely complex zone structure at the large amplitudes corresponds to multiple resonances between nonlinear normal modes even with strongly different wave numbers. Due to the complexity of the dispersion relations the modes with shorter wavelengths may have smaller frequencies. The stability of the nonlinear normal modes under condition of the resonant interaction are discussed. It is shown that this interaction of the modes in the vicinity of the long wavelength edge of the spectrum leads to the localization of the oscillations. The thresholds of instability and localization are determined explicitly. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of a finite-length chain is in a good agreement with obtained analytical predictions.

  20. Placement of the AbbVie PEG-J tube for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in the interventional radiology suite.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Mark L; Miner, Noel K; Soileau, Michael J; McDonald, Douglas K

    2016-10-01

    The primary treatment for Parkinson's disease is dopaminergic stimulation. Although levodopa has historically been administered orally, maintaining a predictable plasma concentration of the drug is challenging. As a result, enteral administration of carbidopa/levodopa (Duopa) has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment of the disease. This requires placement of an enteric catheter, two of which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for delivery of Duopa. The approved tubes are placed using the "peroral" or "pull" technique, a method traditionally requiring endoscopy. This technical note describes placement of the AbbVie PEG-J tube by means of the peroral route while utilizing only sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. After placing an orogastric tube and achieving percutaneous access to the stomach under fluoroscopic visualization, a snare catheter is advanced through the percutaneous access into the stomach. The orogastric tube is engaged with the snare and retracted, bringing the attached snare with it to the mouth. The AbbVie PEG tube is attached to the snare, pulled back down the esophagus and into the stomach before being retracted through the percutaneous access to the skin. Finally, the AbbVie J tube is advanced through the gastrostomy tube into the proximal jejunum and attached with the provided connectors. As demonstrated, the AbbVie PEG-J tube can be placed safely and effectively using a percutaneous image-guided technique without the use of an endoscope.

  1. What happens to linear properties as we move from the Klein-Gordon equation to the sine-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2010-06-15

    In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.

  2. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

    PubMed

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  3. Late Quaternary climate change in the Awatere Valley, South Island, New Zealand using a sine model with a maximum likelihood envelope on fossil beetle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, M. J.; Smith, E. G. C.; Shulmeister, J.; Leschen, R.

    2004-07-01

    We present a new climatic reconstruction method appropriate for biological proxies where modern distributions are poorly defined and data sets are small. The technique uses a sine function in conjunction with maximum likelihood estimates of best high and best low values for the distribution of each species. To demonstrate the model we present temperature reconstructions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Holocene from beetle fossil assemblages from the Awatere Valley, New Zealand. The temperature estimates are determined by the mutual overlap of the climate range for all the species in the assemblage. The overlap is then compared with modern physio-chemical conditions. For our example, we estimate the LGM summer (February) mean temperature was about 3.5-4°C cooler, and July (winter) mean daily minimum temperature was about 4-5°C cooler than present day temperatures. The maximum likelihood estimates broaden the reconstructed temperature ranges to 2.5-5°C cooler for February temperatures and 3.5-6.0°C cooler for mean minimum daily temperature of the coldest month (July). These estimates are consistent with LGM temperature estimates of 4-7°C from other climate proxy indicators. Estimates of Holocene temperatures are very similar to modern. Estimates are compared with results from the established mutual climatic range (MCR) technique and the results are compatible. MCR is less robust than the sine model approach for these data because it requires the pre-determination of the critical physio-chemical controls and assumes Gaussian distributions in climate space. The sine model is conceptually superior to traditional BIOCLIM modelling, with which it shares many features, because BIOCLIM also assumes Gaussian distributions and the sine model allows attribute testing of the data sets which are not possible with BIOCLIM.

  4. Ground vibration test results of a JetStar airplane using impulsive sine excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Voracek, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural excitation is important for both ground vibration and flight flutter testing. The structural responses caused by this excitation are analyzed to determine frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Many excitation waveforms have been used throughout the years. The use of impulsive sine (sin omega t)/omega t as an excitation waveform for ground vibration testing and the advantages of using this waveform for flight flutter testing are discussed. The ground vibration test results of a modified JetStar airplane using impulsive sine as an excitation waveform are compared with the test results of the same airplane using multiple-input random excitation. The results indicated that the structure was sufficiently excited using the impulsive sine waveform. Comparisons of input force spectrums, mode shape plots, and frequency and damping values for the two methods of excitation are presented.

  5. Sine-wave gating InGaAs/InP single photon detector with ultralow afterpulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Sine-wave gating method is widely used in high-speed single photon detection (SPD) but shows extra afterpulse probability compared with the self-differencing technique. Here, we demonstrate that most extra afterpulses of the sine-wave gating SPD come from successive avalanche signals and distortion of electrical filters and also propose an effective method by removing the wider filtered avalanche signals to reduce the afterpulse probability. At 1 GHz gating frequency, the ultralow afterpulse probability is characterized as 1.0% and 0.54% for a photon detection efficiency of 20.7% and 10.9%, respectively.

  6. Evolution of CHR-2 SINEs in cetartiodactyl genomes: possible evidence for the monophyletic origin of toothed whales.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, M; Matsuno, F; Abe, H; Shimamura, M; Hamilton, H; Matsubayashi, H; Okada, N

    2001-12-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are a kind of retroposons dispersed among the eukaryotic genomes. Previously, we isolated and characterized a new SINE family, named CHR-2, members of which are distributed in the genomes of cetaceans, hippopotamuses, and ruminants. We analyzed systematically more than a hundred members of the CHR-2 SINEs, which were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and cow, together with the additional data available in the DNA databases, and showed that these SINEs are divided into at least five distinct subfamilies that share diagnostic nucleotides and/or deletions. A hybridization analysis clearly demonstrated that, among these five subfamilies, two subfamilies, named CD and CDO, are specific to cetaceans and toothed whales, respectively. We reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CHR-2 SINEs during evolution of cetartiodactyl genomes.

  7. Nonautonomous soliton solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    Multisoliton solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-sine-Gordon (mKdV-SG) equation with time-dependent coefficients are considered. Cases describing changes in the shape of soliton solutions (kinks and breathers) observed in gradual transitions between the mKdV, SG, and mKdV-SG equations are numerically studied.

  8. SunSine300 AC module. Annual report, July 25, 1995--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.C.; Handleman, C.K.P.

    1997-08-01

    Under Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A1, Ascension Technology (AT) is developing the SunSine300 AC PV module. AT`s goals in this project are to meet Underwriters Laboratory (UL) 1741 requirements, obtain Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Class B verification, complete the AC module system design and development, advance the inverter design, design for manufacture, design for reliability, design for serviceability, and demonstrate commercialization through production and sale of about 100 units. To meet these goals, AT corrected a number of deficiencies identified by UL`s preliminary investigation before proceeding to the full UL investigation; a SunSine300 prototype was tested and found to comply with FCC Class B requirements; AT designed a complete line of balance-of-systems hardware for the SunSine 300; AT`s design and performance advancements include accomplishing a total harmonic distortion drop from 5% to 2%, devising a method to eliminate false detection of zero crossings that could damage the inverter, improving the anti-islanding with the addition of AT`s proprietary ZEBRA technique, and redesigning the enclosure for thermal performance, manufacturability, and UL and FCC approval; performing extensive testing in Phase 2 to discover failure modes and susceptibility to aging; and designing the SunSine300 to be easily and safely serviced. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Analog circuit for the measurement of phase difference between two noisy sine-wave signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple circuit was designed to measure the phase difference between two noisy sine waves. It locks over a wide range of frequencies and produces an output proportional to the phase difference of rapidly varying signals. A square wave locked in frequency and phase to the first signal is produced by a phase-locked loop and is amplified by an operational amplifier.

  10. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  11. Spatiotemporal chaos in sine-Gordon systems subjected to wave fields: onset and suppression.

    PubMed

    Chacón, R; Bellorín, A; Guerrero, L E; González, J A

    2008-04-01

    The onset of spatiotemporal chaos in a damped sine-Gordon system subjected to a plane wave field as well as its suppression by an additional small-amplitude plane wave field are proposed theoretically and confirmed numerically. The relevance of these findings in the context of nonlinear magnetization waves is discussed.

  12. Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.

  13. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  14. Structural Qualification Testing of the WindSat Payload Using Sine Bursts Near Structural Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, Jim; Barnes, Donald; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sine burst tests are often used for structural qualification of space flight hardware. In most instances, the driving frequency of the shaker is specified far below the structure's first resonant mode, such that the entire test article sees uniform acceleration. For large structures, this limits qualification testing to lower parts of the structure, or else it over-tests the lower structure to achieve qualification of the upper structure. The WindSat payload, a 10.5 foot tall graphite/epoxy, titanium, and aluminum radiometer, experiences accelerations at the six foot diameter reflector nearly four times that at the spacecraft interface. Due to size of the payload, the number of bonded joints, and the lightweight reflector support structure design and construction, using static pull testing to qualify all of the bonded joints in the upper structure would result in large, expensive, and extensive test fixturing. Sine burst testing near the first two structural resonant modes was performed on the WindSat payload to achieve the correct load factor distribution up the stack for structural qualification. In this presentation, how finite element method (FEM) sine burst predictions were used in conjunction with low level random and sine burst tests to achieve correct qualification test load factor distribution on the WindSat payload is discussed. Also presented is the risk mitigation approach for using the uncorrelated FEM in this procedure.

  15. Confirmatory Survey for the Partial Site Release at the ABB Inc. CE Winsor Site, Windsor, CT

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2008-06-27

    The objectives of the confirmatory surveys were to confirm that remedial actions had been effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately describes the final radiological conditions of the PSR Impacted Areas.

  16. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome. PMID:22559330

  17. Transoral Cross-Lip (Abbé-Estlander) Flap as a Viable and Effective Reconstructive Option in Middle Lower Lip Defect Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jee; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Soo Young; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Jin Wou

    2017-01-01

    The Abbé-Estlander flap surgery is a cross-lip procedure that is valuable in repairing a defect on the lower lip using a full-thickness flap, consisting of the skin, muscle and mucosa, from the upper lip. As usefulness and practicality of the flap in reconstruction of lower lip surgical defects in Asian ethnicity have not been documented, the authors present a case of successful lower lip reconstruction with a staged, Abbé-Estlander lip switching flap with commissuroplasty as an illustrative example. A 71-year-old male has presented with an ulcerating lip nodule in the middle one third of the lower lip, measuring about 1.5×2 cm across its long and short axes. Wide excision of the tumor was followed by delineation of the triangular Abbé-Estlander flap from the upper lip, in which the medial hinge point of the base was chosen as the pedicle. Then, the flap elevation was carried out from the lateral commissure and then was transferred into the lower lip defect. Three weeks later, commissuroplasty was performed to correct the rounding at the new commissure. The patient is currently performing his daily activities with no apparent compromise in orbicularis oris strength or oral continence. Given the size of the primary defect and the flap-to-defect ratio of size, the degree of microstomia was acceptable. Even with other myriad of reconstructive options at surgeons' disposal, the Abbé-Estlander lip-switching flap is a reliable, and less morbid method of lower lip reconstruction for Asian surgical candidates. The authors illustrate an exemplary case in which a relatively large lower lip defect was successfully repaired using an upper lip flap of a significantly smaller size in an Asian subject of advanced age, without any remarkable long term sequelae which have traditionally been associated with the trans-oral lip switching flap technique. PMID:28392650

  18. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4–14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140–493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3’-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50–65% and 60–75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259–343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity. PMID:27736869

  19. Local phytochemical response of Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. 'Bluggoe' (ABB) to colonization by Sternorrhyncha.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Vollrath, Antje; Kai, Marco; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthaguntalam; Menezes, Riya C; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of two Sternorrhyncha species, the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Aphidinae)), vector of the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), and the latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Diaspidinae)) with Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla (ABB Group) 'Bluggoe' (Musaceae) was investigated by a combination of conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques, (1)H NMR, UHPLC-MS, and matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization MS imaging. After infestation, the feeding sites of P. nigronervosa on the pseudostem and the exocarp of banana fruit developed a red tinge, in which tissue-specific accumulations of phenylphenalenones were discovered. Phenylphenalenones were also detected in the black mats of sooty molds growing on the banana aphid exudates and in the dorsal scales of H. lataniae. This suggests that although these secondary metabolites play a role in the reaction of banana plants towards attack by sucking insects, an aphid and an armored scale have established mechanisms to exude these metabolites before they deploy their deleterious effect.

  20. Diachronic analysis of the occupation of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellal, B.; Ayache, A.; Ayad, N.; Hellal, T.

    2016-06-01

    Modes of occupation of the soil of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria) know lots of mutations during the period 1987/2013; compromising the future of pastoral activity. This dissection based on supervised classification TSAVI values (Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) using images of remote sensing of average spatial resolution of type Landsat-TM 5 and 8. The determination of the state of occupation of the ground and validation of remote sensing map shows that the status of the halophytic/psammophytic steppes and the Matorrals are detected in 38.38 % and 55,71 % of cases, respectively. On the other hand, the steppes chamaephytic mark -9,81 % regression only, agricultural land -24,51 %, and -46,24 % dense vegetation are correctly mapped. The sensing medium resolution is therefore, in the light of these figures, a management tool of the steppe field relevant and effective, which, in addition, allows enriching the field for a proper plan for the fight against desertification.

  1. Effects of (-) mammea A/BB isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense leaves and derivatives on mitochondrial membrane of Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Brenzan, M A; Santos, A O; Nakamura, C V; Filho, B P Dias; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Young, M C M; Côrrea, A G; Júnior, J Alvim; Morgado-Díaz, J A; Cortez, D A G

    2012-02-15

    We have previously demonstrated antileishmanial activity on Leishmania amazonensis of the natural (1-2), synthetic (7) and derivatives of coumarin (-) mammea A/BB (3-6) isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Calophyllum brasiliense leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological and ultrastructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis induced by these compounds. In promastigote forms, all seven compounds produced significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations, as revealed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbutyl)-4-phenyl-chroman-2-one (3), the most active antileishmanial with LD₅₀ of 0.9 μM), induced cell shrinkage and a rounded appearance of the cells. Parasites incubated in the presence of compound (3) showed ultrastructural changes, such as the appearance of mitochondrial swelling with a reduction in the density of the mitochondrial matrix and the presence of vesicles inside the mitochondrion, indicating damage and significant change in this organelle; abnormal chromatin condensation, alterations in the nuclear envelope, intense atypical cytoplasmic vacuolization, and the appearance of autophagic vacuoles were also observed. In addition, the compound (3) may be acting to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells, leading to death of the parasite.

  2. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

    PubMed Central

    Santolamazza, Federica; Mancini, Emiliano; Simard, Frédéric; Qi, Yumin; Tu, Zhijian; della Torre, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200) within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands") of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D) and X (i.e. S200 X6.1) chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001) and within M-form (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001). The insertion of S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through

  3. A SINE species from hippopotamus and its distribution among animal species.

    PubMed

    Nomura, O; Lin, Z H; Muladno; Wada, Y; Yasue, H

    1998-07-01

    Thirty sequences of a short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) were isolated from genomic DNA of Hippopotamus amphibius (hippopotamus). RNA polymerase III split promoter sequence was observed in all of the 30 sequences; and poly(A)-like structure at 3'-end, as well as direct repeat flanking to the repetitive sequence in many of the 30 sequences. A comparison of the consensus sequence of the 30 sequences with sequences in a DNA database (DDBJ/GENBANK/EMBL) revealed 93% homology to the consensus sequence of a whale SINE, CHR-2, and 73% homology to mouse glutamic acid tRNA. Phylogenetic analysis of tRNA-related regions of the sequences with all of the mouse tRNAs revealed that glutamic acid tRNA was genetically closest to the hippopotamus SINE. In addition, the tRNA-related region of the consensus sequence was folded into a cloverleaf structure as with mouse glutamic acid tRNA. These findings led us to conclude that the SINE of hippopotamus was genetically related to a whale SINE, CHR-2 [the hippopotamus SINE was named CHR-2(hippo)] and was a retroposon derived from glutamic acid tRNA. Hipo53 and hipo95, which were the genetically most separated CHR-2(hippo) sequences in the present study, were used as a probe for dot-blot hybridization to examine the distribution of their homologous sequences among animal species. Although the distribution spectra of hipo53 and hipo95 homologous sequences in animal species differed to some extent, large amounts of both sequences were found in Hippopotamus amphibius and Globicephala macrorhynchus (whale); and small amounts in most of the animal species in Artiodactyla examined. These findings indicated that the hippopotamus and whale had more recently branched off from the clade that includes chevrotain and pecorans than the other animal species in the clade. The 30 CHR-2(hippo) sequences were aligned, and the substitution rates among the sequences were calculated with a different substitution rate model for transition and for

  4. A watt-class 1-THz backward-wave oscillator based on sine waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiong; Wei Yanyu; Shen Fei; Yin Hairong; Xu Jin; Gong Yubin; Wang Wenxiang

    2012-01-15

    A novel backward wave oscillator was proposed by utilizing a concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with sheet electron beam to operate at terahertz frequency band. First, the design method was described, and the dispersion curve and interaction impedance of the sine waveguide were calculated, then the device oscillation frequency and operating voltage were determined. Next, the circuit transmission losses were learned over the tunable frequency range. Finally, the particle-in-cell simulation method was applied to predict its signal generation performance. The investigation results show that, the backward wave oscillator can produce over 1.9 -W peak power output at the central operating frequency of 1-THz under 27-kV operating voltage and 5-mA beam current. And the interaction efficiency at 1-THz is more than 1.4% with a circuit length of 7.2-mm. It, therefore, will be considered as a promising watt-class terahertz radiation source.

  5. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications. PMID:27443798

  6. A framework for backbone experimental tracking : Piezoelectric actuators, stop-sine signal and Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyret, Nicolas; Dion, Jean-Luc; Chevallier, Gael

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the use of piezoelectric patches for nonlinear dynamic identification. The patches are glued on the structure to identify amplitude-dependent damping and natural frequency; their positions are defined in order to perform the excitation concentrated on the first bending mode. Their locations on the structure allow to perform "stop sines" tests, as, unlike electrodynamic shakers, piezos are embedded on structures and do not modify the studied structure after the excitation signal is switched off. Although, despite the piezo and the stop-sine, the signal is still modulated by other frequency components or polluted by random signals, a post processing with the extended Kalman Filter allows a very good determination of the modal damping and the natural frequency, especially when they depends on the free vibration amplitude.

  7. Dysgnathia complex sine holoprosencephaly nor synotia: a case report and discussion of its nosology.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J R; Trujillo-Ponce, S A; Barrios-Prieto, E; Quiles-Corona, M; Miguel-Jimenez, K; Aguirre-Guillen, R L; Bobadilla-Morales, L; Corona-Rivera, A

    2013-01-01

    A severe mandibular hypoplasia and microstomy with intraoral anomalies including hypoglossia, fused gums, persistence of buccopharyngeal membrane, and laryngeal hypoplasia were noted in a female newborn with the dysgnathia complex (DC). Additionally, our proposita also presented natal teeth as a probably new finding. These clinical manifestations overlapped with those of the fourth report of hypomandibular faciocranial syndrome (HFS) (31), and given that both lack for craniosynostosis (pathognomonic of HFS), we considered that both represent a subtype of DC proposed as DC sine holoprosencephaly nor synotia (DCSHS). Differential characteristics between the DCSHS, the HFS, and the DC with holoprosencephaly sine synotia are reviewed and additionally, we discussed some aspects about the nosology of the DC.

  8. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent; Lotton, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  9. On the solution of the generalized wave and generalized sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ablowitz, M. J.; Beals, R.; Tenenblat, K.

    1986-01-01

    The generalized wave equation and generalized sine-Gordon equations are known to be natural multidimensional differential geometric generalizations of the classical two-dimensional versions. In this paper, a system of linear differential equations is associated with these equations, and it is shown how the direct and inverse problems can be solved for appropriately decaying data on suitable lines. An initial-boundary value problem is solved for these equations.

  10. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  11. The RNA polymerase dictates ORF1 requirement and timing of LINE and SINE retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Kroutter, Emily N; Belancio, Victoria P; Wagstaff, Bradley J; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2009-04-01

    Mobile elements comprise close to one half of the mass of the human genome. Only LINE-1 (L1), an autonomous non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, and its non-autonomous partners-such as the retropseudogenes, SVA, and the SINE, Alu-are currently active human retroelements. Experimental evidence shows that Alu retrotransposition depends on L1 ORF2 protein, which has led to the presumption that LINEs and SINEs share the same basic insertional mechanism. Our data demonstrate clear differences in the time required to generate insertions between marked Alu and L1 elements. In our tissue culture system, the process of L1 insertion requires close to 48 hours. In contrast to the RNA pol II-driven L1, we find that pol III transcribed elements (Alu, the rodent SINE B2, and the 7SL, U6 and hY sequences) can generate inserts within 24 hours or less. Our analyses demonstrate that the observed retrotransposition timing does not dictate insertion rate and is independent of the type of reporter cassette utilized. The additional time requirement by L1 cannot be directly attributed to differences in transcription, transcript length, splicing processes, ORF2 protein production, or the ability of functional ORF2p to reach the nucleus. However, the insertion rate of a marked Alu transcript drastically drops when driven by an RNA pol II promoter (CMV) and the retrotransposition timing parallels that of L1. Furthermore, the "pol II Alu transcript" behaves like the processed pseudogenes in our retrotransposition assay, requiring supplementation with L1 ORF1p in addition to ORF2p. We postulate that the observed differences in retrotransposition kinetics of these elements are dictated by the type of RNA polymerase generating the transcript. We present a model that highlights the critical differences of LINE and SINE transcripts that likely define their retrotransposition timing.

  12. Tracking control of two-wheel driven mobile robot using compound sine function neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a compound sine function neural network (NN) with continuous learning algorithm for the velocity and orientation angle tracking control of a mobile robot. Herein, two NN controllers embedded in the closed-loop control system are capable of on-line continuous learning and do not require any knowledge of the dynamics model. The neuron function of the hidden layer in the three-layer feed-forward network structure is on the basis of combining a sine function with a unipolar sigmoid function. In the NN algorithm, the weight values are only adjusted between the nodes in hidden layer and the output nodes, while the weight values between the input layer and the hidden layer are one, that is, constant, without the weight adjustment. The developed NN controllers have simple algorithm and fast learning convergence. Therefore, the proposed NN controllers can be suitable for the real-time tracking control of the mobile robots. The simulation results show that the proposed NN controller has better control performance in the tracking control of the mobile robot. The compound sine function NN provides a new way to solve tracking control problems for a mobile robot.

  13. Spacecraft base-sine vibration test data uncertainties investigation based on stochastic scatter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, S.; Calvi, A.

    2012-10-01

    This article describes some results of the study "DYNAMITED". The study is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and performed by a consortium of European industries and university, led by EADS Astrium Satellites. One of the main objectives of the study is to assess and quantify the uncertainty in the spacecraft sine vibration test data. For a number of reasons as for example robustness and confidence in the notching of the input spectra and validation of the finite element model, it is important to study the effect of the sources of uncertainty on the test data including the frequency response functions and the modal parameters. In particular the paper provides an overview on the estimation of the scatter on the spacecraft dynamic response due to identified sources of test uncertainties and the calculation of a "notched" sine test input spectrum based on a stochastic methodology. By means of Monte Carlo simulation, a stochastic cloud of the output of interest can be generated and this provides an estimate of the global error on the test results. The cloud is generated by characterizing the assumed sources of test uncertainties by parameters of the structure finite element model and by quantifying the scatter of the parameters. The uncertain parameters are the input random variables of the Monte Carlo simulation. Some results on the application of the methods to telecom spacecraft sine vibration tests are illustrated.

  14. SINE insertions in cladistic analyses and the phylogenetic affiliations of Tarsius bancanus to other primates.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, J; Ohme, M; Zischler, H

    2001-01-01

    Transpositions of Alu sequences, representing the most abundant primate short interspersed elements (SINE), were evaluated as molecular cladistic markers to analyze the phylogenetic affiliations among the primate infraorders. Altogether 118 human loci, containing intronic Alu elements, were PCR analyzed for the presence of Alu sequences at orthologous sites in each of two strepsirhine, New World and Old World monkey species, Tarsius bancanus, and a nonprimate outgroup. Fourteen size-polymorphic amplification patterns exhibited longer fragments for the anthropoids (New World and Old World monkeys) and T. bancanus whereas shorter fragments were detected for the strepsirhines and the outgroup. From these, subsequent sequence analyses revealed three Alu transpositions, which can be regarded as shared derived molecular characters linking tarsiers and anthropoid primates. Concerning the other loci, scenarios are represented in which different SINE transpositions occurred independently in the same intron on the lineages leading both to the common ancestor of anthropoids and to T. bancanus, albeit at different nucleotide positions. Our results demonstrate the efficiency and possible pitfalls of SINE transpositions used as molecular cladistic markers in tracing back a divergence point in primate evolution over 40 million years old. The three Alu insertions characterized underpin the monophyly of haplorhine primates (Anthropoidea and Tarsioidea) from a novel perspective. PMID:11156996

  15. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.H.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L. |

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  16. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  17. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G; Hagler, L

    2002-06-01

    Steel cylindrical drums have been used for many years to transport radioactive materials. The radioactive material inserted into the drum cavity for shipping is usually restrained within its own container or containment vessel. For additional protection, the container is surrounded or supported by components made of impact-absorbent and/or thermal-insulation materials. The components are expected to protect the container and its radioactive contents under severe transportation conditions like free drops and fires. Due to its simplicity and convenience, bolted-ring drum closures are commonly used to close many drum packages. Because the structural integrity of the drum and drum closure often play a significant role in determining the package's ability to maintain sub-criticality, shielding, and containment of the radioactive contents, regulations require that the complete drum package be tested for safety performance. The structural integrity of the drum body is relatively simple to understand and analyze, whereas analyzing the integrity of the drum closure is not so simple. In summary, the drop test accomplished its mission. Because the lid and closure device separated from the drum body in the 30-ft 17.5{sup o} shallow-angle drop, the drop test confirmed that the common drum closure with a bolted ring is vulnerable to damage by a shallow-angle drop, even though the closure has been shown to survive much steeper-angle drops. The test program also demonstrated one of the mechanisms by which the shallow-angle drop opens the common bolted-ring drum closure. The separation of the drum lid and closure device from the drum body was initiated by a large outward buckling deformation of the lid and completed with minimal assistance by the round plywood boards behind the lid. The energy spent to complete the separation appeared to be only a small fraction of the total impact energy. Limited to only one test, the present test program could not explore all possible mechanisms

  18. Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R; Daroff, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively.

  19. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  20. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  1. Regularization of multi-soliton form factors in sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálmai, T.

    2012-08-01

    A general and systematic regularization is developed for the exact solitonic form factors of exponential operators in the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model by analytical continuation of their integral representations. The procedure is implemented in Mathematica. Test results are shown for four- and six-soliton form factors. Catalogue identifier: AEMG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1462 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 488 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica [1] Computer: PC Operating system: Cross-platform Classification: 7.7, 11.1, 23 Nature of problem: The multi-soliton form factors of the sine-Gordon model (relevant in two-dimensional physics) were given only by highly non-trivial integral representation with a limited domain of convergence. Practical applications of the form factors, e.g. calculation of correlation functions in two-dimensional condensed matter systems, were not possible in general. Solution method: Using analytic continuation techniques an efficient algorithm is found and implemented in Mathematica, which provides a general and systematic way to calculate multi-soliton form factors in the sine-Gordon model. The package contains routines to compute the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors. Running time: Strongly dependent on the desired accuracy and the number of solitons. For physical rapidities after an initialization of about 30 s, the calculation of the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors at a single point takes approximately 0.5 s, 2.5 s and 8 s, respectively. Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica Edition: Version 7.0, Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, 2008.

  2. Criteria for representing circular arc and sine wave spar webs by non-curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The basic problem of how to simply represent a curved web of a spar in a finite element structural model was addressed. The ratio of flat web to curved web axial deformations and longitudinal rotations were calculated using NASTRAN models. Multiplying factors were developed from these calculations for various web thicknesses. These multiplying factors can be applied directly to the area and moment of inertia inputs of the finite element model. This allows the thermal stress relieving configurations of sine wave and circular arc webs to be simply accounted for in finite element structural models.

  3. Amplitude estimation of a sine function based on confidence intervals and Bayes' theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversmann, D.; Pretz, J.; Rosenthal, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the amplitude estimation using data originating from a sine-like function as probability density function. If a simple least squares fit is used, a significant bias is observed if the amplitude is small compared to its error. It is shown that a proper treatment using the Feldman-Cousins algorithm of likelihood ratios allows one to construct improved confidence intervals. Using Bayes' theorem a probability density function is derived for the amplitude. It is used in an application to show that it leads to better estimates compared to a simple least squares fit.

  4. Dynamics of kink-kink collisions in the double-sine-Gordon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, R.; El-Batanouny, M.; Willis, C. R.; Sodano, P.

    1988-09-01

    We study the double-sine-Gordon kink-kink collisions in a formalism which employs collective variables to describe the internal oscillations of the kinks and their translational motion in their center-of-mass frame. The equations of motion are solved in the absence of the radiation field and dynamical dressing and the results are compared with numerical molecular-dynamics simulations. We investigate the energy exchange between the translational and internal modes, and a mechanism is proposed to explain the values of the translational velocity at which maximum energy is exchanged between the two modes.

  5. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    PubMed

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  6. Sine-squared potential of planar channeled particles and Kumakhov radiation of charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Shiyu; Shao Mingzhu

    1984-07-01

    A new planar-continuum potential, the sine-squared potential, is introduced to analyze the behavior of particle motion in a planar channel, and the equation of particle motion is reduced to the well-known pendulum equation. Particle motion equation and oscillation period are solved exactly by Jacobi elliptic functions and the first kind of complete elliptic integral. Radiation intensity and spectral characteristics of Kumakhov radiation are analyzed. The results show that Kumakhov radiation is a promising new source for the ..gamma..-ray laser.

  7. A Simple Robust PID Controller Design Method Based on Sine Wave Identification of the Uncertain Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucz, Štefan; Marič, Ladislav; Harsányi, Ladislav; Veselý, Vojtech

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the development and application of a new simple empirical approach to the design of robust PID controllers for technological processes in industrial practice. The main advantage of the proposed approach is the possibility to specify the required performance before the design algorithm implementation. Identification of characteristic data of the black-box type plant with varying parameters is carried out using the sine wave excitation signal, thus allowing to design the controller without necessarily knowing the mathematical model of the plant. The proposed approach has been verified on a real-world physical process.

  8. Formation of optical fields of stimulated Raman scattering with a resolution beyond the Abbe diffraction limit by spherical microlens cavities with whispering gallery modes: Near-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouravlev, M. V.

    2012-04-01

    We consider a significant lowering of the threshold of stimulated Raman scattering in solid fused silica spherical microlenses cavities that is caused by an increase in the integral overlap factor of whispering gallery modes. The structure of focal regions of a microlens is shown to have the shape of honeycombs, forming a photonic crystal or a photonic nanojet. We show that, at comparatively small numerical apertures NA = 0.7-0.8, which correspond to hemispherical microlenses, a spherical microlens cavity exhibits the possibility of focusing laser radiation beyond the Abbe diffraction limit. This enables the possibility of wide practical applications of microspheres as a focusing element the resolving power of which exceeds the Abbe diffraction limit in the near field. The whispering-gallery-mode spherical microlens cavity makes it possible to perform laser generation with a duration of a coherent pulse in the subfemtosecond range and to form a subwavelength focal region of the near field. This ensures the possibility of detecting single molecules of a substance in the subwavelength range in the near field and can be used to increase the sensitivity of intracavity spectroscopy methods and as microlasers for excitation of molecules in metal molecular nanoswitches and semiconductor heterostructures. From an array of microlens cavities, metamaterials with a negative refractive index can be formed.

  9. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions.

  10. A SINE insertion causes the black-and-tan and saddle tan phenotypes in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Dayna L; Schmutz, Sheila M

    2011-01-01

    Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) controls the localized expression of red and black pigment in the domestic dog through interaction with other genes, such as Melanocortin 1 Receptor and Beta-Defensin 103. Specific ASIP alleles are necessary for many of the coat color patterns, such as black-and-tan and saddle tan. Mutations in 2 ASIP alleles, a(y) and a, have previously been identified. Here, we characterize a mutation consisting of a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion in intron 1 of ASIP that allows for the differentiation of the a(w) wolf sable and a(t) black-and-tan alleles. The SINE insertion is present in dogs with the a(t) and a alleles but absent from dogs with the a(w) and a(y) alleles. Dogs with the saddle tan phenotype were all a(t)/a(t). Schnauzers were all a(w)/a(w). Genotypes of 201 dogs of 35 breeds suggest that there are only 4 ASIP alleles, as opposed to the 5 or 6 predicted in previous literature. These data demonstrate that the dominance hierarchy of ASIP is a(y) > a(w) > a(t) > a.

  11. Nonlinear quantum-mechanical system associated with Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Zarmi, Yair

    2014-10-15

    Despite the fact that it is not integrable, the (1 + 2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation has N-soliton solutions, whose velocities are lower than the speed of light (c = 1), for all N ≥ 1. Based on these solutions, a quantum-mechanical system is constructed over a Fock space of particles. The coordinate of each particle is an angle around the unit circle. U, a nonlinear functional of the particle number-operators, which obeys the Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions, is constructed. Its eigenvalues on N-particle states in the Fock space are the slower-than-light, N-soliton solutions of the equation. A projection operator (a nonlinear functional of U), which vanishes on the single-particle subspace, is a mass-density generator. Its eigenvalues on multi-particle states play the role of the mass density of structures that emulate free, spatially extended, relativistic particles. The simplicity of the quantum-mechanical system allows for the incorporation of perturbations with particle interactions, which have the capacity to “annihilate” and “create” solitons – an effect that does not have an analog in perturbed classical nonlinear evolution equations.

  12. Speech perception of sine-wave signals by children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Kuess, Jamie; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Children need to discover linguistically meaningful structures in the acoustic speech signal. Being attentive to recurring, time-varying formant patterns helps in that process. However, that kind of acoustic structure may not be available to children with cochlear implants (CIs), thus hindering development. The major goal of this study was to examine whether children with CIs are as sensitive to time-varying formant structure as children with normal hearing (NH) by asking them to recognize sine-wave speech. The same materials were presented as speech in noise, as well, to evaluate whether any group differences might simply reflect general perceptual deficits on the part of children with CIs. Vocabulary knowledge, phonemic awareness, and “top-down” language effects were all also assessed. Finally, treatment factors were examined as possible predictors of outcomes. Results showed that children with CIs were as accurate as children with NH at recognizing sine-wave speech, but poorer at recognizing speech in noise. Phonemic awareness was related to that recognition. Top-down effects were similar across groups. Having had a period of bimodal stimulation near the time of receiving a first CI facilitated these effects. Results suggest that children with CIs have access to the important time-varying structure of vocal-tract formants. PMID:25994709

  13. Mapping displacement and deformation of the heart with local sine-wave modeling.

    PubMed

    Arts, T; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, T; Milles, J R; Rossi, Alessandro C; Clarysse, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The new SinMod method extracts motion from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-tagged (MRIT) image sequences. Image intensity in the environment of each pixel is modeled as a moving sine wavefront. Displacement is estimated at subpixel accuracy. Performance is compared with the harmonic-phase analysis (HARP) method, which is currently the most common method used to detect motion in MRIT images. SinMod can handle line tags, as well as speckle patterns. In artificial images (tag distance six pixels), SinMod detects displacements accurately (error < 0.02 pixels). Effects of noise are suppressed effectively. Sharp transitions in motion at the boundary of an object are smeared out over a width of 0.6 tag distance. For MRIT images of the heart, SinMod appears less sensitive to artifacts, especially later in the cardiac cycle when image quality deteriorates. For each pixel, the quality of the sine-wave model in describing local image intensity is quantified objectively. If local quality is low, artifacts are avoided by averaging motion over a larger environment. Summarizing, SinMod is just as fast as HARP, but it performs better with respect to accuracy of displacement detection, noise reduction, and avoidance of artifacts.

  14. MIEN1 is tightly regulated by SINE Alu methylation in its promoter

    PubMed Central

    Van Treuren, Timothy; Klinkebiel, David L.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2016-01-01

    Migration and invasion enhancer 1 (MIEN1) is a novel gene involved in prostate cancer progression by enhancing prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. DNA methylation, an important epigenetic regulation, is one of the most widely altered mechanisms in prostate cancer. This phenomenon frames the basis to study the DNA methylation patterns in the promoter region of MIEN1. Bisulfite pyrosequencing demonstrates the MIEN1 promoter contains a short interspersed nuclear Alu element (SINE Alu) repeat sequence. Validation of methylation inhibition on MIEN1 was performed using nucleoside analogs and non-nucleoside inhibitors and resulted in an increase in both MIEN1 RNA and protein in normal cells. MIEN1 mRNA and protein increases upon inhibition of individual DNA methyltransferases using RNA interference technologies. Furthermore, dual luciferase reporter assays, in silico analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified a sequence upstream of the transcription start site that has a site for binding of the USF transcription factors. These results suggest the MIEN1 promoter has a SINE Alu region that is hypermethylated in normal cells leading to repression of the gene. In cancer, the hypomethylation of a part of this repeat, in addition to the binding of USF, results in MIEN1 expression. PMID:27589566

  15. Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.

  16. Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B

    2012-09-10

    We use theoretical models to compare the receiver signal to noise ratio (SNR) vs. average rate of detected signal photons for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar using coherent detection with continuous wave (CW) lasers and direct detection with sine-wave and pulse modulations. The results show the coherent IPDA lidar has high receiver gain and narrow bandwidth to overcome the effects of detector circuit noise and background light, but the actual receiver performance can be limited by the coherent mixing efficiency, speckle and other factors. For direct detection, using sine-wave modulation allows the use of a low peak power laser transmitter and synchronous detection. The pulse modulation technique requires higher laser peak powers but is more efficient than sine-wave modulation in terms of average detected signal photon rate required to achieve a given receiver SNR. We also conducted experiments for the direct detection cases and the results agreed well with theory.

  17. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. PMID:23855320

  19. The Effects of Using Microsoft Power Point on EFL Learners' Attitude and Anxiety: Case Study of Two Master Students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benghalem, Boualem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of using ICT tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL students' attitude and anxiety. The participants in this study were 40 Master 2 students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes Algeria. In order to find out the effects of Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL…

  20. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  1. L’abbé Gui de Mortessagnes (1714-1796), collaborateur de Faujas de Saint-Fond et pionnier de la volcanologie en Vivarais-Velay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergoil, Jean; Mergoil-Daniel, Juliette

    2011-05-01

    Six letters from an enigmatic Abbé de Mortesagne are included in the famous book of Faujas de Saint-Fond (1778), Recherches sur les volcans éteints du Vivarais et du Velay. Examination of the records have allowed his identification as Gui de Mortessagnes and explains how this Jesuit, formerly Professor of Physics at the Montpellier College, started to make original observations about the high Vivarais-Velay volcanism. Mortessagnes first encountered Faujas at Montelimar, in 1767, as is attested by their two signatures on a legal document. Mortessagnes was after introduced to Geology in the low-Vivarais by Faujas, who then sent him to the high-Vivarais and Velay to extend their research. With accurate and original observations on volcanic products and their geological settings, he discussed the basalt nature, the interactions between basalt and sediments, and even resorted to experimental testing of basalt fusibility.

  2. Efficient three-dimensional resist profile-driven source mask optimization optical proximity correction based on Abbe-principal component analysis and Sylvester equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Yu, Chun-Chang; Chen, Charlie Chung-Ping

    2015-01-01

    As one of the critical stages of a very large scale integration fabrication process, postexposure bake (PEB) plays a crucial role in determining the final three-dimensional (3-D) profiles and lessening the standing wave effects. However, the full 3-D chemically amplified resist simulation is not widely adopted during the postlayout optimization due to the long run-time and huge memory usage. An efficient simulation method is proposed to simulate the PEB while considering standing wave effects and resolution enhancement techniques, such as source mask optimization and subresolution assist features based on the Sylvester equation and Abbe-principal component analysis method. Simulation results show that our algorithm is 20× faster than the conventional Gaussian convolution method.

  3. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  4. Sine-Gordon Theory in the Repulsive Regime, Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz and Minimal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.

    2013-06-01

    Neutral excitations present in the repulsive regime (1/2 < β2/8π < 1) of the sine- Gordon/massive-Thirring model and its study of the massless limit by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz is revisited. At β2/8π = 1 - 1/(p + 1) the solitons become infinitely heavy, forcing truncation to the neutral excitations alone. The central charge in this limit is calculated to be c = 1 - 6/p(p + 1); the mass and S-matrices of the truncated theories are identified as those of the minimal conformal theory Mp perturbed by the ϕ(1,3) operator.

  5. Study of a high power sine waveguide traveling wave tube amplifier centered at 8 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Brad W.; Simon, David S.; French, David M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Wong, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Performance of a 20-stage X-band sine waveguide amplifier, driven by a 40 A, 100 kV, cylindrical electron beam, is studied using numerical simulation and interpreted using Pierce's classical traveling wave tube theory. For an input signal power level of 1.8 kW, particle-in-cell simulations predict gain and bandwidth values exceeding 14 dB and 13%, respectively. For an input signal power level of 7.2 kW, particle-in-cell simulations predict gain and bandwidth values exceeding 12 dB and 15%, respectively, with output power levels exceeding 110 kW at peak gain. Also given are: an assessment of the space charge factor (Pierce's QC parameter) for the complex circuit using simulation data, and an evaluation of the harmonic contents in the beam current.

  6. The sine oculis homeobox (SIX) family of transcription factors as regulators of development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The sine oculis homeobox (SIX) protein family is a group of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are found in diverse organisms that range from flatworms to humans. These factors are expressed within, and play pivotal developmental roles in, cell populations that give rise to the head, retina, ear, nose, brain, kidney, muscle and gonads. Mutations within the fly and mammalian versions of these genes have adverse consequences on the development of these organs/tissues. Several SIX proteins have been shown to directly influence the cell cycle and are present at elevated levels during tumorigenesis and within several cancers. This review aims to highlight aspects of (1) the evolutionary history of the SIX family; (2) the structural differences and similarities amongst the different SIX proteins; (3) the role that these genes play in retinal development; and (4) the influence that these proteins have on cell proliferation and growth. PMID:18989625

  7. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  8. EXONIC SINE INSERTION IN STK38L CAUSES CANINE EARLY RETINAL DEGENERATION (erd)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N-terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob Proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations. PMID:20887780

  9. Exonic SINE insertion in STK38L causes canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2010-12-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations.

  10. Quantum quench dynamics of the sine-Gordon model in some solvable limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iucci, A.; Cazalilla, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    With regard to the thermalization problem in isolated quantum systems, we investigate the dynamics following a quantum quench of the sine-Gordon model (sGM) in the Luther-Emery and the semiclassical limits. We consider the quench from the gapped to the gapless phase, as well as the reverse one. By obtaining analytic expressions for the one- and two-point correlation functions of the order parameter operator at zero-temperature, the manifestations of integrability in the absence of thermalization in the sGM are studied. It is shown that correlations in the long-time regime after the quench are well described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We also consider the case where the system is initially in contact with a reservoir at finite temperature. The possible relevance of our results to current and future experiments with ultracold atomic systems is also considered.

  11. Obtaining changes in calibration-coil to seismometer output constants using sine waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Gee, Lind S.; Sandoval, Leo D.; Wilson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The midband sensitivity of a broadband seismometer is one of the most commonly used parameters from station metadata. Thus, it is critical for station operators to robustly estimate this quantity with a high degree of accuracy. We develop an in situ method for estimating changes in sensitivity using sine‐wave calibrations, assuming the calibration coil and its drive are stable over time and temperature. This approach has been used in the past for passive instruments (e.g., geophones) but has not been applied, to our knowledge, to derive sensitivities of modern force‐feedback broadband seismometers. We are able to detect changes in sensitivity to well within 1%, and our method is capable of detecting these sensitivity changes using any frequency of sine calibration within the passband of the instrument.

  12. A parameter estimation algorithm for spatial sine testing - Theory and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, R. W.; Deblauwe, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and an evaluation of a spatial sine testing parameter estimation algorithm that uses directly the measured forced mode of vibration and the measured force vector. The parameter estimation algorithm uses an ARMA model and a recursive QR algorithm is applied for data reduction. In this first evaluation, the algorithm has been applied to a frequency response matrix (which is a particular set of forced mode of vibration) using a sliding frequency window. The objective of the sliding frequency window is to execute the analysis simultaneously with the data acquisition. Since the pole values and the modal density are obtained from this analysis during the acquisition, the analysis information can be used to help determine the forcing vectors during the experimental data acquisition.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  14. Resurgence in sine-Gordon quantum mechanics: exact agreement between multi-instantons and uniform WKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke

    2015-09-01

    We compute multi-instanton amplitudes in the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (periodic cosine potential) by integrating out quasi-moduli parameters corresponding to separations of instantons and anti-instantons. We propose an extension of Bogomolnyi-Zinn-Justin prescription for multi-instanton configurations and an appropriate subtraction scheme. We obtain the multi-instanton contributions to the energy eigenvalue of the lowest band at the zeroth order of the coupling constant. For the configurations with only instantons (anti-instantons), we obtain unambiguous results. For those with both instantons and anti-instantons, we obtain results with imaginary parts, which depend on the path of analytic continuation. We show that the imaginary parts of the multi-instanton amplitudes precisely cancel the imaginary parts of the Borel resummation of the perturbation series, and verify that our results completely agree with those based on the uniform-WKB calculations, thus confirming the resurgence structure: divergent perturbation series combined with the nonperturbative multi-instanton contributions conspire to give unambiguous results. We also study the neutral bion contributions in the {C}{P}^{N-1} model on {{R}}^1× {S}^1 with a small circumference, taking account of the relative phase moduli between the fractional instanton and anti-instanton. We find that the sign of the interaction potential depends on the relative phase moduli, and that both the real and imaginary parts resulting from quasi-moduli integral of the neutral bion get quantitative corrections compared to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics.

  15. Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana: violation of the sine- and resultant-law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Paul

    We investigated the gravitropic bending of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings of Arabidopsis tha-liana in response to long-term centrifugal accelerations in a range of 5 x 10-3 to 4 x g. The so-cal-led resultant law of gravitropism, a corollary of the so called sine law, claims that during centri-fugation a gravitropic organ aligns itself parallel to the resultant stimulus vector. We show here that neither of the two empirical “laws” is apt to describe the complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabidopsis. Hypocotyls obey reasonably well the resultant law while roots display a complex behaviour that is clearly at variance with it. Horizontally centrifuged seedlings sense minute accelerations acting parallel to the longitudinal axis. If the centrifugal vector points to-ward the cotyledons, then the bending of hypocotyls and roots is greatly enhanced. If the centri-fugal vector points, however, toward the root tip, then only the bending of roots is enhanced by accelerations as low as 5 x 10-3 x g (positive tonic effect). The absolute gravitropic thresholds were determined for hypocotyls and roots in a clinostat-centrifuge and found to be near 1.5 x 10-2 x g. A behavioural mutant, ehb1-2 (Knauer et al. 2011), displays a lower gravitropic threshold for roots, not however, for hypocotyls. The complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabi-dopsis is at odds with the classical sine- as well as the resultant law and can indicates the eminent role that is played by the acceleration vector operating longitudinally to the seedling axis.

  16. Remarks on the Non-Linear Differential Equation the Second Derivative of Theta Plus A Sine Theta Equals 0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; O'Neal, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors draw together a variety of facts concerning a nonlinear differential equation and compare the exact solution with approximate solutions. Then they provide an expository introduction to the elliptic sine function suitable for presentation in undergraduate courses on differential equations. (MNS)

  17. The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and its association with piscine specific SINE elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Karsi, A; Dunham, R A; Liu, Z

    2000-07-11

    The alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was cloned and sequenced. The gene has a similar organization and exhibited a high level of sequence similarity to those from other vertebrate animals. The upstream region of the alpha-actin gene included a TATA box, a CAAT box, three E-boxes, and a CArG box. Nested deletion segments containing these transcriptional motifs were fused to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Transfection of the clones into C2C12 cells indicated that all these motifs are required for transcriptional activities. The channel catfish alpha-actin gene is associated with two distinct short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The first SINE element showed high levels of sequence similarity to the zebrafish Mermaid element, while the second SINE element is not similar to the Mermaid element except for an 8bp sequence CCCCGTGC suggesting their evolutionary linkage. However, the second SINE element appeared to co-exist with the Mermaid element in most cases and therefore was designated as the Merman element. Approximately 9000 copies and 1200 copies of the Mermaid and Merman elements exist per haploid channel catfish genome, respectively. BLAST searches indicated that both the Mermaid and the Merman elements were frequently associated with gene sequences, mostly those of aquatic animals, suggesting their evolutionary origin in association with aquatic organisms and their function in shaping the evolution of genomes in aquatic animals.

  18. Spatially Extended Relativistic Particles Out of Traveling Front Solutions of Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarmi, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Slower-than-light multi-front solutions of the Sine-Gordon in (1+2) dimensions, constructed through the Hirota algorithm, are mapped onto spatially localized structures, which emulate free, spatially extended, massive relativistic particles. A localized structure is an image of the junctions at which the fronts intersect. It propagates together with the multi-front solution at the velocity of the latter. The profile of the localized structure obeys the linear wave equation in (1+2) dimensions, to which a term that represents interaction with a slower-than-light, Sine-Gordon-multi-front solution has been added. This result can be also formulated in terms of a (1+2)-dimensional Lagrangian system, in which the Sine-Gordon and wave equations are coupled. Expanding the Euler-Lagrange equations in powers of the coupling constant, the zero-order part of the solution reproduces the (1+2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon fronts. The first-order part is the spatially localized structure. PACS: 02.30.Ik, 03.65.Pm, 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Ik. PMID:26930077

  19. A method for quantification of exportin-1 (XPO1) occupancy by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds.

    PubMed

    Crochiere, Marsha L; Baloglu, Erkan; Klebanov, Boris; Donovan, Scott; Del Alamo, Diego; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-12

    Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds are a family of small-molecules that inhibit nuclear export through covalent binding to cysteine 528 (Cys528) in the cargo-binding pocket of Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) and promote cancer cell death. Selinexor is the lead SINE compound currently in phase I and II clinical trials for advanced solid and hematological malignancies. In an effort to understand selinexor-XPO1 interaction and to establish whether cancer cell response is a function of drug-target engagement, we developed a quantitative XPO1 occupancy assay. Biotinylated leptomycin B (b-LMB) was utilized as a tool compound to measure SINE-free XPO1. Binding to XPO1 was quantitated from SINE compound treated adherent and suspension cells in vitro, dosed ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and PBMCs from mice dosed orally with drug in vivo. Evaluation of a panel of selinexor sensitive and resistant cell lines revealed that resistance was not attributed to XPO1 occupancy by selinexor. Administration of a single dose of selinexor bound XPO1 for minimally 72 hours both in vitro and in vivo. While XPO1 inhibition directly correlates with selinexor pharmacokinetics, the biological outcome of this inhibition depends on modulation of pathways downstream of XPO1, which ultimately determines cancer cell responsiveness.

  20. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression. PMID:24231191

  1. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-11-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression.

  2. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Jans, David A.; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-01-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host’s primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus. PMID:27902702

  3. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Jans, David A; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-11-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus.

  4. Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005. Baleen whale phylogeny and a past extensive radiation event revealed by SINE insertion analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Hamilton, Healy; Makino, Hitomi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-05-01

    Baleen whales (suborder Mysticeti) comprise 11 extant species that are classified into four families. Although several phylogenetic hypotheses about these taxa have been proposed, their phylogenetic relationships remain confused. We addressed this problem using short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) insertion data, which now are regarded as almost ideal shared, derived characters at the molecular level. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of baleen whales by characterizing 36 informative SINE loci. One of the intriguing conclusions is that balaenopterids and eschrichtiids radiated very rapidly during a very short evolutionary period. During this period, speciation occurred in balaenopterids and eschrichtiids while newly inserted SINE loci remains polymorphic. Later on, these SINEs were sorted incompletely into each lineage. Thus, there are now inconsistencies among species regarding the presence or absence of a given SINE. This is in sharp contrast to the phylogeny of toothed whales, for which no SINE inconsistencies have been found. Furthermore, we found monophyletic groupings between humpback and fin whales as well as between (sei+Bryde's) whales and blue whales, both of which have not previously been recognized. The comprehensive SINE insertion data, together with the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny that was recently completed (Sasaki, T., M. Nikaido, H. Healy et al. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales. Syst. Biol. 56:77-90; Rychel, A. L., T. W. Reeder, and A. Berta. 2004. Phylogeny of mysticete whales based on mitochondrial and nuclear data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32:892-901), provide a nearly complete picture of the evolutionary history of baleen whales.

  5. The sine-Gordon model and the small. kappa. sup + region of light- cone perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k{sup +} = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative {beta}{sup 2} = 8{pi} critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman's variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k{sup +} = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all {beta}, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k{sup +} = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green's functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k {sup +} = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k {sup +} = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  6. Breather dynamics in the nonlinear Schrödinger regime of perturbed sine-gordon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, M.; Spatschek, K. H.; Fernandez, J. C.; Grauer, R.; Reinisch, G.

    1989-11-01

    A possible route to temporal chaos with coherent stable spatial structures is proposed for the driven damped sine-Gordon equation. For near-conservative perturbations, the dynamics of a breather is investigated numerically and semi-analytically in the presence of an ac driver and a simple damping term. For moderate driver strengths, a flat (space-independent) attractor exists whereas above a threshold a phase-locked breather co-exists. The latter can undergo a period-doubling route to temporal chaos as is shown here for a certain parameter regime. Relations to other works which operate in a different parameter regime are discussed. The near-conservative perturbations and the low driver strengths allow to interpret the results within a simple model originating from the so-called nonlinear Schrödinger limit. In fact, within this limit (small amplitude breather), the chaotic (or not) transitions are dominated by interactions between breather-like solutions and radiation (mostly k=0 mode). Therefore, three collective coordinates, i.e. the amplitude of the phase-locked breather, its phase, as well as the complex amplitude of the linear k=0 mode, are sufficient to construct a system of four ordinary differential equations of first order which reveal the basic features of the partial differential equations in a satisfactory manner.

  7. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement.

  8. Sine-Gordon modulation solutions: Application to macroscopic non-lubricant friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Skinner, Thomas E.

    2016-10-01

    The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model and its continuum approximation, the sine-Gordon (SG) equation, are widely used to model a variety of important nonlinear physical systems. Many practical applications require the wave-train solution, which includes many solitons. In such cases, an important and relevant extension of these models applies Whitham's averaging procedure to the SG equation. The resulting SG modulation equations describe the behavior of important measurable system parameters that are the average of the small-scale solutions given by the SG equation. A fundamental problem of modern physics that is the topic of this paper is the description of the transitional process from a static to a dynamic frictional regime. We have shown that the SG modulation equations are a suitable apparatus for describing this transition. The model provides relations between kinematic (rupture and slip velocities) and dynamic (shear and normal stresses) parameters of the transition process. A particular advantage of the model is its ability to describe frictional processes over a wide range of rupture and slip velocities covering seismic events ranging from regular earthquakes, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/s, to slow slip events, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/day.

  9. Swept sine testing of rotor-bearing system for damping estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Many types of rotating components commonly operate above the first or second critical speed and they are subjected to run-ups and shutdowns frequently. The present study focuses on developing FRF of rotor bearing systems for damping estimation from swept-sine excitation. The principle of active vibration control states that with increase in angular acceleration, the amplitude of vibration due to unbalance will reduce and the FRF envelope will shift towards the right (or higher frequency). The frequency response function (FRF) estimated by tracking filters or Co-Quad analyzers was proved to induce an error into the FRF estimate. Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and stationary wavelet transform (SWT) decomposition FRF distortion can be reduced. To obtain a theoretical clarity, the shifting of FRF envelope phenomenon is incorporated into conventional FRF expressions and validation is performed with the FRF estimated using the Fourier Transform approach. The half-power bandwidth method is employed to extract damping ratios from the FRF estimates. While deriving half-power points for both types of responses (acceleration and displacement), damping ratio (ζ) is estimated with different approximations like classical definition (neglecting damping ratio of order higher than 2), third order (neglecting damping ratios with order higher than 4) and exact (no assumptions on damping ratio). The use of stationary wavelet transform to denoise the noise corrupted FRF data is explained. Finally, experiments are performed on a test rotor excited with different sweep rates to estimate the damping ratio.

  10. Study of flow induced by sine wave and saw tooth plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Wang, Lianze; Fu, Song

    2011-11-01

    The effect of plasma actuator that uses saw-tooth or sine-wave shape electrodes on boundary layer flows is experimentally investigated. The measurement results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (conventional design using two rectangular strip electrodes)—the actuator that produces a nearly two-dimensional horizontal wall jet upon actuation. PIV measurements are used to characterize the actuators in a quiescent chamber. Operating in a steady manner, the new actuators result in the formation of streamwise and spanwise vortices. That is to say, the new actuators render the plasma actuators inducing three-dimensional variations in the shear layer, offering significant flexibility in flow control. The affected flowfield with the new actuators is significantly larger than that with the conventional linear actuators. While the conventional linear actuators affect primarily the boundary layer flow on a scale of about 1 cm above the wall, the new actuators affect the near wall region at a significantly larger scale. This new design broadens the applicability and enhances the flow control effects and it is potentially a more efficient flow control device.

  11. Strong and uniform mean stability of cosine and sine operator functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryotaro; Shaw, Sen-Yen

    2007-06-01

    It is first observed that a uniformly bounded cosine operator function C([dot operator]) and the associated sine function S([dot operator]) are totally non-stable. Then, using a zero-one law for the Abel limit of a closed linear operator, we prove some results concerning strong mean stability and uniform mean stability of C([dot operator]). Among them are: (1) C([dot operator]) is strongly (C,1)-mean stable (or (C,2)-mean stable, or Abel-mean stable) if and only if 0[set membership, variant][rho](A)[union or logical sum][sigma]c(A); (2) C([dot operator]) is uniformly (C,2)-mean stable if and only if S([dot operator]) is uniformly (C,1)-mean stable, if and only if , if and only if , if and only if C([dot operator]) is uniformly Abel-mean stable, if and only if S([dot operator]) is uniformly Abel-mean stable, if and only if 0[set membership, variant][rho](A).

  12. Determination of the number of cells in a stepped sine wave inverter for equal charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Gabbay, D.

    1985-07-01

    The synthesis of an inverter sine wave output voltage by a staircase wave shape of low level voltage sources (cells) is accomplished by combining the cells in series at specific time intervals. Different cells of the inverter are then connected to the load for different time durations which results in unequal discharging of the cells. In order for the cells to transfer equal charge during the system operation, each voltage step should consist of a different number of cells in a parallel combination (module), the number of which depends on the time along the wave shape. The number of cells in each module is determined from the circuit current analysis and the appropriate switching time intervals, and is performed for a resistive and an inductive load. This number depends on the number of inverter voltage steps, the cell internal resistance, and the type of the load. The proper number of cells in the modules ensures identical state of charge of the cells, and equal cell recharging, and simplifies cell inspection, maintenance, and replacement.

  13. A new perspective on remote Saddle Sine and Cosine coils technique for determination of tokamak plasma equilibrium status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    In this contribution we have presented a new perspective for determination of tokamak plasma column shift based on remote multipole moments technique. First, we presented analytical details for using this technique. Then principle of different models based on this technique for design and fabrication of a six coils will be presented: four modified Rogowski coil (two Cosine coils and two Sine coils) and two Saddle coils (Saddle Sine coil (SSC) and Saddle Cosine coil (SCC)). Also, in order to comparison of results the flux loops technique is used. Because of continuous measurements of magnetic field distribution around the tokamak plasma using multipole coils, this technique give us more reliable information about the plasma current displacement.

  14. Final Report-Confirmatory Survey Results for the ABB Combustion Engineering Site, Windsor, Connecticut; Revision 1 (DCN 5158-SR-02-1) (Docket No. 030-03754; RFTA No. 12-003)

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2013-01-28

    The objectives of the confirmatory activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the contractor's procedures and FSS results. ORAU reviewed ABB CE's decommissioning plan, final status survey plan, and the applicable soil DCGLs, which were developed based on an NRC-approved radiation dose assessment. The surveys included gamma surface scans, gamma direct measurements, and soil sampling.

  15. Specific sine-Gordon soliton dynamics in the presence of external driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Gilbert; Fernandez, Jean Claude

    1981-07-01

    We consider the acceleration of a single sine-Gordon (SG) soliton kink wave by an external time-dependent force χ(t), first without any dissipation, and then in the presence of a weak damping effect. We use the method of Fogel, Trullinger, Bishop, and Krumhansl [FTBK,

    Phys. Rev. B 45, 1578 (1977)]
    which consists in perturbing the SG equation about its kink solution and solving the resulting linear inhomogeneous equation for the perturbation function by expanding it in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger operator with potential 1-2 2x. Our results concerning the accelerated soliton dynamics strongly disagree with the FTBK conclusion that the soliton should undergo an acceleration proportional to χ (this is the so-called Newtonian dynamical behavior of SG soliton, which is also predicted by all existing perturbation theories dealing with the perturbed SG equation). On the contrary, we find that this Newtonian acceleration is exactly balanced by a reaction effect of the continuous phonon spectrum excited by the external force χ, upon the moving kink, so that there is no soliton acceleration at all within the frame of this linear perturbation theory, i.e., for small time values. Actually, we show by the simple example of a static external force that the acceleration of an initially static kink is a higher-order effect (proportional to χt2, where t is the time, instead of being constant and proportional to χ). We emphasize that this last result has already been checked by numerical experiments and show, both by theory and by numerical simulations, that it does not qualitatively change when a small damping effect is taken into account.

  16. Nonlinear disintegration of sine wave in the framework of the Gardner equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkina, Oxana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear disintegration of sine wave is studied in the framework of the Gardner equation (extended version of the Korteweg - de Vries equation with both quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms). Undular bores appear here as an intermediate stage of wave evolution. Our numerical computations demonstrate the features of undular bore developing for different signs of the cubic nonlinear term. If cubic nonlinear term is negative, and initial wave amplitude is large enough, two undular bores are generated from the two breaking points formed on both crest slopes (within dispersionless Gardner equation). Undular bore consists of one table-top soliton and a group of small soliton-like waves passing through the table-top soliton. If the cubic nonlinear term is positive and again the wave amplitude is large enough, the breaking points appear on crest and trough generating groups of positive and negative solitary-like pulses. It is shown that nonlinear interaction of waves happens according to one of scenarios of two-soliton interaction of "exchange" or "overtake" types with a phase shift. If small-amplitude pulses interact with large-amplitude soliton-like pulses, their speed in average is negative in the case when "free" velocity is positive. Nonlinear interaction leads to the generation of higher harmonics and spectrum width increases with amplitude increase independently of the sign of cubic nonlinear term. The breaking asymptotic k4/3 predicted within the dispersionless Gardner equation emerges during the process of undular bore development. The formation of soliton-like perturbations leads to appearance of several spectral peaks which are downshifting with time.

  17. Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1 Regulates Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway Via Caspase-7 In Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peizhun; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yongchao; Ren, Hong; Patel, Rajan; Hu, Cheng'en; Zhang, Wenhong; Huang, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (Six1) is crucial in normal organ development. Recently, Six1 is reported to display aberrant expression in various cancers and plays important roles in cancer development. However, the regulatory mechanism of Six1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Six1 was increased in gastric cancer tissues, and its upregulation significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.042) and poor differentiation (p=0.039). Next, we took advantage of public available microarray data to assess Six1 prognostic value with online K-M Plotter software in gastric cancer, which demonstrated that patients with higher Six1 expression had shorter survival time (p=0.02). To explore the underlying mechanism of Six1, we silenced its upregulation in gastric cells to detect cellular functions. Our results indicated that knock-down Six1 could decrease colony formation number and rendered cells sensitive to 5- Fluorouracil drug treatment. The flow cytometry analyses showed that Six1 silence could promote apoptosis but had little effect on cell cycle transition. Along this clue, we tested mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1 assay, which suggested that Six1 inhibition could trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. Our subsequent results revealed that Six1 knock-down could reduce the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and caspase-7 but not caspase-3 was involved to execute the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, we find Six1 has oncogenic role in gastric cancer development, and silenced Six1 expression can promote mitochondrial apoptosis by repressing Bcl-2 and activating executor caspase-7. These findings suggest that Six1 may become a valuable prognostic and therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28367243

  18. Interaction of sine-Gordon kinks and breathers with a parity-time-symmetric defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Borisov, Denis I.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.

    2014-11-01

    The scattering of kinks and low-frequency breathers of the nonlinear sine-Gordon (SG) equation on a spatially localized parity-time-symmetric perturbation (defect) with a balanced gain and loss is investigated numerically. It is demonstrated that if a kink passes the defect, it always restores its initial momentum and energy, and the only effect of the interaction with the defect is a phase shift of the kink. A kink approaching the defect from the gain side always passes, while in the opposite case it must have sufficiently large initial momentum to pass through the defect instead of being trapped in the loss region. The kink phase shift and critical velocity are calculated by means of the collective variable method. Kink-kink (kink-antikink) collisions at the defect are also briefly considered, showing how their pairwise repulsive (respectively, attractive) interaction can modify the collisional outcome of a single kink within the pair with the defect. For the breather, the result of its interaction with the defect depends strongly on the breather parameters (velocity, frequency, and initial phase) and on the defect parameters. The breather can gain some energy from the defect and as a result potentially even split into a kink-antikink pair, or it can lose a part of its energy. Interestingly, the breather translational mode is very weakly affected by the dissipative perturbation, so that a breather penetrates more easily through the defect when it comes from the lossy side, than a kink. In all studied soliton-defect interactions, the energy loss to radiation of small-amplitude extended waves is negligible.

  19. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (108). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system

  20. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-07-07

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (10(8)). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.

  1. Toothed whale monophyly reassessed by SINE insertion analysis: the absence of lineage sorting effects suggests a small population of a common ancestral species.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Piskurek, Oliver; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-04-01

    Morphological data have indicated that toothed whales form a monophyletic group. However, research published in the last several years has made the issue of the monophyly or paraphyly of toothed whales a subject of debate. Our group previously characterized three independent loci in which SINE insertions were shared among dolphins and sperm whales, thus supporting the traditional, morphologically based hypothesis of toothed whale monophyly. Although in recent years a few additional molecular works proposed this topology, there is still skepticism over this monophyly from the view point of molecular systematics. When the phylogeny of rapidly radiated taxa is examined using the SINE method, it is important to consider the ascertainment bias that arises when choosing a particular taxon for SINE loci screening. To overcome this methodological problem specific to the SINE method, we examined all possible topologies among sperm whales, dolphins and baleen whales by extensively screening SINE loci from species of all three lineages. We characterized nine independent SINE loci from the genomes of sperm whales and dolphins, all of which cluster sperm whales and dolphins but exclude baleen whales. Furthermore, we characterized ten independent loci from baleen whales, all of which were amplified in a common ancestor of these whales. From these observations, we conclude that toothed whales form a monophyletic group and that no ancestral SINE polymorphisms hinder their phylogenetic assignment despite the short divergence times of the major lineages of extant whales during evolution. These results suggest that a small population of common ancestors of all toothed whales ultimately diverged into the lineages of sperm whales and dolphins.

  2. The effect of sine-Wiener noises on transition in a genotype selection model with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Ning, Li; Liu, Pei

    2016-09-01

    A genotype selection system interplay with sine-Wiener noises and time delays is investigated. Stationary probability distribution function is obtained by numerical simulations. Results show that the multiplicative bounded noise can facilitate the gene separation, while the additive bounded noise suppresses the gene separation. Besides, local time delays α and β, being in gene transformation and gene heredity progress respectively, play opposite roles in the gene selection process. What is more interesting is that there is no transition during the process of gene select when time delays α = β (i.e., the system is subjected to global time delay).

  3. Verification of low frequency ac-dc transfer differences of thermal converters using sampling with sine-wave fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Torsten; Spiegel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Thermal converters show significant ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies due to nonlinearities of the heat transport mechanism and of the thermal-to-electric conversion. It is assumed that the ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies are proportional to the input power. We have proved this assumption by an independent method with sampling techniques. A novel approach based on sine-wave fitting is used to calculate the RMS value of the sampled signal from the samples. It makes use of the low noise in a metrological environment. Expanded uncertainties in the order of 1.2 μV/V have been achieved.

  4. Selinexor, a Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound, acts through NF-κB deactivation and combines with proteasome inhibitors to synergistically induce tumor cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Trinayan; Argueta, Christian; Aboukameel, Amro; Unger, Thaddeus John; Klebanov, Boris; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Muqbil, Irfana; Azmi, Asfar S.; Drolen, Claire; Senapedis, William; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear export protein, exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1), is overexpressed in many cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. Selinexor, a first-in-class Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound, binds covalently to XPO1 and blocks its function. Treatment of cancer cells with selinexor results in nuclear retention of major tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, we described the selection of SINE compound resistant cells and reported elevated expression of inflammation-related genes in these cells. Here, we demonstrated that NF-κB transcriptional activity is up-regulated in cells that are naturally resistant or have acquired resistance to SINE compounds. Resistance to SINE compounds was created by knockdown of the cellular NF-κB inhibitor, IκB-α. Combination treatment of selinexor with proteasome inhibitors decreased NF-κB activity, sensitized SINE compound resistant cells and showed synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that selinexor inhibited NF-κB activity by blocking phosphorylation of the IκB-α and the NF-κB p65 subunits, protecting IκB-α from proteasome degradation and trapping IκB-α in the nucleus to suppress NF-κB activity. Therefore, combination treatment of selinexor with a proteasome inhibitor may be beneficial to patients with resistance to either single-agent. PMID:27713151

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Stewart, Donald T

    2007-07-01

    The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear marker (short interspersed elements or SINEs) for resolving phylogenetic relationships, we constructed an inter-SINE fingerprint for nine putative species of the genus Sorex. In addition, we analyzed 1011 nucleotides of the cytochrome b gene. Traditional neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses were applied to the individual cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data sets, along with Bayesian analysis to the combined data sets. We found inter-SINE fingerprinting to be an effective species level marker; however, we were unable to reconstruct deeper branching patterns within the Sorex genus using these data. The combined data analyzed under a Bayesian analysis showed higher levels of structuring within the Otisorex subgenus, most notably recognizing a monophyletic group consisting of sister-taxa S. palustris and S. monticolus, S. cinereus and S. haydeni, and S. hoyi. An additional noteworthy result was the detection of an historic mitochondrial introgression event between S. monticolus and S. palustris. When combining disparate data sets, we emphasize researcher diligence as certain types of data and processes may overly influence the analysis. However, there is considerable phylogenetic potential stemming from inter-SINE fingerprinting.

  6. The Caenorhabditis elegans Six/sine oculis class homeobox gene ceh-32 is required for head morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dozier, C; Kagoshima, H; Niklaus, G; Cassata, G; Bürglin, T R

    2001-08-15

    Caenorhabditis elegans has four members of the Six/sine oculis class of homeobox genes, ceh-32, ceh-33, ceh-34, and ceh-35. Proteins encoded by this gene family are transcription factors sharing two conserved domains, the homeodomain and the Six/sine oculis domain, both involved in DNA binding. ceh-32 expression was detected during embryogenesis in hypodermal and neuronal precursor cells and later in descendants of these cells as well as in gonadal sheath cells. RNAi inactivation studies suggest that ceh-32 plays a role in head morphogenesis, like vab-3, the C. elegans Pax-6 orthologue. ceh-32 and vab-3 are coexpressed in head hypodermal cells and ceh-32 mRNA levels are reduced in vab-3 mutants. Moreover, ectopic expression of VAB-3 in transgenic worms is able to induce ceh-32 ectopically. In addition, we demonstrate that VAB-3 is able to bind directly to the ceh-32 upstream regulatory region in vitro and to activate reporter gene transcription in a yeast one-hybrid system. Our results suggest that VAB-3 acts upstream of ceh-32 during head morphogenesis and directly induces ceh-32. Thus, ceh-32 appears to be the first target gene of VAB-3 identified so far.

  7. Dynamical properties of the sine-Gordon quantum spin magnet Cu-PM at zero and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiegel, Alexander C.; Honecker, Andreas; Pruschke, Thomas; Ponomaryov, Alexey; Zvyagin, Sergei A.; Feyerherm, Ralf; Manmana, Salvatore R.

    2016-03-01

    The material copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM) is a quasi-one-dimensional spin system described by the spin-1/2 X X Z Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on numerical results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group, exact diagonalization, and accompanying electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments we revisit the spin dynamics of this compound in an applied magnetic field. Our calculations for momentum and frequency-resolved dynamical quantities give direct access to the intensity of the elementary excitations at both zero and finite temperature. This allows us to study the system beyond the low-energy description by the quantum sine-Gordon model. We find a deviation from the Lorentz invariant dispersion for the single-soliton resonance. Furthermore, our calculations only confirm the presence of the strongest boundary bound state previously derived from a boundary sine-Gordon field theory, while composite boundary-bulk excitations have too low intensities to be observable. Upon increasing the temperature, we find a temperature-induced crossover of the soliton and the emergence of new features, such as interbreather transitions. The latter observation is confirmed by our ESR experiments on Cu-PM over a wide range of the applied field.

  8. Estimation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters based on fractional delay and sine curve fitting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) based on fractional delay (FD) and sine curve fitting. Choose one channel as the reference channel and apply FD to the output samples of reference channel to obtain the ideal samples of non-reference channels with no mismatches. Based on least square method, the sine curves are adopted to fit the ideal and the actual samples of non-reference channels, and then the mismatch parameters can be estimated by comparing the ideal sine curves and the actual ones. The principle of this algorithm is simple and easily understood. Moreover, its implementation needs no extra circuits, lowering the hardware cost. Simulation results show that the estimation accuracy of this algorithm can be controlled within 2%. Finally, the practicability of this algorithm is verified by the measurement results of channel mismatch errors of a two-channel TIADC prototype.

  9. Iterative methods for symmetric ill-conditioned Toeplitz matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Huckle, T.

    1996-12-31

    We consider ill-conditioned symmetric positive definite, Toeplitz systems T{sub n}x = b. If we want to solve such a system iteratively with the conjugate gradient method, we can use band-Toeplitz-preconditioners or Sine-Transform-peconditioners M = S{sub n}{Lambda}S{sub n}, S{sub n} the Sine-Transform-matrix and {Lambda} a diagonal matrix. A Toeplitz matrix T{sub n} = (t{sub i-j)}{sub i}{sup n},{sub j=1} is often related to an underlying function f defined by the coefficients t{sub j}, j = -{infinity},..,-1,0, 1,.., {infinity}. There are four cases, for which we want to determine a preconditioner M: - T{sub n} is related to an underlying function which is given explicitly; - T{sub n} is related to an underlying function that is given by its Fourier coefficients; - T{sub n} is related to an underlying function that is unknown; - T{sub n} is not related to an underlying function. Especially for the first three cases we show how positive definite and effective preconditioners based on the Sine-Transform can be defined for general nonnegative underlying function f. To define M, we evaluate or estimate the values of f at certain positions, and build a Sine-transform matrix with these values as eigenvalues. Then, the spectrum of the preconditioned system is bounded from above and away from zero.

  10. Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongping; Wang, Fanhou; Gao, Zenghui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-26

    Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian (PCESHG) vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, including the spectral degree of polarization and evolution behavior of coherent vortices and average intensity are investigated in detail by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It is shown that the motion, creation and annihilation of the coherent vortices of PCESHG vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence may appear with the increasing propagation distance, and the distance for the conservation of the topological charge depends on the turbulence parameters and beam parameters. In additions, the evolution behavior of coherent vortices, average intensity and spectral degree of polarization vary significantly for different values of the generalized exponent parameter and the generalized refractive-index structure parameter of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the beam parameters as well as the propagation distance.

  11. A control performance analysis for MacPherson active suspension system under bounce sine sweep road profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. Fahezal; Sam, Yahaya Md.; Sudin, Shahdan; Aripin, M. Khairi

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies a control performance analysis for MacPherson active suspension system. The ride comfort quality is a very important specification for modern automotive suspension system. The Proportional Integral Sliding Mode Control-Evolutionary Strategy-Composite Nonlinear Feedback (PISMC-ES-CNF) controller is designed to solve the transient problem occurred in vertical acceleration of sprung mass. The control performance is tested by using PISMC-ES-CNF and compared with Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and Composite Nonlinear Feedback (CNF) under Bounce Sine Sweep road profile. The ISO 2631-1, 1997 is a standard for vertical acceleration of sprung mass level and degree of comfort. The one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and standard deviation have showed that the PISMC- ES-CNF controller compared with others controllers achieved the best control performance.

  12. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  13. Electrical stimulation using sine waveform prevents unloading-induced muscle atrophy in the deep calf muscles of rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Minoru; Hirayama, Yusuke; Fujita, Naoto; Fujino, Hidemi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of electrical stimulation by using rectangular and sine waveforms in the prevention of deep muscle atrophy in rat calf muscles. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control, hindlimb unloading (HU), and HU plus electrical stimulation (ES). The animals in the ES group were electrically stimulated using rectangular waveform (RS) on the left calves and sine waveform (SS) on the right calves, twice a day, for 2 weeks during unloading. HU for 2 weeks resulted in a loss of the muscle mass, a decrease in the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers, and overexpression of ubiquitinated proteins in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. In contrast, electrical stimulation with RS attenuated the HU-induced reduction in the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and the increase of ubiquitinated proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle. However, electrical stimulation with RS failed to prevent muscle atrophy in the deep portion of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles. Nevertheless, electrical stimulation with SS attenuated the HU-induced muscle atrophy and the up-regulation of ubiquitinated proteins in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. This indicates that SS was more effective in the prevention of deep muscle atrophy than RS. Since the skin muscle layers act like the plates of a capacitor, separated by the subcutaneous adipose layer, the SS can pass through this capacitor more easily than the RS. Hence, SS can prevent the progressive loss of muscle fibers in the deep portion of the calf muscles.

  14. Changes over a decade in fish assemblages exposed to both environmental and fishing constraints in the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecoutin, J. M.; Simier, M.; Albaret, J. J.; Laë, R.; Tito de Morais, L.

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the changes in the fish assemblage of the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal) over a 10-year period, it was surveyed during a complete hydrological cycle (three principal hydro-climatic seasons) first in 1992 and then in 2002-2003. The sampling protocol for the two surveys was identical, using the same sampling technique, the same collection periods, and the same sampling stations. The Sine Saloum is an inverse estuary in terms of its salinity gradient. It is affected by the intense drought that has occurred in this biogeographic region for more than 50 years. The estuary is also subjected to high fishing pressure. The second data-collection period followed a few years of higher recorded rainfall (approximately 35% higher than in 1992) and was characterized by increased fishing pressure (over 50% higher than in 1992). For the two study periods, the same set of indicators were calculated, including fishing indicators (catches, density, yields), size-based indicators (size structures, mean length, maximum observed length, size spectra), ecological indicators (richness, species diversity, K-dominance models, ABC curves, ecological categories) and trophic indicators (mean trophic level, trophic composition of catches). Overall, the main changes in the estuary's fish assemblage between 1992 and 2002 were (1) a loss in total biomass (40% less) for an equivalent species richness (approximately 55 species); (2) a decrease in the maximum observed lengths for many species (mean decrease of 17%); and (3) a decrease in the mean trophic level (more than 0.11 units). Analysis by bio-ecological and trophic category showed that the main species concerned were benthophagous species and, to a lesser degree, generalist predator species from marine origin that inhabit the estuary more or less permanently.

  15. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  16. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-04-29

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed.

  17. Use of a Correlation Coefficient for Conditional Averaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    data. Selection of the sine function period and a correlation coefficient threshold are discussed. Also examined are the effects of the period and...threshold level on the number of ensembles captured for inclusion for conditional averaging. Both the selection of threshold correlation coefficient and the...A method of collecting ensembles for conditional averaging is presented that uses data collected from a plane mixing layer. The correlation

  18. Towards mitigating the effect of sine-Gaussian noise transients on searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sukanta; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Gravitational wave signals were recently detected directly by LIGO from the coalescences of two stellar mass black hole pairs. These detections have strengthened our long held belief that compact binary coalescences (CBCs) are the most promising gravitational wave detection prospects accessible to ground-based interferometric detectors. For detecting CBC signals, it is of vital importance to characterize and identify non-Gaussian and nonstationary noise in these detectors. In this work, we model two important classes of transient artifacts that contribute to this noise and adversely affect the detector sensitivity to CBC signals. One of them is the sine-Gaussian "glitch," characterized by a central frequency f0 and a quality factor Q and the other is the chirping sine-Gaussian glitch, which is characterized by f0, Q as well as a chirp parameter. We study the response that a bank of compact binary inspiral templates has to these two families of glitches when they are used to match filter data containing any of these glitches. Two important characteristics of this response are the distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio and the time lag (i.e., how long after the occurrence of a glitch the signal-to-noise ratio of a trigger arises from its matched filtering by a template peaks) of individual templates. We show how these distributions differ from those when the detector data has a real CBC signal instead of a glitch. We argue that these distinctions can be utilized to develop useful signal-artifact discriminators that add negligibly to the computational cost of a CBC search. Specifically, we show how the central frequency of a glitch can be used to set adaptive time windows around it so that any template trigger occurring in that window can be quarantined for further vetting of its supposed astrophysical nature. Second, we recommend focusing efforts on reducing the incidence of glitches with low central-frequency values because they create CBC triggers with the

  19. The sine-Gordon model and the small {kappa}{sup +} region of light- cone perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k{sup +} = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative {beta}{sup 2} = 8{pi} critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman`s variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k{sup +} = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all {beta}, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k{sup +} = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green`s functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k {sup +} = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k {sup +} = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  20. Feeding ecology and ontogenic diet shifts of juvenile fish species in an inverse estuary: The Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Vidy, Guy; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2008-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile fish of four species - Eucinostomus melanopterus (Gerreidae), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Clupeidae), Monodactylus sebae (Monodactylidae), and Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) - between their appearance on the nursery ground and the end of the recruitment season, when they began to shift to deeper parts of the estuary. Fish were collected from the Sine-Saloum, an inverse estuary in Senegal, West Africa. Sampling was conducted at six sites located along the salinity gradient. The study was conducted in the context of an inverse estuary where increasing salinity leads to the disappearance of mangroves. Stomach contents were sorted and the preferred prey determined to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Ontogenic changes in diet were characterized and results expressed as the frequency of occurrence of the prey. The results showed that almost all juveniles began with a "classical" zooplanktonic diet. Following that first stage, they then preyed on items belonging to the periphytic community in the vicinity of mangroves (when present). Juvenile Ethmalosa fimbriata, a phytoplankton feeder as an adult, displayed that kind of transitory diet, a finding not previously recorded. Plant material (algae and leaves) occurred frequently in the stomach contents. All four species began the ontogenic shift toward their adult diet at a length of 50 mm. The periphytic community supported on mangrove prop roots contributes to the diet of juvenile fish living in proximity to mangroves; this may not be verified for those fish living in open waters.

  1. A mapping method for distributive mixing with diffusion: Interplay between chaos and diffusion in time-periodic sine flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting, which allows the advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved using a mapping method, and diffusion is "added" discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach results in the construction of a composite mapping matrix over an entire period of the chaotic advection-diffusion process and provides a natural framework for the analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. By comparing the numerical solutions obtained by our method to reference solutions, we find qualitative agreement for large time steps (structure of concentration profile) and quantitative agreement for small time steps (low error). Further, we study the interplay between mixing through chaotic advection and mixing through diffusion leading to an analytical model for the evolution of the intensity of segregation with time. Additionally, we demonstrate that our operator splitting mapping approach can be readily extended to three dimensions.

  2. A population genetic study of the evolution of SINEs. II. Sequence evolution under the master copy model

    SciTech Connect

    Tachida, Hidenori

    1996-06-01

    A transient population genetic model of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) evolution is presented, assuming the master copy model is theoretically investigated. Means and variances of consensus frequency of nucleotides, nucleotide homozygosity, and the number of shared differences that are considered to have been caused by mutations occurring in the master copy lineages are computed. All quantities investigated are shown to be monotone functions of the duration of the expansion period. Thus, they can be used to estimate the expansion period although their sampling variances are generally large. Using the theoretical results, the Sb subfamily of human Alu sequences is analyzed. First, the expansion period is estimated from the observed mean and variance of homozygosity. The expansion period is shown to be short compared to the time since the end of the expansion of the subfamily. However, the observed number of the shared differences is more than twice that expected under the master copy model with the estimated expansion period. Alternative models to explain this observation are discussed, including one with multiple master copy loci. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and solitons of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2011-12-01

    We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t) = (nh/τ)/cosh(t/τ), with n being an integer and τ being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning.

  4. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  5. Anti-tumor activity of selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, is enhanced in non-Hodgkin lymphoma through combination with mTOR inhibitor and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Muqbil, Irfana; Aboukameel, Amro; Elloul, Sivan; Carlson, Robert; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Bhutani, Divaya; Zonder, Jeffrey; Azmi, Asfar S; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-12-28

    In previous studies we demonstrated that targeting the nuclear exporter protein exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1) by a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound is a viable therapeutic strategy against Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Our studies along with pre-clinical work from others led to the evaluation of the lead SINE compound, selinexor, in a phase 1 trial in patients with CLL or NHL (NCT02303392). Continuing our previous work, we studied combinations of selinexor-dexamethasone (DEX) and selinexor-everolimus (EVER) in NHL. Combination of selinexor with DEX or EVER resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity in WSU-DLCL2 and WSU-FSCCL cells which was consistent with enhanced apoptosis. Molecular analysis showed enhancement in the activation of apoptotic signaling and down-regulation of XPO1. This enhancement is consistent with the mechanism of action of these drugs in that both selinexor and DEX antagonize NF-κB (p65) and mTOR (EVER target) is an XPO1 cargo protein. SINE compounds, KPT-251 and KPT-276, showed activities similar to CHOP (cyclophosphamide-hydroxydaunorubicin-oncovin-prednisone) regimen in subcutaneous and disseminated NHL xenograft models in vivo. In both animal models the anti-lymphoma activity of selinexor is enhanced through combination with DEX or EVER. The in vivo activity of selinexor and related SINE compounds relative to 'standard of care' treatment is consistent with the objective responses observed in Phase I NHL patients treated with selinexor. Our pre-clinical data provide a rational basis for testing these combinations in Phase II NHL trials.

  6. New Algorithms for the Detection and Elimination of Sine Waves and Other Narrow-Band Signals in the Presence of Broadband Signals and Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (ConinL’e on revE’Se if necessary and tdcntit) b) block number) FIE.D GROI P SuB-GIOut, narrow-band interference removal adaptive...notches, the notches will jump at random between sine waves. This pattern is indicated in the table by the word "Jump". 4. Values of pain and pa., in the

  7. A novel composite retrotransposon derived from or generated independently of the SVA (SINE/VNTR/Alu) transposon has undergone proliferation in gibbon genomes.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) comprises two families: Hominidae (hominids) and Hylobatidae (gibbons, also called small apes). The SVA transposon is a composite retrotransposon that occurs widely in hominoids and is considered to have been generated by stepwise fusions of three genetic elements: SINE-R, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequence, and Alu. We identified a novel transposon whose basic structure is the same as that of SVA, with one prominent difference being the presence of part of prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) in place of SINE-R. We designate this composite transposon as PVA and propose two possible mechanisms regarding its generation. One is the derivation of PVA from SVA: the SINE-R region of SVA was replaced with a PTGR2 fragment by template switching. The other is the formation of PVA independently of SVA: a PTGR2 fragment was fused to an evolutionary intermediate comprising the VNTR and Alu regions. The nucleotide sequence of the junction between the VNTR and PTGR2 regions supports the second hypothesis. We identified PVA in the white-cheeked gibbon Nomascus leucogenys by analysis of genome sequence databases, and subsequent experimental analysis revealed its presence in all four gibbon genera. The white-cheeked gibbon harbors at least 93 PVA copies in its haploid genome. Another SVA-like composite transposon carrying parts of the LINE1 and Alu transposons in place of SINE-R, designated as LAVA, has recently been reported. The significance of the discovery of PVA is that its substituted fragment originates not from a transposon but from a single-copy gene. PVA should provide additional insights into the transposition mechanism of this type of composite transposon; the transposition activity is conferred even if the substituted fragment is not related to a transposon.

  8. [Fuchs uveitis syndrome--heterochromia is no "conditio sine qua non"].

    PubMed

    Becker, M D; Zierhut, M

    2005-07-01

    Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) is typically a unilateral, chronic, low-grade inflammation of the anterior segment which manifests in young adulthood. It is underdiagnosed because of its variable clinical spectrum. Although it can mimic various forms of anterior uveitis, it is important to make the correct diagnosis, based on clinical grounds, because both the management and prognosis differ from those of other uveitides. While its etiology remains unknown, it is possible that the disease has multiple causes that lead through different pathogenic mechanisms to the same clinical entity. Although many patients do not require treatment, it is not a benign condition, as often perceived. The high incidence of glaucoma makes it mandatory that all patients with FUS should be screened at regular intervals, even if they are not being actively treated and are relatively asymptomatic.

  9. A practical review and update on the management of pruritus sine materia.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Melanie J; Koo, John

    2008-09-01

    Pruritus can be divided into several categories: pruritoceptive, neurogenic, neuropathic, and psychogenic. Neuropathic itch is caused by lesions of afferent neural pathways. Psychogenic itch is secondary to primary psychiatric disorders. Both of these types of pruritus present with no evidence of primary cutaneous lesions. The presentation of both conditions can be confusing and patients with no primary cutaneous lesions can be prematurely diagnosed as having a psychiatric disorder. Treatment of neuropathic and psychogenic pruritus can be divided into pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. Medications used include topical capsaicin and anesthetic agents, antiepileptic agents, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and atypical antipsychotic agents. Nonpharmacologic therapies such as psychotherapy and hypnosis have been beneficial. Further studies are needed, as most reports of efficacy are not evidence based.

  10. Strength Analysis of Sandwitch Panels with CFRP Quasi Isotropic Layup or Isotropic Material Facesheets in Dynamic Environment Using MSC Nastran and SineMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, A.; Carbonell Garcia, A.

    2012-07-01

    The frequency response solution (SOL 111) of MSC Nastran versions prior to 2012 only allows the output of element stress components and element forces and does not allow the calculation of composite failure indices or Von-Mises stress for metallic parts. The analysis of a sandwich panel comprises several strength verifications, such as the check of facesheet and core failure as well as the check of facesheet and core local stability (shear crimping, wrinkling). In static analysis (SOL 101), MSC Nastran provides failure index output which can be used to generate fringe plots of Margins of Safety (MoS) in any post- processing tool. The other verifications (core strength and local stability) must be performed using different tools. For the dynamic analysis of sandwich panels, an analysis technique based on element forces and on failure envelope at laminate level has been developed and implemented in a Fortran program (SineMOS) which allows evaluating facesheet and core failure as well as local stability, taking into account modulus and phase information of the element forces. SineMOS is able to produce files containing information used to generate plots of minimum Margin of Safety in Patran for each failure mode. This paper shows the various steps of the analysis process, starting from the building of the failure envelope for the CFRP facesheet laminate. Finally some validation example is shown, comparing SineMOS results with results based on the application of static displacements to the nodes of the model.

  11. Growth signals employ CGGBP1 to suppress transcription of Alu-SINEs

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prasoon; Enroth, Stefan; Teichmann, Martin; Jernberg Wiklund, Helena; Smit, Arian; Westermark, Bengt; Singh, Umashankar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT CGGBP1 (CGG triplet repeat-binding protein 1) regulates cell proliferation, stress response, cytokinesis, telomeric integrity and transcription. It could affect these processes by modulating target gene expression under different conditions. Identification of CGGBP1-target genes and their regulation could reveal how a transcription regulator affects such diverse cellular processes. Here we describe the mechanisms of differential gene expression regulation by CGGBP1 in quiescent or growing cells. By studying global gene expression patterns and genome-wide DNA-binding patterns of CGGBP1, we show that a possible mechanism through which it affects the expression of RNA Pol II-transcribed genes in trans depends on Alu RNA. We also show that it regulates Alu transcription in cis by binding to Alu promoter. Our results also indicate that potential phosphorylation of CGGBP1 upon growth stimulation facilitates its nuclear retention, Alu-binding and dislodging of RNA Pol III therefrom. These findings provide insights into how Alu transcription is regulated in response to growth signals. PMID:25483050

  12. Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

    2010-03-01

    The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in δ13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

  13. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  14. Facteurs de risques de mortalité néonatale dans l'hôpital de gynécologie-obstétrique de la wilaya de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie

    PubMed Central

    Noria, Harir; Sarah, Ourrad; Asmaa, Ourrad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Il s'est agit ici de déterminer la fréquence et les facteurs de risques de mortalité néonatale au service néonatologie de l'Etablissement Hospitalier Spécialisé Gynécologie Obstétrique de la wilaya de Sidi Bel Abbés (Ouest Algérien). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective a visée descriptive et analytique porté sur tous les décès de 2011-2012 survenus au service de néonatologie de Sidi Bel Abbes. Résultats Au total 1209 cas de mortalité néonatale ont été enregistré durant les deux années (2011-2012), soit une fréquence de 5.3%. Il s'agissait dans 96,85% des cas de mortalité précoce. La mortalité néonatale étant multifactorielle, l'analyse statistique a pu incriminer de façon majoritaire: l’âge maternel avancé (>35) (OR = 3.1; IC 95% (2.30 -4.40); p = 0.001); la multiparité (OR = 8.15; IC 95% (2.85-10.05); p = 0.001); l'infection génitale(OR = 5.3; IC 95% (2.5-6.7); p = 0.001); la prématurité (OR = 10.08; IC 95% (3.45-12.02); p = 0.001); le faible poids de naissance (OR = 4.5; IC 95% (1.6-10.5); p = 0.001); l'ictère (OR = 4.8; IC 95% (1.26-6.02; p = 0.001) et la souffrance fœtale aigue (OR = 3.4; IC 95% (0.89-5.14); p = 0.001). Conclusion Une prise en charge efficace de la grossesse et du nouveau-né dans sa première semaine de vie, devraient amélioraient le pronostic néonatal. PMID:26185577

  15. Effect of ac electrodeposition conditions on the growth of high aspect ratio copper nanowires in porous aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Gerein, Nathan J; Haber, Joel A

    2005-09-22

    The effect of several deposition parameters on the uniformity of copper electrodeposition through the alumina barrier layer into porous aluminum oxide templates grown in sulfuric or oxalic acid was systematically investigated. A fractional factorial design of experiment was conducted to find suitable deposition conditions among the variables: frequency, voltage, pulsed or continuous deposition, electrolyte concentration, and barrier layer thinning voltage. Continuous ac sine wave deposition conditions yielded excellent uniformity of pore-filling but damaged the porous aluminum oxide templates when deposition was continued to grow bulk copper on the surface. Pulsed electrodeposition yielded comparable uniformity of pore-filling and no damage to the porous aluminum oxide templates, even when bulk copper was deposited on them. Further optimization of pulsed deposition conditions was accomplished by comparing square and sine waveforms and pulse polarity. Pulsed square waveforms produced better pore-filling than pulsed sine waveforms. For sine wave depositions, the oxidative/reductive pulse polarity was more efficient than the commonly used reductive/oxidative pulse polarity. For square wave depositions into sulfuric acid grown pores, the reductive/oxidative pulse polarity produces more uniform pore-filling, likely as a result of enhanced resonant tunneling through the barrier layer and reoxidation of copper in faster filling pores.

  16. Six3, a medaka homologue of the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis is expressed in the anterior embryonic shield and the developing eye.

    PubMed

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    1998-06-01

    The conserved transcription factor Pax6 is essential for eye development in Drosophila and mammals (Hill, R.E., Favor, J., Hogan, B.L.M., Ton, C.C.T., Saunders, G.F., Hanson, I.M., Prosser, J., Jordan, T., Hastie, N.D., van Heyningen, V., 1991. Mouse small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox containing gene. Nature 354, 522-525; Ton, C., Hirvonen, H., Miwa, H., Weil, M., Monaghan, P., Jordan, T., van Heyningen, V., Hastie, N., Meijers-Heijboer, H., Drechsler, M., Royer-Pokora, B., Collins, F., Swaroop, A., Strong, L.C., Saunders, G.F., 1991. Positional cloning and characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene from the aniridia region. Cell 6, 1059-1074; Matsuo, T., Osumi-Yamashita, N., Noji, S., Ohuchi, H., Koyama, E., Myokai, F., Matsuo, N., Toniguchi, S., Dari, H., Jseki, S., Ninomiya, Y., Fujiwara, M., Watanabe, T., Eto, K., 1993. A mutation at the Pax-6 gene in rat small eye is associated with impaired migration of midbrain crest cells. Nature genet. 3, 299-304; Quiring, R., Walldorf, U., Kloter, U., Gehring, W.J., 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265, 785-789). These findings led to the hypothesis that additional genes involved in invertebrate and vertebrate eye development are structurally and functionally conserved (Halder, G., Callaerts, P., Gehring, W.J., 1995. New perspectives on eye evolution. Curr. Opin. Gen. Dev. 5, 602-609; Quiring, R., Walldorf, U., Kloter, U., Gehring, W.J., 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265, 785-789). Candidates for such conserved genes are the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis (Cheyette, B.N.R., Green, P.J., Martin, K., Garren, H., Hartenstein, V., Zipursky, S.L., 1994. The Drosophila sine oculis locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein required for the development of the entire visual system. Neuron l2, 977-996) and its murine

  17. Direct regulatory interaction of the eyeless protein with an eye-specific enhancer in the sine oculis gene during eye induction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Niimi, T; Seimiya, M; Kloter, U; Flister, S; Gehring, W J

    1999-05-01

    The Pax-6 gene encodes a transcription factor with two DNA-binding domains, a paired and a homeodomain, and is expressed during eye morphogenesis and development of the nervous system. Pax-6 homologs have been isolated from a wide variety of organisms ranging from flatworms to humans. Since loss-of-function mutants in insects and mammals lead to an eyeless phenotype and Pax-6 orthologs from distantly related species are capable of inducing ectopic eyes in Drosophila, we have proposed that Pax-6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. To determine the extent of evolutionary conservation of the eye morphogenetic pathway, we have begun to identify subordinate target genes of Pax-6. Previously we have shown that expression of two genes, sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya), is induced by eyeless (ey), the Pax-6 homolog of Drosophila. Here we present evidence from ectopic expression studies in transgenic flies, from transcription activation studies in yeast, and from gel shift assays in vitro that the EY protein activates transcription of sine oculis by direct interaction with an eye-specific enhancer in the long intron of the so gene.

  18. Receiver Signal to Noise Ratios for IPDA Lidars Using Sine-wave and Pulsed Laser Modulation and Direct Detections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    seeder lasers, one on-line and one offline that are intensity modulated by two different frequency sine-waves signals before being amplified by a common laser amplifier. The receiver uses narrowband amplitude demodulation, or lock-in, Signal processing at the given laser modulation frequencies [3,4]. The laser transmitter operates in a quasi CW mode with the peak power equal to twice the average power. The on-line and off-line lasers can be transmitted at the same time without interference. Another direct detection technique uses a low duty cycle pulsed laser modulation [5,6] with the laser wavelengths alternating between on-line and off-line on successive pulses. The receiver uses time resolved detection and can also provide simultaneous target range measurement. With a lower laser duty cycle it requires a much higher peak laser power for the same average power.

  19. Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions: Existence and Classification of Traveling-Wave Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zarmi, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions.

  20. Shape and wobbling wave excitations in Josephson junctions: Exact solutions of the (2+1) -dimensional sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevich, D. R.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Yampol'Skii, V. A.; Nori, Franco

    2009-09-01

    We predict a class of excitations propagating along a Josephson vortex in two-dimensional Josephson junctions. These excitations are associated with the distortion of a Josephson vortex line of an arbitrary profile. We derive a universal analytical expression for the energy of arbitrary-shape excitations, investigate their influence on the dynamics of a vortex line, and discuss conditions where such excitations can be created. Finally, we show that such excitations play the role of a clock for a relativistically-moving Josephson vortex and suggest an experiment to measure a time-dilation effect analogous to that in special relativity. The position of the shape excitation on a Josephson vortex acts like a “minute hand” showing the time in the rest frame associated with the vortex. Remarkably, at some conditions, the shape wave can carry negative energy: a vortex with the shape excitation can have less energy than the same vortex without it.

  1. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  2. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation with bidirectional modulated sine waves in patients with chronic back pain: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Koki; Takahashi, Norio; Nishio, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Mika; Aida, Sumihisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.  Newly developed bidirectional modulated sine waves (BMW) might provide some derived benefit to patients with low back pain. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) with BMWs was tested. Materials and Methods.  Analgesic effects of BMWs and conventional bidirectional pulsed waves on chronic back pain in 28 patients were compared, and effects of repeated TENS using BMWs on chronic back pain were investigated in 21 patients by means of a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group method. Pain intensity was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS). Results.  There was significant immediate reduction in NRS in patients receiving BMWs, and 60 min after treatment compared to sham TENS. Weekly repeated treatments using massage and TENS with BMWs for 5 weeks resulted in a decrease of NRS, but there were no significant differences between the TENS plus massage and sham TENS plus massage groups. Conclusions.  This study shows that TENS with BMWs significantly inhibits chronic back pain, and treatment effects are attained within a day. The results also suggest that there were no statistically significant long-term effects of TENS with BMW in the repeated treatment.

  3. Micro-optic lens for data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Trusty, R. M.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Erwin, J. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    A new type of microlens for data storage applications that has improved off-axis performance is described. The lens consists of a micro Fresnel pattern on a curved substrate. The radius of the substrate is equal to the focal length of the lens. If the pattern and substrate are thin, the combination satisfies the Abbe sine condition. Therefore, the lens is free of coma. We analyze a 0.5 numerical aperture, 0.50 mm focal length lens in detail. A 0.16 numerical aperture lens was fabricated holographically, and results are presented.

  4. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  5. A comparison of 15 Hz sine on-line and off-line magnetic stimulation affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Lei; Gao, Yang; Dou, Jun-Rong; Li, Ze-yan

    2016-10-01

    Combined with the use of patch-clamp techniques, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has proven to be a noninvasive neuromodulation tool that can inhibit or facilitate excitability of neurons after extensive research. The studies generally focused on the method: the neurons are first stimulated in an external standard magnetic exposure device, and then moved to the patch-clamp to record electrophysiological characteristics (off-line magnetic exposure). Despite its universality, real-time observation of the effects of magnetic stimulation on the neurons is more effective (on-line magnetic stimulation). In this study, we selected a standard exposure device for magnetic fields acting on mouse prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons, and described a new method that a patch-clamp setup was modified to allow on-line magnetic stimulation. By comparing the off-line exposure and on-line stimulation of the same magnetic field intensity and frequency affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents, we succeeded in proving the feasibility of the new on-line stimulation device. We also demonstrated that the sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons increased significantly under the 15 Hz sine 1 mT, and 2 mT off-line magnetic field exposure and under the 1 mT and 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation, and the rate of acceleration was most significant on 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation. This study described the development of a new on-line magnetic stimulator and successfully demonstrated its practicability for scientific stimulation of neurons.

  6. Assessment of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis (head lice infestation) in rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leulmi, Hamza; Diatta, Georges; Sokhna, Cheikh; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2016-12-01

    Reports of treatment failure and the emergence of resistance to topical head lice treatments have become increasingly common, driving the need for continued development of new therapeutic options for pediculosis. Ivermectin has been proposed as a potential alternative for the treatment of pediculosis but has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this study, the effectiveness of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis in Senegal was compared. The study was conducted in two neighbouring villages of Sine-Saloum, Senegal: Dielmo (ivermectin trial group; 201 female participants) and Ndiop (shampoo trial group; 239 female participants). In the ivermectin group, patients received two doses of oral ivermectin (400 µg/kg body weight; Mectizan(®)) 7 days apart. In contrast, the shampoo group received a shampoo treatment based on d-phenothrin (0.23%; Hégor(®)). At the beginning of the study, 70 (34.8%) of 201 participants in the ivermectin group were infested by head lice versus 145 (60.7%) of 239 participants in the shampoo group. At Day 15 post-treatment, the efficacy of the treatment against head lice reached 41/53 (77.4%) in the ivermectin group (53 patients were tested in this group) versus 42/130 (32.3%) in the shampoo group (130 patients were tested in this group) (P <10(-7)). However, 4 (7.5%) of the 53 females in the ivermectin group exhibited probable ivermectin treatment failure, suggesting the emergence of ivermectin-resistant lice. This study demonstrates that oral ivermectin is highly effective for the treatment of pediculosis compared with shampoo, but also suggests that ivermectin resistance may emerge during treatment.

  7. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  8. Macroscopic wettability based on an interfacial jump condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-05-01

    Young’s equation, describing an interfacial equilibrium condition of a liquid droplet on a smooth solid surface, raises issues concerning the existence of a sine term which has not yet been resolved theoretically and continues to be discussed to the present day. From a thermodynamics viewpoint, the equilibrium condition arises by minimizing the total free energy of the system while intensive parameters are kept constant. In the derivation, variations in the virtual work in both horizontal and vertical directions of the droplet on the smooth solid are considered. From a hydrodynamics viewpoint, there is a momentum jump condition at the gas-liquid interface that is derived based on a mechanical balance. Using standard mathematical procedures such as Stokes’ theorem and differential geometry, a test volume is considered across the interface between two continuous phases from which the jump condition is derived. In the present paper, Young’s equation is revisited from the point of view of the momentum jump condition at the two-phase interface and a modified Young’s equation is derived. The analytical solution derived from the modified Young’s equation is then used to compare theory with experimental data. The line tension and contact angle for a lens droplet are also discussed on the basis of this model.

  9. A secure double-image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and 2D Sine Logistic modulation map in discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli

    2016-05-01

    A secure double-image sharing scheme is proposed by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol in the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain. First, an enlarged image is formed by assembling two plain images successively in the horizontal direction and scrambled in the chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs are generated by the two-dimensional Sine Logistic modulation map. Second, the scrambled image is divided into two components which are used to constitute a complex image. One component is normalized and regarded as the phase part of the complex image as well as other is considered as the amplitude part. Finally, the complex image is shared between the sender and the receiver by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol, in which the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is used as the encryption function due to its commutative property. The proposed double-image sharing scheme has an obvious advantage that the key management is convenient without distributing the random phase mask keys in advance. Moreover, the security of the image sharing scheme is enhanced with the help of extra parameters of the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating the Shamir's three-pass protocol with double-image sharing scheme in the information security field. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Evaluation of postural mechanisms under dynamic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A stimulus delivery and data acquisition system for assessment of human posture was developed based on a digital computer and a translating platform. The movement of the platform acts to displace the subject's base of support while the computer tracks the corrections which are made by the subject to maintain balance. Various stimuli are used ranging from fast transients to sine waves.

  11. Study on plate silencer with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gongmin; Zhao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Shuaijun

    2014-09-01

    A plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch rigid cavities covered by plates. Previous studies showed that, in a duct, the introduction of simply supported or clamped plates into an air conveying system could achieve broadband quieting from low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the plate silencer with general boundary conditions. A set of static beam functions, which are a combination of sine series and third-order polynomial, is employed as the trial functions of the plate vibration velocity. Greens function and Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral are used to solve the sound radiation in the duct and the cavity, and then the vibration velocity of the plate is obtained. Having obtained the vibration velocity, the pressure perturbations induced by the plate oscillation and the transmission loss are found. Optimization is carried out in order to obtain the widest stopband. The transmission loss calculated by the analytical method agrees closely with the result of the finite element method simulation. Further studies with regard to the plate under several different classical boundary conditions based on the validated model show that a clamped-free plate silencer has the worst stopband. Attempts to release the boundary restriction of the plate are also made to study its effect on sound reflection. Results show that a softer end for a clamped-clamped plate silencer helps increase the optimal bandwidth, while the same treatment for simply supported plate silencer will result in performance degradation.

  12. The cytosolic component p47(phox) is not a sine qua non participant in the activation of NADPH oxidase but is required for optimal superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, V; Lotan, O; Pick, E

    1996-11-29

    The superoxide (O-2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes is a multicomponent complex consisting of a membrane-associated flavocytochrome (cytochrome b559), bearing the NADPH binding site and two redox centers (FAD and heme) and three cytosolic activating components: p47(phox), p67(phox), and the small GTPase Rac (1 or 2). The canonical view is that the induction of O-2 generation involves the stimulus-dependent assembly of all three cytosolic components with cytochrome b559, a process mimicked in vitro by a cell-free system activated by anionic amphiphiles. We studied the requirement for individual cytosolic components in the activation of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system consisting of purified and relipidated cytochrome b559, recombinant p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1, and the amphiphile, lithium dodecyl sulfate. We found that pronounced activation of NADPH oxidase can be achieved by exposing cytochrome b559 to p67(phox) and Rac1, in the total absence of p47(phox) (turnover = 60 mol O-2/s/mol cytochrome b559). However, maximal activation (turnover = 153 mol O-2/s/mol cytochrome b559) could only be obtained in the presence of p47(phox). O-2 production, in the absence of p47(phox), was dependent on: high molar ratios of p67(phox) and Rac1 to cytochrome b559, Rac1 being in the GTP-bound form, cytochrome b559 being saturated with FAD, and an optimal concentration of amphiphile. Single cytosolic components or combinations of two cytosolic components, other than p67(phox) and Rac1, were incapable of activation. We conclude that p67(phox) and Rac1 are the only cytosolic components directly involved in the induction of electron transport in cytochrome b559. p47(phox) appears to facilitate or stabilize the interaction of p67(phox) and, possibly, Rac1 with cytochrome b559, and is required for optimal generation of O-2 under physiological conditions.

  13. Classical conditioning of autonomic fear responses is independent of contingency awareness.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Douglas H; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2010-10-01

    The role of contingency awareness in classical conditioning experiments using human subjects is currently under debate. This study took a novel approach to manipulating contingency awareness in a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. Complex sine wave gratings were used as visual conditional stimuli (CS). By manipulating the fundamental spatial frequency of the displays, we were able to construct pairs of stimuli that varied in discriminability. One group of subjects was given an "easy" discrimination, and another was exposed to a "difficult" CS+ and CS-. A 3rd group was exposed to a stimulus that was paired with the unconditional stimulus (UCS) 50% of the time and served as a control. Skin conductance response (SCR) and continuous UCS expectancy data were measured concurrently throughout the experiment. Differential UCS expectancy was found only in the easy discrimination group. Differential SCRs were found in the easy discrimination group as well as in the difficult discrimination group, but not in the 50% contingency control. The difficult discrimination group did not exhibit differential UCS expectancy but did show clear differential SCR. These observations support a dual process interpretation of classical conditioning whereby conditioning on an implicit level can occur without explicit knowledge about the contingencies. The role of contingency awareness in classical conditioning experiments using human subjects is currently under debate. This study took a novel approach to manipulating contingency awareness in a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. Complex sine wave gratings were used as visual conditional stimuli (CS). By manipulating the fundamental spatial frequency of the displays, we were able to construct pairs of stimuli that varied in discriminability. One group of subjects was given an "easy" discrimination, and another was exposed to a "difficult" CS+ and CS-. A 3rd group was exposed to a stimulus that was paired with the

  14. The Hyperbolic Sine Cardinal and the Catenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The hyperbolic function sinh(x)/x receives scant attention in the literature. We show that it admits a clear geometric interpretation as the ratio between length and chord of a symmetric catenary segment. The inverse, together with the use of dimensionless parameters, furnishes a compact, explicit construction of a general catenary segment of…

  15. [Molecular variability in the commom shrew Sorex araneus L. from European Russia and Siberia inferred from the length polymorphism of DNA regions flanked by short interspersed elements (Inter-SINE PCR) and the relationships between the Moscow and Seliger chromosome races].

    PubMed

    Bannikova, A A; Bulatova, N Sh; Kramerov, D A

    2006-06-01

    Genetic exchange among chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus and the problem of reproductive barriers have been extensively studied by means of such molecular markers as mtDNA, microsatellites, and allozymes. In the present study, the interpopulation and interracial polymorphism in the common shrew was derived, using fingerprints generated by amplified DNA regions flanked by short interspersed repeats (SINEs)-interSINE PCR (IS-PCR). We used primers, complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: mammalian element MIR and the SOR element from the genome of Sorex araneus. Genetic differentiation among eleven populations of the common shrew from eight chromosome races was estimated. The NP and MJ analyses, as well as multidimensional scaling showed that all samples examined grouped into two main clusters, corresponding to European Russia and Siberia. The bootstrap support of the European Russia cluster in the NJ and MP analyses was respectively 76 and 61%. The bootstrap index for the Siberian cluster was 100% in both analyses; the Tomsk race, included into this cluster, was separated with the bootstrap support of NJ/MP 92/95%.

  16. Age-related declines in car following performance under simulated fog conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Rui; Kang, Julie J.; Andersen, George J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in car following performance when contrast of the driving scene was reduced by simulated fog. Older (mean age of 72.6) and younger (mean age of 21.1) drivers were presented with a car following scenario in a simulator in which a lead vehicle (LV) varied speed according to a sum of three sine wave functions. Drivers were shown an initial following distance of 18m and were asked to maintain headway distance by controlling speed to match changes in LV speed. Five simulated fog conditions were examined ranging from a no fog condition (contrast of 0.55) to a high fog condition (contrast of 0.03). Average LV speed varied across trials (40, 60, or 80 km/h). The results indicated age-related declines in car following performance for both headway distance and RMS (root mean square) error in matching speed. The greatest decline occurred at moderate speeds under the highest fog density condition, with older drivers maintaining a headway distance that was 21% closer than younger drivers. At higher speeds older drivers maintained a greater headway distance than younger drivers. These results suggest that older drivers may be at greater risk for a collision under high fog density and moderate speeds. PMID:20380908

  17. Age-related declines in car following performance under simulated fog conditions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Kang, Julie J; Andersen, George J

    2010-05-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in car following performance when contrast of the driving scene was reduced by simulated fog. Older (mean age of 72.6) and younger (mean age of 21.1) drivers were presented with a car following scenario in a simulator in which a lead vehicle (LV) varied speed according to a sum of three sine wave functions. Drivers were shown an initial following distance of 18 m and were asked to maintain headway distance by controlling speed to match changes in LV speed. Five simulated fog conditions were examined ranging from a no fog condition (contrast of 0.55) to a high fog condition (contrast of 0.03). Average LV speed varied across trials (40, 60, or 80 km/h). The results indicated age-related declines in car following performance for both headway distance and RMS (root mean square) error in matching speed. The greatest decline occurred at moderate speeds under the highest fog density condition, with older drivers maintaining a headway distance that was 21% closer than younger drivers. At higher speeds older drivers maintained a greater headway distance than younger drivers. These results suggest that older drivers may be at greater risk for a collision under high fog density and moderate speeds.

  18. The role of test context in latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition: Part of a search for general principles of associative interference.

    PubMed

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Soares, Julia S; Miller, Ralph R

    2015-09-01

    In two lick suppression experiments with rats, we assessed interference with behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition by a latent inhibition treatment as a function of test context. We asked what effect the test context has, given identical latent inhibition treatments in Phase 1 and identical conditioned inhibition trainings in Phase 2. In Experiment 1, an AAA versus AAB context-shift design determined that the latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 attenuated behavior indicative of the conditioned inhibition training administered in Phase 2, regardless of the test context, which could reflect a failure to either acquire or express conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 2, an ABA versus ABB design showed that test performance in Contexts A and B reflected the treatments that had been administered in those contexts (i.e., conditioned inhibition was observed in Context B but not A), which could reflect either the context specificity of either latent inhibition or conditioned inhibition. In either case, latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition training in at least some situations was seen to reflect an expression deficit rather than an acquisition deficit. These data, in conjunction with prior reports, suggest that latent inhibition is relatively specific to the context in which it was administered, whereas conditioned inhibition is specific to its training context only when it is the second-learned relationship concerning the target cue. These experiments are part of a larger effort to delineate control by the test context of two-phase associative interference, as a function of the nature of target training and the nature of interference training.

  19. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  20. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  1. Chinese Conditionals and the Theory of Conditionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierchia, Gennaro

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main features of discourse representation theory, situation-based approaches, and dynamic semantics, and discusses the role the novelty condition plays in each of them, providing the main theoretical coordinates against which to try an assessment of the role of the Chinese conditional and a proposal put forth by Chang and Huang…

  2. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  3. Lagrange interpolation and modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature methods for solving hyperbolic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwari, Ram

    2015-08-01

    In this article, the author proposed two differential quadrature methods to find the approximate solution of one and two dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and Neumann's boundary conditions. The methods are based on Lagrange interpolation and modified cubic B-splines respectively. The proposed methods reduced the hyperbolic problem into a system of second order ordinary differential equations in time variable. Then, the obtained system is changed into a system of first order ordinary differential equations and finally, SSP-RK3 scheme is used to solve the obtained system. The well known hyperbolic equations such as telegraph, Klein-Gordon, sine-Gordon, Dissipative non-linear wave, and Vander Pol type non-linear wave equations are solved to check the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods. The numerical results are shown in L∞ , RMS andL2 errors form.

  4. Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home 4 Ways to Find Exposures Related Health Concerns Wars & Operations Exposure Categories A-Z Index Agent ... Conditions Diseases & Conditions Index Military Exposure Related Health Concerns Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) ...

  5. Mean Atmospheric Conditions - Australian Tropical Operating Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    The ARDU mean tropical atmosphere differs significantly from the ICAO standard atmosphere and is based upon data gathered prior to 1965. More recent...atmosphere and the ICAO atmosphere to describe mean conditions in their respective regions of application. It is recommended, however, that where extreme

  6. Inflation of Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

  7. [Conditioning mechanisms and psychoneuroimmunology].

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    This chapter deals with the role of conditioning principles in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). We will first describe the paradigms of classical and instrumental conditioning and classify immune parameters that are subject to conditioning (chapter 1). So far, PNI research mainly uses classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning. We will summarize some of the paradigmatic studies, mainly animal studies (chapter 2) and also describe studies that support the clinical relevance of classical conditioning, i. e., in the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and tumor chemotherapy (chapter 3). A study of our group on anticipatory immunomodulation in pediatric cancer patients is reported. Mechanisms mediating conditioned immunomodulation are summarized (chapter 4). We also describe studies that analyze the impact of instrumental conditioning contingencies on immune functioning (chapter 5). Finally, research perspectives are summarized (chapter 6).

  8. Conditional Belief Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    hypothetical knowledge , conditional probability, counterfactuals REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...spaces are closely related to the sphere models of counterfactual conditionals and to models of hypothetical knowledge . 3 Approved for public release...hypothetical knowledge . Keywords: Conditional probability; Type spaces; Hypothetical knowledge ; Counterfactuals JEL Classification: C70; C72; D80; D82

  9. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  10. Nonparametric conditional estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Many nonparametric regression techniques (such as kernels, nearest neighbors, and smoothing splines) estimate the conditional mean of Y given X = chi by a weighted sum of observed Y values, where observations with X values near chi tend to have larger weights. In this report the weights are taken to represent a finite signed measure on the space of Y values. This measure is studied as an estimate of the conditional distribution of Y given X = chi. From estimates of the conditional distribution, estimates of conditional means, standard deviations, quantiles and other statistical functionals may be computed. Chapter 1 illustrates the computation of conditional quantiles and conditional survival probabilities on the Stanford Heart Transplant data. Chapter 2 contains a survey of nonparametric regression methods and introduces statistical metrics and von Mises' method for later use. Chapter 3 proves some consistency results. Chapter 4 provides conditions under which the suitably normalized errors in estimating the conditional distribution of Y have a Brownian limit. Using von Mises' method, asymptotic normality is obtained for nonparametric conditional estimates of compactly differentiable statistical functionals.

  11. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  12. CONDITIONAL DISTANCE CORRELATION

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqin; Pan, Wenliang; Hu, Wenhao; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Statistical inference on conditional dependence is essential in many fields including genetic association studies and graphical models. The classic measures focus on linear conditional correlations, and are incapable of characterizing non-linear conditional relationship including non-monotonic relationship. To overcome this limitation, we introduces a nonparametric measure of conditional dependence for multivariate random variables with arbitrary dimensions. Our measure possesses the necessary and intuitive properties as a correlation index. Briefly, it is zero almost surely if and only if two multivariate random variables are conditionally independent given a third random variable. More importantly, the sample version of this measure can be expressed elegantly as the root of a V or U-process with random kernels and has desirable theoretical properties. Based on the sample version, we propose a test for conditional independence, which is proven to be more powerful than some recently developed tests through our numerical simulations. The advantage of our test is even greater when the relationship between the multivariate random variables given the third random variable cannot be expressed in a linear or monotonic function of one random variable versus the other. We also show that the sample measure is consistent and weakly convergent, and the test statistic is asymptotically normal. By applying our test in a real data analysis, we are able to identify two conditionally associated gene expressions, which otherwise cannot be revealed. Thus, our measure of conditional dependence is not only an ideal concept, but also has important practical utility. PMID:26877569

  13. Systematizing semishortening conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, C.-Y.; Siegel, W.

    2014-12-01

    We rederive semishortening conditions for four-dimensional superconformal field theory with a different approach. These conditions have similar patterns that can be generalized to weaker constraints, including all those of Dolan and Osborn [Ann. Phys. (Amsterdam) 307, 41 (2003)]. In particular, for the case of N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory formulated in projective superspace, we find constraints for all Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield operators. We also give an example how constraints can be found from known ones. These constraints are a subset of our maximal set of semishortening conditions.

  14. National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NWCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's wetlands. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  15. Pavement condition data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniewski, J.P.; Hudson, S.W.; Hudson, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes a computer methodology for analyzing pavement condition data to define inputs for pavement management systems. This system of programs was developed during a Federal Highway Administration research project. In the project, eight state highway departments were studied to determine the types of pavement condition data collected, procedures used for collecting data, the inputs to the states' pavement management systems, and computer programs used by the states to analyze raw pavement condition data. Several of the programs were assembled into the Method for Analyzing Pavement Condition, MAPCON, during a project performed at Pennsylvania State University. These and other existing or new programs (a total of 18) were identified, tested, modified, and incorporated onto a MS/DOS microcomputer system. MAPCON guides the user through selection of analysis method, raw data entry, and data analysis.

  16. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be linked to other conditions, such as cerebral palsy, muscle weakness disorders, autism, or other nervous system ... be related to existing medical problems such as cerebral palsy. Doctors rarely have to treat pigeon-toed feet. ...

  17. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  18. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOIA Jobs at NICHD Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff Directory Overview Condition Information ... gland causes the release of hormones in the body that control growth, metabolism, response to stress, and ...

  19. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, Lori E. (Inventor); Loveland, Rohan C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A conditioning circuit is provided with a constant current diode in series with a zener diode, the former having a high dynamic impedance and the latter a low dynamic impedance. The constant current diode can receive an input voltage with PARD. In conjunction with the zener diode fixed to a ground, a voltage divider is provided which can give an output voltage whose PARD was significantly reduced. The conditioning circuit is effective down to dc.

  20. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  1. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  2. Conditional data watchpoint management

    DOEpatents

    Burdick, Dean Joseph; Vaidyanathan, Basu

    2010-08-24

    A method, system and computer program product for managing a conditional data watchpoint in a set of instructions being traced is shown in accordance with illustrative embodiments. In one particular embodiment, the method comprises initializing a conditional data watchpoint and determining the watchpoint has been encountered. Upon that determination, examining a current instruction context associated with the encountered watchpoint prior to completion of the current instruction execution, further determining a first action responsive to a positive context examination; otherwise, determining a second action.

  3. L'Amerique de l'abbe Prevost: aspects documentaires de "Cleveland" (The America of Abbe Prevost: Documentary Aspects of "Cleveland")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Philip

    1976-01-01

    Expands upon Paul Verniere's (1973) article by extending the question of sources to include not only the maps that Prevost probably consulted, but also the various books which might have inspired the novelist. (Text is in French.) (Author/DB)

  4. Causal conditionals and counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Caren A.; Byrne, Ruth M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Causal counterfactuals e.g., ‘if the ignition key had been turned then the car would have started’ and causal conditionals e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ are understood by thinking about multiple possibilities of different sorts, as shown in six experiments using converging evidence from three different types of measures. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that conditionals that comprise enabling causes, e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ primed people to read quickly conjunctions referring to the possibility of the enabler occurring without the outcome, e.g., ‘the ignition key was turned and the car did not start’. Experiments 2a and 2b showed that people paraphrased causal conditionals by using causal or temporal connectives (because, when), whereas they paraphrased causal counterfactuals by using subjunctive constructions (had…would have). Experiments 3a and 3b showed that people made different inferences from counterfactuals presented with enabling conditions compared to none. The implications of the results for alternative theories of conditionals are discussed. PMID:22858874

  5. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R A; Williams, W A

    1991-01-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice. PMID:2037826

  6. Conditional E-Cash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Larry; Carbunar, Bogdan; Sion, Radu

    We introduce a novel conditional e-cash protocol allowing future anonymous cashing of bank-issued e-money only upon the satisfaction of an agreed-upon public condition. Payers are able to remunerate payees for services that depend on future, yet to be determined outcomes of events. Once payment complete, any double-spending attempt by the payer will reveal its identity; no double-spending by the payee is possible. Payers can not be linked to payees or to ongoing or past transactions. The flow of cash within the system is thus both correct and anonymous. We discuss several applications of conditional e-cash including online trading of financial securities, prediction markets, and betting systems.

  7. Robust incremental condition estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.; Tang, P.T.P.

    1991-03-29

    This paper presents an improved version of incremental condition estimation, a technique for tracking the extremal singular values of a triangular matrix as it is being constructed one column at a time. We present a new motivation for this estimation technique using orthogonal projections. The paper focuses on an implementation of this estimation scheme in an accurate and consistent fashion. In particular, we address the subtle numerical issues arising in the computation of the eigensystem of a symmetric rank-one perturbed diagonal 2 {times} 2 matrix. Experimental results show that the resulting scheme does a good job in estimating the extremal singular values of triangular matrices, independent of matrix size and matrix condition number, and that it performs qualitatively in the same fashion as some of the commonly used nonincremental condition estimation schemes.

  8. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Jinfu

    2012-02-07

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  9. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  10. Conditions for Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article starts by defining teacher research and a summary of its benefits. In reviewing teacher research in the field of ELT, the author points out that such research is not enough. The author then suggests ten conditions that would increase the incidence of teacher research. Additional questions for consideration are suggested at the end that…

  11. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  12. Impacts of sociopolitical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finney, Ben R.

    1992-01-01

    Space development scenarios and the choice of technologies to carry them out depend upon the future social, economic, and political factors. A brief discussion concerning the impact of sociopolitical conditions on space exploration is presented. Some of the topics mentioned include: space weapons/warfare, international cooperation, NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Program, and superpower rivelry.

  13. AERODONTALGIA UNDER HYPERBARIC CONDITIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    requirements for entrance into the Basic Submarine School, the case histories of 45 men who experienced this type of dental pain were analyzed. It was...studies will be required to clarify the role of other factors in producing dental pain under hyperbaric conditions.

  14. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  15. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  16. Conditional statistical model building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Hansen, Michael Sass; Larsen, Rasmus

    2008-03-01

    We present a new statistical deformation model suited for parameterized grids with different resolutions. Our method models the covariances between multiple grid levels explicitly, and allows for very efficient fitting of the model to data on multiple scales. The model is validated on a data set consisting of 62 annotated MR images of Corpus Callosum. One fifth of the data set was used as a training set, which was non-rigidly registered to each other without a shape prior. From the non-rigidly registered training set a shape prior was constructed by performing principal component analysis on each grid level and using the results to construct a conditional shape model, conditioning the finer parameters with the coarser grid levels. The remaining shapes were registered with the constructed shape prior. The dice measures for the registration without prior and the registration with a prior were 0.875 +/- 0.042 and 0.8615 +/- 0.051, respectively.

  17. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  18. Nonparametric Conditional Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    have a Brownian limit. Using von Mises’ method, asymptotic normality is obtained for nonparametric conditional estimates of compactly differentiable ... differentiable statistical functionals. This res~arch supported by Office of Naval Research Contract NOOOl4-83-K-0472; supported National Science Foundation...2.5 Models for F. 2.6 Compact Differentiability and von Mises’ Method 3. Consistency . 3.1 Introduction and Definitions 3.2 Prohorov Consistency of

  19. OPAL Land Condition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    occur under specified weather conditions and land uses typical for grassland military installations (train- ing, controlled burn, and mowing/haying...CENTURY is a computer model of plant-soil ecosystems that simulates the dynamics of grasslands , forest, crops, and savannas with a focus on nutri...Army Regulation 350-19. Washington DC: HQDA. Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett, and S. L. Collins. 1998. Grassland dynamics: Long- term

  20. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  1. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  2. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jeff; Battaglia, Philip J.

    2004-06-01

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant.

  3. How Are Genetic Conditions Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consultation How are genetic conditions diagnosed? How are genetic conditions diagnosed? A doctor may suspect a diagnosis ... and advocacy resources. For more information about diagnosing genetic conditions: Genetics Home Reference provides information about genetic ...

  4. Explaining Verification Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The Hoare approach to program verification relies on the construction and discharge of verification conditions (VCs) but offers no support to trace, analyze, and understand the VCs themselves. We describe a systematic extension of the Hoare rules by labels so that the calculus itself can be used to build up explanations of the VCs. The labels are maintained through the different processing steps and rendered as natural language explanations. The explanations can easily be customized and can capture different aspects of the VCs; here, we focus on their structure and purpose. The approach is fully declarative and the generated explanations are based only on an analysis of the labels rather than directly on the logical meaning of the underlying VCs or their proofs. Keywords: program verification, Hoare calculus, traceability.

  5. Signal conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahzah, Mohamad (Inventor); Korkosz, Gregory J. (Inventor); Bohr, Gerald (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A current-driven signal conditioning system comprising a first terminal, a second terminal, a strain gauge, and an instrumentation amplifier is disclosed. The strain gauge is adapted to measure a deformation of a structure and to generate a resistance which corresponds to the measured deformation. The instrumentation amplifier is adapted to be connected between the first terminal and the second terminal. The instrumentation amplifier is further adapted to be connected to the strain gauge and to place an output current on the second terminal. The output current is proportional to the resistance generated by the strain gauge. An output resister is coupled between the strain gauge and the second terminal, and a capacitor is coupled between the resister and the first terminal. A zenor diode is coupled between the first terminal and the strain gauge, and a diode is also coupled between the first terminal and the strain gauge.

  6. (Welding under extreme conditions)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.A.

    1989-09-29

    The traveler was an invited member of the United States delegation and representative of the Basic Energy Science Welding Science program at the 42nd Annual International Institute of Welding (IIW) Assembly and Conference held in Helsinki, Finland. The conference and the assembly was attended by about 600 delegates representing 40 countries. The theme of the conference was welding under extreme conditions. The conference program contained several topics related to welding in nuclear, arctic petrochemical, underwater, hyperbaric and space environments. At the annual assembly the traveler was a delegate (US) to two working groups of the IIW, namely Commission IX and welding research study group 212. Following the conference the traveler visited the Danish Welding Institute in Copenhagen and the Risoe National Laboratory in Roskilde. Prior to the conference the traveler visited Lappeenranta University of Technology and presented an invited seminar entitled Recent Advances in Welding Science and Technology.''

  7. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  8. Magnetic conditioning in superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1988-08-01

    Improvements in superconducting magnet technology have reduced to a handful the number of training quenches typical of dipole magnets. The number of training quenches in long (17 m) and short (1--2 m) SSC magnets are now about the same (operating at 6.6 tesla and 4.4 K). Yet the steps necessary to totally eliminate training are in the future RandD plans for magnet construction and conductor motion prevention. The accepted hypothesis is that Lorentz forces and poor mechanical properties of superconducting cables are the cause of conductor motion. Conductor motion reduces the stored energy in the cable by converting it into heat. The small amount of heat generated (millijoules) during motion is usually enough to quench the magnet when it is close to short sample. During training, the magnet performance normally improves with the number of quenches. It is not the quench itself that improves magnet performance but rather the fact that once conductor motion has occurred it will probably not repeat itself unless subjected to higher forces. Conditioning is a process that enables the magnet to reduce its stored energy without causing a premature quench. During the conditioning process the magnet is further cooled from its operating temperature of 4.4 K to 1.8 K by converting He I into He II. As a result the magnet is placed in a state where it has excess stability as well as excellent heat transfer capabilities. Although this does not eliminate motion, if the magnet is now cycled to /approximately/10% above its operating field at 4.4 K (which is above short sample) the excess stability should be enough to prevent quenching and reduce the probability of conductor motion and training once the magnet has been warmed back up to its operating temperature of 4.4 K. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. The Negated Conditional: A Litmus Test for the Suppositional Conditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Simon J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    Under the suppositional account of conditionals, when people think about a conditional assertion, "if p then q," they engage in a mental simulation in which they imagine p holds and evaluate the probability that q holds under this supposition. One implication of this account is that belief in a conditional equates to conditional probability…

  10. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Cecil, Jim

    1994-01-01

    A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) can eliminate costly measurement setup item and troubleshooting, improve system reliability and provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer. Excitation voltages or current are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages in order to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the amplifier from 0 to 70 C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order while processing data at a rate of 23.438 kS/s. Both digital and analog outputs are available from the amplifier.

  11. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  12. Flue gas conditioning today

    SciTech Connect

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  13. Acoustic Source Characteristics, Across-Formant Integration, and Speech Intelligibility Under Competitive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An important aspect of speech perception is the ability to group or select formants using cues in the acoustic source characteristics—for example, fundamental frequency (F0) differences between formants promote their segregation. This study explored the role of more radical differences in source characteristics. Three-formant (F1+F2+F3) synthetic speech analogues were derived from natural sentences. In Experiment 1, F1+F3 were generated by passing a harmonic glottal source (F0 = 140 Hz) through second-order resonators (H1+H3); in Experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal (sine-wave) analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). In some conditions, the target formants were presented alone, either monaurally or dichotically (left ear = F1+F3; right ear = F2). In others, they were accompanied by a competitor for F2 (F1+F2C+F3; F2), which listeners must reject to optimize recognition. Competitors (H2C or T2C) were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Dichotic presentation of F2 and F2C ensured that the impact of the competitor arose primarily through informational masking. In the absence of F2C, the effect of a source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2 was relatively modest. When F2C was present, intelligibility was lowest when F2 was tonal and F2C was harmonic, irrespective of which type matched F1+F3. This finding suggests that source type and context, rather than similarity, govern the phonetic contribution of a formant. It is proposed that wideband harmonic analogues are more effective informational maskers than narrowband tonal analogues, and so become dominant in across-frequency integration of phonetic information when placed in competition. PMID:25751040

  14. Assessing the planet's condition.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1990-01-01

    The destruction of the environment has accelerated since the Earth Day of 1970, the world's population has increased by another 1.6 billion, and over 500 million acres of forest have been lost. Carbon dioxide levels, greenhouse gases, and chlorofluorocarbons have increased in the atmosphere with evidence that global warming has started. The ozone hole has appeared, acid rain has destroyed forests, air pollution in major northern hemisphere cities has worsened, and species are disappearing, while toxic chemicals have been dumped indiscriminately. World grain production has fallen while population has increased. In Europe 14 countries have stabilized their population, and Japan, France, and Finland are on the way to zero growth. Reduction of high fertility in 1/2 could halt the deterioration of living conditions. Japan and China achieved this within a decade. Energy efficiency has to be attained; US cars still consume too much gas. Solar energy with photovoltaic cells to provide power, fuel alcohol from plants, and solar thermal power plants have potential. Semiarid regions, such as northern Africa, could become major producers of solar energy. Various measures are mandatory to cut down on waste: to recycle paper bags, to use standardized glasses for beverages, and to utilize scrap metal in electric arc steel furnaces. Reforestation is also on the agenda, as major deforestation has occurred in the Brazilian Amazon region, in India, and in Europe because of acid rain. Australia's national plan envisions planting 1 billion trees, and the US project is of similar magnitude during the 1990s. Only the US has succeeded in erosion control and topsoil stabilization when it converted erodible cropland into grassland or woodland during 1986-90.

  15. Bending the rules: widefield microscopy and the Abbe limit of resolution.

    PubMed

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien S; Stephens, Andrew D; Haase, Julian; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    One of the most fundamental concepts of microscopy is that of resolution-the ability to clearly distinguish two objects as separate. Recent advances such as structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and point localization techniques including photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) strive to overcome the inherent limits of resolution of the modern light microscope. These techniques, however, are not always feasible or optimal for live cell imaging. Thus, in this review, we explore three techniques for extracting high resolution data from images acquired on a widefield microscope-deconvolution, model convolution, and Gaussian fitting. Deconvolution is a powerful tool for restoring a blurred image using knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) describing the blurring of light by the microscope, although care must be taken to ensure accuracy of subsequent quantitative analysis. The process of model convolution also requires knowledge of the PSF to blur a simulated image which can then be compared to the experimentally acquired data to reach conclusions regarding its geometry and fluorophore distribution. Gaussian fitting is the basis for point localization microscopy, and can also be applied to tracking spot motion over time or measuring spot shape and size. All together, these three methods serve as powerful tools for high-resolution imaging using widefield microscopy.

  16. Bending the Rules: Widefield Microscopy and the Abbe Limit of Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien S.; Stephens, Andrew D.; Haase, Julian; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    One of the most fundamental concepts of microscopy is that of resolution–the ability to clearly distinguish two objects as separate. Recent advances such as structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and point localization techniques including photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) strive to overcome the inherent limits of resolution of the modern light microscope. These techniques, however, are not always feasible or optimal for live cell imaging. Thus, in this review, we explore three techniques for extracting high resolution data from images acquired on a widefield microscope–deconvolution, model convolution, and Gaussian fitting. Deconvolution is a powerful tool for restoring a blurred image using knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) describing the blurring of light by the microscope, although care must be taken to ensure accuracy of subsequent quantitative analysis. The process of model convolution also requires knowledge of the PSF to blur a simulated image which can then be compared to the experimentally acquired data to reach conclusions regarding its geometry and fluorophore distribution. Gaussian fitting is the basis for point localization microscopy, and can also be applied to tracking spot motion over time or measuring spot shape and size. All together, these three methods serve as powerful tools for high-resolution imaging using widefield microscopy. PMID:23893718

  17. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  18. ETV REPORT AND STATEMENT, ABB INC. BIOTEMP VETABLE OIL - BASED INSULATING DIELECTRIC FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE USEPA has created the ETV program to facilitate the deployment of innovative of improved environmental technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environmental protection by substantially acceleratin...

  19. Sensitization: the sine qua non of the depressive disorders?

    PubMed

    Patten, Scott B

    2008-12-01

    Available definitions of depressive disorders do not adequately distinguish depressive disorders from non-pathological mood states. When depression occurs as a reaction to life events (e.g., bereavement) a diagnosis is not usually warranted since these reactions represent normal and presumably adaptive reactions to life circumstances. Various approaches in DSM-IV such as the bereavement exclusion criterion and clinical significance criteria (addressing levels of distress and dysfunction) have not provided a fully satisfactory solution. The distinction between pathological and non-pathological expressions of depression would be facilitated were there to be a clearer understanding of the adaptive purpose of depression in its normal manifestations. Such an understanding would provide a basis for distinguishing adaptive manifestations of depression from those that represent a disorder. This paper presents the hypothesis that sensitization to life events is the core feature of depressive disorders. Sensitization may be an adaptive mechanism because it can fine-tune responses in a changing environment. Sensitization, however, may fail as an adaptive mechanism if it leads to an over-sensitized state in which a person cannot function or is intensely distressed even in a normal environment. This hypothesis predicts that a pattern of increasing reactivity to life events will be a better predictor of the need for, and response to, psychiatric treatment than current definitions.

  20. Quantitative Reasoning and the Sine Function: The Case of Zac

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has identified quantitative and covariational reasoning as critical for secondary and undergraduate student learning, particularly for topics that require students to make sense of relationships between quantities. The present study extends this body of literature by characterizing an undergraduate precalculus…

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of Globally Coupled Sine-Gordon Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    studied too, including a triangular configuration of linearly coupled parallel fiber Bragg gratings [15], coupled triplets of Gross-Pitaevskii...B. Dueholm, O. A. Levring, J. Mygind, N. F. Pedersen , O. H. Soerensen, and M. Cirillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1299 (1981); E. Joergensen, V. P...Malomed, Phys. Rev. B 37, 9325 (1988); A. V. Ustinov, H. Kohlstedt, M. Cirillo, N. F. Pedersen , G. Hallmanns, and C. Heiden, ibid. B 48, 10614

  2. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  3. Rockets and spacecraft: Sine qua non of space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of the national launch vehicle stable is presented along with lists of launch vehicles used in NASA programs. A partial list of spacecraft used throughout the world is also given. Scientific spacecraft costs are presented along with an historial overview of project development and funding in NASA.

  4. Ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning using a visual conditional stimulus.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, C; Ivkovich, D; Stanton, M E

    1999-12-01

    The developmental emergence of associative learning in rodents is determined by interactions among sensory, motor, and associative systems that are engaged in a particular experimental preparation (Carter & Stanton, 1996; Hunt & Campbell, 1997; Rudy, 1992). In fear conditioning, chemosensory, auditory, and visual cues emerge successively as effective conditional stimuli (CS) during postnatal ontogeny. In the present study, we begin to examine the generality of this principle of sensory system development for eyeblink conditioning, a form of associative learning that develops substantially later than conditioned fear (Carter & Stanton, 1996). We asked whether the developmental emergence of eyeblink conditioning to a visual CS occurs at an age that is the same or different from conditioning to an auditory CS. In Experiment 1, rat pups were trained on postnatal Day 17 or 24 with experimental parameters (and design) that were identical to our previous studies of eyeblink conditioning except that presentation of a light rather than a tone served as the CS. The outcome was also identical: no eyeblink conditioning on Day 17 and strong conditioning on Day 24. In Experiment 2, conditioning to tone versus light was directly compared by means of a discrimination learning design on postnatal Days 19, 21, 23, and 31. There was no evidence for differential development of auditory versus visual eyeblink conditioning. The difference between this outcome and previous ones involving conditioned fear (Hunt & Campbell, 1997; Rudy, 1992) suggests that principles concerning sensory maturation and learning may be different for early- versus late-developing associative systems.

  5. Children with chronic conditions: perspectives on condition management.

    PubMed

    Beacham, Barbara L; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study described children's (8-13 years old) perspectives of their chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes, cystic fibrosis): how they perceived their condition, its management, and its implications for their future. The study used the family management style framework (FMSF) to examine child perspectives on the joint venture of condition management between the child and family. Children within this age group viewed condition management in ways similar to their parents and have developed their own routines around condition management. Future studies of this phenomenon comparing child and parent perspectives would further our understanding of the influence of family management.

  6. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND PAIN: CONDITIONED ANALGESIA AND HYPERALGESIA

    PubMed Central

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews situations in which stimuli produce an increase or a decrease in nociceptive responses through basic associative processes and provides an associative account of such changes. Specifically, the literature suggests that cues associated with stress can produce conditioned analgesia or conditioned hyperalgesia, depending on the properties of the conditioned stimulus (e.g., contextual cues and audiovisual cues vs. gustatory and olfactory cues, respectively) and the proprieties of the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., appetitive, aversive, or analgesic, respectively). When such cues are associated with reducers of exogenous pain (e.g., opiates), they typically increase sensitivity to pain. Overall, the evidence concerning conditioned stress-induced analgesia, conditioned hyperalagesia, conditioned tolerance to morphine, and conditioned reduction of morphine analgesia suggests that selective associations between stimuli underlie changes in pain sensitivity. PMID:24269884

  7. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  8. Teacher Working Conditions that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Ken; McAdie, Pat

    2007-01-01

    To advance understanding of the issues concerning teachers' working conditions, the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario commissioned one of the authors to do an analytical review of literature on teachers' working conditions. This resulted in the publication, "Teacher Working Conditions That Matter: Evidence for Change." The…

  9. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  10. Design of three freeform mirror aplanat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, B.; Benitez, P.; Miñano, Juan C.; Chaves, Julio; Grabovickic, D.; Nikolic, Milena; Infante, J.

    2015-09-01

    Freeform optical surfaces have been in much demand recently due to improved techniques in their manufacturability and design methodology, and the degrees of freedom it gives the designers. Specifically in the case of off-axis mirror systems, freeform surfaces can considerably reduce the number of surfaces and compensate for some of the higher order aberrations as well, which improves the overall system performance. In this paper, we explore the design of freeform surfaces to obtain full aplanatic mirror systems, i.e., free of spherical aberration and circular coma of all orders. It is well know that such a system must be stigmatic and satisfy the Abbe sine condition. This problem is well known (Schwarzschild, 1905) to be solvable with two aspheric when the system has rotational symmetry. Here we prove that a rigorous solution to the general non-symmetric problem needs at least three free form surfaces, which are solutions of a system of partial differential equations. The examples considered have one plane of symmetry, where a consistent 2D solution is used as boundary condition for the 3D problem. We have used the x-y polynomial representations for all the surfaces used, and the iterative algorithm formulated for solving the above mentioned partial differential equations has shown very fast convergence.

  11. Serotonin and conditioning: focus on Pavlovian psychostimulant drug conditioning.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert J; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin containing neurons are located in nuclei deep in the brainstem and send axons throughout the central nervous system from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The vast scope of these connections and interactions enable serotonin and serotonin analogs to have profound effects upon sensory/motor processes. In that conditioning represents a neuroplastic process that leads to new sensory/motor connections, it is apparent that the serotonin system has the potential for a critical role in conditioning. In this article we review the basics of conditioning as well as the serotonergic system and point up the number of non-associative ways in which manipulations of serotonin neurotransmission have an impact upon conditioning. We focus upon psychostimulant drug conditioning and review the contribution of drug stimuli in the use of serotonin drugs to investigate drug conditioning and the important impact drug stimuli can have on conditioning by introducing new sensory stimuli that can create or mask a CS. We also review the ways in which experimental manipulations of serotonin can disrupt conditioned behavioral effects but not the associative processes in conditioning. In addition, we propose the use of the recently developed memory re-consolidation model of conditioning as an approach to assess the possible role of serotonin in associative processes without the complexities of performance effects related to serotonin treatment induced alterations in sensory/motor systems.

  12. Do rats learn conditional independence?

    PubMed Central

    Timberlake, William

    2017-01-01

    If acquired associations are to accurately represent real relevance relations, there is motivation for the hypothesis that learning will, in some circumstances, be more appropriately modelled, not as direct dependence, but as conditional independence. In a serial compound conditioning experiment, two groups of rats were presented with a conditioned stimulus (CS1) that imperfectly (50%) predicted food, and was itself imperfectly predicted by a CS2. Groups differed in the proportion of CS2 presentations that were ultimately followed by food (25% versus 75%). Thus, the information presented regarding the relevance of CS2 to food was ambiguous between direct dependence and conditional independence (given CS1). If rats learnt that food was conditionally independent of CS2, given CS1, subjects of both groups should thereafter respond similarly to CS2 alone. Contrary to the conditionality hypothesis, subjects attended to the direct food predictability of CS2, suggesting that rats treat even distal stimuli in a CS sequence as immediately relevant to food, not conditional on an intermediate stimulus. These results urge caution in representing indirect associations as conditional associations, accentuate the theoretical weight of the Markov condition in graphical models, and challenge theories to articulate the conditions under which animals are expected to learn conditional associations, if ever. PMID:28386451

  13. Is the basic conditional probabilistic?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2014-06-01

    Nine experiments examined whether individuals treat the meaning of basic conditional assertions as deterministic or probabilistic. In Experiments 1-4, participants were presented with either probabilistic or deterministic relations, which they had to describe with a conditional. These experiments consistently showed that people tend only to use the basic if p then q construction to describe deterministic relations between antecedent and consequent, whereas they use a probabilistically qualified construction, if p then probably q, to describe probabilistic relations-suggesting that the default interpretation of the conditional is deterministic. Experiments 5 and 6 showed that when directly asked, individuals typically report that conditional assertions admit no exceptions (i.e., they are seen as deterministic). Experiments 7-9 showed that individuals judge the truth of conditional assertions in accordance with this deterministic interpretation. Together, these results pose a challenge to probabilistic accounts of the meaning of conditionals and support mental models, formal rules, and suppositional accounts.

  14. How People Interpret Conditionals: Shifts toward the Conditional Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Pfeifer, Niki; Mayerhofer, Bastian; Kleiter, Gernot D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how people interpret conditionals and how stable their interpretation is over a long series of trials. Participants were shown the colored patterns on each side of a 6-sided die and were asked how sure they were that a conditional holds of the side landing upward when the die is randomly thrown. Participants were presented with 71…

  15. Polarity in Conditionals and Conditional-Like Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, I-Ta Chris

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the distribution of negative polarity items (henceforth, NPIs) in conditionals and conditional-like constructions. NPIs include words such as any and ever and idioms such as "give a damn" and "lift a finger"; these expressions have only a limited distribution. In this dissertation, the distribution of…

  16. Conditioned inhibition of autonomic Pavlovian conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D L; Lipp, O V; Siddle, D A

    1997-10-10

    The present study aimed to demonstrate conditioned inhibition of Pavlovian conditioning of autonomic responses in humans. Subjects (N = 21) were presented initially with four geometric shapes (A, B, C and D). An electric shock served as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during acquisition. Conditional stimuli lasted for 8 s and US onset coincided with CS offset. Subjects were trained with A-US, C-US, and AC-US pairings and AB alone and B alone presentations. The subsequent summation test consisted of C-US pairings and CB alone and CD alone presentations. Conditioning was evident in self-reported US expectancy and first and second interval electrodermal responses. Evidence for conditioned inhibition during the summation test was found in US expectancy and second interval electrodermal responses.

  17. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  18. Fear Conditioning Increases NREM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Kevin; Abel, Ted

    2010-01-01

    To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on sleep–wake states. During the 24 hr after training, fear-conditioned mice had approximately 1 hr more of nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and less wakefulness than mice receiving exposure to conditioning stimuli or immediate shock treatment. Mice receiving conditioning stimuli had more delta power during NREM sleep, whereas mice receiving fear conditioning had less theta power during rapid-eye-movement sleep. These results demonstrate that a single trial of fear conditioning alters sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations over a 24-hr period, supporting the idea that sleep is modified by experience and that such changes in sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations may play a role in memory consolidation. PMID:17469920

  19. Design of axisymmetric multi-mirror grazing incidence system to increase the numerical aperture of neutron and X-ray microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Watanabe, Norio; Asami, Hiroshi; Shimada, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    An axisymmetric multi-mirror system for neutron and X-ray microscopes is proposed to increase their numerical aperture and collection efficiency. A Wolter type-I mirror is used as the basis of the multi-mirror system at grazing incidence. The addition of an even number of hyperboloid mirrors to the Wolter type-I mirror can satisfy both an equal optical path length and Abbe's sine condition. The numerical aperture increases in proportion to the number of mirrors. The optical parameters of the system with four tandem mirrors are calculated for neutrons and X-rays with a wavelength of 0.4 nm by assuming that the average grazing angle of incidence is 5.4 mrad and the magnification is 10. The inner diameters of the mirrors are limited to <10 mm considering the total length of the optical system. Tolerance of off-axis distance was calculated using a ray-tracing computer simulation. Ray tracing shows that a blur size <14 nm will be possible at an off-axis displacement of 10 μm.

  20. Scanning properties of large dual-shaped offset and symmetric reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo-Israel, Victor; Veruttipong, Watt; Norrod, Roger D.; Imbriale, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Several characteristics of dual offset (DOSR) and symmetric shaped reflectors are examined. Among these is the amelioration of the added cost of manufacturing a shaped reflector antenna, particularly a doubly curved surface for the DOSR, if adjustable panels, which may be necessary for correction of gravity and wind distortions, are also used for improving gain by shaping. The scanning properties of shaped reflectors, both offset and circularly symmetric, are examined and compared to conic section scanning characteristics. Scanning of the pencil beam is obtained by lateral and axial translation of a single point-source feed. The feed is kept pointed toward the center of the subreflector. The effects of power spillover and aperture phase error as a function of beam scanning is examined for several different types of large reflector designs including DOSR, circularly symmetric large f/D and smaller f/D dual reflector antenna systems. It is graphically illustrated that the Abbe-sine condition for improving scanning of an optical system cannot, inherently, be satisfied in a dual-shaped reflector system shaped for high gain and low feed spillover.

  1. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and evaluation of heat pipe thermal conditioning panels are discussed. The panels were designed and fabricated to be compatible with several planned NASA space vehicles, in terms of panel size, capacity, temperature gradients, and integration with various heat exchangers and electronic components. It was satisfactorily demonstrated that the heat pipe thermal conditioning panel meets the thermal efficiency and heat transport requirements.

  2. Conditional Logic and Primary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.

    Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a…

  3. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  4. The National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was ass...

  5. The Conditions of Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, Owen L.

    The author proposes a method of examining and organizing the principles relating to the conditions of institutional change. Those conditions of change involve principles which relate to three elements--people, places, and things. Within these categories, principles may be enumerated which operate to facilitate or restrain change or innovation…

  6. Operant conditioning in redwinged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Bastian, C W; Hothersall, D

    1970-09-01

    An operant conditioning technique for use with passerine birds is described. Two redwinged blackbirds were successfully conditioned to perch-hop for food reinforcement. Continuous reinforcement and fixed-ratio schedules involving substantial ratio requirements were used to maintain this response. The behavior of the two redwinged blackbirds was comparable to that of more conventional organisms working on similar schedules of reinforcement.

  7. Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2015-01-15

    This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders.

  8. Conditioning of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Ader, R; Cohen, N

    1991-10-01

    Experimental studies in humans and experimental animals document the acquisition and extinction of classically conditioned alterations of different parameters of humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses. Although the aversive effects of cyclophosphamide in a taste aversion learning paradigm has been the most frequently used model, conditioned immunomodulatory effects are not confined to this conditioning procedure, and they are not limited to cyclophosphamide or, for that matter, the use of immunomodulating drugs as unconditioned stimuli. Conditioned changes in immunologic reactivity have also been found to modulate the progression of spontaneously-developing or experimentally-induced pathophysiological processes in experimental animals. The available data on the immunoregulatory effects of conditioning indicate that the immune system, like other systems operating in the interests of homeostasis, is integrated with other physiological processes and is therefore influenced by and capable of influencing the brain.

  9. Object Detection under Noisy Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkarnikar, P. P.; Khandagle, H. P.; Talbar, S. N.; Vasambekar, P. N.

    2010-11-01

    Identifying moving objects from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. Such automatic object detection soft wares have many applications in surveillance, auto navigation and robotics. A common approach is to perform background subtraction, which identifies the moving object from portion of video sequences. These soft wares work good under normal condition but tend to give false alarms when tested in real life conditions. Such a condition arises due to fog, smoke, glares ect. These situations are termed as noisy conditions and objects are detected under such conditions. In this paper we created noise by addition of standard Gaussian noise in clean video and compare the response of the detection system to various noise level.

  10. Medical conditions requiring intensive care.

    PubMed

    Porter, D; Johnston, A McD; Henning, J

    2009-06-01

    Patients who require critical care for internal medical conditions make up a small but significant proportion of those requiring evacuation to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in Birmingham, UK. Infectious, autoimmune, neurologic, cardiac and respiratory conditions are all represented. Conditions which preclude military service and which one would not necessarily expect to see in a military hospital are still prevalent in civilian contractors and host nation personnel. With some 250,000 British military personnel based in the UK and overseas individual presentations of rare conditions occur regularly. This article discusses the ITU management of some key conditions. Whilst trauma makes up the majority of the workload in a field Intensive Care Unit, medical admissions happen not infrequently. This article describes some of the most common medical causes for admission and treatment is considered.

  11. Survey of Condition Indicators for Condition Monitoring Systems (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-29

    gear and shaft in the gearbox as well as the generator and main bearing. A condition monitoring system is designed to detect faults early on so...discrimination, which is arguably one of the most important aspects of a condition monitoring system . Fault discrimination is the ability to...separate out a faulted component from good components. If the fault discrimination is good, then the alarms the system provides are trustworthy and

  12. Outcome-specific conditioned inhibition in Pavlovian backward conditioning.

    PubMed

    Delamater, Andrew R; LoLordo, Vincent M; Sosa, Wendy

    2003-11-01

    In the present experiments, the outcome specificity of learning was explored in an appetitive Pavlovian backward conditioning procedure with rats. The rats initially were administered Pavlovian backward training with two qualitatively different unconditioned stimulus conditioned-stimulus (US-CS) pairs of stimuli (e.g., pellet --> noise or sucrose --> light), and then the effects of this training were assessed in Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (Experiment 1) and retardation-of-learning (Experiment 2) tests. In the transfer test, it was shown that during the last 10-sec interval, the CSs selectively reduced the rate of the instrumental responses with which they shared a US, relative to the instrumental responses with which they did not share a US. The opposite result was obtained when the USs (in the absence of the CSs) were presented noncontingently. In the retardation test, conditioned magazine approach, responding to the CSs was acquired more slowly when the stimulus-outcome combinations in the backward and the forward conditioning phases were the same, as compared with when they were reversed. These results are collectively in accord with the view that Pavlovian backward conditioning can result in the formation of outcome-specific inhibitory associations. Alternative views of backward conditioning are also examined.

  13. The conditional emotional response as a model of Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, J F

    1986-01-01

    Many investigators have assumed that the conditional emotional response (CER) with its attendant response measure, response suppression, can be used as a model for Pavlovian conditioning; that is, that the experimental results obtained with the CER will yield findings similar to those obtained with the direct conditional stimulus (CS)-conditional response (CR) paradigm, e.g., conditioning of the eyeblink, electrodermal (EDR), finger withdrawal, etc. Several problems, however, have emerged with this assumption. The first is a methodologic-statistical one. Measurement of response suppression using the familiar ratio measure assumes that different base rates of responding should play no role in determining the size of the suppression ratio, and operant responding from one pre-CS period to another will remain stable. These assumptions have been found to be in error. In addition, the statistical assumptions of normally distributed data and homogeneous variances of the experimental and control groups also have been called to question. Some experimenters, however, have taken the position that if CER and direct CS-CR experimental findings are in general agreement when a particular conditioning variable has been manipulated, the methodologic-statistical problems that we have identified can be ignored. The experimental evidence suggests that although such comparisons frequently indicate an identity of findings, there are sufficient exceptions in which caution is urged in assuming that the two paradigms are measuring the same learning correlate.

  14. Compatibility Conditions of Structural Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of elasticity has camouflaged a deficiency in the compatibility formulation since 1860. In structures the ad hoc compatibility conditions through virtual "cuts" and closing "gaps" are not parallel to the strain formulation in elasticity. This deficiency in the compatibility conditions has prevented the development of a direct stress determination method in structures and in elasticity. We have addressed this deficiency and attempted to unify the theory of compatibility. This work has led to the development of the integrated force method for structures and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation for elasticity. The improved accuracy observed in the solution of numerical examples by the integrated force method can be attributed to the compliance of the compatibility conditions. Using the compatibility conditions allows mapping of variables and facile movement among different structural analysis formulations. This paper reviews and illustrates the requirement of compatibility in structures and in elasticity. It also describes the generation of the conditions and quantifies the benefits of their use. The traditional analysis methods and available solutions (which have been obtained bypassing the missed conditions) should be verified for compliance of the compatibility conditions.

  15. Mass-based condition measures and their relationship with fitness: in what condition is condition?

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Craig A.; Suzuki, Toshitaka N.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Mass or body-size measures of ‘condition’ are of central importance to the study of ecology and evolution, and it is often assumed that differences in condition measures are positively and linearly related to fitness. Using examples drawn from ecological studies, we show that indices of condition frequently are unlikely to be related to fitness in a linear fashion. Researchers need to be more explicit in acknowledging the limitations of mass-based condition measures and accept that, under some circumstances, they may not relate to fitness as traditionally assumed. Any relationship between a particular condition measure and fitness should first be empirically validated before condition is used as a proxy for fitness. In the absence of such evidence, researchers should explicitly acknowledge that assuming such a relationship may be unrealistic. PMID:26019406

  16. Effect of electrical water bath stunning on physical reflexes of broilers: evaluation of stunning efficacy under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Girasole, M; Marrone, R; Anastasio, A; Chianese, Antonio; Mercogliano, R; Cortesi, M L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of different amounts and frequencies of stunning sine wave alternating current were investigated under field conditions. Seven hundred and fifty broilers were stunned in an electrical water bath with an average root mean square (RMS) current of 150, 200, and 250 mA and frequencies of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,200 Hz. The occurrence of corneal reflex, spontaneous eye blinking, and a positive response to a painful stimulus were monitored and recorded immediately after the stunning and at 20 s post-stun. Statistical analysis showed that the electrical stunning frequency (P=0.0004), the stunning RMS current (P<0.0001) and the interaction between stunning frequency and stunning current (P<0.0001) had a significant effect on the occurrence of animals experiencing an abolition of corneal reflex at 20 s post-stun.At a current of 150 mA, the probability of a successful stun was over 90% at 200 Hz, approximately 40% at 400 Hz, and below 5% for frequencies greater than 600 Hz. So, stunning at frequencies greater than 600 Hz cannot be recommended when a RMS current of 150 mA is applied. The maximum probability of a successful stun was obtained for a current level of 200 mA at 400 Hz and for a current level of 250 mA at 400 and 600 Hz, whereas the stunning treatments at 1,200 Hz provided the lowest probability of a successful stun. Assessment of spontaneous eye blinking and responses to comb pinching confirmed the indications coming from the analysis of corneal reflex.

  17. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  18. FastStats: Sinus Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . FastStats Homepage Diseases and Conditions Anemia or Iron Deficiency Arthritis ... Statistics Tables for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2014, Table A-2 [PDF - 219 KB] Physician ...

  19. Plant Condition Remote Monitoring Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Krishen, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a radiation transfer study conducted on houseplants using controlled environmental conditions. These conditions included: (1) air and soil temperature; (2) incident and reflected radiation; and (3) soil moisture. The reflectance, transmittance, and emittance measurements were conducted in six spectral bands: microwave, red, yellow, green, violet and infrared, over a period of three years. Measurements were taken on both healthy and diseased plants. The data was collected on plants under various conditions which included: variation in plant bio-mass, diurnal variation, changes in plant pathological conditions (including changes in water content), different plant types, various disease types, and incident light wavelength or color. Analysis of this data was performed to yield an algorithm for plant disease from the remotely sensed data.

  20. Dealing with a Health Condition

    MedlinePlus

    ... to feel angry at themselves and those they love. These feelings are the start of the coping ... school play, or participate in other activities I love? What can I expect — will my condition be ...

  1. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  2. 8 Conditions for Motivated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The author interviewed hundreds of adolescents about what makes them interested in learning, in and out of school. The result is a formula hinging on creating eight conditions that spur kids to take active, motivated roles in their own learning.

  3. Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-03-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.

  4. Evaluation of Condition of Lake Superior Regulatory Structure. Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    about 2 deg. Soft clay and shale seams occur throughout the foundation profile and are considered the weakest zones within the foundation. Severe...the field tests. Various size model structures were obtained and shakers of various sizes were used to put sinusoidal or swept-sine 28 Figure 12...instrumentation system which has been used in the analysis of vibration data by the SL at the WES. This system was too expensive and was abandoned in favor of an

  5. Improving Care for Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mattke, Soeren; Mengistu, Tewodaj; Klautzer, Lisa; Sloss, Elizabeth M.; Brook, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The need for better management of chronic conditions is urgent. About 141 million people in the United States were living with one or more chronic conditions in 2010, and this number is projected to increase to 171 million by 2030. To address this challenge, many health plans have piloted and rolled out innovative approaches to improving care for their members with chronic conditions. This article documents the current range of chronic care management services, identifies best practices and industry trends, and examines factors in the plans' operating environment that limit their ability to optimize chronic care programs. The authors conducted telephone surveys with a representative sample of health plans and made in-depth case studies of six plans. All plans in the sample provide a wide range of products and services around chronic care, including wellness/lifestyle management programs for healthy members, disease management for members with common chronic conditions, and case management for high-risk members regardless of their underlying condition. Health plans view these programs as a “win-win” situation and believe that they improve care for their most vulnerable members and reduce cost of coverage. Plans are making their existing programs more patient-centric and are integrating disease and case management, and sometimes lifestyle management and behavioral health, into a consolidated chronic care management program, believing that this will increase patient engagement and prevent duplication of services and missed opportunities. PMID:28083379

  6. Prenatal nipple conditioning for breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, L D

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-two primigravida women who planned to breastfeed began conditioning their nipples six weeks before their expected delivery date by nipple rolling twice a day for two minutes each time; providing gentle friction against the nipple with a terry cloth towel for 15 seconds once a day; and nipple airing for two hours a day, allowing outer clothing to rub against the nipple. Each woman served as her own control, conditioning one nipple but not the other. No nipple ointments or soap were used on either nipple during the course of the study. Each woman was given instructions on breastfeeding techniques to be used after delivery. The women completed two checklists: One revealed how consistently they followed the nipple-conditioning regime; with the other, they rated nipple pain on each breast, for every nursing, during the first five days postdelivery. Ratings were: 1--negligible pain or no pain, 2--definite pain, 3--extreme pain. Seventeen women successfully completed the study. Effect of skin color on the amount of nipple pain was also investigated. The prenatal nipple-conditioning regime significantly reduced the amount of total nipple pain experienced during the first few days of breastfeeding. The amount of extreme pain experienced on the conditioned nipple was significantly (p less than .01) reduced compared to the control nipple. Fair-skinned women reported more nipple soreness on unconditioned nipples, and olive-complected women reported significantly (p less than .01) less nipple soreness on unconditioned nipples.

  7. Motor activity under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Cherepakhin, M. A.; Yuganov, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    The material presented on the motor activity under weightless conditions (brief and long) leads to the conclusion that it is not significantly disrupted, if those being examined are secured at the workplaces. Some discoordination of movement, moderately expressed disruption of the precision of reproduction of assigned muscular forces, etc., were observed. Motor disorders decrease significantly in proportion to the length of stay under weightless conditions. This apparently takes place, as a consequence of formation of a new functional system, adequate to the conditions of weightlessness. Tests on intact and labyrinthectomized animals have demonstrated that signaling from the inner ear receptors is superfluous in weightlessness, since it promotes the onset of disruptions in the combined work of the position analyzers.

  8. Conditioned reinforcement and response strength.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration.

  9. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Ebru; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000–130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold–graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions. PMID:27350035

  10. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  11. Conditional entropy and Landauer principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuchiú, D.; Diamantini, M. C.; Gammaitoni, L.

    2015-08-01

    The Landauer principle describes the minimum heat produced by an information-processing device. Recently a new term has been included in the minimum heat production: it is called conditional entropy and takes into account the microstates content of a given logic state. Usually this term is assumed to be zero in bistable symmetric systems thanks to the strong hypothesis used to derive the Landauer principle. In this paper we show that conditional entropy can be nonzero even for bistable symmetric systems and that it can be expressed as the sum of three different terms related to the probabilistic features of the device. The contribution of the three terms to conditional entropy (and thus to the minimum heat production) is then discussed for the case of bit reset.

  12. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  13. Computational Imaging in Demanding Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    interest in nanoscience in many research fields like  physics,  chemistry , and biology, including the  environmental  fate of the  produced nano-objects...to the Air Force; namely, the removal of disturbances due to demanding physical and environmental conditions. We considered degradations of interest...of  disturbances due to demanding physical and  environmental  conditions. We considered  degradations of interest that can be caused by a number of

  14. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  15. The Pilot Conditioning Plant Gorleben

    SciTech Connect

    Willax, H.O.; Lahr, H.

    1995-12-31

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the feasibility of direct disposal of spent fuel elements has been examined and their safety aspects evaluated in the years between 1979 and 1985. In an assessment of the results, the Federal Government concluded that the technology of direct disposal has to be developed. According to this decision in April 1986, there was the application for the erection and operation of the Pilot Conditioning Plant (PKA) for the conditioning of spent fuel elements and other radioactive waste. Since February 1990, the PKA has been under construction and the hot commissioning will be in 1997.

  16. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  17. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  18. Lorentzian condition in holographic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas; Monten, Ruben; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    We derive a sufficient set of conditions on the Euclidean boundary theory in dS/CFT for it to predict classical, Lorentzian bulk evolution at large spatial volumes. Our derivation makes use of a canonical transformation to express the bulk wave function at large volume in terms of the sources of the dual partition function. This enables a sharper formulation of dS/CFT. The conditions under which the boundary theory predicts classical bulk evolution are stronger than the criteria usually employed in quantum cosmology. We illustrate this in a homogeneous isotropic minisuperspace model of gravity coupled to a scalar field in which we identify the ensemble of classical histories explicitly.

  19. Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard-Olsen, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a statistical model called logistic regression. This approach is illustrated by the development of a model for the conditional inference task using Spohn's (2013) ranking theoretic approach to conditionals.

  20. Computer Developments in Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton and Skeels, Architects, Miami, FL.

    Proceedings of a conference on the present and future uses of computer techniques in the air conditioning field. The recommendation of this report is, for the most part, negative insofar as it applies to the use of computers for design by the small office. However, there should be an awareness of their usefulness in controlling the environmental…

  1. What's wrong with fear conditioning?

    PubMed

    Beckers, Tom; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Boddez, Yannick; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Fear conditioning is one of the prime paradigms of behavioural neuroscience and a source of tremendous insight in the fundamentals of learning and memory and the psychology and neurobiology of emotion. It is also widely regarded as a model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders in a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology. Starting from the apparent paradox between the adaptive nature of fear conditioning and the dysfunctional nature of pathological anxiety, we present a critique of the human fear conditioning paradigm as an experimental model for psychopathology. We discuss the potential benefits of expanding the human fear conditioning paradigm by (1) including action tendencies as an important index of fear and (2) paying more attention to "weak" (i.e., ambiguous) rather than "strong" fear learning situations (Lissek et al., 2006), such as contained in selective learning procedures. We present preliminary data that illustrate these ideas and discuss the importance of response systems divergence in understanding individual differences in vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety.

  2. Thermocouple-Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Thermocouple-signal-conditioning circuit acting in conjunction with thermocouple, exhibits electrical behavior of voltage in series with resistance. Combination part of input bridge circuit of controller. Circuit configured for either of two specific applications by selection of alternative resistances and supply voltages. Includes alarm circuit detecting open circuit in thermocouple and provides off-scale output to signal malfunctions.

  3. Neural basis of conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-06-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation-cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior-can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior.

  4. States Scrutinize Teacher Working Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Access to reliable technology. Help from classroom aides. Out-of-classroom duties. Planning time with colleagues. Administrator accessibility. All those working conditions and more play a vital part in whether good teachers feel sufficiently satisfied to stay in their schools. Now, policymakers are beginning to gather evidence on just how much…

  5. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n" setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  6. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in…

  7. Binocular collimation vs conditional alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William J.

    2012-10-01

    As binocular enthusiasts share their passion, topics related to collimation abound. Typically, we find how observers, armed only with a jeweler's screwdriver, can "perfectly collimate" his or her binocular, make it "spot on," or other verbiage of similar connotation. Unfortunately, what most are addressing is a form of pseudo-collimation I have referred to since the mid-1970s as "Conditional Alignment." Ignoring the importance of the mechanical axis (hinge) in the alignment process, this "condition," while having the potential to make alignment serviceable, or even outstanding—within a small range of IPD (Interpupillary Distance) settings relative to the user's spatial accommodation (the ability to accept small errors in parallelism of the optical axes)—may take the instrument farther from the 3-axis collimation conscientious manufacturers seek to implement. Becoming more optically savvy—and especially with so many mechanically inferior binoculars entering the marketplace— the consumer contemplating self-repair and alignment has a need to understand the difference between clinical, 3-axis "collimation" (meaning both optical axes are parallel with the axis of the hinge) and "conditional alignment," as differentiated in this paper. Furthermore, I believe there has been a long-standing need for the term "Conditional Alignment," or some equivalent, to be accepted as part of the vernacular of those who use binoculars extensively, whether for professional or recreational activities. Achieving that acceptance is the aim of this paper.

  8. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  9. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…

  10. How Cells Endure Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-extremes/

  11. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  12. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    Primary and high school students (277 in grades 5-6; 615 in grades 7-12) in the United States (47 percent boys) responded to 26 items of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Results indicate 7 distinct FCQ factors: perceived value of schooling; affect toward schooling; peer positive academic climate (Peer Positive); encouragement from…

  13. The Condition of Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, John; Choy, Susan; Gruner, Allison; Sable, Jennifer; Tobin, Richard; Bae, Yupin; Sexton, Jim; Stennett, Janis; Watanabe, Satoshi; Zill, Nicholas; West, Jerry; Denton, Kristin; Pratt, Rebecca, Ed.

    "The Condition of Education, 2000" is an indicator report, summarizing the health of education, monitoring important developments, and showing trends in major aspects of education. Indicators examine relationships; show changes over time; compare or contrast subpopulations, regions, or countries; or assess characteristics of students from…

  14. Associations in Human Instrumental Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, A. Matias; Rosas, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to study the contents of human instrumental conditioning. Experiment 1 found positive transfer between a discriminative stimulus (S[superscript D] and an instrumental response (R) that shared the outcome (O) with the response that was originally trained with the S[superscript D], showing the formation of an…

  15. Conditions for Developing Communicative Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Materials and Methods. The meaning of the key concepts of "communicative competence" and "opportunities" is studied within the search for conditions to develop. Conclusion. The theoretical findings…

  16. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Lawon, Michael J.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Weber, Jochem

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  17. Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2

  18. Condition assessment of nonlinear processes

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.

  19. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  20. DICE: Disk Initial Conditions Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Valentin

    2016-07-01

    DICE models initial conditions of idealized galaxies to study their secular evolution or their more complex interactions such as mergers or compact groups using N-Body/hydro codes. The code can set up a large number of components modeling distinct parts of the galaxy, and creates 3D distributions of particles using a N-try MCMC algorithm which does not require a prior knowledge of the distribution function. The gravitational potential is then computed on a multi-level Cartesian mesh by solving the Poisson equation in the Fourier space. Finally, the dynamical equilibrium of each component is computed by integrating the Jeans equations for each particles. Several galaxies can be generated in a row and be placed on Keplerian orbits to model interactions. DICE writes the initial conditions in the Gadget1 or Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) format and is fully compatible with Ramses (ascl:1011.007).

  1. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  2. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  3. Neuronal Analogues of Conditioning Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-24

    Although the mechanisms of interneuronal communication have been well established, the changes underlying most forms of learning have thus far eluded...stimulating electrodes on one of the connectives was adjusted so as to produce a small excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) in the impaled cell...two stimuli would constitute a neuronal analogue of conditioning by producing an increased EPSP in response to the test stimulus alone. If so, then

  4. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

  5. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  6. Major RFI conditions effecting TDRSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the radio frequency interference (RFI) conditions which would affect operating frequency band selections and data communications equipment design approaches for the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the scope of the investigation, (2) relative RFI in the frequency bands considered, (3) radar RFI power and duty factor, (4) radio relay communications RFI, (5) radio frequency band usage recommendations, and (6) radar RFI impact areas.

  7. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references. (ACR)

  8. Bacteria under simulated Martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Young, R S; Deal, P H; Bell, J; Allen, J L

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of organisms in simulated Martian conditions is of great importance to exobiology for two reasons: (1) Because of the extreme environment of Mars, the likelihood of contamination of the planet by earth organisms is considered slight by some scientists. To date, there has been little evidence to contradict this supposition. Such evidence is presented. (2) The selection and adaptation of earth bacteria to Martian conditions is potentially significant in understanding Martian life, if it exists, and may be helpful in designing life-detection techniques and devices. Of course, simulation attempts, based on current knowledge of the Mars environment, may be far from the actual conditions, and extrapolations made from such situations of no real significance. However, generalizations can be made and cautious interpretation of the results of those experiments seems well worth reporting. A new technique for simulation of known parameters of the Martian environment is discussed along with possible biological implications. The response of bacteria to such simulation is demonstrated in terms of survival and growth, showing that certain bacteria will not only survive, but grow during simulated Martian freeze-thaw cycling if water is present. Ways are demonstrated in which water can be present on Mars although not detectable with current technology. Plans for future experimentation are discussed.

  9. Primary lymphoproliferative conditions of lung.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A R; Seal, R M

    1978-04-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and pathological features of six primary lymphoproliferative conditions of the lung are described. These comprise two patients with malignant lymphomas, one with pseudolymphoma, one with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), one with lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and one with plasma cell granuloma. We recommend that the term 'premalignant lymphoma' be used for pseudolymphoma since the condition, although tending to remain localised, has a malignant potential. A combination of dyspnoea, cough, and pyrexia were the presenting features in our cases of premalignant and malignant lymphoma although they may often be discovered accidentally by chest radiography. The patient with LIP presented with the usual symptoms of dyspnoea and cough. The initial manifestations of the patient with lymphomatoid granulomatosis were skin radh and peripheral neuropathy nine months before the pulmonary symptoms, a not unusual occurrence. Plasma cell granuloma is often asymptomatic but our patient presented with cough, chest pain, haemoptysis. Premalignant lymphoma tends to pursue a benign course although exceptionally it may become disseminated. Malignant lymphoma may remain localised for many years but a significant proportion metastasise. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis and LIP have a varied course but both may terminate in malignant lymphoma. Plasma cell granuloma is always benign. The interrelationships of these conditions and their differential diagnosis are discussed.

  10. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  11. UV photobiochemistry under space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Stridde, C.

    The response of spores of Bacillus subtilis, cells of Deinococcus radiodurans and conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus to actual and simulated space conditions (UV in combination with long-term exposure to extremely dry conditions, including vacuum) has been studied: The following effects have been analyzed: decrease of viability, occurrence of DNA double strand breaks, formation of DNA-protein cross-links and DNA-DNA cross-links. All organisms show an increased sensitivity to UV light in extreme dryness (dry argon or vacuum) compared to an irradiation in aqueous suspension. The UV irradiation leads in all cases to a variety of DNA lesions. Very conspicuous is the occurrence of double strand breaks. Most of these double strand breaks are produced by incomplete repair of other lesions, especially base damages. The increase in DNA lesions can be correlated to the loss in viability. The specific response of the chromosomal DNA to UV irradiation in extreme dryness, however, varies from species to species and depends on the state of dehydration. The formation of DNA double strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links prevails in the case of B. subtilis spores. In cells of Deinococcus radiodurans DNA-DNA cross-links often predominate, in conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus double strand breaks. The results obtained by direct exposure to space conditions (EURECA mission and D2 mission) largely agree with the laboratory data.

  12. Multipartite entanglement in conditional states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Juan Diego; Strunz, Walter T.; Viviescas, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    A key lesson of the decoherence program is that information flowing out from an open system is stored in the quantum state of the surroundings. Simultaneously, quantum measurement theory shows that the evolution of any open system when its environment is measured is nonlinear and leads to pure states conditioned on the measurement record. Here we report the discovery of a fundamental relation between measurement and entanglement which is characteristic of this scenario. It takes the form of a scaling law between the amount of entanglement in the conditional state of the system and the probabilities of the experimental outcomes obtained from measuring the state of the environment, with the latter modeled as a bosonic field linearly coupled with the system. Using the scaling, we construct the distribution of entanglement over the ensemble of experimental outcomes for standard models with one open channel and provide rigorous results on finite-time disentanglement in systems coupled to non-Markovian baths. In principle, the scaling allows the direct experimental detection and quantification of entanglement in conditional states of a large class of open systems by quantum tomography of the bath even when it consists of a single mode.

  13. Hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; Peck, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center (GaWSC) maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 320 real-time streamgages, including 10 real-time lake-level monitoring stations and 63 real-time water-quality monitors. Additionally, the GaWSC operates more than 180 groundwater wells, 41 of which are real-time. One of the many benefits from this monitoring network is that the data analysis provides an overview of the hydrologic conditions of rivers, creeks, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.

  14. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szemenyei, Brian; Nelson, Robert S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  15. Conditional sign flip via teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Gian Luca; Pasquale, Ferdinando de; Paganelli, Simone

    2004-08-01

    We present a model to realize a probabilistic conditional sign flip gate using only linear optics. The gate operates in the space of number-state qubits and is obtained by a nonconventional use of the teleportation protocol. Both a destructive and a nondestructive version of the gate are presented. In the former case an Hadamard gate on the control qubit is combined with a projective teleportation scheme mixing control and target. The success probability is 1/2. In the latter case we need a quantum encoder realized via the interaction of the control qubit with an ancillary state composed of two maximally entangled photons. The success probability is 1/4.

  16. Rocket engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, S.K.; Alcock, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to ensure mission success in addition to engine reliability. The system components are monitored through health and performance sensors; they are analyzed with the diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and demonstrated by system testing with hardware from other advanced development programs.

  17. Ionic homeostasis in brain conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Ornella; Vinciguerra, Antonio; Cerullo, Pierpaolo; Anzilotti, Serenella; Brancaccio, Paola; Bilo, Leonilda; Scorziello, Antonella; Molinaro, Pasquale; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Pignataro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Most of the current focus on developing neuroprotective therapies is aimed at preventing neuronal death. However, these approaches have not been successful despite many years of clinical trials mainly because the numerous side effects observed in humans and absent in animals used at preclinical level. Recently, the research in this field aims to overcome this problem by developing strategies which induce, mimic, or boost endogenous protective responses and thus do not interfere with physiological neurotransmission. Preconditioning is a protective strategy in which a subliminal stimulus is applied before a subsequent harmful stimulus, thus inducing a state of tolerance in which the injury inflicted by the challenge is mitigated. Tolerance may be observed in ischemia, seizure, and infection. Since it requires protein synthesis, it confers delayed and temporary neuroprotection, taking hours to develop, with a pick at 1–3 days. A new promising approach for neuroprotection derives from post-conditioning, in which neuroprotection is achieved by a modified reperfusion subsequent to a prolonged ischemic episode. Many pathways have been proposed as plausible mechanisms to explain the neuroprotection offered by preconditioning and post-conditioning. Although the mechanisms through which these two endogenous protective strategies exert their effects are not yet fully understood, recent evidence highlights that the maintenance of ionic homeostasis plays a key role in propagating these neuroprotective phenomena. The present article will review the role of protein transporters and ionic channels involved in the control of ionic homeostasis in the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and post-conditioning in adult brain, with particular regards to the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), the Na+/H+ exchange (NHE), the Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransport (NKCC) and the acid-sensing cation channels (ASIC). Ischemic stroke is the third leading

  18. Conditions for successful data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzfeld, M.; Chorin, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many applications in science and engineering require that the predictions of uncertain models be updated by information from a stream of noisy data. The model and the data jointly define a conditional probability density function (pdf), which contains all the information one has about the process of interest and various numerical methods can be used to study and approximate this pdf, e.g. the Kalman filter, variational methods or particle filters. Given a model and data, each of these algorithms will produce a result. We are interested in the conditions under which this result is reasonable, i.e. consistent with the real-life situation one is modeling. In particular, we show, using idealized models, that numerical data assimilation is feasible in principle only if a suitably defined effective dimension of the problem is not excessive. This effective dimension depends on the noise in the model and the data, and in physically reasonable problems it can be moderate even when the number of variables is huge. In particular, we find that the effective dimension being moderate induces a balance condition between the noises in the model and the data; this balance condition is often satisfied in realistic applications or else the noise levels are excessive and drown the underlying signal. We also study the effects of the effective dimension on particle filters in two instances, one in which the importance function is based on the model alone, and one in which it is based on both the model and the data. We have three main conclusions: (1) the stability (i.e., non-collapse of weights) in particle filtering depends on the effective dimension of the problem. Particle filters can work well if the effective dimension is moderate even if the true dimension is large (which we expect to happen often in practice). (2) A suitable choice of importance function is essential, or else particle filtering fails even when data assimilation is feasible in principle with a sequential algorithm

  19. PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A Ranking-Theoretic Approach to Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief,…

  1. Mean Flow Boundary Conditions for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Nallasamy, M.; Sawyer, S.; Dyson, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a new type of boundary condition for time-accurate Computational Aeroacoustics solvers is described. This boundary condition is designed to complement the existing nonreflective boundary conditions while ensuring that the correct mean flow conditions are maintained throughout the flow calculation. Results are shown for a loaded 2D cascade, started with various initial conditions.

  2. Pavlovian conditioning and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Siegel, S; Kreutzer, R

    1997-03-01

    Pavlovian conditioning processes may contribute to some symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). This review summarizes the potential relevance of the literature on conditional taste and olfactory aversions, conditional sensitization, and conditional immunomodulation to understanding MCS. A conditioning-based perspective on MCS suggests novel research and treatment strategies.

  3. Eruption conditions of spatter deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Erika; Geist, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Spatter is an eruptive product that forms within a narrow range of thermal conditions: it must be hot enough to deform and agglutinate, but not so hot that clasts completely re-fuse and remobilize as clastogenic lava. This narrow thermal window of spatter-forming conditions allows for quantitative prediction of cooling rates and accumulation rates. Cooling and accumulation rates then provide information that enables estimates of eruption parameters for inaccessible and prehistoric deposits. High-temperature experiments conducted on basaltic scoria from Devil's Garden, Oregon have revealed the eruption temperature was ~ 1130 °C. The strength welds formed between experimental clasts is shown to depend on cooling rate. Natural samples are compared to the experimental samples by measuring tensile strength and welded area between clasts. The weld strength in natural deposits yields estimates of cooling rates that range between 2.5 °C and 48 °C/min, with the majority of the samples grouping between 7 °C and 14 °C/min. Thermal models based on these cooling rates yield spatter accumulation rates of 0.5-1.8 m/h in the Devil's Garden spatter deposits. We provide a general model for cooling and accumulation rates for spatter cones, ramparts, and hornitos, which allow estimation of the factors that control basaltic eruptive products.

  4. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C{sup 1}. In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q{sub ab}, P{sup ab}) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background.

  5. Thrombin generation in clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Hugo

    2012-03-01

    Commercial assays for determining thrombin generation in plasma are being tested in clinical conditions associated with thrombosis or bleeding. While pre-analytical conditions remain a source of inter laboratory variation, demanding for further standardization, clinical research proceeds. In patients at risk of venous thrombosis thrombin generation (TG) analysis may be utilized to detect underlying thrombophilia and this has been achieved both with addition of thrombomodulin or activated protein C, to test the contribution of the protein C system. In patients with documented venous thromboembolism, increased TG values are seen in those patients at greatest risk for recurrence, although the data are not consistent yet. In patients with arterial vascular disease, effects on TG patterns are seen that both reflect atherosclerosis (and its risk factors) and link to risk of recurrent atherothrombosis (coronary or stroke), but the data are limited. In patients with a bleeding diathesis, like hemophilia, the main importance of TG assays lies in the application for monitoring replacement therapy, either with factor concentrate or rFVIIa. An interesting application is in conjunction with thromboelastography, for monitoring peri-operative transfusion policy. Finally, TG analysis may contribute to monitoring anticoagulant drug treatment, but these and other applications would greatly benefit from whole blood, point of care applications of TG testing.

  6. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  7. Boundary Condition for Modeling Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Oyafuso, Fabiano; von Allmen, Paul; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    A recently proposed boundary condition for atomistic computational modeling of semiconductor nanostructures (particularly, quantum dots) is an improved alternative to two prior such boundary conditions. As explained, this boundary condition helps to reduce the amount of computation while maintaining accuracy.

  8. How Are Genetic Conditions Treated or Managed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are genetic conditions treated or managed? How are genetic conditions treated or managed? Many genetic disorders result ... out more about the treatment and management of genetic conditions: Links to information about the treatment of ...

  9. Scintiscan for acute intrascrotal conditions.

    PubMed

    Dunn, E K; Macchia, R J; Chauhan, P S; Laungani, G B; Solomon, N A

    1986-06-01

    The efficacy and merit of testicular imaging, utilizing Tc-99m pertechnetate, were studied prospectively in a group of patients who presented with acute onset of scrotal pain. Consecutive admissions were studied. All were managed according to the likelihood of the problem being testicular torsion, which was determined from the clinical history, physical examination and the routine laboratory data. The final diagnostic outcome, whether by surgical exploration or clinical progress with conservative treatment, is collated with the preoperative scintigraphic interpretations, made with respect to predefined criteria. Analysis of the pretreatment images obtained in 57 patients shows that the radionuclide study is highly reliable in cases of testicular torsion and epididymo-orchitis. It appears to be much less dependable, however, in the other acute scrotal conditions. Torsions that are intermittent in nature or corrected manually apparently can have variable presentations. Certain difficulties and potential pitfalls encountered in interpreting the scintigraphic studies are discussed.

  10. Physical conditions in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Neal J., II

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments have complicated the picture of the physical conditions in molecular clouds. The discoveries of widespread emission from high-J lines of CD and 12-micron IRAS emission have revealed the presence of considerably hotter gas and dust near the surfaces of molecular clouds. These components can complicate interpretation of the bulk of the cloud gas. Commonly assumed relations between column density or mean density and cloud size are called into question by conflicting results and by consideration of selection effects. Analysis of density and density structure through molecular excitation has shown that very high densities exist in star formation regions, but unresolved structure and possible chemical effects complicate the interpretation. High resolution far-IR and submillimeter observations offer a complementary approach and are beginning to test theoretical predictions of density gradients in clouds.

  11. Uncertain deduction and conditional reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.; Over, David E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of deductive reasoning. Many researchers no longer think it is appropriate to ask people to assume premises and decide what necessarily follows, with the results evaluated by binary extensional logic. Most every day and scientific inference is made from more or less confidently held beliefs and not assumptions, and the relevant normative standard is Bayesian probability theory. We argue that the study of “uncertain deduction” should directly ask people to assign probabilities to both premises and conclusions, and report an experiment using this method. We assess this reasoning by two Bayesian metrics: probabilistic validity and coherence according to probability theory. On both measures, participants perform above chance in conditional reasoning, but they do much better when statements are grouped as inferences, rather than evaluated in separate tasks. PMID:25904888

  12. Centaur Propellant Thermal Conditioning Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Pleasant, R. L.; Erickson, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A wicking investigation revealed that passive thermal conditioning was feasible and provided considerable weight advantage over active systems using throttled vent fluid in a Centaur D-1s launch vehicle. Experimental wicking correlations were obtained using empirical revisions to the analytical flow model. Thermal subcoolers were evaluated parametrically as a function of tank pressure and NPSP. Results showed that the RL10 category I engine was the best candidate for boost pump replacement and the option showing the lowest weight penalty employed passively cooled acquisition devices, thermal subcoolers, dry ducts between burns and pumping of subcooler coolant back into the tank. A mixing correlation was identified for sizing the thermodynamic vent system mixer. Worst case mixing requirements were determined by surveying Centaur D-1T, D-1S, IUS, and space tug vehicles. Vent system sizing was based upon worst case requirements. Thermodynamic vent system/mixer weights were determined for each vehicle.

  13. Raman spectroscopy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A F; Crowhurst, J C

    2004-11-05

    We report the results of Raman measurements of various materials under simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC). High temperatures are generated by laser heating or internal resistive (ohmic) heating or a combination of both. We present Raman spectra of cubic boron nitride (cBN) to 40 GPa and up to 2300 K that show a continuous pressure and temperature shift of the frequency of the transverse optical mode. We have also obtained high-pressure Raman spectra from a new noble metal nitride, which we synthesized at approximately 50 GPa and 2000 K. We have obtained high-temperature spectra from pure nitrogen to 39 GPa and up to 2000 K, which show the presence of a hot band that has previously been observed in CARS measurements. These measurements have also allowed us to constrain the melting curve and to examine changes in the intramolecular potential with pressure.

  14. Optimising Extinction of Conditioned Disgust

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Renske C.; Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Maladaptive disgust responses are tenacious and resistant to exposure-based interventions. In a similar vein, laboratory studies have shown that conditioned disgust is relatively insensitive to Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-only extinction procedures. The relatively strong resistance to extinction might be explained by disgust’s adaptive function to motivate avoidance from contamination threats (pathogens) that cannot be readily detected and are invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, the mere visual presentation of unreinforced disgust eliciting stimuli might not be sufficient to correct a previously acquired threat value of the CS+. Following this, the current study tested whether the efficacy of CS-only exposure can be improved by providing additional safety information about the CS+. For the CSs we included two neutral items a pea soup and a sausage roll, whereas for the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) we used one video clip of a woman vomiting and a neutral one about glass blowing. The additional safety information was conveyed by allowing actual contact with the CS+ or by observing an actress eating the food items representing the CS+. When additional safety information was provided via allowing direct contact with the CS+, there was a relatively strong post-extinction increase in participants’ willingness-to-eat the CS+. This beneficial effect was still evident at one-week follow up. Also self-reported disgust was lower at one-week follow up when additional safety information was provided. The current findings help explain why disgust is relatively insensitive to CS-only extinction procedures, and provide helpful starting points to improve interventions that are aimed to reduce distress in disgust-related psychopathology. PMID:26849211

  15. Drug Disposition in Pathophysiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Adarsh; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Ghose, Romi

    2014-01-01

    Expression and activity of several key drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters are altered in various pathophysiological conditions, leading to altered drug metabolism and disposition. This can have profound impact on the pharmacotherapy of widely used clinically relevant medications in terms of safety and efficacy by causing inter-individual variabilities in drug responses. This review article highlights altered drug disposition in inflammation and infectious diseases, and commonly encountered disorders such as cancer, obesity/diabetes, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Many of the clinically relevant drugs have a narrow therapeutic index. Thus any changes in the disposition of these drugs may lead to reduced efficacy and increased toxicity. The implications of changes in DMEs and transporters on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of clinically-relevant medications are also discussed. Inflammation-mediated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a major role in down-regulation of DMEs and transporters. Although the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear, several studies have shown that inflammation-associated cell-signaling pathway and its interaction with basal transcription factors and nuclear receptors in regulation of DMEs and transporters play a significant role in altered drug metabolism. Altered regulation of DMEs and transporters in a multitude of disease states will contribute towards future development of powerful in vitro and in vivo tools in predicting the drug response and opt for better drug design and development. The goal is to facilitate a better understanding of the mechanistic details underlying the regulation of DMEs and transporters in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:22746301

  16. Cystic angiomatosis, a heterogeneous condition

    PubMed Central

    Najm, Aurélie; Soltner-Neel, Elise; Le Goff, Benoît; Guillot, Pascale; Maugars, Yves; Berthelot, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cystic angiomatosis (CA) is a rare disorder causing bony cysts. It displays some similarity to Gorham–Stout disease (GSD), but has a much better local prognosis, despite the larger number of cysts. These 2 conditions also differ in terms of their location, visceral involvement, and response to treatment. Methods: We report 4 cases of CA, including 1 sclerosing form, which we compare with cases from a literature review performed with PRISMA methodology. Results: We reviewed 38 articles describing 44 other patients. Mean age at diagnosis for the 48 patients (our 4 patients + the 44 from the review) was 22.5 years, and 28 of the patients were men. The femur was involved in 81% (n = 39), the pelvis in 73% (n = 35), the humerus in 52% (n = 25), the skull in 48% (n = 23), and the vertebrae in 44% (n = 21). Visceral lymphangiomatosis (either clinical, or detected on autopsy) was also reported in 35% (n = 18) of the patients. The spleen was the most frequently involved organ (n = 12), followed by the lungs and pleura (n = 8). Liver cysts and/or chylothorax were rarely reported (5 cases), but were invariably fatal. Radiation therapy on bone or soft tissue masses was ineffective, as was interferon alpha, in the 2 patients in which this drug was tested. The efficacy of bisphosphonate was at best equivocal. Conclusion: The progression of CA is unpredictable and treatments effective against GSD, such as bisphosphonates and radiotherapy, have proved ineffective for this condition. New treatments are thus urgently required. PMID:27787381

  17. Redox conditions for mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    The vanadium to scandium ratio (V/Sc) for basalts from mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and arc environments has been proposed as a proxy for fO2 conditions during partial melting (e.g. [1] and [2]). Contrary to barometric measurements of the fO2 of primitive lavas, the V/Sc ratio of the upper mantle at mid-ocean ridges and arcs is similar, leading previous authors to propose that the upper mantle has uniform redox potential and is well-buffered. We have attempted to broaden the applicability of the V/Sc parameter to plume-influenced localities (both oceanic and continental), where mantle heterogeneities associated with recycled sediments, mafic crust, and metasomatized mantle, whether of shallow or deep origin, exist. We find that primitive basalts from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), Hawaii (both the Loa and Kea trends), Deccan, Columbia River, and Siberian Traps show a range of V/Sc ratios that are generally higher (average ~9) than those for MOR (average ~ 6.7) or arc (average ~7) lavas. Based on forward polybaric decompression modeling, we attribute these differences to polybaric melting and melt segregation within the garnet stability field rather than the presence of a more oxidized mantle in plume-influenced settings. Like MORB, the V/Sc ratios for plume-influenced basalts can be accounted for by an oxidation state approximately one log unit below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO-1). Our analysis suggests that source heterogeneities have little, if any, resolvable influence on mantle redox conditions, although they have significant influence on the trace element and isotopic composition of mantle-derived melts. We suggest that variations in the redox of erupted lavas is largely a function of shallow lithospheric processes rather than intrinsic to the mantle source, regardless of tectonic setting. [1] Li and Lee (2004) EPSL, [2] Lee et al. (2005) J. of Petrology

  18. Psychological factors affecting oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Rossi, Elena; Sabato, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The area of psychological factors affecting cancer has been the object of research starting from the early 1950s and consolidating from the 1970s with the development of psychooncology. A series of problems in the DSM and ICD nosological systems, such as the difficult application of the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses (i.e. major depression, adjustment disorders) and the scarce space dedicated to the rubric of psychosocial implications of medical illness (i.e. Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition under 'Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention' in the DSM-IV) represent a major challenge in psycho-oncology. The application of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) has been shown to be useful in a more precise identification of several psychological domains in patients with cancer. The DCPR dimensions of health anxiety, demoralization and alexithymia have been shown to be quite frequent in cancer patient (37.7, 28.8 and 26%, respectively). The overlap between a formal DSM-IV diagnosis and the DCPR is low, with 58% of patients being categorized as non-cases on the DSM-IV having at least one DCPR syndrome. The specific quality of the DCPR in characterizing psychosocial aspects secondary to cancer is also confirmed by the fact that some dimensions of coping (e.g. Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer subscale hopelessness) correlate with the DCPR dimension of demoralization, while a quantitative approach on symptom assessment (e.g. stress symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory) is not useful in discriminating the patients with and without DCPR syndromes. More research is needed in order to understand the relationship between DCPR constructs (e.g. alexithymia) and psychosocial factors which have been shown to be significant in oncology (e.g. emotional repression and avoidance). The role of specific DCPR constructs in influencing the course of illness is also an area that should be investigated.

  19. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  20. Signal-Conditioning Amplifier Recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John

    2003-01-01

    Signal-conditioning amplifier recorders (SCAmpRs) have been proposed as a means of simplifying and upgrading the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Measurement System (GMS), which is a versatile data-acquisition system that gathers and records a variety of measurement data before and during the launch of a space shuttle. In the present version of the GMS system, signal conditioning amplifiers digitize and transmit data to a VME chassis that multiplexes up to 416 channels. The data is transmitted via a high-speed data bus to a second VME chassis where it is available for snapshots. The data is passed from the second VME chassis to a high-speed data recorder. This process is duplicated for installations at two launch pads and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Since any failure of equipment in the data path results in loss of data, much of the system is redundant. The architecture of the existing GMS limits expansion or any modification to the system to meet changing requirements because of the cost and time required. A SCAmpR-based system is much more flexible. The basis of the simplification, flexibility, and reliability is the shifting of the recording function to the individual amplifier channels. Each SCAmpR is a self-contained single channel data acquisition system, which in its current implementation, has a data storage capacity of up to 30 minutes when operating at the fastest data sampling rates. The SCAmpR channels are self-configuring and self-calibrating. Multiple SCAmpR channels are ganged on printed circuit boards and mounted in a chassis that provides power, a network hub, and Inter-Range Instrument Group (IRIG) time signals. The SCAmpR channels share nothing except physical mounting on a circuit board. All circuitry is electrically separate for each channel. All that is necessary to complete the data acquisition system is a single master computer tied to the SCAmpR channels by standard network equipment. The size of the data acquisition system

  1. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antillón, Marina; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24 hour time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 minutes of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as “sleeplessness” (marginal effect = 0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. PMID:24958451

  2. Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  3. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    PubMed

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend.

  4. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver.

  5. Boundary conditions of methamphetamine craving.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Richard B; Onyemekwu, Chukwudi; Hart, Carl L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Kober, Hedy

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine use has increased significantly and become a global health concern. Craving is known to predict methamphetamine use and relapse following abstinence. Some have suggested that cravings are automatic, generalized, and uncontrollable, but experimental work addressing these claims is lacking. In 2 exploratory studies, we tested the boundary conditions of methamphetamine craving by asking: (a) is craving specific to users' preferred route of administration?, and (b) can craving be regulated by cognitive strategies? Two groups of methamphetamine users were recruited. In Study 1, participants were grouped by their preferred route of administration (intranasal vs. smoking), and rated their craving in response to photographs and movies depicting methamphetamine use (via the intranasal vs. smoking route). In Study 2, methamphetamine smokers implemented cognitive regulation strategies while viewing photographs depicting methamphetamine smoking. Strategies involved either focusing on the positive aspects of smoking methamphetamine or the negative consequences of doing so-the latter strategy based on treatment protocols for addiction. In Study 1, we found a significant interaction between group and route of administration, such that participants who preferred to smoke methamphetamine reported significantly stronger craving for smoking stimuli, whereas those who preferred the intranasal route reported stronger craving for intranasal stimuli. In Study 2, participants reported significantly lower craving when focusing on the negative consequences associated with methamphetamine use. Taken together, these findings suggest that strength of craving for methamphetamine is moderated by users' route of administration and can be reduced by cognitive strategies. This has important theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications.

  6. Fluid viscosity under confined conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.

  7. Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L

    2001-09-01

    Careful review of the literature regarding clinical signs caused by hypothyroidism in dogs has shown that some assumptions regarding the relation of hypothyroidism to other conditions are based on anecdotal evidence. Cutaneous manifestations are present in most hypothyroid dogs, but the specific abnormalities and breed variations remain to be clearly defined. Decreased metabolic rate manifested by obesity and lethargy is also common. Neurologic manifestations, although uncommon, clearly occur in hypothyroid dogs. Cardiac abnormalities seem to be common, but their clinical significance is questionable. The only consistent hematologic abnormality that occurs in hypothyroid dogs is anemia; evidence for acquired von Willebrand's disease or other bleeding disorders is negligible. Reproductive dysfunction secondary to hypothyroidism is unlikely to occur in male dogs, and there is no evidence to support abnormalities in female dogs. The relation of megaesophagus, laryngeal paralysis, ocular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders with hypothyroidism remains to be established. Future research into canine hypothyroidism may serve to convert dogma into a more clear understanding of the manifestations and pathophysiologic findings of this common endocrinopathy.

  8. Efficient robust conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A

    2015-10-01

    Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs.

  9. Orthopaedic conditions in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Weiss, Jennifer; Skaggs, David L

    2009-02-01

    The occasional consultation on a neonate can be unfamiliar territory for many orthopaedic surgeons. Just as children are not little adults, newborns are not just little children; rather, they have a unique physiology that affects the presentation of their orthopaedic concerns. Careful physical examination with appropriate understanding of neonatal development is essential to making the proper diagnosis. A flail extremity in the newborn is most commonly attributed to fracture or brachial plexus palsy; however, infection must also be considered and ruled out to prevent long-term morbidity. Metatarsus adductus is the most common foot abnormality, but clubfoot, calcaneovalgus deformity, and congenital vertical talus may also be encountered. Joint contractures that spontaneously improve are normal in the newborn, but it is important to identify and institute proper treatment for early developmental dysplasia of the hip, congenital knee dislocation, and torticollis. Clavicular pseudarthrosis and periosteal reactions may be discovered on radiographic examination. A basic understanding of the relevant conditions will help the orthopaedist with the initial diagnosis and management of orthopaedic issues in the newborn.

  10. Conditional replenishment using motion prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, D. N.; Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Conditional replenishment is an interframe video compression method that uses correlation in time to reduce video transmission rates. This method works by detecting and sending only the changing portions of the image and by having the receiver use the video data from the previous frame for the non-changing portion. The amount of compression that can be achieved through this technique depends to a large extent on the rate of change within the image, and can vary from 10 to 1 to less than 2 to 1. An additional 3 to 1 reduction in rate is obtained by the intraframe coding of data blocks using a 2-dimensional variable rate Hadamard transform coder. A further additional 2 to 1 rate reduction is achieved by using motion prediction. Motion prediction works by measuring the relative displacements of a subpicture from one frame to the next. The subpicture can then be transmitted by sending only the value of the 2-dimensional displacement. Computer simulations have demonstrated that data rates of 2 to 4 Mega-bits/second can be achieved while still retaining good fidelity in the image.

  11. Medical and orthopedic conditions and sports participation.

    PubMed

    Diokno, Eugene; Rowe, Dale

    2010-06-01

    The presence of certain medical or orthopedic conditions need not preclude adolescents from being physically active and participating in sports. The benefits of continued physical activity far outweigh any concerns for potential complications for most such conditions. This article reviews sport participation guidelines for adolescents with conditions that include juvenile chronic arthritis, eye injures, solitary kidney, skin conditions, scoliosis, and spondylolysis.

  12. Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tim; Poon, Patrick

    2006-06-14

    Although there is general consensus that the hippocampus is not critically involved in the acquisition of fear conditioned to an explicit conditioned stimulus (CS), the extent to which the hippocampus participates in contextual fear conditioning remains unclear. To further characterize the potential role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning, the present experiments examined the effect of excitotoxic lesions of dorsal hippocampus on the acquisition of a novel contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which a unimodal (olfactory) cue served to disambiguate discrete "contexts" within a single behavioral training chamber. Selective lesions of dorsal hippocampus severely attenuated olfactory contextual conditioning without affecting conditioning to an explicit auditory or olfactory CS. Additional experiments indicate that these contextual conditioning deficits cannot be attributed to a lesion-induced decrement in olfactory perception, a preferential impairment of "weak" forms of conditioning, or hyperactivity. Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli.

  13. PLI cancellation in ECG signal based on adaptive filter by using Wiener-Hopf equation for providing initial condition.

    PubMed

    Manosueb, Anchalee; Koseeyaporn, Jeerasuda; Wardkein, Paramote

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for finding the optimal initial weight for adaptive filter by using difference equation. The obtained analytical response of the system identifies the appropriate weights for the system and shows that the MSE depends on the initial weight. The proposed technique is applied to eliminate the known frequency power line interference (PLI) signal in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The PLI signal is considered as a combination of cosine and sine signals. The adaptive filter, therefore, attempts to adjust the amplitude of cosine and sine signals to synthesize a reference signal very similar to the contaminated PLI signal. To compare the potential of the proposed technique to other techniques, the system is simulated by using the Matlab program and the TMS320C6713 digital board. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique enables the system to eliminate the PLI signal with the fastest time and gains the superior results of the recovered ECG signal.

  14. Tidal Boundary Conditions in SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulligan, Ann E.; Langevin, Christian; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2011-01-01

    SEAWAT, a U.S. Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport code, is increasingly used to model the effects of tidal motion on coastal aquifers. Different options are available to simulate tidal boundaries but no guidelines exist nor have comparisons been made to identify the most effective approach. We test seven methods to simulate a sloping beach and a tidal flat. The ocean is represented in one of the three ways: directly using a high hydraulic conductivity (high-K) zone and indirect simulation via specified head boundaries using either the General Head Boundary (GHB) or the new Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC) package. All beach models simulate similar water fluxes across the upland boundary and across the sediment-water interface although the ratio of intertidal to subtidal flow is different at low tide. Simulating a seepage face results in larger intertidal fluxes and influences near-shore heads and salinity. Major differences in flow occur in the tidal flat simulations. Because SEAWAT does not simulate unsaturated flow the water table only rises via flow through the saturated zone. This results in delayed propagation of the rising tidal signal inland. Inundation of the tidal flat is delayed as is flow into the aquifer across the flat. This is severe in the high-K and PBC models but mild in the GHB models. Results indicate that any of the tidal boundary options are fine if the ocean-aquifer interface is steep. However, as the slope of that interface decreases, the high-K and PBC approaches perform poorly and the GHB boundary is preferable.

  15. The Condition for Generous Trust

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Obayashi; Yusuke, Inagaki; Hiroki, Takikawa

    2016-01-01

    Trust has been considered the “cement” of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another’s failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as “generous trust” and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks. Second, we examine the manner in which trust functions in a broader social context, one that involves matching and commitment processes. Since we expect generosity or forgiveness to work differently in the matching and commitment processes, we must differentiate trust strategies into generous trust in the matching process and that in the commitment process. Our analytical strategy is two-fold. First, we analyze the “modified” trust game that incorporates the two types of uncertainties without the matching process. This simplified setting enables us to derive mathematical results using game theory, thereby giving basic insight into the trust mechanism. Second, we investigate socially embedded trust relationships in contexts involving the matching and commitment processes, using agent-based simulation. Results show that uncertainty about partner’s intention and competence makes generous trust a viable option. In contrast, too much uncertainty undermines the possibility of generous trust. Furthermore, a strategy that is too generous cannot stand alone. Generosity should be accompanied with moderate punishment. As for socially embedded trust relationships, generosity functions differently in the matching process versus the commitment process. Indeed, these two types of generous

  16. Chromatic X-ray magnifying method and apparatus by Bragg reflective planes on the surface of Abbe sphere

    DOEpatents

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing sharp, chromatic, magnified images of X-ray emitting objects, are provided. The apparatus, which constitutes an X-ray microscope or telescope, comprises a connected collection of Bragg reflecting planes, comprised of either a bent crystal or a synthetic multilayer structure, disposed on and adjacent to a locus determined by a spherical surface. The individual Bragg planes are spatially oriented to Bragg reflect radiation from the object location toward the image location. This is accomplished by making the Bragg planes spatially coincident with the surfaces of either a nested series of prolate ellipsoids of revolution, or a nested series of spheres. The spacing between the Bragg reflecting planes can be tailored to control the wavelengths and the amount of the X-radiation that is Bragg reflected to form the X-ray image.

  17. Photoluminescence studies of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}: Lateral inhomogeneities beyond Abbe's diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Oliver; Brüggemann, Rudolf Bauer, Gottfried H.; Hariskos, Dimitrios; Witte, Wolfram

    2015-11-14

    We analyze Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorbers with a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) by photoluminescence (PL). Such measurements allow one to extract local fluctuations of the integral PL yield, the quasi-Fermi level splitting, and the material composition in the submicron range. However, the experimental findings depend strongly on the surface roughness of the absorber: If the surface is rough, artifact-prone correlations between surface contour and PL features measured by SNOM can be found that complicate the study of recombination effects. For smooth surfaces, such correlations no longer exist and the influence of grain boundaries on the integral PL yield and the quasi-Fermi level splitting is revealed. The method also allows a detailed determination of the local band gaps in neighboring grains and their spatial variation inside, and thus of possibly local changes in chemical composition of different grains.

  18. 78 FR 52974 - Gamesa Technology Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From A & A Wind Pros Inc., ABB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Wind, Rope Partner, Inc., Run Energy LP, SERENA USA, Inc., Spherion ``The Mergis Group,'' System One Up... of facts or of the law justified reconsideration of the decision. The initial investigation resulted... Group Inc., Orion ICS LLC, Power Climber Wind, Rope Partner, Inc., Run Energy LP, SERENA USA,...

  19. First-principles study of band gap engineering via oxygen vacancy doping in perovskite ABB'O₃ solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Tingting; Curnan, Matthew T.; Kim, Seungchul; Bennett, Joseph W.; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2011-12-15

    Oxygen vacancies in perovskite oxide solid solutions are fundamentally interesting and technologically important. However, experimental characterization of the vacancy locations and their impact on electronic structure is challenging. We have carried out first-principles calculations on two Zr-modified solid solutions, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O₃ and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃, in which vacancies are present. We find that the vacancies are more likely to reside between low-valent cation-cation pairs than high-valent cation-cation pairs. Based on the analysis of our results, we formulate guidelines that can be used to predict the location of oxygen vacancies in perovskite solid solutions. Our results show that vacancies can have a significant impact on both the conduction and valence band energies, in some cases lowering the band gap by ≈0.5 eV. The effects of vacancies on the electronic band structure can be understood within the framework of crystal field theory.

  20. First-principles study of band gap engineering via oxygen vacancy doping in perovskite ABB'O₃ solid solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, Tingting; Curnan, Matthew T.; Kim, Seungchul; ...

    2011-12-15

    Oxygen vacancies in perovskite oxide solid solutions are fundamentally interesting and technologically important. However, experimental characterization of the vacancy locations and their impact on electronic structure is challenging. We have carried out first-principles calculations on two Zr-modified solid solutions, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O₃ and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃, in which vacancies are present. We find that the vacancies are more likely to reside between low-valent cation-cation pairs than high-valent cation-cation pairs. Based on the analysis of our results, we formulate guidelines that can be used to predict the location of oxygen vacancies in perovskite solid solutions. Our results show that vacancies can have a significant impactmore » on both the conduction and valence band energies, in some cases lowering the band gap by ≈0.5 eV. The effects of vacancies on the electronic band structure can be understood within the framework of crystal field theory.« less

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that antioxidation mechanisms contribute to cold tolerance in plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-12-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by proteomic analysis.

  2. Impact of conditions at start-up on thermovibrational convective flow.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, D E; Shevtsova, V M; Legros, J C

    2008-11-01

    The development of thermovibrational convection in a cubic cell filled with high Prandtl number liquid (isopropanol) is studied. Direct nonlinear simulations are performed by solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. The cell is subjected to high frequency periodic oscillations perpendicular to the applied temperature gradient under zero gravity. Two types of vibrations are imposed: either as a sine or cosine function of time. It is shown that the initial vibrational phase plays a significant role in the transient behavior of thermovibrational convective flow. Such knowledge is important to interpret correctly short-duration experimental results performed in microgravity, among which the most accessible are drop towers ( approximately 5s) and parabolic flights ( approximately 20s) . It is obtained that under sine vibrations, the flow reaches steady state within less than one thermal time. Under cosine acceleration, this time is 2 times longer. For cosine excitations, the Nusselt number is approximately 10 times smaller in comparison with the sine case. Besides, in the case of cosine, the Nusselt number oscillates with double frequency. However, at the steady state, time-averaged and oscillatory characteristics of the flow are independent of the vibrational start-up. The only feature that always differs the two cases is the phase difference between the velocity, temperature, and accelerations. We have found that due to nonlinear response of the system to the imposed vibrations, the phase shift between velocity and temperature is never equal exactly to pi2 , at least in weightlessness. Thus, heat transport always exists from the beginning of vibrations, although it might be weak.

  3. A review of positive conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    KELLEHER, R T; GOLLUB, L R

    1962-10-01

    This review critically analyzes experimental data relevant to the concept of conditioned reinforcement. The review has five sections. Section I is a discussion of the relationship between primary and conditioned reinforcement in terms of chains of stimuli and responses. Section II is a detailed analysis of the conditions in which the component stimuli in chained schedules of reinforcement will become conditioned reinforcers; this section also analyzes studies of token reinforcement, observing responses, switching responses, implicit chained schedules, and higher-order conditioning. Section III analyzes experiments in which potential conditioned reinforcers are used either to prolong responding or to generate responding during experimental extinction. This section discusses hypotheses that have been offered as alternatives to the concept of conditioned reinforcement and hypotheses concerning the necessary and sufficient conditions for establishing a conditioned reinforcer. Section IV discusses other variables that act when a conditioned reinforcer is being established or that act when an established conditioned reinforcer is used to develop or maintain behavior. Section V is a general discussion of conditioned reinforcement. The evidence indicates that the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus is directly related to the frequency of primary reinforcement occurring in its presence, but is independent of the response rate or response pattern occurring in its presence. Results from chained schedules comprised of several components indicate that a stimulus can be established as a conditioned reinforcer by pairing it with an already established conditioned reinforcer rather than a primary reinforcer; however, this type of higher-order conditioning has not been clearly demonstrated with respondent conditioning procedures. Although discriminative stimuli are usually conditioned reinforcers, the available evidence indicates that establishing a stimulus as a

  4. A ranking-theoretic approach to conditionals.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief, that is, ranking theory, and dismisses probability theory for that purpose, because probabilities cannot represent belief. Various expressive options are then explained in terms of ranking theory, with the intention to set out a general interpretive scheme that is able to account for the most variegated usage of conditionals. The Ramsey test is only the first option. Relevance is another, familiar, but little understood item, which comes in several versions. This article adds a further family of expressive options, which is able to subsume also counterfactuals and causal conditionals, and indicates at the end how this family allows for partial recovery of truth conditions for conditionals.

  5. Temporal integration and instrumental conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcement for instrumental behavior are widely believed to acquire the capacity to function as conditioned reinforcers via Pavlovian conditioning. Some Pavlovian conditioning studies suggest that animals learn the important temporal relations between stimuli and integrate such temporal information over separate experiences to form a temporal map. The present experiment examined whether Pavlovian conditioning can establish a positive instrumental conditioned reinforcer through such temporal integration. Two groups of rats received either delay or trace appetitive conditioning in which a neutral stimulus predicted response-independent food deliveries (CS1→US). Both groups then experienced one session of backward second-order conditioning of the training CS1 and a novel CS2 (CS1-CS2 pairing). Finally, the ability of CS2 to function as a conditioned reinforcer for a new instrumental response (leverpressing) was assessed. Consistent with the previous demonstrations of temporal integration in fear conditioning, a CS2 previously trained in a trace-conditioning protocol served as a better instrumental conditioned reinforcer after backward second-order conditioning than did a CS2 previously trained in a delay protocol. These results suggest that an instrumental conditioned reinforcer can be established via temporal integration and raise challenges for existing quantitative accounts of instrumental conditioned reinforcement.

  6. Absorbing boundary conditions for exterior problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.

    1985-01-01

    Elliptic and hyperbolic problems in unbounded regions are considered. These problems, when one wants to solve them numerically, have the difficulty of prescribing boundary conditions at infinity. Computationally, one needs a finite region in which to solve these problems. The corresponding conditions at infinity imposed on the finite distance boundaries should dictate the boundary condition at infinity and be accurate with respect to the interior numerical scheme. Such boundary conditions are commonly referred to as absorbing boundary conditions. A treatment is given of these boundary conditions for wave-like equations.

  7. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  8. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  9. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S; Veers, P.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring based on presentations from a condition monitoring workshop organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2009 and on additional references.

  10. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... into the required agreements; (4) Be financially responsible and have the ability to finance or obtain... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... as bad weather, materials shortages, or marketing difficulties. Conditional commitments may...

  11. Heart Conditions and Pregnancy: Know the Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... week by week Pregnancy stresses your heart and circulatory system, but many women who have heart conditions deliver ... conditions and pregnancy. Pregnancy stresses your heart and circulatory system. During pregnancy, your blood volume increases by 30 ...

  12. National Coastal Condition Report I (2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Thousands of pieces of information on the condition of the estuarine and Great Lakes resources of the United States were collected from 1990 to 1997 with results showing estuaries to be in fair to poor condition.

  13. OPTIMIZING BTEX BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine optimum conditions for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (collectively known as BTEX) biodegradation by aquifer microorganisms under denitrifying conditions. Microcosms, constructed with aquifer samples from Traverse City, Mic...

  14. 13 CFR 108.370 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.370 Conditional approval. From... Applicants and will conditionally approve such selected Applicants to participate in the NMVC program....

  15. 13 CFR 108.370 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.370 Conditional approval. From... Applicants and will conditionally approve such selected Applicants to participate in the NMVC program....

  16. 13 CFR 108.370 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.370 Conditional approval. From... Applicants and will conditionally approve such selected Applicants to participate in the NMVC program....

  17. 13 CFR 108.370 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.370 Conditional approval. From... Applicants and will conditionally approve such selected Applicants to participate in the NMVC program....

  18. 7 CFR 51.2659 - Condition defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2659 Condition defects. Condition defects means... soft cherries and such factors as pitting, shriveling, sunken areas, brown discoloration and...

  19. 13 CFR 108.370 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.370 Conditional approval. From... Applicants and will conditionally approve such selected Applicants to participate in the NMVC program....

  20. On boundary conditions in lattice Boltzmann methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Martinez, D. |; Mei, R.

    1996-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann boundary condition for simulation of fluid flow using simple extrapolation is proposed. Numerical simulations, including two-dimensional Poiseuille flow, unsteady Couette flow, lid-driven square cavity flow, and flow over a column of cylinders for a range of Reynolds numbers, are carried out, showing that this scheme is of second order accuracy in space discretization. Applications of the method to other boundary conditions, including pressure condition and flux condition are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  5. Common conditions in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Ali; Elbuluk, Nada

    2016-12-01

    The skin of color population is rapidly growing in the United States. This population has numerous unique and more commonly occurring dermatologic conditions. Additionally, certain cutaneous conditions can present differently in darker versus lighter skin types. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of common conditions that occur in skin of color, including their clinical presentations, pathogenesis, differential diagnoses, and treatments.

  6. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  7. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  10. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  12. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  13. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  14. 16 CFR 1203.8 - Conditioning environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditioning environments. 1203.8 Section... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.8 Conditioning environments. Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule...

  15. 16 CFR 1203.8 - Conditioning environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditioning environments. 1203.8 Section... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.8 Conditioning environments. Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule...

  16. 16 CFR 1203.8 - Conditioning environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditioning environments. 1203.8 Section... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.8 Conditioning environments. Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule...

  17. 16 CFR 1203.8 - Conditioning environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditioning environments. 1203.8 Section... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.8 Conditioning environments. Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule...

  18. 16 CFR 1203.8 - Conditioning environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditioning environments. 1203.8 Section... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.8 Conditioning environments. Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule...

  19. On conditional sampling for turbulent flow studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The conditional sampling technique is analyzed as a weighted time average for turbulent flow. The various conditional averages are obtained by using different types of weighting functions. A second averaging relation is obtained between the conventional averages and the conditional averages. A few examples are given in which simplified expressions are used.

  20. 7 CFR 51.2659 - Condition defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition defects. 51.2659 Section 51.2659 Agriculture... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2659 Condition defects. Condition defects means... soft cherries and such factors as pitting, shriveling, sunken areas, brown discoloration and...