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Sample records for abbott medical optics

  1. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  2. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    PubMed

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products. PMID:22493409

  3. Preconcepts in Physics. Report to the John Abbott College Research and Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, L. O.

    This study was conducted to examine the basic conceptual knowledge and understanding of physics possessed by students enrolled in introductory physics, mechanics and waves and optics courses at John Abbott College (JAC). The study used a 36-item multiple-choice test of physics preconcepts developed by Halloun and Hestenes. The Halloun and Hestenes…

  4. Starry-eyed medical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The Keck Telescope in Hawaii is one facility using adaptive optics that sharpen images by correcting for aberrations in the atmosphere. Now, that same technology developed by astronomers is being used by vision scientists to improve eyesight even for people who already have 20/20 vision.

  5. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  6. Nonlinear optical losses in medical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, Andris O.; Ivanovs, Girts; Coders, Guntars

    1997-02-01

    Attenuation intensity dependences of 1064 nm and 532 nm picosecond pulses in multimode optical fibers produced for medical purposes by 'Anda' factory in Livani, Latvia are experimentally studied. A strong linear growth of inverse transmittance with intensity is found. The possible mechanism of nonlinear losses are analyzed and the conclusion is made that the observed effect is mainly due to the two-photon absorption involving defects levels. Strong attenuation intensity dependence can be used to make such fiber optical devices as light power limiters, optically driven light modulators and dynamic holographic frequency filters.

  7. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral capsules held by Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott), 100 Abbott Park Rd., Abbott Park, IL 60064. Abbott has voluntarily requested that approval of this application be withdrawn, thereby waiving its opportunity for a...

  8. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on February 24, 2011, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories... location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division. The Department has determined that these...

  9. Optical radiation safety of medical light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1997-05-01

    The phototoxicity of medical ultraviolet (UV) sources used in dermatology has long been recognized. Less obvious are potential hazards to the eye and skin from many other optical sources - both to the patient and to the health-care worker. To assess potential hazards, one must consider not only the optical and radiometric parameters of the optical source in question but also the geometrical exposure factors. This knowledge is required to accurately determine the irradiances (dose rates) to exposed tissues. Both photochemically and thermally induced damage are possible from intense light sources used in medicine and surgery; however, thermal injury is rare unless the light source is pulsed or nearly in contact with tissue. Generally, photochemical interaction mechanisms are most pronounced at short wavelengths (UV) where photon energies are greatest, and also will be most readily observed for lengthy exposure durations.

  10. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in 2004-05,…

  11. "A Prairie Childhood" by Edith Abbott: An Excerpt from "The Children's Champion," a Biography of Grace Abbott

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John

    2003-01-01

    Grace Abbott's courageous struggles--to protect the rights of immigrants, to increase the role of women in government, and to improve the lives of all children--are filled with adventurous tales of the remarkable human ability to seek out suffering and to do something about it. "A Prairie Childhood" is an excerpt from the Grace Abbott biography…

  12. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  13. Optical measurement of medical aerosol media parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkany, Josif P.; Zhytov, Nikolay B.; Sichka, Mikhail J.; Lemko, Ivan S.; Pintye, Josif L.; Chonka, Yaroslav V.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of aerosol media parameters measurements are presented in the work and these media are used for the treatment of the patients with bronchial asthma moreover we show the results of the development and the concentration and dispersity of the particles for the long-term monitoring under such conditions when the aggressive surroundings are available. The system for concentration measurements is developed, which consists of two identical photometers permitting to carry out the measurements of the transmission changes and the light dispersion depending on the concentration of the particles. The given system permits to take into account the error, connected with the deposition of the salt particles on the optical windows and the mirrors in the course of the long-term monitoring. For the controlling of the dispersity of the aggressive media aerosols the optical system is developed and used for the non-stop analysis of the Fure-spectra of the aerosols which deposit on the lavsan film. The registration of the information is performed with the help of the rule of the photoreceivers or CCD-chamber which are located in the Fure- plane. With the help of the developed optical system the measurements of the concentration and dispersity of the rock-salt aerosols were made in the medical mines of Solotvino (Ukraine) and in the artificial chambers of the aerosol therapy.

  14. Optical parametric oscillators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Lawrie A. W.; Golding, Paul S.; King, Terence A.

    1996-04-01

    In recent years optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have undergone a renaissance largely due to the discovery of new nonlinear materials capable of wide continuous tuning ranges spanning from the UV to the near-infrared spectral regions. To date, however, OPOs have not been exploited in the medical field despite their advantages over the dye laser in terms of tuning range and solid state structure. We consider the development of an OPO based on barium borate (BBO) which can be tailored to suit applications in medicine. Converting the maximum number of pump photons to tunable signal and idler photons is of great importance to secure high-fluence radiation necessary for many treatments. With this in mind, we report on an all- solid-state system using BBO which has been optimized by computer modeling with the potential of delivering amplification factors of typically up to 20 over a continuous tuning range of 700 nm to 1000 nm. As an example of its biomedical application, we describe the selective excitation of biomolecules and chromophores for cell destruction using malachite green isothiocyanate labelled bacteria. The potential for development is reviewed towards other medical applications such as diagnostic sensing and phototherapy.

  15. Optical properties of plastic materials for medical vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanova, N. G.; Kasarova, S. N.; Nikolov, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    Several types of optical polymer materials suitable for ophthalmic or medical vision applications have been studied. We have measured refractive indices of studied plastics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Important optical characteristics as Abbe numbers, dispersion coefficients and curves, principal and relative partial dispersion have been evaluated. Calculated refractometric data at many laser emission wavelengths used for medical surgery, therapy and diagnostics is included. As an example of a medical vision application of plastics, optical design of a micro-triplet for use in disposable endoscopes is presented.

  16. Optical diffractive elements for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, Grzegorz; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej; Makowski, Michal; Sypek, Maciej

    2005-09-01

    We present a class of diffractive elements that can be used in medical applications. We describe their physical properties, in particular the point spread functions and modulation transfer functions. Our analyses consist of the detailed numerical simulations. The obtained results correspond to the different setup parameters and confirm usefulness of such structures in medical aspect, especially in presbyopia treatment.

  17. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  18. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  19. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  20. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  1. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... on-site at the Santa Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology... International, reporting to Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site...

  2. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by Education Law Center and…

  3. Women in History--Grace Abbott: A Leader in Social Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari Cole

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Grace Abbott, one of the earlier 20th century American women leaders in Progressivism. Abbott's heritage influenced her lifetime commitment to social improvement. She was born on November 17, 1878 in Grand Island, Nebraska into a family of activists. Her Quaker mother, Elizabeth Griffin Abbott, came from an abolitionist…

  4. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  5. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report: Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite-Coney, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  6. The Instructional Guide for Abbott Skills Enhancement Classes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Ronda; Gee, Mary Kay

    This guide, which integrates adult basic education (ABE) curriculum, job skills for Abbott Laboratories, and work-related foundation skills, is designed for an instructional program in the skill areas of reading, writing, oral communications, mathematics, and problem solving. In addition to creating a uniform process and product to promote…

  7. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

    2014-03-01

    Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

  9. Medical Image Processing Using Real-Time Optical Fourier Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V. G. L. N.; Panchangam, Appaji; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Material Science Team

    2001-03-01

    Optical Image Processing Techniques are inherently fast in view of parallel processing. A self-adaptive Optical Fourier Processing system using photo induced dichroism in a Bacteriorhodopsin film was experimentally demonstrated for medical image processing. Application of this powerful analog all-optical interactive technique for cancer diagnostics is illustrated with mammograms and Pap smears. Micro calcification clusters buried in surrounding tissue showed up clearly in the processed image. By playing with one knob, which rotates the analyzer in the optical system, either the micro calcification clusters or the surrounding dense tissue can be selectively displayed. Bacteriorhodopsin films are stable up to 140^oC and environmental friendly. As no interference is involved in the experiments, vibration isolation and even a coherent light source are not required. It may be possible to develop a low-cost rugged battery operated portable signal-enhancing magnifier.

  10. Post-traumatic optic neuropathy: our surgical and medical protocol.

    PubMed

    Emanuelli, E; Bignami, M; Digilio, E; Fusetti, S; Volo, T; Castelnuovo, P

    2015-11-01

    Post-traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a rare, but very much feared event. It is a traumatic injury of the optic nerve at any level along its course (often inside the optic canal), with partial or total loss of visual acuity, temporarily or permanently. Until now, an univocal treatment strategy does not exist. The clinical records of 26 patients, treated from 2002 to 2013, were reviewed. The most frequent cause of injury was road traffic accident (63%), followed by iatrogenic damage, work injuries, sport or home accidents. All patients underwent pre-operative ophthalmological evaluation, neuro-imaging (angio-CT or angio-MRI scans) and systemic corticosteroid therapy. All patients required a surgical treatment, due to poor response to medical therapy; it consisted of an endonasal endoscopic decompression of the intracanalicular segment of the optic nerve, performed by removing the bony wall of the optical canal and releasing the perineural sheath. Improvement of visual acuity was reached in 65% of cases. No minor or major complication occurred intra- or post-operative, with a maximum follow-up time of 41 months. An improvement in visual acuity was achieved, although very limited in some cases, when surgery was performed as close as possible to the traumatic event. In the literature, there is no evidence-based data evaluating both of the two main treatment options (medical therapy versus surgical decompression), to state which is the gold standard in the treatment for TON. We discuss the pro and cons of our protocol: medical endovenous steroid treatment, within 8 h of injury, and endoscopic surgical decompression within 12-24 since the beginning of medical therapy, represent the best solution in terms of risk-benefit ratio for the patients. PMID:25472815

  11. Medical catheters thermally manipulated by fiber optic bundles

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1992-01-01

    A maneuverable medical catheter comprising a flexible tube having a functional tip. The catheter is connected to a control source. The functional tip of the catheter carries a plurality of temperature activated elements arranged in parallel and disposed about the functional tip and held in spaced relation at each end. These elements expand when they are heated. A plurality of fiber optic bundles, each bundle having a proximal end attached to the control source and a distal end attached to one of the elements carry light into the elements where the light is absorbed as heat. By varying the optic fiber that is carrying the light and the intensity of the light, the bending of the elements can be controlled and thus the catheter steered. In an alternate embodiment, the catheter carries a medical instrument for gathering a sample of tissue. The instrument may also be deployed and operated by thermal expansion and contraction of its moving parts.

  12. Medical catheters thermally manipulated by fiber optic bundles

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1992-10-06

    A maneuverable medical catheter comprising a flexible tube having a functional tip is described. The catheter is connected to a control source. The functional tip of the catheter carries a plurality of temperature activated elements arranged in parallel and disposed about the functional tip and held in spaced relation at each end. These elements expand when they are heated. A plurality of fiber optic bundles, each bundle having a proximal end attached to the control source and a distal end attached to one of the elements carry light into the elements where the light is absorbed as heat. By varying the optic fiber that is carrying the light and the intensity of the light, the bending of the elements can be controlled and thus the catheter steered. In an alternate embodiment, the catheter carries a medical instrument for gathering a sample of tissue. The instrument may also be deployed and operated by thermal expansion and contraction of its moving parts. 10 figs.

  13. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  14. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ..., Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc., submitted a notification for expanded... FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77...

  15. Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study: Fifth Grade Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Youn, Min-Jong; Frede, Ellen C.

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey's Abbott Preschool program is of broad national and international interest because the Abbott program provides a model for building a high-quality system of universal pre-K through public-private partnerships that transform the existing system. The program offers high-quality pre-K to all children in 31 New Jersey communities with high…

  16. Wideband Optical Detector of Ultrasound for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions. PMID:24895083

  17. Medical Applications Of CO2 Laser Fiber Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    In 1978, Hughes Laboratories reported development of fiber optics that were capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. These fibers are now being tested for medical applications. Wide ranging medical investigation with CO2 lasers has occurred during the twelve years since the first observations of laser hemostasis. Specialists in ophthalmology, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, maxillo-facial/plastic surgery, dermatology, and oncology among others, have explored its use. In principle, all these specialists use CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 microns to thermally destroy diseased tissues. As such, CO2 lasers compare and compete with electrosurgical devices. The fundamental difference between these modalities lies in how they generate heat in treated tissue.

  18. Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  19. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Kalli, Kyriacos; Leen, Gabriel; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Kelly, Jimmy; Munroe, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF) acid and femtosecond (FS) laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of sp = 2–10 nmkPa and a resolution of better than ΔP = 10 Pa (0.1 cm H2O). A static pressure test in 38 cmH2O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H2O) in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by k=10.7 pmK, which results in a temperature resolution of better than ΔT = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes. PMID:26184331

  20. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  1. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors.

    PubMed

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Kalli, Kyriacos; Leen, Gabriel; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Kelly, Jimmy; Munroe, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF) acid and femtosecond (FS) laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of sp = 2-10 nm/kPa and a resolution of better than ΔP = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H2O). A static pressure test in 38 cm H2O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H2O) in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by k = 10.7 pm/K, which results in a temperature resolution of better than ΔT = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes. PMID:26184331

  2. Optical coherence tomography: clinical applications in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K; Azeem, Sitara

    2013-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer. PMID:23599874

  3. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used

  4. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Results: Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. Conclusion: The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required. PMID:26649001

  5. Fulfilling the Promise of Abbott: The Lighthouse Assessment Process--Improving Programs through Measured Outcomes. Policy Progress, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to better prepare young children for the challenges of kindergarten and first grade, the Supreme Court of New Jersey, in its 1998 landmark decision of "Abbott v. Burke" (Abbott V), required the State's poorest school districts to implement high quality, intensive preschool for all 3-and 4-year old children. To take advantage of the…

  6. Trends in optical coherence tomography applied to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to double every three years. Traditionally applied to imaging the eye, OCT is now being extended to fields outside ophthalmology and optometry. Widening its applicability, progress in the core engine of the technology, and impact on development of novel optical sources, make OCT a very active and rapidly evolving field. Trends in the developments of different specific devices, such as optical sources, optical configurations and signal processing will be presented. Encompassing studies on both the configurations as well as on signal processing themes, current research in Kent looks at combining spectral domain with time domain imaging for long axial range and simultaneous imaging at several depths. Results of the collaborative work of the Applied Optics Group in Kent with organisers of this conference will be presented, with reference to 3D monitoring of abfraction.

  7. Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nordstrom, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on "Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices." This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7-8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees. PMID:22741084

  8. AUTOMATED BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL FISH PATHOGENS USING THE ABBOTT QUANTUM II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quantum II, originally designed by Abbott Diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of Enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. he instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. ample cartri...

  9. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...- 17-09); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 8052... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area Pursuant to its authority under the...

  10. Early Childhood Education: The Sustainability of the Benefits of Preschool Participation in Abbott Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The landmark New Jersey Supreme Court school funding case, "Abbott v. Burke", established the availability of preschool for all three- and four-year-olds living within the state's thirty-one poorest districts as a means of eradicating the effects of poverty. Longitudinal studies have shown the value of high quality preschool programs for improving…

  11. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  12. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 4283, 1/25/2011) and... Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant to its Authority Under the... 153, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.,...

  13. Integration of fiber optical shape sensing with medical visualization for minimal-invasive interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetz, Torben; Waltermann, Christian; Angelmahr, Martin; Ojdanic, Darko; Schade, Wolfgang; Witte, Michael; Hahn, Horst Karl

    2015-03-01

    We present a fiber optical shape sensing system that allows to track the shape of a standard telecom fiber with fiber Bragg grating. The shape sensing information is combined with a medical visualization platform to visualize the shape sensing information together with medical images and post-processing results like 3D models, vessel graphs, or segmentation results. The framework has a modular nature to use it for various medical applications like catheter or needle based interventions. The technology has potential in the medical area as it is MR-compatible and can easily be integrated in catheters and needles due to its small size.

  14. Astrabismatic spectacles: a medical application for binary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Spectacles have been designed for correcting the double vision associated with various forms of strabismus (`squint'). These correctors consist of light-weight, refracting Fresnel wedge prisms that can bend the optic axis by large deviations, while maintaining a relatively thin profile. Using a special mold structure, compatible with cost-effective production, a continuously variable range of prism angles can be pressed in suitable substrates, such as polycarbonate. The flat surface of the prism is embossed with a binary optics diffraction grating for compensating the prism's inherent color dispersion. Over a wide range of deviation angles, the Fresnel prism combined with the right grating achieves uniformly excellent quality of the perceived image, well suited for ophthalmological applications.

  15. Optical tomography: Development of a new medical imaging modality

    SciTech Connect

    Hebden, Jeremy C.

    1998-08-28

    The demonstrated success of near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in medicine has encouraged physicists to pursue the development of an imaging technique based on the transmittance of optical wavelengths through tissue. Potential clinical applications include a means of detecting breast disease, and a cerebral imaging modality for mapping oxygenation and haemodynamics in the brain of newborn infants. Imaging of tissues with light is severely restricted by the overwhelming scatter which occurs when optical radiation propagates through tissue. However, recent innovations in technology and the development of new tomographic reconstruction procedures suggest that a clinically viable imaging modality is achievable. In this paper the recent progress in this field of research is reviewed, and the prospects for ultimate success are discussed.

  16. THz optical design considerations and optimization for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Llombart, Nuria; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-09-01

    THz imaging system design will play an important role making possible imaging of targets with arbitrary properties and geometries. This study discusses design consideration and imaging performance optimization techniques in THz quasioptical imaging system optics. Analysis of field and polarization distortion by off-axis parabolic (OAP) mirrors in THz imaging optics shows how distortions are carried in a series of mirrors while guiding the THz beam. While distortions of the beam profile by individual mirrors are not significant, these effects are compounded by a series of mirrors in antisymmetric orientation. It is shown that symmetric orientation of the OAP mirror effectively cancels this distortion to recover the original beam profile. Additionally, symmetric orientation can correct for some geometrical off-focusing due to misalignment. We also demonstrate an alternative method to test for overall system optics alignment by investigating the imaging performance of the tilted target plane. Asymmetric signal profile as a function of the target plane's tilt angle indicates when one or more imaging components are misaligned, giving a preferred tilt direction. Such analysis can offer additional insight into often elusive source device misalignment at an integrated system. Imaging plane tilting characteristics are representative of a 3-D modulation transfer function of the imaging system. A symmetric tilted plane is preferred to optimize imaging performance.

  17. Fiber optic medical pressure-sensing system employing intelligent self-calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fiber-optic catheter-type pressure-sensing system that has been successfully introduced for medical diagnostic applications. We present overall sensors and optoelectronics designs, and highlight product development efforts that lead to a reliable and accurate disposable pressure-sensing system. In particular, the incorporation of an intelligent on-site self-calibration approach allows limited sensor reuses for reducing end-user costs and for system adaptation to wide sensor variabilities associated with low-cost manufacturing processes. We demonstrate that fiber-optic sensors can be cost-effectively produced to satisfy needs of certain medical market segments.

  18. Novel x-ray optics for medical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyumchyan, A.; Arvanian, V.; Kuyumchyan, D.; Aristov, V.; Shulakov, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new hard X - ray hologram with using crystal Fresnel zone plates (ZP) has been described. An image of Fourier hologram for hard X- ray is presented. X-ray phase contrast methods for medical diagnostics techniques are presented. We have developed an X-ray microscope, based on micro focus source which is capable of high resolution phasecontrast imaging and holograms. We propose a new imaging technique with the x-ray energy 8 keV. The method is expected to have wide applications in imaging of low absorbing samples such as biological and medical tissue. We used FIB to reproduction three dimension structures of damaged spinal cord of rat before and after combined treatment with NT3 and NR2D. PUBLISHER'S NOTE 12/16/09: This SPIE Proceedings paper has been updated with an erratum correcting several issues throughout the paper. The corrected paper was published in place of the earlier version on 9/1/2009. If you purchased the original version of the paper and no longer have access, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service at CustomerService@SPIEDigitalLibrary.org for assistance.

  19. Multiplexed label-free optical biosensor for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Fornasari, Lucia; Frangolho, Ana; Giudicatti, Silvia; Mantovani, Alberto; Marabelli, Franco; Marchesini, Gerardo; Pellacani, Paola; Therisod, Rita; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new multiplexed label-free biosensor. The detection technology is based on nanostructured gold-polymer surfaces. These surfaces support surface plasmon resonance modes that can be probed by a miniaturized optical setup. The optical characterization of the sensing chip shows the sensitivity and the limit-of-detection to refractive index changes. Moreover, by studying the progressive adhesion of molecular monolayers of polyelectrolytes, the decay of the plasmonic mode electric field above the surface has been reconstructed. A multiplexed label-free biosensing device is then described and characterized in terms of sensitivity, lateral resolution, and sensitivity to a model biological assay. The sensitivity in imaging mode of the device is of the order of 10-6 refractive index units, while the measured lateral resolution is 6.25 μm within a field of view of several tenths of mm2, making the instrument unique in terms of multiplexing capability. Finally, the proof-of-concept application of the technology as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for an inflammatory marker is demonstrated. PMID:24474511

  20. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing. PMID:19000975

  1. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  2. Multifunction medical endoscope system with optical fiber temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhengquan; Zhou, Libin; Luo, Baoke; Hu, Baowen; Du, Xinchao; Li, Yulin

    2014-09-01

    Thermal therapy (or hyperthermia) is one of the effective operations for tumor treating and curing. As tumor tissues are more susceptible to heat than normal tissues, in thermal therapy operations, temperature on operation area is a crucial parameter for optimal treating. When the temperature is too low, the tumor tissues cannot be killed; otherwise, the temperature is too high, the operation may damage normal tissues around the tumor. During thermal therapy operation, the heating power is normally supplied by high-frequency EM field, so traditional temperature sensors, such as thermal couples, thermistors, cannot work stably due to EM interference. We present a multi-function endoscope optical fiber temperature sensor system. With this sensor setup based on principle of fluorescence life time, the temperature on operation point is detected in real time. Furthermore, a build-in endoscope centers in the fiber sensor, thus the operation area can be viewed or imaged directly during the operation. This design can navigate the operation, particularly for in vivo operations. The temperature range of the sensor system is 30°C-150°C, the accuracy can achieve to 0.2°C. The imaging fiber buddle is constituted of more than 50k fibers. As the sensor probe is very thin (around 4 mm in diameter), it can also be assembled inside the radiofrequency operation knife. With the presented sensor system in clinic operation physicians can check the temperature in the operation point and view the operation area at the same time.

  3. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  4. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  5. Smart medical textiles with embedded optical fibre sensors for continuous monitoring of respiratory movements during MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J.; Narbonneau, F.; Schukar, M.; Krebber, K.; De Jonckheere, J.; Jeanne, M.; Kinet, D.; Paquet, B.; Depré, A.; D'Angelo, L. T.; Thiel, T.; Logier, R.

    2010-09-01

    We report on three respiration sensors based on pure optical technologies developed during the FP6 EU project OFSETH. The developed smart medical textiles can sense elongation up to 3%, while maintaining the stretching properties of the textile substrates for a good comfort of the patient. The sensors, based on silica and polymer fibre, are developed for monitoring of patients during MRI examination. The OFSETH harness allows a continuous measurement of respiration movements while all vitals organs are free for medical staff actions. The sensors were tested in MRI environment and on healthy adults.

  6. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, Max E.; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lehmann, Hartmut; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    1996-07-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors. waveguide, blood gases, medical diagnostics.

  7. Optical fiber diffusive tip designs for medical laser-lightguide delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Pfafrods, Daumants; Stafeckis, Maris

    1994-12-01

    Medical laser radiation delivery instruments with diffusive tips on the distal ends of plastic-clad silica optical fibers have been designed, tested, and manufactured. The instruments are optimized for endoscopic, therapeutic, dermatologic and surgical laser treatment. The diffusive tips provide radial, cylindrical and aside-conical spatial distributions of the output radiation. Optical schemes concerning each type of the tip and the corresponding spatial distribution functions of the output radiation are presented and analyzed. Designs of the lightguide instruments for surgical and dermatological procedures demanding local high-power laser irradiation are also discussed.

  8. Acoustical phase conjugation and optical quasi-phase conjugate mirror in medical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    1993-09-01

    The coherent detection (and the consequent replay forward or backward in time emission) by an array of microphones (and loud speakers), in mutual phase, may mimic a dynamical acoustic hologram or a dynamical acoustic phase conjugate mirror (APCM). The ability of APCM to compensate distortions due to diffusing subjects (as part of living bodies) may in principle reverse in 3D detail (and with no hazard) the internal structure of anatomic components (tissue...) as well as absorbing ones (bones...). The resolution and the applications of APCM in medical inspections are discussed: megahertz frequencies are preferred. Anatomic subjects are generally optically opaque, but they are acoustically transparent. This is the reason to prefer APCM to optical PCM in medical as well as in geological inspections.

  9. Using diffuse near-infrared light to characterize tissue optical and physiologic properties for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan Hoai

    2001-05-01

    Methods based on near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance offer novel and functional approaches to medical diagnostics. NIR diffuse reflectance techniques are well suited for non-invasive, quantitative characterization of tissue optical properties, namely macroscopic absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs') coefficient. Tissue optical properties, in turn, provide unique and clinically relevant functional and structural information about tissues. Needless to say, understanding light- tissue interactions and light transport in multiply scattering (turbid) media is essential in order to fully capitalize on the useful features of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This thesis addresses the practical and, to a limited extent, the theoretical issues of NIR diffuse light spectroscopy. The goals of the thesis are two folds: (1)to investigate, from an instrumental and analytical perspectives, the accuracy and limitation of the various diffuse reflectance techniques in quantifying the optical properties of homogenous and layered turbid media, and (2)to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of using NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify in vivo tissue optical and physiologic properties during pathophysiologic processes. With respect to the first objective, we conducted validation studies to assess the accuracy of the frequency-domain and spatially-resolved techniques in quantifying μa and μs' of homogenous turbid media. Similarly, frequency-domain and time-domain approaches were used to characterize the optical properties and thickness of two-layered turbid media. For the second objective, frequency-domain system was used to quantify the changes in the in vivo optical and physiologic properties secondary to cancerous transformation, cardiovascular dysfunction, and photodynamic therapy of tumors. In summary, studies results clearly indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance techniques accurately quantify the in vivo tissue optical and physiologic

  10. 3D shape tracking of minimally invasive medical instruments using optical frequency domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Francois; Kanti Mandal, Koushik; Loranger, Sebastien; Watanabe Fernandes, Eric Hideki; Kashyap, Raman; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    We propose here a new alternative to provide real-time device tracking during minimally invasive interventions using a truly-distributed strain sensor based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) in optical fibers. The guidance of minimally invasive medical instruments such as needles or catheters (ex. by adding a piezoelectric coating) has been the focus of extensive research in the past decades. Real-time tracking of instruments in medical interventions facilitates image guidance and helps the user to reach a pre-localized target more precisely. Image-guided systems using ultrasound imaging and shape sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG)-embedded optical fibers can provide retroactive feedback to the user in order to reach the targeted areas with even more precision. However, ultrasound imaging with electro-magnetic tracking cannot be used in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite, while shape sensors based on FBG embedded in optical fibers provides discrete values of the instrument position, which requires approximations to be made to evaluate its global shape. This is why a truly-distributed strain sensor based on OFDR could enhance the tracking accuracy. In both cases, since the strain is proportional to the radius of curvature of the fiber, a strain sensor can provide the three-dimensional shape of medical instruments by simply inserting fibers inside the devices. To faithfully follow the shape of the needle in the tracking frame, 3 fibers glued in a specific geometry are used, providing 3 degrees of freedom along the fiber. Near real-time tracking of medical instruments is thus obtained offering clear advantages for clinical monitoring in remotely controlled catheter or needle guidance. We present results demonstrating the promising aspects of this approach as well the limitations of using the OFDR technique.

  11. Application of an optical memory card as a portable medical record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, Eric W.; Haddock, Richard M.

    1990-08-01

    The optical memory card manufactured and marketed by Drexier Technology Corporation under the LaserCard«trademark, is a credit card-sized optical data storage device presently configured to hold up to 4.11 Mbytes of WORM (Write Once Read Many) data. The availability of a portable storage medium with this data capacity has stirred the interest of applications developers in such diverse fields as security access/ID, database publishing and distribution, vehicle maintenance logs and consumer electronic coupons. The application of the LaserCard as a portable, personal medical record is currently the most fully developed and as such is being evaluated in numerous field trials worldwide. Before describing some of these field trials, it is worthwhile to discuss several contributing factors that have made these field trials possible. These factors include, 1) evolution of a manufacturing facility of high-quality LaserCards, 2) availability of production-level read/write drives from several sources, 3) emergence of standards for optical memory cards and read/write drives, and 4) perceived value of a portable medical record in the medical care field.

  12. Cytomegalovirus quantification in plasma with Abbott RealTime CMV and Roche Cobas Amplicor CMV assays.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maxime-Antoine; Rodrigue, Marc-André; Deschênes, Louise; Boivin, Guy; Longtin, Jean

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the performance of Abbott RealTime CMV assay (ARC) compared to Roche Cobas Amplicor CMV Monitor Test (RCM) for quantification of CMV in plasma of transplant patients. Commercial panels were used to test linearity, precision and interference and 83 clinical samples were used for the accuracy and precision analyses. All 43 RCM-positive clinical samples tested positive by ARC. The overall concordance between the two tests was good (98%). Based on 17 samples, the inter-assay median coefficient of variation was 13%. A linearity panel ranging from approximately 1 to 7log10copies/mL was used to confirm linearity (R(2)=0.99). CMV viral load measurement was not affected by different concentrations of HSV-1 or EBV DNA. We conclude that The Abbott RealTime CMV assay offers good sensitivity, precision and linearity and is suitable for monitoring CMV viral loads in transplant recipients. Standardization with the WHO CMV standard allows for comparison with other assays. PMID:26341060

  13. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  14. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy. PMID:18458764

  15. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D V G L N

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy. PMID:18458764

  16. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity. PMID:20027770

  17. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories. PMID:26071001

  18. Anisotropic optical distribution of powder phosphor materials applied in medical imaging instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaparinos, P. F.

    2016-02-01

    Image quality for medical purposes is related to the useful diagnostic information that can be extracted from an image. The performance of indirect X-ray detectors, which in turn affects the quality of the medical image, can be significantly influenced by the characteristics of the phosphor, employed to convert incident radiation into emitted light. Given the technological and medical importance of phosphor materials, understanding the fundamental effects of optical anisotropy is crucial. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the influence of optical anisotropy in optical diffusion within the powder phosphor-based X-ray detectors. The present investigation was based on Mie scattering theory and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The variation of the anisotropy factor was examined for: (1) light wavelengths in the range 400-700 nm, (2) particle refractive index between 1.5 and 2 and (3) three regions of particle sizes: nanoscale (from 10 up to 100 nm), submicron scale (from 100 nm up to 1 μm), and microscale (from 1 up to 10 μm). In addition, optical diffusion performance was carried out considering: (a) anisotropy factor values 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 which represent different aspects of light propagation after scattering and (b) phosphors of different layer thickness, 100 (thin layer) and 300 μm (thick layer), respectively. Results showed that the highest variation on the anisotropy factor was observed in the submicron scale, and, in particular, for grain diameters between 100 and 600 nm (increase from 0.1 up to 0.8). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the spread of light photons decreases (i.e., high spatial resolution) with the decrease in the anisotropy factor. In particular, the FWHM was found to decrease with the anisotropy factor: (1) 11.4 % at 100 μm and 4.2 %, at 300 μm layer thickness, for light extinction coefficient 0.217 μm-1 and (2) 1.9 % at 100 μm and 2.0 %, at 300 μm layer thickness, for light extinction coefficient 3 μm-1

  19. Complete optical stack modeling for CMOS-based medical x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyazin, Alexander S.; Peters, Inge M.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for modeling the performance of CMOS-based medical x-ray detectors, based on the Monte Carlo toolkit GEANT4. Following the Fujita-Lubberts-Swank approach recently reported by Star-Lack et al., we calculate modulation transfer function MTF(f), noise power spectrum NPS(f) and detective quantum efficiency DQE(f) curves. The complete optical stack is modeled, including scintillator, fiber optic plate (FOP), optical adhesive and CMOS image sensor. For critical parts of the stack, detailed models have been developed, taking into account their respective microstructure. This includes two different scintillator types: Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) and CsI:Tl. The granular structure of the former is modeled using anisotropic Mie scattering. The columnar structure of the latter is introduced into calculations directly, using the parameterization capabilities of GEANT4. The underlying homogeneous CsI layer is also incorporated into the model as well as the optional reflective layer on top of the scintillator screen or the protective polymer top coat. The FOP is modeled as an array of hexagonal bundles of fibers. The simulated CMOS stack consists of layers of Si3N4 and SiO2 on top of a silicon pixel array. The model is validated against measurements of various test detector structures, using different x-ray spectra (RQA5 and RQA-M2), showing good match between calculated and measured MTF(f) and DQE(f) curves.

  20. Optical Fourier and Holographic Techniques for Medical Image Processing with Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2008-03-01

    The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin (bR) shows many intrinsic optical and physical properties. The active chromophore in bR is a retinal group which absorbs light and goes through a photocycle. The unique feature of the system is its flexibility -- the photocycle can be optically controllable since the process of photoisomerization can go in both directions depending on wavelength, intensity and polarization of the incident light, opening a variety of possibilities for manipulating amplitude, phase, polarization and index of refraction of the incident light. Over the years we studied the basic nonlinear optics and successfully exploited the unique properties for several optical spatial filtering techniques with applications in medical image processing. For nonlinear Fourier filtering, the photo-controlled light modulating characteristics of bR films are exploited. At the Fourier plane, the spatial frequency information carried by a blue probe beam at 442 nm is selectively manipulated in the bR film by changing the position and intensity of a yellow control beam at 568 nm. In transient Fourier holography, photoisomerizative gratings are recorded and reconstructed in bR films. Desired spatial frequencies are obtained by matching the reference beam intensity to that of the particular frequency band in object beam. A novel feature of the technique is the ability to transient display of selected spatial frequencies in the reconstructing process which enables radiologists to study the features of interest in time scale. The results offer useful information to radiologists for early detection of breast cancer. Some of the highlights will be presented.

  1. A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Florian E. W.; Fry, Martin E.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Delpy, David T.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype multichannel time-resolved medical optical tomography system is presented, and various instrumental aspects and performance issues are discussed. The instrument has been designed primarily as a continuous bedside monitor for obtaining functional images of premature infants' brains that are at an increased risk of injury due to dysfunction in cerebral oxygenation or hemodynamics. Separate maps of the internal absorption and scattering properties can be reconstructed from purely temporal measurements of photons transmitted diffusely through the tissue, and without recourse to reference or baseline measurements. The instrument employs 32 source fibers that sequentially deliver near-infrared pulsed laser radiation of picosecond duration. Transit time measurements of very high temporal resolution and stability are made between these sources and 32 detector optodes that are located on the surface. The effectiveness of this instrument is demonstrated by successfully imaging a tissue-equivalent phantom.

  2. Optical Emission Spectroscopy in PECVD Helps Modulate Key Features in Biofunctional Coatings for Medical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Miguel; Michael, Praveesuda; Filipe, Elysse; Wise, Steven; Bilek, Marcela; University of Sydney Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    We explore the use of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic tools as a process feedback control strategy in plasma-assisted deposition of biofunctional coatings. Hydrogenated carbon nitride coatings are deposited on medical-grade metallic substrates using radio-frequency (rf) discharges sustained in C2H2/N2/Ar gaseous mixtures. The discharge is generated by capacitively coupling the rf power (supplied at f = 13.56 MHz) to the plasma and the substrates are electrically biased using a pulse generator to provide microsecond square profiled pulses at voltages in the range |Vbias| = 250 V - 1000 V. Nitrogen content and CN bonding configurations in the coatings follow similar trends to those of CN radicals and nitrogen molecular ions in the discharge. OES is used as a non-intrusive diagnostic technique to identify a suitable window of process parameters and ultimately achieve biofunctional interfaces compatible with current clinical demands. Importantly, we demonstrate that key features of the coatings can be modulated and made suitable for blood and/or tissue contacting medical implants, such as coronary stents and orthopaedic implants. The coatings are mechanically robust, inherently non-thrombogenic and can be readily modified, enabling an easy functionalization through the immobilization of biological molecules in a bioactive conformation.

  3. Optical sensors for therapeutic drug monitoring of antidepressants for a better medication adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Anne K.; Hess, Stefan; Gauglitz, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring provides the attending physicians with detailed information on a patient's individual serum level especially during long-term medication. Due to the fact that each patient tolerates drugs or their metabolites differently a medication adjustment can reduce the number and intensity of noticeable side-effects. In particular, psychotropic drugs can cause unpleasant side-effects that affect a patient's life almost as much as the mental disease itself. The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline is commonly used for treatment of depressions and was selected for the development of an immunoassay using the direct optical sensor technique Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS). RIfS is a simple, robust and label-free method for direct monitoring of binding events on glass surfaces. Binding to the surface causes a shift of the interference spectrum by a change of the refractive index or physical thickness. This technique can be used for time-resolved observation of association and dissociation of amitriptyline (antigen) and a specific antibody using the binding inhibition test format. An amitriptyline derivative is immobilized on the sensor surface and a specific amount of antibodies can bind to the surface unless the binding is inhibited by free amitriptyline in a sample. No fluorescent label is needed making the whole assay less expensive than label-based methods. With this recently developed immunoassay amitriptyline concentrations in buffer (PBS) can easily be detected down to 500 ng/L.

  4. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  5. Hidden processes in structural representations: A reply to Abbott, Austerweil, and Griffiths (2015).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael N; Hills, Thomas T; Todd, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    In recent work exploring the semantic fluency task, we found evidence indicative of optimal foraging policies in memory search that mirror search in physical environments. We determined that a 2-stage cue-switching model applied to a memory representation from a semantic space model best explained the human data. Abbott, Austerweil, and Griffiths demonstrate how these patterns could also emerge from a random walk applied to a network representation of memory based on human free-association norms. However, a major representational issue limits any conclusions that can be drawn about the process model comparison: Our process model operated on a memory space constructed from a learning model, whereas their model used human behavioral data from a task that is quite similar to the behavior they attempt to explain. Predicting semantic fluency (e.g., how likely it is to say cat after dog in a sequence of animals) from free association (how likely it is to say cat when given dog as a cue) should be possible with a relatively simple retrieval mechanism. The 2 tasks both tap memory, but they also share a common process of retrieval. Assuming that semantic memory is a network from free-association behavior embeds variance due to the shared retrieval process directly into the representation. A simple process mechanism is then sufficient to simulate semantic fluency because much of the requisite process complexity may already be hidden in the representation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120911

  6. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Khosrow Behbehani

    2013-02-26

    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  7. Medical devices utilizing optical fibers for simultaneous power, communications and control

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Hagans, Karla G.; Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter; Benett, William J.; Clough, Robert E.; DaSilva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-06-10

    A medical device is constructed in the basic form of a catheter having a distal end for insertion into and manipulation within a body and a proximal end providing for a user to control the manipulation of the distal end within the body. A fiberoptic cable is disposed within the catheter and having a distal end proximate to the distal end of the catheter and a proximal end for external coupling of laser light energy. A laser-light-to-mechanical-power converter is connected to receive light from the distal end of the fiber optic cable and may include a photo-voltaic cell and an electromechanical motor or a heat-sensitive photo-thermal material. An electronic sensor is connected to receive electrical power from said distal end of the fiberoptic cable and is connected to provide signal information about a particular physical environment and communicated externally through the fiberoptic cable to the proximal end thereof. A mechanical sensor is attached to the distal end of the fiberoptic cable and connected to provide light signal information about a particular physical environment and communicated externally through the fiberoptic cable.

  8. Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, D.; Leonidas, F.; Vlissidis, N.; Giovanis, C.; Pagiatakis, G.; Aidinis, C.; Vassilopoulos, C.; Pistner, T.; Schmitt, N.; Klaue, J.

    2011-02-01

    An integrated health and safety monitoring system for aircraft environments using commercially available medical sensor modules and custom made safety sensors in conjunction with an appropriate database supervised through a human-machine interface is implemented. The application described aims at preventing critical health- or safety-related situations during the flight. The health monitoring part of the system is capable of collecting all relevant data, essential in analysing a passenger's health profile. These data, comprising of body temperature, blood pressure, pulse oximetry and electrocardiogram, are throughput and transmitted over a wireless optical intra-cabin link to a server. Furthermore, and in order to reduce the cabin crew workload, along with the health data from a specific passenger group, seat-embedded safety sensors provide information for all passengers' flight safety parameters (such as table upright, seat-belt closed, etc.). The data gathered by the system in a central server can, in its entirety, be stored, processed or acted upon in real time.

  9. Iso- and variothermal injection compression moulding of polymer micro- and nanostructures for optical and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytka, C.; Kristiansen, P. M.; Neyer, A.

    2015-06-01

    The surfaces of medical and optical polymer products are being increasingly functionalized with micro- and nanostructures using mass replication methods like injection moulding. We compared the filling behaviour and replication quality of such structures using four different moulding processes with two polymers of different viscosity and wetting behaviour. For this purpose, we replicated three representative 2D and 3D micro- and nanostructures into polymethylmethacrylate and amorphous polyamide by isothermal and variothermal injection moulding with and without compression, respectively, using the same mould. The parallel compression phase reduced the internal pressure in the cavity, leading to fewer demoulding issues but without significant influence on the replication fidelity. Variothermal heating of the mould in combination with a polymer of low viscosity and good wetting behaviour was favourable especially for filling of high aspect-ratio structures. For microstructure replication, melt viscosity and no-flow temperature were clearly more relevant than wetting as flow resistance and frozen layer formation are the main reasons for incomplete filling at this length scale. In nanostructures, the capillary effect becomes increasingly dominant depending on the surface energy of the polymer.

  10. Body-monitoring and health supervision by means of optical fiber-based sensing systems in medical textiles.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Brit M; Scherer, Lukas J; Boesel, Luciano F; Wolf, Martin; Bona, Gian-Luca; Rossi, René M

    2015-02-18

    Long-term monitoring with optical fibers has moved into the focus of attention due to the applicability for medical measurements. Within this Review, setups of flexible, unobtrusive body-monitoring systems based on optical fibers and the respective measured vital parameters are in focus. Optical principles are discussed as well as the interaction of light with tissue. Optical fiber-based sensors that are already used in first trials are primarily selected for the section on possible applications. These medical textiles include the supervision of respiration, cardiac output, blood pressure, blood flow and its saturation with hemoglobin as well as oxygen, pressure, shear stress, mobility, gait, temperature, and electrolyte balance. The implementation of these sensor concepts prompts the development of wearable smart textiles. Thus, current sensing techniques and possibilities within photonic textiles are reviewed leading to multiparameter designs. Evaluation of these designs should show the great potential of optical fibers for the introduction into textiles especially due to the benefit of immunity to electromagnetic radiation. Still, further improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is often necessary to develop a commercial monitoring system. PMID:25358557

  11. Study of laser induced underwater shock waves and cavitation for medical applications: Visualization in a transparent optical tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Takayama, K.

    2005-03-01

    For medical application of underwater shock waves (a less-invasive approach), a reliable micro shock wave source is required. The present paper reports progress on the production of underwater micro shock waves by direct irradiation using a laser beam through an optical fiber. The generation and propagation of underwater shock waves from the optical fiber were visualized by quantitative double exposure holographic interferometry and time-resolved high speed shadowgraph methods. For visualization of laser induced shock waves and cavities in a tubular confined space, a transparent tube of 5 mm inner diameter with an aspherically shaped outer wall was designed and constructed.

  12. 78 FR 11208 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Circulatory System Devices Panel of... approval application for the MitraClip Delivery System sponsored by Abbott Vascular. The system consists...

  13. Constructing a safety and security system by medical applications of a fast face recognition optical parallel correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Mami; Ohta, Maiko; Murakami, Yasuo; Kodate, Kashiko

    2006-01-01

    Medical errors and patient safety have always received a great deal of attention, as they can be critically life-threatening and significant matters. Hospitals and medical personnel are trying their utmost to avoid these errors. Currently in the medical field, patients' record is identified through their PIN numbers and ID cards. However, for patients who cannot speak or move, or who suffer from memory disturbances, alternative methods would be more desirable, and necessary in some cases. The authors previously proposed and fabricated a specially-designed correlator called FARCO (Fast Face Recognition Optical Correlator) based on the Vanderlugt Correlator1, which operates at the speed of 1000 faces/s 2,3,4. Combined with high-speed display devices, the four-channel processing could achieve such high operational speed as 4000 faces/s. Running trial experiments on a 1-to-N identification basis using the optical parallel correlator, we succeeded in acquiring low error rates of 1 % FMR and 2.3 % FNMR. In this paper, we propose a robust face recognition system using the FARCO for focusing on the safety and security of the medical field. We apply our face recognition system to registration of inpatients, in particular children and infants, before and after medical treatments or operations. The proposed system has recorded a higher recognition rate by multiplexing both input and database facial images from moving images. The system was also tested and evaluated for further practical use, leaving excellent results. Hence, our face recognition system could function effectively as an integral part of medical system, meeting these essential requirements of safety, security and privacy.

  14. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. PMID:26085611

  15. Comparison of Perceptions of "Preparedness" of John Abbott C.E.G.E.P. Nursing Graduates: Prior to Graduation and After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iton, Carmen; Sabiston, Judy

    A study of John Abbott College's nursing graduates was conducted to determine how well prepared for their professional responsibilities the graduates saw themselves just prior to graduation and later after working in the nursing field. A sample of 98 nursing students who graduated between 1986 and 1988 was surveyed, with 93% responding to the…

  16. Characterization of Samples Identified as Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 without Subtype by Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II Assay Using the New Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO Test

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Camelia; Ebel, Anne; Reinhardt, Birgit; Merlin, Sandra; Proust, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping continues to be relevant for therapeutic strategies. Some samples are reported as genotype 1 (gt 1) without subtype by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (GT II) test. To characterize such samples further, the Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO (Plus) assay, which targets the core region for gt 1a, gt 1b, and gt 6 detection, was evaluated as a reflex test in reference to NS5B or 5′-untranslated region (UTR)/core region sequencing. Of 3,626 routine samples, results of gt 1 without subtype were received for 171 samples (4.7%), accounting for 11.5% of gt 1 specimens. The Plus assay and sequencing were applied to 98 of those samples. NS5B or 5′-UTR/core region sequencing was successful for 91/98 specimens (92.9%). Plus assay and sequencing results were concordant for 87.9% of specimens (80/91 samples). Sequencing confirmed Plus assay results for 82.6%, 85.7%, 100%, and 89.3% of gt 1a, gt 1b, gt 6, and non-gt 1a/1b/6 results, respectively. Notably, 12 gt 6 samples that had been identified previously as gt 1 without subtype were assigned correctly here; for 25/28 samples reported as “not detected” by the Plus assay, sequencing identified the samples as gt 1 with subtypes other than 1a/1b. The genetic variability of HCV continues to present challenges for the current genotyping platforms regardless of the applied methodology. Samples identified by the GT II assay as gt 1 without subtype can be further resolved and reliably characterized by the new Plus assay. PMID:26582834

  17. Effects of sterilization methods on key properties of specialty optical fibers used in medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolov, Andrei A.; Slyman, Brian E.; Burgess, David T.; Hokansson, Adam S.; Li, Jie; Allen, R. Steve

    2013-03-01

    Optical fibers with different types of polymer coatings were exposed to three sterilization conditions: multiple autoclaving, treatment with ethylene oxide and treatment with gamma rays. Effects of different sterilization techniques on key optical and mechanical properties of the fibers are reported. The primary attention is given to behavior of the coatings in harsh sterilization environments. The following four coating/buffer types were investigated: (i) dual acrylate, (ii) polyimide, (iii) silicone/PEEK and (iv) fluoroacrylate hard cladding/ETFE.

  18. OFSETH: optical technologies embedded in smart medical textile for continuous monitoring of respiratory motions under magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narbonneau, F.; De Jonckheere, J.; Jeanne, M.; Kinet, D.; Witt, J.; Krebber, K.; Paquet, B.; Depré, A.; D'Angelo, L. T.; Thiel, T.; Logier, R.

    2010-04-01

    The potential impact of optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for the continuous monitoring of the patient during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is now proved. We report how two pure optical technologies can successfully sense textile elongation between, 0% and 3%, while maintaining the stretching properties of the textile substrates for a good comfort of the patient. Investigating influence of different patients' morphology as well as textile integration issues to let free all vitals organs for medical staff actions, the OFSETH harness allows a continuous measurement of respiration movements. For example, anaesthesia for MRI examination uses the same drugs as for any surgical procedure. Even if spontaneous respiration can be preserved most of the time, spontaneous respiration is constantly at risk of being impaired by anaesthetic drugs or by upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of the breathing activity is needed to assess adequate ventilation or to detect specific obstruction patterns. Moreover artefacts due to physiological motions induce a blooming effect on the MRI result. The use of synchronisation devices allows reducing these effects. Positioned at certain strategic places according to the investigated organ, the presented sensors could constitute an efficient and adapted solution for respiratory synchronisation of the MRI acquisition.

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. t the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated i...

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

  1. Laser systems with acoustical optical control of output parameters for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu. M.; Morozova, E. A.; Shakin, O. V.

    2006-05-01

    A high-speed system for controlling spectral and temporal parameters of copper vapor laser radiation was developed and studied. The laser is designed for medical applications, in particular, for photodynamic therapy and thermal destruction of pathological neoplasm formations. Repetition frequency of pulses and their on-off time ratio are synchronized by pumping pulses and can be independently controlled from a computer.

  2. Analysis of grid performance using an optical flow algorithm for medical image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Cunha, Rita de Cássio Porfírio; Gutierrez, Marco A.

    2014-03-01

    The development of bigger and faster computers has not yet provided the computing power for medical image processing required nowadays. This is the result of several factors, including: i) the increasing number of qualified medical image users requiring sophisticated tools; ii) the demand for more performance and quality of results; iii) researchers are addressing problems that were previously considered extremely difficult to achieve; iv) medical images are produced with higher resolution and on a larger number. These factors lead to the need of exploring computing techniques that can boost the computational power of Healthcare Institutions while maintaining a relative low cost. Parallel computing is one of the approaches that can help solving this problem. Parallel computing can be achieved using multi-core processors, multiple processors, Graphical Processing Units (GPU), clusters or Grids. In order to gain the maximum benefit of parallel computing it is necessary to write specific programs for each environment or divide the data in smaller subsets. In this article we evaluate the performance of the two parallel computing tools when dealing with a medical image processing application. We compared the performance of the EELA-2 (E-science grid facility for Europe and Latin- America) grid infrastructure with a small Cluster (3 nodes x 8 cores = 24 cores) and a regular PC (Intel i3 - 2 cores). As expected the grid had a better performance for a large number of processes, the cluster for a small to medium number of processes and the PC for few processes.

  3. High-NA HPCS optical fibers for medical diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Bolesh J.

    2010-02-01

    Hard Plastic Clad Silica (HPCS) optical fibers with pure silica cores have been developed which are robust and have NA(Numerical Aperture)>0.50. Improved clad only HPCS fibers have been produced for both new 'standard' and 'high' NA versions. Based on new cladding formulations, the 'standard' NA fiber has an NA of 0.41, while the new ultrahigh NA fiber has an NA of 0.54. Mechanical strength and preliminary fatigue data are presented along with spectral characterization data. For the first time significant results were obtained for clad only high NA fibers, The fibers are useful for diagnostic and surgical applications. Short to medium length time to failure results, indicate that the static fatigue parameters of the new high numerical aperture (NA) optical fibers are at least as good as those for former standard NA (0.37) HPCS fibers, which is an advance from previous results on the older formulation high NA fibers.

  4. Broadband Supercontinuum Spectrum Generated Highly Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber Applicable to Medical and Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Feroza; Namihira, Yoshinori; Kaijage, Shubi F.; Kinjo, Tatsuya

    2011-09-01

    Optical-fiber-based supercontinuum (SC) light sources have attracted much research attention in recent years. High-quality nonlinear optical fibers allow us to readily implement stable and practical SC sources. In this work, we present a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HN-PCF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and telecommunication windows that can generate SC spectra. The finite difference method with an anisotropic perfectly matched layer boundary condition is used to calculate different properties of the proposed HN-PCF. From numerical simulation results, it is found that the HN-PCF nonlinear coefficients are more than 108.0, 74.0, and 53.0 (W·km)-1 at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm, respectively. The flattened chromatic dispersion is 0 to -4.0 ps/(nm·km) in the wavelength range of 1.06 to 1.7 µm (640 nm bandwidth), and the confinement loss is lower than 10-2 dB/km in the entire wavelength range. The generated supercontinuum bandwidths are 295.0, 408.0, and 590.0 nm at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm, respectively. The calculated longitudinal resolutions for biomedical imaging are 1.2, 1.2, and 1.1 µm at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm, respectively.

  5. 200 ps FWHM and 100 MHz repetition rate ultrafast gated camera for optical medical functional imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhring, Wilfried; Poulet, Patrick; Hanselmann, Walter; Glazenborg, René; Zint, Virginie; Nouizi, Farouk; Dubois, Benoit; Hirschi, Werner

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes the realization of a complete optical imaging device to clinical applications like brain functional imaging by time-resolved, spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography. The entire instrument is assembled in a unique setup that includes a light source, an ultrafast time-gated intensified camera and all the electronic control units. The light source is composed of four near infrared laser diodes driven by a nanosecond electrical pulse generator working in a sequential mode at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. The resulting light pulses, at four wavelengths, are less than 80 ps FWHM. They are injected in a four-furcated optical fiber ended with a frontal light distributor to obtain a uniform illumination spot directed towards the head of the patient. Photons back-scattered by the subject are detected by the intensified CCD camera; there are resolved according to their time of flight inside the head. The very core of the intensified camera system is the image intensifier tube and its associated electrical pulse generator. The ultrafast generator produces 50 V pulses, at a repetition rate of 100 MHz and a width corresponding to the 200 ps requested gate. The photocathode and the Micro-Channel-Plate of the intensifier have been specially designed to enhance the electromagnetic wave propagation and reduce the power loss and heat that are prejudicial to the quality of the image. The whole instrumentation system is controlled by an FPGA based module. The timing of the light pulses and the photocathode gating is precisely adjustable with a step of 9 ps. All the acquisition parameters are configurable via software through an USB plug and the image data are transferred to a PC via an Ethernet link. The compactness of the device makes it a perfect device for bedside clinical applications.

  6. Applications of optical fibers and miniature photonic elements in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaszczak, Urszula; Gilewski, Marian; Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej; Kukwa, Andrzej; Kukwa, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Construction of endoscopes which are known for decades, in particular in small devices with the diameter of few millimetres, are based on the application of fibre optic imaging bundles or bundles of fibers in the illumination systems (usually with a halogen source). Cameras - CCD and CMOS - with the sensor size of less than 5 mm emerging commercially and high power LED solutions allow to design and construct modern endoscopes characterized by many innovative properties. These constructions offer higher resolution. They are also relatively cheaper especially in the context of the integration of the majority of the functions on a single chip. Mentioned features of the CMOS sensors reduce the cycle of introducing the newly developed instruments to the market. The paper includes a description of the concept of the endoscope with a miniature camera built on the basis of CMOS detector manufactured by Omni Vision. The set of LEDs located at the operator side works as the illuminating system. Fibre optic system and the lens of the camera are used in shaping the beam illuminating the observed tissue. Furthermore, to broaden the range of applications of the endoscope, the illuminator allows to control the spectral characteristics of emitted light. The paper presents the analysis of the basic parameters of the light-and-optical system of the endoscope. The possibility of adjusting the magnifications of the lens, the field of view of the camera and its spatial resolution is discussed. Special attention was drawn to the issues related to the selection of the light sources used for the illumination in terms of energy efficiency and the possibility of providing adjusting the colour of the emitted light in order to improve the quality of the image obtained by the camera.

  7. Characterization of optically actuated MRI-compatible active needles for medical interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Ryu, Seokchang; Moslehi, Behzad; Costa, Joannes M.

    2014-03-01

    The development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible optically-actuated active needle for guided percutaneous surgery and biopsy procedures is described. Electrically passive MRI-compatible actuation in the small diameter needle is provided by non-magnetic materials including a shape memory alloy (SMA) subject to precise fiber laser operation that can be from a remote (e.g., MRI control room) location. Characterization and optimization of the needle is facilitated using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors arrays. Active bending of the needle during insertion allows the needle to be accurately guided to even relatively small targets in an organ while avoiding obstacles and overcoming undesirable deviations away from the planned path due to unforeseen or unknowable tissue interactions. This feature makes the needle especially suitable for use in image-guided surgical procedures (ranging from MRI to CT and ultrasound) when accurate targeting is imperative for good treatment outcomes. Such interventions include reaching small tumors in biopsies, delineating freezing areas in, for example, cryosurgery and improving the accuracy of seed placement in brachytherapy. Particularly relevant are prostate procedures, which may be subject to pubic arch interference. Combining diagnostic imaging and actuation assisted biopsy into one treatment can obviate the need for a second exam for guided biopsy, shorten overall procedure times (thus increasing operating room efficiencies), address healthcare reimbursement constraints and, most importantly, improve patient comfort and clinical outcomes.

  8. Acousto-optic-tunable-filter-based spectropolarimetric imagers for medical diagnostic applications--instrument design point of view.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelam

    2005-01-01

    Compact optical imagers that can detect both spectral and polarization signatures are required in many biomedical applications. An acousto-optic-tunable-filter (AOTF)-based imager is ideally suited to provide both agile spectral and polarization signatures. Such an imager can be readily used for real-time in vivo medical diagnostic applications. We develop a family of small, robust, and programmable hyperspectral imagers operating from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long-wave IR (LWIR). Such imagers require minimal data processing because they can acquire images at only select wavelengths of interest. We use AOTFs made of KDP, TeO2, and TAS with Si-based CCD, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe cameras to cover different spectral regions from the UV to the LWIR. Operation of each of these imagers and image acquisition is computer controlled. The most developed imager covers the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) region from 400 to 900 nm, with a 10-nm spectral resolution at 600 nm, it uses an electronically tunable TeO2 AOTF as a bandpass filter, and a nematic liquid crystal retarder to change polarization. We describe our concept in the development of these imagers and present new results obtained using the VNIR imager. PMID:16292960

  9. Beam Optics for a Scanned Proton Beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, George; Hubbard, Jeff; Koss, Peter; Sanders, Ed; Panchal, Mona

    2003-08-26

    Beam scanning in proton therapy is a medical technique to lower the dose to healthy tissue while irradiating a tumor volume. Scanned proton beams for proton radiation therapy require small beam sizes at the tumor location. In beam scanning, a small beam usually less than 1 cm diameter is swept across the tumor volume with two magnets located several meters upstream of the patient. In general, all proton beams in a therapy facility must be transported from the accelerator to the treatment rooms where the scanning systems are located. This paper addresses the problem of transporting the beam without losses to the patient and achieving a small beam at the tumor location in the patient. The strengths of the beam line quadrupoles were allowed to vary to produce the desired beam sizes along the beam lines. Quadrupole strengths were obtained using the beam simulation program TRANSPORT originally from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in Palo Alto, CA. An enhanced version of the original program by Accel Soft Inc. in San Diego, CA has been used for these studies. Beam size measurements were used for comparison with TRANSPORT to verify the predictions of TRANSPORT calculations.

  10. Beam Optics for a Scanned Proton Beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, George; Hubbard, Jeff; Koss, Peter; Sanders, Ed; Panchal, Mona

    2003-08-01

    Beam scanning in proton therapy is a medical technique to lower the dose to healthy tissue while irradiating a tumor volume. Scanned proton beams for proton radiation therapy require small beam sizes at the tumor location. In beam scanning, a small beam usually less than 1 cm diameter is swept across the tumor volume with two magnets located several meters upstream of the patient. In general, all proton beams in a therapy facility must be transported from the accelerator to the treatment rooms where the scanning systems are located. This paper addresses the problem of transporting the beam without losses to the patient and achieving a small beam at the tumor location in the patient. The strengths of the beam line quadrupoles were allowed to vary to produce the desired beam sizes along the beam lines. Quadrupole strengths were obtained using the beam simulation program TRANSPORT originally from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in Palo Alto, CA. An enhanced version of the original program by Accel Soft Inc. in San Diego, CA has been used for these studies. Beam size measurements were used for comparison with TRANSPORT to verify the predictions of TRANSPORT calculations.

  11. Trap depth optimization to improve optical properties of diopside-based nanophosphors for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldiney, Thomas; Lecointre, Aurélie; Viana, Bruno; Bessière, Aurélie; Gourier, Didier; Bessodes, Michel; Richard, Cyrille; Scherman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Regarding its ability to circumvent the autofluorescence signal, persistent luminescence was recently shown to be a powerful tool for in vivo imaging and diagnosis applications in living animal. The concept was introduced with lanthanide-doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNP), from a lanthanide-doped silicate host Ca0.2Zn0.9Mg0.9Si2O6:Eu2+, Mn2+, Dy3+ emitting in the near-infrared window. In order to improve the behaviour of these probes in vivo and favour diagnosis applications, we showed that biodistribution could be controlled by varying the hydrodynamic diameter, but also the surface charges and functional groups. Stealth PLNP, with neutral surface charge obtained by polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating, can circulate for longer time inside the mice body before being uptaken by the reticulo-endothelial system. However, the main drawback of this first generation of PLNP was the inability to witness long-term monitoring, mainly due to the decay kinetic after several decades of minutes, unveiling the need to work on new materials with improved optical characteristics. We investigated a modified silicate host, diopside CaMgSi2O6, and increased its persistent luminescence properties by studying various Ln3+ dopants (for instance Ce, Pr, Nd, Tm, Ho). Such dopants create electron traps that control the long lasting phosphorescence (LLP). We showed that Pr3+ was the most suitable Ln3+ electron trap in diopside lattice, providing optimal trap depth, and resulting in the most intense luminescence decay curve after UV irradiation. A novel composition CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+,Mn2+,Pr3+ was obtained for in vivo imaging, displaying a strong near-infrared persistent luminescence centred on 685 nm, allowing improved and sensitive detection through living tissues.

  12. Premarket Evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay

    PubMed Central

    Espino, A. A.; Maceira, V. P.; Nattanmai, S. M.; Butt, S. A.; Wroblewski, D.; Hannett, G. E.; Musser, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories. PMID:24554744

  13. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    PubMed Central

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Results Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Conclusion Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control. PMID:26981018

  14. Abbott RealTime PCR assay is useful for evaluating virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the utility of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay (ART) for the monitoring of chronic hepatitis C patients. The serum samples of 183 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b who had completed a 48-week period of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment were prospectively analyzed. Serum HCV RNA levels were measured both by ART and by the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor test, version2.0 (CAM) at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 of treatment, and at 24 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). A significant positive correlation of pretreatment HCV RNA levels was found between ART and CAM (r = 0.595, P < 0.0001). Of the 183 patients, 66 (36.0%) achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The logarithmic decline of the HCV RNA level from the pretreatment level determined by ART in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients at all time points tested. The logarithmic decline determined by CAM in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients only at week 4, but there was no significant difference at other weeks. Of 124 patients who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by ART, 58 (46.8%) had a relapse of viremia at 24 weeks after EOT, whereas 77 of 143 patients (53.8%) who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by CAM had a relapse. The relapse rate was lower when determined by ART than by CAM, but not significantly so. ART is more useful than CAM for evaluating the virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:21528383

  15. Erythropoiesis: Short Report: Translation of Analysis Results between Serum Ferritin Assays, Ferritin RIA AmershamTM and Abbott AxSYMTM Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Milman, NILS; Byg, KELD-ERIK; Juul-Jørgensen, BIRGIT; Weis Bentzon, MICHAEL

    1999-01-01

    The serum ferritin assays, Ferritin RIA Amersham(TM) and Abbott AxSYM(TM) Ferritin were compared in order to translate values from one assay to the other. Serum ferritin was analysed with both assays in 102 samples. Logarithmic transformation of the results was performed in order to stabilize the variance. The relationship between the untransformed values was most exactly expressed by a proportionality: AxSYM Ferritin = 0.873 * RIA Ferritin. Due to this proportionality, the numerical difference between the assays increases with the ferritin concentration, although the percentage difference between the assays remains constant. PMID:11399562

  16. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott Avantage system for identification of frequently isolated nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Dyke, J W; Helgeson, N G; Cooper, B H; Redding, J S; Crawford, S A; Andruszewski, M T; Prowant, S A

    1984-01-01

    The capability of the Abbott Avantage system to identify 10 species of commonly isolated glucose nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli in a 5-h test period was evaluated in a collaborative study. The Avantage nonenteric data base uses 20 biochemical test reactions performed in an expanded Abbott bacterial identification cartridge plus the results of a manual oxidase test. The species included in the Avantage data base are Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter Iwoffi, Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium meningosepticum-IIb group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pasteurella multocida, and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The collaborative study included the testing of 200 coded challenge strains in all three laboratories and the subsequent testing of an additional group of 100 to 200 clinical isolates recovered independently by each laboratory. Reference identifications for all isolates were determined by conventional biochemical test reactions. The overall accuracy of identification of the coded challenge strains for the three laboratories was 97%, whereas 95% of 437 clinical isolates and selected stock cultures of clinical derivation were identified correctly. PMID:6392323

  17. Assessment of hydrologic and water quality data collected in Abbotts Lagoon watershed, Point Reyes National Seashore, California, during water years 1999 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Saleh, Dina K.; Zamora, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Abbotts Lagoon is part of Point Reyes National Seashore, located about 40 miles northwest of San Francisco and about 20 miles south of Bodega Bay. Water-quality samples were collected quarterly during water year 1999 at a site in each of three connected lagoons that make up Abbotts Lagoon and at a site in its most significant tributary. The quarterly samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a. A bed-sediment sample was collected in each lagoon during August 1999 and was analyzed for organic carbon, iron, and total phosphorus. Seven tributaries were sampled during a February 1999 storm and four during an April 1999 storm. These samples were analyzed only for nutrients. One storm sample collected in April 1999 from a tributary downstream of the I Ranch dairy was analyzed for a suite of 47 compounds indicative of wastewater. Continuous water-level recorders were installed in the most significant tributary and the two largest lagoons for portions of the study. A water budget analysis for an April 2000 storm indicated that the main tributary accounted for 85 percent of surface inflows to Abbotts Lagoon. The portion of the surface inflow from the main tributary was lower in the February 1999 storms and is a function of upstream storage and vegetative growth in the tributary basins. Another water budget analysis for a period of no surface inflow (June and July 2000) indicated that the net ground-water contribution was an outflow (seepage) from Abbotts Lagoon of about 0.3 ft3/s. Salinity increased and nutrient concentrations decreased from upstream to downstream in the chain of lagoons. The lower lagoon, nearest the ocean, had less organic carbon and total phosphorus in the bed sediment than the upper lagoons. The two tributaries originating in the I Ranch dairy had the highest concentrations of nutrients in storm runoff, and the highest loading rates and yields of ammonia and phosphorus. These tributaries account for only 10.3 percent of the area

  18. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  19. [ABACTO-SCREEN: a new system for the rapid screening of bacteriuria. Evaluation of the precision versus the traditional methods and compared with the Abbott MS-2].

    PubMed

    Allocca, F; Campolmi, M; Guarnieri, M; Verdiani, S; Alegente, G

    1987-09-01

    ABACTO-SCREEN is an automated turbidimetric system for rapid screening of bacteriuria composed by a multichannel photometric instrument and an original disposable. In this study the system has shown good sensitivity (6.9% of false negative results on the true positives) and specificity (22.4% of false positive results on the true negatives) when on assuming 100,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml as a threshold of positivity. Comparison with Abbott MS-2 has revealed better performances for sensitivity and comparable specificity. False negatives analysis has revealed probable influence of anaerobic bacteria in the plate counting or slowing in culture broth growth cause by antimicrobial substances in urine samples. PMID:3332379

  20. Evaluation of the platelet counting by Abbott CELL-DYN SAPPHIRE haematology analyser compared with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, E; Del Vecchio, L; Scopacasa, F; Lo Pardo, C; Capone, F; Pariante, S; Scalia, G; De Caterina, M

    2009-04-01

    The Abbot Cell-Dyn Sapphire is a new generation haematology analyser. The system uses optical/fluorescence flow cytometry in combination with electronic impedance to produce a full blood count. Optical and impedance are the default methods for platelet counting while automated CD61-immunoplatelet analysis can be run as selectable test. The aim of this study was to determine the platelet count performance of the three counting methods available on the instrument and to compare the results with those provided by Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer used as reference method. A lipid interference experiment was also performed. Linearity, carryover and precision were good, and satisfactory agreement with reference method was found for the impedance, optical and CD61-immunoplatelet analysis, although this latter provided the closest results in comparison with flow cytometry. In the lipid interference experiment, a moderate inaccuracy of optical and immunoplatelet counts was observed starting from a very high lipid value. PMID:18177435

  1. Long-term response in high-grade optic glioma treated with medically induced hypothyroidism and carboplatin: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ashur-Fabian, Osnat; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Bakon, Mati; Nass, Dvora; Davis, Paul J; Hercbergs, Aleck

    2013-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and frequent brain tumor, with an aggressive growth pattern and poor prognosis despite best treatment modalities. Long-term survival of patients with GBM is rare. Optic glioma represents 0.6-1.2% of all brain tumors. Unlike low-grade optic gliomas in children, optic gliomas in adults are highly aggressive and death usually occurs in less than a year. Prolonged progression-free survival and survival rates have been reported in association with induced hypothyroidism in two clinical trials for recurrent GBM. We present the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings in a patient with inoperable GBM of the optic chiasm. Following failure of initial, standard radiation and temozolomide therapy, chemical hypothyroidism was induced using the antithyroid thioamide, propylthiouracil, followed by carboplatin chemotherapy. Initial thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 analysis was carried out and then monthly. This patient responded rapidly to treatment (clinically and with tumor regression within 4 weeks) on two separate occasions with an extended remission period (2.5 years) and prolonged overall survival (4.5 years). We report the successful long-term tumor response to medically induced chemical hypothyroidism in conjunction with carboplatinum chemotherapy of an adult patient with grade IV GBM of the optic chiasm. These clinical observations find mechanistic support from the recent identification of potent mitogenic actions of the thyroid hormone, L-thyroxine, in malignant glioma through binding to a cognate thyroid hormone receptor on the αvβ3 integrin. Approaches to block its activity are now explored in preclinical studies. PMID:23348245

  2. Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Michael; Ghadyani, Hamid; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Turner, Wes; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-08-01

    Multimodal approaches that combine near-infrared (NIR) and conventional imaging modalities have been shown to improve optical parameter estimation dramatically and thus represent a prevailing trend in NIR imaging. These approaches typically involve applying anatomical templates from magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/ultrasound images to guide the recovery of optical parameters. However, merging these data sets using current technology requires multiple software packages, substantial expertise, significant time-commitment, and often results in unacceptably poor mesh quality for optical image reconstruction, a reality that represents a significant roadblock for translational research of multimodal NIR imaging. This work addresses these challenges directly by introducing automated digital imaging and communications in medicine image stack segmentation and a new one-click three-dimensional mesh generator optimized for multimodal NIR imaging, and combining these capabilities into a single software package (available for free download) with a streamlined workflow. Image processing time and mesh quality benchmarks were examined for four common multimodal NIR use-cases (breast, brain, pancreas, and small animal) and were compared to a commercial image processing package. Applying these tools resulted in a fivefold decrease in image processing time and 62% improvement in minimum mesh quality, in the absence of extra mesh postprocessing. These capabilities represent a significant step toward enabling translational multimodal NIR research for both expert and nonexpert users in an open-source platform.

  3. Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Hamid; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Turner, Wes; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Multimodal approaches that combine near-infrared (NIR) and conventional imaging modalities have been shown to improve optical parameter estimation dramatically and thus represent a prevailing trend in NIR imaging. These approaches typically involve applying anatomical templates from magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/ultrasound images to guide the recovery of optical parameters. However, merging these data sets using current technology requires multiple software packages, substantial expertise, significant time-commitment, and often results in unacceptably poor mesh quality for optical image reconstruction, a reality that represents a significant roadblock for translational research of multimodal NIR imaging. This work addresses these challenges directly by introducing automated digital imaging and communications in medicine image stack segmentation and a new one-click three-dimensional mesh generator optimized for multimodal NIR imaging, and combining these capabilities into a single software package (available for free download) with a streamlined workflow. Image processing time and mesh quality benchmarks were examined for four common multimodal NIR use-cases (breast, brain, pancreas, and small animal) and were compared to a commercial image processing package. Applying these tools resulted in a fivefold decrease in image processing time and 62% improvement in minimum mesh quality, in the absence of extra mesh postprocessing. These capabilities represent a significant step toward enabling translational multimodal NIR research for both expert and nonexpert users in an open-source platform. PMID:23942632

  4. Medical diagnosis system and method with multispectral imaging. [depth of burns and optical density of the skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Reilly, T. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A skin diagnosis system includes a scanning and optical arrangement whereby light reflected from each incremental area (pixel) of the skin is directed simultaneously to three separate light filters, e.g., IR, red, and green. As a result, the three devices simultaneously produce three signals which are directly related to the reflectance of light of different wavelengths from the corresponding pixel. These three signals for each pixel after processing are used as inputs to one or more output devices to produce a visual color display and/or a hard copy color print, for one usable as a diagnostic aid by a physician.

  5. Comparison of the BD Directigen Flu A+B Kit and the Abbott TestPack RSV with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA for rapid detection of influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Gröndahl, B; Puppe, W; Weigl, J; Schmitt, H-J

    2005-10-01

    The Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and the Abbott TestPack RSV enzyme immunoassay were each compared with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA by testing 635 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged < 16 years who had been hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infection during the epidemic season 2002-2003. In this study, the sensitivity of the Directigen Flu A+B assay was unacceptably low (29.3% and 10.0%, respectively) for the detection of influenza A and B viruses. The sensitivity of the Abbott TestPack RSV assay (77.4%) was acceptable and in agreement with the multiplex RT-PCR ELISA. PMID:16153263

  6. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations. PMID:23542765

  7. Optical Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  8. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Royle, G; Blue, A; Liang, H X; Clark, A; Prydderch, M; Turchetta, R; Speller, R

    2007-12-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525 x 525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25 x 25 microm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10(5) electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 microm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at approximately 0.44 microC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a: Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled

  9. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-12-15

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 {mu}m pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10{sup 5} electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 {mu}m, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at {approx}0.44 {mu}C/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to

  10. Ultrahigh Frequency (100 MHz–300 MHz) Ultrasonic Transducers for Optical Resolution Medical Imagining

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chunlong; Chiu, Chi Tat; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Zeyu; Ma, Jianguo; Zhu, Benpeng; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    High resolution ultrasonic imaging requires high frequency wide band ultrasonic transducers, which produce short pulses and highly focused beam. However, currently the frequency of ultrasonic transducers is limited to below 100 MHz, mainly because of the challenge in precise control of fabrication parameters. This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of sensitive broadband lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single element ultrasonic transducers in the range of 100–300 MHz, as well as their applications in high resolution imaging. All transducers were built for an f-number close to 1.0, which was achieved by press-focusing the piezoelectric layer into a spherical curvature. Characterization results demonstrated their high sensitivity and a −6 dB bandwidth greater than 40%. Resolutions better than 6.4 μm in the lateral direction and 6.2 μm in the axial direction were achieved by scanning a 4 μm tungsten wire target. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy images of zebrafish eyes were obtained with these transducers which demonstrate the feasibility of high resolution imaging with a performance comparable to optical resolution. PMID:27329379

  11. Ultrahigh Frequency (100 MHz–300 MHz) Ultrasonic Transducers for Optical Resolution Medical Imagining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Chunlong; Chiu, Chi Tat; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Zeyu; Ma, Jianguo; Zhu, Benpeng; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-06-01

    High resolution ultrasonic imaging requires high frequency wide band ultrasonic transducers, which produce short pulses and highly focused beam. However, currently the frequency of ultrasonic transducers is limited to below 100 MHz, mainly because of the challenge in precise control of fabrication parameters. This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of sensitive broadband lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single element ultrasonic transducers in the range of 100–300 MHz, as well as their applications in high resolution imaging. All transducers were built for an f-number close to 1.0, which was achieved by press-focusing the piezoelectric layer into a spherical curvature. Characterization results demonstrated their high sensitivity and a ‑6 dB bandwidth greater than 40%. Resolutions better than 6.4 μm in the lateral direction and 6.2 μm in the axial direction were achieved by scanning a 4 μm tungsten wire target. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy images of zebrafish eyes were obtained with these transducers which demonstrate the feasibility of high resolution imaging with a performance comparable to optical resolution.

  12. Ultrahigh Frequency (100 MHz-300 MHz) Ultrasonic Transducers for Optical Resolution Medical Imagining.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chunlong; Chiu, Chi Tat; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Zeyu; Ma, Jianguo; Zhu, Benpeng; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    High resolution ultrasonic imaging requires high frequency wide band ultrasonic transducers, which produce short pulses and highly focused beam. However, currently the frequency of ultrasonic transducers is limited to below 100 MHz, mainly because of the challenge in precise control of fabrication parameters. This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of sensitive broadband lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single element ultrasonic transducers in the range of 100-300 MHz, as well as their applications in high resolution imaging. All transducers were built for an f-number close to 1.0, which was achieved by press-focusing the piezoelectric layer into a spherical curvature. Characterization results demonstrated their high sensitivity and a -6 dB bandwidth greater than 40%. Resolutions better than 6.4 μm in the lateral direction and 6.2 μm in the axial direction were achieved by scanning a 4 μm tungsten wire target. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy images of zebrafish eyes were obtained with these transducers which demonstrate the feasibility of high resolution imaging with a performance comparable to optical resolution. PMID:27329379

  13. Evaluation of imaging performance of a taper optics CCD; FReLoN' camera designed for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Coan, Paola; Peterzol, Angela; Fiedler, Stefan; Ponchut, Cyril; Labiche, Jean Claude; Bravin, Alberto

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the imaging performance of an indirect conversion detector (taper optics CCD; FReLoN' camera) in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Measurements were made with a synchrotron radiation laminar beam at various monochromatic energies in the 20-51.5 keV range for a gadolinium-based fluorescent screen varying in thickness; data acquisition and analysis were made by adapting to this beam geometry protocols used for conventional cone beams. The pre-sampled MTFs of the systems were measured using an edge method. The NNPS of the systems were determined for a range of exposure levels by two-dimensional Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed radiographs. The DQEs were assessed from the measured MTF, NNPS, exposure and incoming number of photons. The MTF, for a given screen, was found to be almost energy independent and, for a given energy, higher for the thinnest screen. At 33 keV and for the 40 (100) microm screen, at 10% the MTF is 9.2 (8.6) line-pairs mm(-1). The NNPS was found to be different in the two analyzed directions in relation to frequency. Highest DQE values were found for the combination 100 microm and 25 keV (0.5); it was still equal to 0.4 at 51.5 keV (above the gadolinium K-edge). The DQE is limited by the phosphor screen conversion yield and by the CCD efficiency. At the end of the manuscript the results of the FReLoN characterization and those from a selected number of detectors presented in the literature are compared. PMID:16645252

  14. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle navigation Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications ( ...

  15. Influence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) on the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of formulations for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable medical disposables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shamshad; Mehmood, Mazhar; Iqbal, Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Shelf life of the formulations designed for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable syringes and other medical disposables is a very important issue world over. Radiation compatible formulations were developed earlier in the laboratory by the incorporation of primary and secondary antioxidants along with processing stabilizers in a random polypropylene copolymer. It has been reported in literature that the mobilizing agents namely hydrocarbons, greases, wax and the plasticizer, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) impart radiation resistance to the polypropylene by providing free volume. It was envisaged that the addition of DOP to the afore-mentioned formulation might favorably influence the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of our formulation. To study the influence of addition of DOP on the afore-mentioned properties, the addition of 1%, 2% and 3% of the mobilizer was made, followed by the irradiation of resulting heat pressed sheets to the industrial standard dose of 25 kGy. Two important characteristic mechanical properties to determine the suitability of the radiation sterilized materials comprise angle of breakage and the haze percent. After irradiation and even on accelerated ageing of the irradiated material, the angle of breakage of heat press sheets of formulations containing 1%, 2% and 3% of DOP was found to be 180°, demonstrating the role of DOP, in imparting additional radiation stability. In case of the irradiated control sample, the angle of breakage was much lower. In the heat pressed sheets containing the DOP, a remarkable retention in the tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, along with improved thermal stability was observed. The formulation devoid of DOP demonstrated poor retention of the afore-mentioned characteristic properties .The observed improvement in thermal stability of the formulations containing DOP hints at the likely possibility of reuse of these materials by autoclaving which is considered an additional

  16. Quantitative assessment of the stent/scaffold strut embedment analysis by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Sotomi, Yohei; Tateishi, Hiroki; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Dijkstra, Jouke; Eggermont, Jeroen; Liu, Shengnan; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Zheng, Yaping; Abdelghani, Mohammad; Cavalcante, Rafael; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    The degree of stent/scaffold embedment could be a surrogate parameter of the vessel wall-stent/scaffold interaction and could have biological implications in the vascular response. We have developed a new specific software for the quantitative evaluation of embedment of struts by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the present study, we described the algorithm of the embedment analysis and its reproducibility. The degree of embedment was evaluated as the ratio of the embedded part versus the whole strut height and subdivided into quartiles. The agreement and the inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were evaluated using the kappa and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A total of 4 pullbacks of OCT images in 4 randomly selected coronary lesions with 3.0 × 18 mm devices [2 lesions with Absorb BVS and 2 lesions with XIENCE (both from Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA)] from Absorb Japan trial were evaluated by two investigators with QCU-CMS software version 4.69 (Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands). Finally, 1481 polymeric struts in 174 cross-sections and 1415 metallic struts in 161 cross-sections were analyzed. Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of quantitative measurements of embedment ratio and categorical assessment of embedment in Absorb BVS and XIENCE had excellent agreement with ICC ranging from 0.958 to 0.999 and kappa ranging from 0.850 to 0.980. The newly developed embedment software showed excellent reproducibility. Computer-assisted embedment analysis could be a feasible tool to assess the strut penetration into the vessel wall that could be a surrogate of acute injury caused by implantation of devices. PMID:26898315

  17. In vitro diagnostic company recalls and medical laboratory practices: an Italian case

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In vitro human diagnostic (IVD) company recalls are a common practice aimed to either minimize a potential error or eliminate an existing failure. In this case report, we aim to provide a critical analysis of a recent IVD recall and to provide a practical framework about what to do when an IVD company recalls product(s) based on the International Organization for Standardization - ISO 15189:2012 standard. Case report In 2014, Abbott Laboratories® (Green Oaks, IL) published an urgent field safety notice regarding a product recall (Architect Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) Assay List Number 8K25) with immediate action required. The IVD company explained the reasons for the recall as follows: i) Abbott has confirmed that a performance shift in the Architect Intact PTH assay has the potential to generate falsely elevated results on patient samples; ii) results generated with impacted lots may demonstrate a positive shift relative to those generated with previous reagent and/or calibrator lots. This issue may also impact established Architect Intact PTH reference ranges; iii) the magnitude of shift averages approximately 13% to 45%; iv) Abbott Architect Intact PTH controls do not detect the shift; and v) all current reagent, calibrator, and control inventory are impacted. The recall could have resulted in ~40,000 inaccurate laboratory tests reported by 18 laboratories from Italy (Lombardy region). Conclusion IVD company recalls have a serious impact on the patient safety and require a thorough investigation and responsible approach to minimize the possible damage. Medical laboratories accredited according to the ISO 15189 standard have procedures in place to manage such situations and ensure that patient safety is maintained when such recalls are issued. PMID:26110040

  18. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment or software that is connected to their computer. However, technological advances have changed the way medical ... this section Medical transcriptionists must be comfortable using computers. Medical transcriptionists typically need postsecondary education. Prospective medical ...

  19. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this page, ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten ...

  20. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800, Beckman Coulter LH 780, and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on adult specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new Beckman Coulter DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) and Beckman Coulter LH 780 hematology analyzers using 430 adult specimens. The DxH 800 provided a CBC and differential that correlated well with those of the Sapphire and LH 780, with most parameters showing correlation coefficients (r) of more than 0.97. In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, all 3 instruments showed similar and acceptable accuracy to the reference method except for nucleated RBC (NRBC) enumeration, in which the DxH 800 and Sapphire outperformed the LH 780. We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the DxH 800 were 77.0%, 87.1%, and 73.0%, respectively, compared with the Sapphire at 75.8%, 93.5%, and 68.8%, respectively, and LH 780 at 66.1%, 93.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. PMID:21571967

  1. Abbott Preschool: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Laura Fasbach

    2009-01-01

    When New Jersey set out to level the educational playing field between the state's poorest and wealthiest school districts a decade ago, one of the mission's most important components was ensuring teacher quality met the same high standards regardless of zip code. Research shows, a teacher's own education and training in early childhood education…

  2. Abbott, Francis (1799-1883)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Watchmaker, born in Derby, England, convict, transported to Tasmania in 1845. He made astronomical observations at the Rossbank Observatory after the end of his sentence until its closure in 1854 and in his private laboratory in Hobart....

  3. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse®, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about −7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status. PMID:23232795

  4. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Moinuddin Ilev, Ilko

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  5. Mercury contamination from mine and natural sources in Harley Gulch, downstream from the Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury Mines, Lake County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hothem, R. L.; Rytuba, J. J.; Goldstein, D.; Brussee, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury (Hg) mine area in central California has released Hg tailings into the Harley Gulch watershed since 1862. Harley Gulch flows into Cache Creek which is a significant source of Hg into San Francisco Bay Delta. Thermal mine water effluent emanating from the Turkey Run adit flows into the upper part of the watershed. Despite remediation efforts, Hg tailings and enriched sediment remain in the Harley Gulch wetlands and in the creek downstream from the mine area. Water, sediment, and biota have been sampled from below the mine area to 15 km downstream to the confluence with Cache Creek in order to assess the impact of Hg on water quality and biota. Two previously unrecognized natural sources of Hg in the watershed are connate groundwater with elevated levels of Hg, and biogenic sediment composed of phytoplankton that accumulates in the upper part of the watershed during the dry season. The connate groundwater source contains isotopically-heavy Mg-Ca-Cl-CO3-SO4 water that has elevated concentrations of Ba, W, Ti, and Hg. This water first enters Harley Gulch in the central part of the wetland immediately downstream from the mine area and continues to contribute water downstream for a distance of 1.5 km. It is both chemically and isotopically distinct from the thermal mine water effluent from the Turkey Run adit. The biogenic source consists of blooms of phytoplankton that accumulate to a thickness of up to 0.2 m. Phytoplankton have a large bioaccumulation factor of Hg and monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) that results in a high concentrations of Hg and MMeHg (Hg: 5-25 μg/g, MMeHg 5.2 ng/g) in the biogenic sediment. The tan biogenic sediment at the surface consists of living diatoms and below it is a layer of black reduced biogenic sediment consisting of diatom fragments with micron- to submicron-sized FeS, HgS, and barite grains. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate to sulfide in the pore waters of the biogenic sediment that reacts with

  6. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possession of marijuana is illegal under federal law. Medical marijuana refers to using marijuana to treat certain medical ... Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten Taken as a liquid extract Marijuana leaves and buds contain substances ...

  7. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  8. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... The pregnancy is harmful to the woman's health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  9. Evaluation of 3 automated real-time PCR (Xpert C. difficile assay, BD MAX Cdiff, and IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 assay) for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin gene compared to toxigenic culture in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaeeun; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the performance of the 3 automated systems (Cepheid Xpert, BD MAX, and IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000) detecting Clostridium difficile toxin gene compared to toxigenic culture. Of the 254 stool specimens tested, 87 (48 slight, 35 moderate, and 4 heavy growth) were toxigenic culture positive. The overall sensitivities and specificities were 82.8% and 98.8% for Xpert, 81.6% and 95.8% for BD MAX, and 62.1% and 99.4% for IMDx, respectively. The specificity was significantly higher in IMDx than BD MAX (P= 0.03). All stool samples underwent toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay testing, and of the 254 samples, only 29 samples were positive and 2 of them were toxigenic culture negative. Considering the rapidity and high specificity of the real-time PCR assays compared to the toxigenic culture, they can be used as the first test method for C. difficile infection/colonization. PMID:26081240

  10. Medical laser system WOLF-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Leszek; Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Szydlak, Jerzy; Nowakowski, Wlodzimierz

    2000-11-01

    In CDTL PL a set of lasers was installed with irradiation connected to treatment and operation rooms by energetic optical fibers. The introduction of irradiation of particular lasers into fiberguides is controlled by the computer. Fiber couplers were installed on the entrance of transmission fiberguides, and they were connected to optical fibers with different end-pieces according to medical needs.

  11. Medication Errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reduce the risk of medication errors to industry and others at FDA. Additionally, DMEPA prospectively reviews ... List of Abbreviations Regulations and Guidances Guidance for Industry: Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication ...

  12. Medical Appointments

    MedlinePlus

    ... trouble concentrating, stomach problems or emotional issues like anxiety. New or increasing side effects or reactions to your medications. Again, for how long? How serious are they? Medication compliance: How well you’ve been taking your medications. Have you missed doses? If so, ...

  13. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  14. Introduction to Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Ashley J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    The first two parts of this book describe various theories associated with light propagation in tissue and the resulting response. If coherence or polarization information is not needed, we assume that the transport equation governs the optical interaction of light with tissue and the heat conduction equation provides the basis for estimating the thermal response of tissue to laser radiation. In part III of this book, the theory for optical and thermal interactions of laser light with tissue are used to analyze medical applications. In particular, the concepts of parts I and II

  15. Infrared optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexhage, Martin G.; Moynihan, Cornelius T.

    1988-11-01

    The development of IR optical fibers for medical, laser, industrial, and telecommunications applications is discussed. IR studies of single and polycrystalline materials, chalcogenide glasses, and heavy-metal fluoride glasses are reviewed. It is suggested that heavy-metal fluoride glasses are the best prospects for obtaining optical losses lower than those in high-quality silica fibers.

  16. Evaluation of Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile Assays for Direct Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sun Mee; Shin, Won Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the performance of four commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs: Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile) for direct and rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxin genes. Methods We compared four NAATs on the same set of 339 stool specimens (303 prospective and 36 retrospective specimens) with toxigenic culture (TC). Results Concordance rate among four NAATs was 90.3% (306/339). Based on TC results, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.9% for Xpert; 86.3% and 89.3% for Max; 84.3% and 94.4% for IMDx; and 82.4% and 93.7% for Illumigene, respectively. For 306 concordant cases, there were 11 TC-negative/NAATs co-positive cases and 6 TC-positive/NAATs co-negative cases. Among 33 discordant cases, 18 were only single positive in each NAAT (Xpert, 1; Max, 12; IMDx, 1; Illumigene, 4). Positivity rates of the four NAATs were associated with those of semi-quantitative cultures, which were maximized in grade 3 (>100 colony-forming unit [CFU]) compared with grade 1 (<10 CFU). Conclusions Commercial NAATs may be rapid and reliable methods for direct detection of tcdA and/or tcdB in stool specimens compared with TC. Some differences in the sensitivity of the NAATs may partly depend on the number of toxigenic C. difficile in stool specimens. PMID:26709260

  17. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800 and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on pediatric and neonatal specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new UniCel DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) using 156 pediatric specimens in Microtainer tubes (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). The CBC and differential showed good interinstrument correlation, including WBCs (r = 0.995), RBCs (r = 0.992), hemoglobin (r = 0.998), mean corpuscular volume (r = 0.988), platelets (r = 0.997), neutrophils (r = 0.988), lymphocytes (r = 0.984), monocytes (r = 0.815), eosinophils (r = 0.840), basophils (r = 0.049), and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs; r = 0.906). In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, the DxH 800 and Sapphire showed comparable performance for nearly all parameters except for NRBCs, for which the DxH 800 correlated better (r = 0.989) than the Sapphire (r = 0.906). We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency of the DxH 800 was 78.0% vs the Sapphire at 68.1%. Both instruments showed identical sensitivity (91.1%), but the specificity for the DxH 800 (71.9%) was higher than that of the Sapphire (57.3%). PMID:21571966

  18. Cardiac Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diovan) What the Medication Does Rather than lowering levels of angiotensin II (as ACE inhibitors do) angiotensin II receptor blockers prevent this chemical from having any effects on the heart and blood vessels. This keeps blood pressure from rising. Reason for Medication Used to treat or improve ...

  19. Medication reviews.

    PubMed

    Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinician conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When 'harder' outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped. PMID:22607195

  20. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Breault, Robert; Wang, Yongtian; Fang, Yi Chin

    2014-10-10

    Optical design and testing has numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging or nonimage optical system may require the integration of optics, mechatronics, lighting technology, optimization, ray tracing, aberration analysis, image processing, tolerance compensation, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, 3D display, solar energy system, opto-mechatronics to novel imaging or nonimage modalities in visible and infrared spectral imaging, modulation transfer function measurement, and innovative interferometry. PMID:25322438

  1. Optical and mechanical design advantages using polymer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doushkina, Valentina; Fleming, Erik

    2009-08-01

    Precision diamond-turned or molded polymer optics are utilized in a wide range of commercial markets and applications including; medical disposables, bar code scan/recognition, security and fingerprint scanners, motion and presence sensors, CCD cameras, laser collimation and others.. The use of polymer optics was previously relegated to less technically challenging applications. Current advancements in polymer technology and injection molding capabilities have increased the manufacturability and precision of polymer optics. Polymer materials with optical properties are being thrust to the design forefront for new, sophisticated electro-optical applications. Designing and manufacturing optics and optical systems using polymers alone or hybrid polymer/glass applications provides complete custom capability and offers new optical and opto-mechanical solutions for a variety of optical and opto-mechanical modules, assemblies and components. Integrated mounting offers configuration flexibility, considerable design freedom, simplified optical alignment, mechanical design, assembly and packaging. The system is assembled, aligned, optically spaced, and sealed in a single manufacturing step.

  2. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  3. A high-field 3He metastability exchange optical pumping polarizer operating in a 1.5 T medical scanner for lung magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, G.; Pałasz, T.; Wojna, A.; Głowacz, B.; Suchanek, M.; Olejniczak, Z.; Dohnalik, T.

    2013-05-01

    After being hyperpolarized using the technique of Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping (MEOP), 3He can be used as a contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEOP is usually performed at low magnetic field (˜1 mT) and low pressure (˜1 mbar), which results in a low magnetization production rate. Polarization preserving compression with a compression ratio of order 1000 is also required. It was demonstrated in sealed cells that high nuclear polarization values can be obtained at higher pressures with MEOP, if performed at high magnetic field (non-standard conditions). In this work, the feasibility of building a high-field polarizer that operates within a commercial 1.5 T scanner was evaluated. Preliminary measurements of nuclear polarization with sealed cells filled at different 3He gas pressures (1.33 to 267 mbar) were performed. The use of an annular shape for the laser beam increased by 25% the achievable nuclear polarization equilibrium value (Meq) at 32 and 67 mbar as compared to a Gaussian beam shape. Meq values of 66.4% and 31% were obtained at 32 and 267 mbar, respectively, and the magnetization production rate was increased by a factor of 10 compared to the best results obtained under standard conditions. To study the reproducibility of the method in a polarizing system, the same experiments were performed with small cells connected to a gas handling system. Despite careful cleaning procedure, the purity of the 3He gas could not be matched to that of the sealed cells. Consequently, the polarization build-up times were approximately 3 times longer in the 20-30 mbar range of pressure than those obtained for the 32 mbar sealed cell. However, reasonable Meq values of 40%-60% were achieved in a 90 ml open cell. Based on these findings, a novel compact polarizing system was designed and built. Its typical output is a 3He gas flow rate of 15 sccm with a polarization of 33%. In-vivo lung MRI ventilation images (Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of

  4. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  5. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  6. Implementation of monoclonal antibody fluorescence on the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser: evaluation of lymphoid, myeloid and platelet markers.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Roemer, B; Flatmoen, L; Just, T; Aarsand, A K; Scott, C S

    2006-04-01

    Apart from qualitative flags, that are typically inefficient and uninformative, haematology instruments provide little meaningful information about lymphocyte populations or the lineage of atypical or immature elements, The CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser uses integrated optical and fluorescence (488 nm) measurements, with FL1 (FITC) and FL2 (PE) detectors being configured for fluorescent analysis. As monoclonal antibodies (Mab) are widely used as cellular probes, and are likely to constitute the future basis for immunodifferentials, we explored the feasibility of implementing immunofluorescence on this routine haematology analyser. An extensive series of Mab (CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD13, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD22, CD33, CD34, CD41, CD42b, CD45, CD56, CD61, CD64, CD235a and HLA-DR) were tested singly or in FITC/PE combinations. Analyser processing and data acquisition was achieved using CD-Sapphire automated CD61 immunoplatelet or CD3/4/8 assay procedures and, apart from mixing EDTA-blood and antibody, no further sample manipulation was required. Downloaded raw files were processed with cytometry software, and all evaluated reagents showed population discrimination analogous to flow cytometry. Practical procedures were straightforward and required minimal operator training. Extended information that can be obtained from monoclonal antibodies with a routine haematology analyser has the potential to extend haematology laboratory practices and positively impact laboratory and clinical efficiency. PMID:16630212

  7. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  8. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  9. Medical migration.

    PubMed

    Loefler, I J

    2001-10-01

    The issue of professional migration, however emotional it may have become, ought not to be regarded in moralizing terms. The history of western medicine is the history of migrating physicians. A doctor who moves from a locality to another to take up a new assignment there cannot be said to have "abandoned his patients". This emotional bond has become the victim of specialization and of depersonalization of medical services and not of medical migration, brain drain or otherwise. The primary reason for medical migration is not financial; the desire to migrate usually begins with the desire to learn. Professionals crave in the first line for professional satisfaction. The migration of medical manpower cannot be stopped with administrative measures and will not be stopped by exhortations and appeals, moralization and condemnations. Brain drain is a global phenomenon and has always been so. A country which loses its professionals, its doctors, should examine the social relationships within the profession and should investigate whether the opportunities for deriving professional satisfaction from everyday work exist or whether these have been thwarted by the hierarchy, conservatism, cronyism and the general lack of comprehension of what good medical care is about. PMID:11593497

  10. Medical Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology. PMID:26065591

  11. Medical Electronics and Physiological Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, T.

    1989-01-01

    Described are developments in medical electronics and physiological measurement. Discussed are electrocardiology, audiology, and urology as mature applications; applied potential tomography, magnetic stimulation of nerves, and laser Doppler flowmetry as new techniques; and optical sensors, ambulatory monitoring, and biosensors as future…

  12. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  13. Medical leasing.

    PubMed

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements. PMID:22594070

  14. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  15. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Nora, J.J.; Fraser, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of medical genetics for the practitioner treating or counseling patients with genetic disease. It includes a discussion of the relationship of heredity and diseases, the chromosomal basis for heredity, gene frequencies, and genetics of development and maldevelopment. The authors also focus on teratology, somatic cell genetics, genetics and cancer, genetics of behavior.

  16. Glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates. PMID:23505792

  17. Intelligent distributed medical image management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.

    1995-05-01

    The rapid advancements in high performance global communication have accelerated cooperative image-based medical services to a new frontier. Traditional image-based medical services such as radiology and diagnostic consultation can now fully utilize multimedia technologies in order to provide novel services, including remote cooperative medical triage, distributed virtual simulation of operations, as well as cross-country collaborative medical research and training. Fast (efficient) and easy (flexible) retrieval of relevant images remains a critical requirement for the provision of remote medical services. This paper describes the database system requirements, identifies technological building blocks for meeting the requirements, and presents a system architecture for our target image database system, MISSION-DBS, which has been designed to fulfill the goals of Project MISSION (medical imaging support via satellite integrated optical network) -- an experimental high performance gigabit satellite communication network with access to remote supercomputing power, medical image databases, and 3D visualization capabilities in addition to medical expertise anywhere and anytime around the country. The MISSION-DBS design employs a synergistic fusion of techniques in distributed databases (DDB) and artificial intelligence (AI) for storing, migrating, accessing, and exploring images. The efficient storage and retrieval of voluminous image information is achieved by integrating DDB modeling and AI techniques for image processing while the flexible retrieval mechanisms are accomplished by combining attribute- based and content-based retrievals.

  18. Ability of Two Commercially Available Assays (Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Version 2.0) To Quantify Low HIV-1 RNA Levels (<1,000 Copies/Milliliter): Comparison with Clinical Samples and NIBSC Working Reagent for Nucleic Acid Testing Assays

    PubMed Central

    Marsella, Patrizia; Bloisi, Maria; Forbici, Federica; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Concordance between molecular assays may be suboptimal at low HIV-1 viremia levels (<1,000 copies/ml); therefore, it may be difficult to define and compare virologic endpoints for successful and failed therapy. We compared two commercial assays (the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/TaqMan HIV-1 version 2.0) for their ability to detect and quantify low viral loads. A comparison was performed using 167 residual clinical samples (with values ranging from “not detected” to 1,000 copies/ml, as measured by the Abbott assay) and the National Institute and Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) HIV-1 RNA working reagent 1 for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) assays (serially diluted to a range from 1 to 1,000 copies/ml). Quantitative results were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot. Concordance with the qualitative results was measured by Cohen's kappa statistic. With clinical samples, the degree of interassay concordance of the qualitative results at a 40-copies/ml HIV-1 RNA threshold was substantial (κ = 0.762); the correlation among the quantified samples was suboptimal (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.728; P < 0.0001); the mean difference of the values between the Roche and Abbott assays was 0.193 log10 copies/ml. Using the HIV-1 RNA working reagent 1 for NAT assays, the results provided by the Roche assay were, on average, 3 times higher than expected, while the Abbott assay showed high accuracy. The Roche assay was highly sensitive, being able to detect a level as low as 3.5 copies/ml HIV-1 RNA with 95% probability. The performance characteristics of each molecular assay should be taken into account when HIV-1 RNA threshold values for “virologic suppression,” “virologic failure,” “persistent low viral loads,” etc., are defined and indicated in the support of clinical decisions. PMID:24671791

  19. Medical tourism.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christie M

    2008-11-01

    Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers. PMID:19061760

  20. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864171

  1. Medical manslaughter.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B

    2013-01-01

    On November 29, 2011 Dr Conrad Murray was sentenced to four years in prison after being convicted of the involuntary manslaughter of Michael Jackson. Expert witness statements indicated that Murray's actions were an "extreme departure from the standard of care", particularly with regard to (1) inappropriately treating insomnia with a surgical anaesthetic (propofol); (2) failing to acquire sufficiently informed consent; (3) administering propofol without the necessary monitoring equipment; (4) delaying contacting the emergency services; and (5) making ineffective resuscitation efforts. Further medical evidence argued that Murray's care of Jackson contained "17 egregious violations", defined as acts that posed a foreseeable danger to the patient's life. These deficiencies, it was stated, constituted gross negligence. Such events might seem remote from daily medical practice in Ireland. However, medical errors resulting in patient death are reported to be unfortunately frequent, even if such fatalities are rarely as dramatic, or as public, as that of Michael Jackson. Medical care is not necessarily straightforward, and any treatment outcome is dependent on clinician skill, the nature of the intervention, and on the pathological condition of the patient. Regardless of these latter two factors, a poor outcome still may occur through physician omissions or the commission of errors or violations. Merry and McCall Smith distinguish between errors and violations on the following basis: (1) errors are not deliberate, and result in unintentional actions and consequences; (2) violations, on the other hand, entail a deliberate deviation from accepted rules or norms. It was alleged that much of Dr Murray's professional conduct in this case fell into the latter category. PMID:23472376

  2. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  3. Medical Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Telemetry is the process whereby physiological or other data is acquired by instruments, translated into radio signals and j sent to a receiving station where the signals are decoded and recorded. Extensively used in I space operations, it is finding new Earth applications, among them transmission of medical data between emergency vehicles and hospitals. For example, transmission of an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital enables a physician to read the telemetered EKG and advise ambulance attendants on emergency procedures. Central Medical Emergency Dispatch (CMED) operates as a regional emergency medical communications center for Cleveland, Ohio and Cuyahoga County. The CMED system includes radio and telephone communications from hospital-to-hospital and from ambulance-to-hospital, but for improved emergency life support CMED sought to add a county-wide telemetry capability. The problem was that there were only eight radio frequencies available for telemetry and there were more than 30 potential users in Cleveland alone. NASA's Lewis Research Center volunteered its expert assistance. The Center's engineers studied the systems of other telemetry using cities, surveyed area hospitals to assure compatibility of telemetry equipment, and advised what types of equipment would be needed in emergency vehicles and at the various hospitals. The Lewis plan suggested that CMED be designated the central coordinating agency for the Cuyahoga County system, monitoring all telemetry frequencies and, when requested, assigning one not in use or one to be used at a sufficient distance that it would create no interference problem.

  4. [Medical writers in medical research].

    PubMed

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-19

    Larger research units often comprise persons of several professions in order to secure a high level of efficiency and quality in the different tasks. In Denmark, employees with special competencies within the field of writing and publication are rarely used in research units. The purpose of this study was to present the advantages and challenges associated with the involvement of medical writers in academic environments. PMID:23952980

  5. Computerized medication administration records decrease medication occurrences.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Hill, J J; Wilson, R G; Nipper, K; Kwon, I W

    1997-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that medication errors occur at a number of locations in the continuum between ordering of drug therapy and administration of the medication. Computer management of patient medication profiles offers the opportunity to enhance communication between pharmacists and nurses, and to decrease medication errors and delays in delivery of therapy. A number of authors have postulated that computerization of medication profiles would enhance medication delivery accuracy and timeliness, but no study has demonstrated this improvement. We report the results of a retrospective analysis undertaken to assess the improvements resulting from sharing a computerized medication record. We used a broader definition of medication occurrences that includes the more traditional definition, and averted errors, delays in delivery of medications and information, and disagreements between pharmacy and nursing medication profiles. We compared medication occurrences reported through an existing internal system between two periods; the first when separate pharmacy and nursing medication records were used, and the second period when a shared medication record was used by pharmacy and nursing. Average medication occurrences per admission decreased from 0.1084 to 0.0658 (p < 0.01). Medication occurrences per dose decreased from 0.0005 to 0.0003 (p < 0.01). The use of a shared medication record by pharmacy and nursing led to a statistically significant decrease in medication occurrences. Information shared between the two professions allowed timely resolution of discrepancies in medication orders, leading to better execution of drug therapy, decreased medication occurrences, and increased efficiency. PMID:10166241

  6. The Optics of Bruising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise Lyngsnes; Skallerud, Bjørn; Langlois, Neil E. I.; Haugen, Olav Anton; Svaasand, Lars Othar

    Forensic medicine is a field of medicine where technology plays an increasingly important role in securing and evaluating evidence in, for example, child abuse cases and cases of domestic violence. Methods from chemistry and biological sciences have found a wide application within forensic medicine. Optical technologies like microscopy are also widely used. Despite this, in vivo or post mortem optical diagnostics by spectroscopy have traditionally not had an important role in clinical or forensic examinations. Forensic medical optics as a field might include all kinds of optical analysis for use within forensic science. This includes everything from microscopic techniques to methods for examination of evidence from a crime scene. This chapter will, however, focus on the use of optical diagnostics for examining skin, with a focus on identification, characterization and age determination of minor traumatic injuries like skin bruises.

  7. [Medical nanodevices].

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    Development of implantable medical nanodevices enables us continuous automatic treatment of patients from inside of their body. Bionic devices, interfacing with neural systems and substituting native functions, such as bionic pacemaker, bionic pressure controller are candidates to miniaturize. For such miniaturization, efforts to reduce size of power supply (e.g., biological fuel cell) and to establish reliable high-throughput, low power telecommunication (e.g., spread spectrum telecommunication) are required. Simple devices such as pacemakers would benefit from miniaturization by lowering invasion and by developing a new usage such as ventricular resynchronization. PMID:16454192

  8. Medical electromechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Y. M.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Osipov, O. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The first part of the article presentsdevices of rehabilitation electromechatronics.As a research work, the author's team has performed sketch and technical developments on this subject, which are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. The second part providesan overview of medical robotic surgery, which is ideal for imperfections removing.It also describes capabilities of the author's team in development of active driveline based "iron" hands.Scalpels never tremble in the iron hands, which are not afraid of the aftershocks and never get tired.They can perform operations during not less than 48 consecutive hours.

  9. Medical clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

  10. Medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.

    1996-09-01

    There are a number of medically related imaging programs at synchrotron facilities around the world. The most advanced of these are the dual energy transvenous coronary angiography imaging programs, which have progressed to human imaging for some years. The NSLS facility will be discussed and patient images from recent sessions from the NSLS and HASYLAB will be presented. The effort at the Photon Factory and Accumulator Ring will also be briefly covered, as well as future plans for the new facilities. Emphasis will be on the new aspects of these imaging programs; this includes imaging with a peripheral venous injection of the iodine contrast agent, imaging at three photon energies, and the potential of a hospital-based compact source. Other medical programs to be discussed, are the multiple energy computed tomography (MECT) project at the NSLS and plans for a MECT program at the ESRF. Recently, experiments performed at the NSLS to image mammography phantoms using monochromatic beam have produced very promising results. This program will be discussed as well as some new results from imaging a phantom using a thin Laue crystal analyzer after the object to eliminate scatter onto the detector. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management. PMID:21642033

  12. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about -7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status.

  13. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  14. Medication Use during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications that are necessary. What Medications Can Cause Birth Defects? We know that taking certain medications during pregnancy ... may visit the FDA Pregnancy Registry website. National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Medications and Birth Defects The Centers ...

  15. The Medical Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The Medical Home KidsHealth > For Parents > The Medical Home Print ... home" for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a ...

  16. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. PMID:27215115

  17. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  18. Medical applications of holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bally, Gert

    1991-11-01

    From the various capabilities of holography for image processing and measuring purposes, holographic interferometric techniques have found more extended application in biological and medical research. Due to their special properties the different methods of holographic interferometry are applied to characteristic fields of biomedical investigations where--similar to nondestructive testing--vibration and deformation analysis is of interest. Features of holographic interferometry, such as the possibility of noncontactive, three-dimensional investigations with a large field-of-depth, are used with advantage. The main applications can be found in basic research e.g., in audiology, dentistry, opthalmology, and experimental orthopedics. Because of the great number of investigations and the variety of medical domains in which these investigations were performed this survey is confined to some characteristic examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review on biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and utilization were not mentioned. As demonstrated by selected examples, the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare--like biomedical research. The term ''Star Wars Medicine'', which becomes an increasingly popular expression for laser applications (including holography) in medicine, characterizes the consequences of this development.

  19. Immunosuppressive Medications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist’s practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease). Toxicities of early immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, stimulated intense investigation for agents with more specificity and less harmful effects. Because the mechanisms of the immune response were better delineated over the past 30 years, this specialty is now bestowed with a multitude of therapeutic options that have reduced rejection rates and improved graft survival in kidney transplantation, provided alternatives to cytotoxic therapy in immune-mediated diseases, and opened new opportunities for intervention in diseases both common (AKI) and rare (atypical hemolytic syndrome). Rather than summarizing clinical indications and clinical trials for all currently available immunosuppressive medications, the purpose of this review is to place these agents into mechanistic context together with a brief discussion of unique features of development and use that are of interest to the nephrologist. PMID:26170177

  20. Medical muddle.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis. PMID:24400630

  1. Immunosuppressive Medications.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist's practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease). Toxicities of early immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, stimulated intense investigation for agents with more specificity and less harmful effects. Because the mechanisms of the immune response were better delineated over the past 30 years, this specialty is now bestowed with a multitude of therapeutic options that have reduced rejection rates and improved graft survival in kidney transplantation, provided alternatives to cytotoxic therapy in immune-mediated diseases, and opened new opportunities for intervention in diseases both common (AKI) and rare (atypical hemolytic syndrome). Rather than summarizing clinical indications and clinical trials for all currently available immunosuppressive medications, the purpose of this review is to place these agents into mechanistic context together with a brief discussion of unique features of development and use that are of interest to the nephrologist. PMID:26170177

  2. Medical Surveillance Requirements For Nonionizing Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, James A.

    1980-10-01

    The potential value of medical surveillance examinations for laser workers and other workers potentially exposed to high intensity optical radiation is evaluated. A review of the known adverse biological effects leads to the conclusion that most effects are related to acute and subacute exposures which do not lend themselves to effective medical surveillance. In addition, surveys of thousands of laser workers conducted since 1965 demonstrated that routine periodic medical surveillance has been unnecessary and/or impractical using currently available ophthalmic screening methods. Examination techniques to detect early changes in cataract formation or retinal degeneration (two potential chronic effects of optical radiation) are not sufficiently reliable or specific to be of value as routine screening tests. Epidemiologic studies of large worker groups are suggested to evaluate the potential for these chronic conditions to develop as the result of job exposure; however, specific recommendations for routine medical surveillance are limited to preplacement and termination examinations with appropriate evaluation of individuals following acute injury.

  3. Medical marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Michael

    1991-08-01

    Solid state lasers are the real highlight of my talk today, and were really the star of the year. In every application area I can think of, people have tried with some success to introduce corturiercial solid state products. I'll go into more detail, but aside from solid state, a very significant event happened in Deceniber when one of the laser angioplasty companies (Advanced Interventional Systens) received FDA clearance to begin marketing the excimer for coronary applications (Figure 1) . This is the first time to my knowledge that an excimer has ever been cleared for a medical application in the United States. It's an event that we didn't really expect to happen so soon. It's extremely significant and we'll see where it goes from here. The system needs to be road-tested a bit but to get past the FDA is the major obstacle. Looking back to solid state laser the importance of solid state lasers is as researchers become more involved with the excimer and conduct more clinical studies in ophthalmology, they realize that it's not going to be a panacea for all refractive surgery or other ophthalmolic applications. In many cases it looks like the solid state laser may be the laser of choice in certain types of surgery; most notably perhaps in refractive surgery. We've all read about the success of the excimer at least in capturing the press's attention for corneal sculpting and vision correction. Well, it could be that actually the next generation will be a solid state laser, so let's keep an open mind here.

  4. "Medical bookmarks--a virtual medical library".

    PubMed

    Vassallo, D J; Rowe, M

    2002-06-01

    How does one go about finding specific medical information on the internet? Medical Bookmarks is the name of an easily remembered website (http://www.medical-bookmarks.org.uk) set up as a virtual library by the librarian at the Royal Hospital Haslar. It is specifically designed to give easy access to all the important medical sites on the internet, doing away with the need to remember the exact addresses of other websites, and as such it is relevant to civilian and military doctors in both industrialised and developing nations. It also interlinks sites of particular relevance to military doctors, including military medical sites and a NATO Defence Medical Services site. PMID:12174565

  5. NOVELTIES IN MEDICAL TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA.

    PubMed

    Cornel, Stefan; Mihaela, Timaru Cristina; Adriana, Iliescu Daniela; Mehdi, Batras; Algerino, De Simone

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the current medical treatment and the new and better alternatives for patients with glaucoma. Glaucoma refers to a group of related eye disorders that have in common an optic neuropathy associated with visual function loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Glaucoma can damage vision gradually so it may not be noticed until the disease is at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can minimize or prevent optic nerve damage and limit glaucoma-related vision loss. Nowadays, research continues for the improvement of current medical treatment. PMID:26978866

  6. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other common upper respiratory tract infections Multiple sclerosis ... have optic neuritis without a disease such as multiple sclerosis have a good chance of recovery. Optic neuritis ...

  7. Accuracy of optical navigation systems for automatic head surgery: optical tracking versus optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Díaz, Jesús; Riva, Mauro H.; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    The choice of a navigation system highly depends on the medical intervention and its accuracy demands. The most commonly used systems for image guided surgery (IGS) are based on optical and magnetic tracking systems. This paper compares two optical systems in terms of accuracy: state of the art triangulation-based optical tracking (OT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We use an experimental setup with a combined OCT and cutting laser, and an external OT. We simulate a robotic assisted surgical intervention, including planning, navigation, and processing, and compare the accuracies reached at a specific target with each navigation system.

  8. 75 FR 81282 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... premarket approval application (PMA)) or reclassify to class II (subject to premarket notification (510(k... PMA supplement for the RX Acculink Carotid Stent System, sponsored by Abbott Vascular. The RX...

  9. 76 FR 47210 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of January 30, 1998 (63 FR 4571), FDA published a final.... P070015 (S54) FDA-2011-M-0431. Abbott Vascular....... Xience nano everolimus-eluting May 24,...

  10. Impact of medical informatics on medical education.

    PubMed

    Hou, S M

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, medical informatics has become a well-recognized branch of medicine. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines information technology and various specialties of medicine. The impact of medical informatics on medical education is advancing along with the rapid developments in computer science. Departments of medical informatics or similar divisions have appeared in schools of medicine in Taiwan in the past 5 years. At National Taiwan University College of Medicine, we offer curricula in basic computer concepts, network concepts, operating systems, word processing, database and data processing, computer media resources, multimedia computer statistics, intelligent health information systems, medical diagnostic support systems, and electronic medical record systems. Distance learning has also been favorably accepted on this campus. Recently, we proposed the concept of a virtual medical campus, which will break the physical barriers of time and space. We expect this revolution to influence every aspect of medicine, especially medical education. PMID:10705693

  11. Medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, L.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing, yet there are still too many occasions when the answer obtainable from a plain radiograph has not been available. The film may have been mislaid, or the examination was not requested, or the radiograph had been misinterpreted. The converse is also quite common. Examinations are performed that add nothing to patient management, such as skull films when CT will in any case be requested or views of the internal auditory meatus and heal pad thickness in acromegaly, to quote some examples. Other issues are more complicated. Should the patient who clinically has gall-bladder disease have more than a plain film that shows gall-stones? If the answer is yes, then why request a plain film if sonography will in any case be required to 'exclude' other pathologies especially of the liver or pancreas? But then should cholecystography, CT or scintigraphy be added for confirmation? Quite clearly there will be individual circumstances to indicate further imaging after sonography but in the vast majority of patients little or no extra information will be added. Statistics on accuracy and specificity will, in the case of gall-bladder pathology, vary widely if adenomyomatosis is considered by some to be a cause of symptoms or if sonographic examinations 'after fatty meals' are performed. The arguments for or against routine contrast urography rather than sonography are similar but the possibility of contrast reactions and the need to limit ionizing radiation must be borne in mind. These diagnostic strategies are also being influenced by their cost and availability; purely pragmatic considerations are not

  12. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will be able to find. Medical identification products can help ensure proper treatment in an ...

  13. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asthma: Associated Conditions Asthma and Pregnancy Asthma Medications Asthma Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  14. Achromatic and Uncoupled Medical Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.

    One of the functions of a medical gantry is to irradiate a tumor from different angles to reduce the dose received by the healthy tissue which surrounds the tumor. The rotation of the gantry rotates also its quadrupoles that focus the beam, as a result the beam is "coupled" in the sense that the horizontal motion of the beam particles is affected by the vertical motion and vice-versa therefore the beam spot size at the tumor may vary with the angular orientation of the gantry. Although such a beam-coupling is inevitable in a rotated gantry in which the horizontal plane is not the symmetry plane of the quadrupoles, it is possible to find a solution that the optics of the gantry"appears uncoupled" at any angular orientation of the gantry. As we show in the paper, the condition of an uncoupled gantry is equivalent to an uncoupled linear-beam-transport-matrix which is independent of the angular orientation of the gantry, therefore the beam spot size at the location of the tumor is independent of the orientation of the gantry. In this paper we present the theoretical basis to generate the beam optics for a gantry which is constrained to provide uncoupled and also achromatic beamtransport to the location of the tumor. In addition we present the layout of the magnetic elements and the optics of a medical gantrywhich satisfies the achromaticity and uncoupled conditions.

  15. Medical photogrammetric measurement: overview and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, H. L.; Newton, I.

    Since the earliest days of photogrammetry, there have been photogrammetrists who have directed research effort towards medical measurement. Although the specific motivation for these studies has not always been disclosed, it is probably because of the various benefits that photogrammetry can offer to humanity as a painless and non-invasive means of providing medical practitioners with spatial measurement relating to the human body. The intention of this paper is to reflect on the place of the many medical developments within the photogrammetric world. The various photogrammetric applications in medicine are summarised to identify the characteristics of medical photogrammetry, and it becomes evident that medical photogrammetrists have developed a range of body measurements using widely varying photogrammetric techniques, in response to the demands for specialised spatial measurement tools for a wide variety of medical ends. This volume of research activity has made medical measurement a substantial and varied sector of non-mapping photogrammetry. It is also clear that there are numerous challenges to the design of medical photogrammetric systems. They must give paramount consideration to the human patients and their comfort; they must yield not simply spatial data about the body but rather specific medical information. At the same time, it is of concern that non-photogrammetric scientists and engineers have developed medical measurement systems based on both photogrammetric and other optical techniques. Fortunately, photogrammetrists can also contribute to medical problems through their spatial data experiences. It is concluded that the many distinctive challenges mean that medical photogrammetry has not yet been as successful at changing the world as the extensive efforts applied to it suggest, but nevertheless, medical photogrammetry deserves to be recognised as a category of close range photogrammetry which remains a valuable pursuit which should not be abandoned

  16. Optical microspectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  17. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  18. Progress in optics. Volume 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, E.

    Among the topics discussed are: optical and electronic processing of medical images; quantum fluctuations in vision; and spectral and temporal fluctuations of broad-band laser radiation. Consideration is also given to: holographic methods of plasma diagnostics; fringe formations in deformation and vibration measurements using laser light; a systems approach to wave propagation in random media; and the interaction of radiation with a rough surface immersed in a random medium. A glossary of symbols and useful formulas for practical optics problems is given.

  19. Schlieren metrology for high frequency medical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zanelli, Claudio I; Howard, Samuel M

    2006-12-22

    The increased use of medical ultrasound above 40 MHz poses the challenge of measuring beam features that may be less than 40 microm. We have successfully used the optical Schlieren technique for transducers operating as high as 110 MHz. After a brief discussion of the technique, results are presented, including comparisons to state-of-the-art hydrophones and wire targets. PMID:16949117

  20. The Medical Passport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ineson, Sue; Seeling, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A Working Group on Medical Passports was established in 2002 by the International Association of Medical Regulatory Authorities. The goal of this group was to develop a fast-track registration process for highly qualified medical practitioners wishing to move from one jurisdiction to another. A "medical passport" would be available only to…

  1. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  2. STS-3 medical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The medical operations report for STS-3, which includes a review of the health of the crew before, during, and immediately after the third Shuttle orbital flight is presented. Areas reviewed include: health evaluation, medical debriefing of crewmembers, health stabilization program, medical training, medical 'kit' carried in flight, tests and countermeasures for space motion sickness, cardiovascular profile, biochemistry and endocrinology results, hematology and immunology analyses, medical microbiology, food and nutrition, potable water, shuttle toxicology, radiological health, and cabin acoustic noise. Environmental effects of shuttle launch and landing medical information management, and management, planning, and implementation of the medical program are also dicussed.

  3. Optical to optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Vohl, P.; Nisenson, P.

    1972-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and testing of a preliminary model of an optical-to-optical (noncoherent-to-coherent) interface device for use in coherent optical parallel processing systems are described. The developed device demonstrates a capability for accepting as an input a scene illuminated by a noncoherent radiation source and providing as an output a coherent light beam spatially modulated to represent the original noncoherent scene. The converter device developed under this contract employs a Pockels readout optical modulator (PROM). This is a photosensitive electro-optic element which can sense and electrostatically store optical images. The stored images can be simultaneously or subsequently readout optically by utilizing the electrostatic storage pattern to control an electro-optic light modulating property of the PROM. The readout process is parallel as no scanning mechanism is required. The PROM provides the functions of optical image sensing, modulation, and storage in a single active material.

  4. Rethinking the medical in the medical humanities.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Desmond; Jenkins, Elinor; Mawhinney, Rebecca; Cosgrave, Ellen; O'Mahony, Sarah; Guest, Clare; Moss, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    To clinicians there are a number of striking features of the ever-evolving field of the medical humanities. The first is a perception of a predominantly unidirectional relationship between medicine and the humanities, generally in terms of what the arts and humanities have to offer medicine. The second is the portrayal of medical practice in terms of problems and negativities for which the medical humanities are seen to pose the solution rather than viewing medicine as an active and positive contributor to an interdisciplinary project. Paradigms that fail to recognise the contributions of medicine and its practitioners (including students) to the medical humanities, this paper argues, will continue to struggle with definition and acceptance. This paper explores the possibilities for advancing the medical humanities through recognition of the contribution of medicine to the humanities and the importance of engaging with the arts, culture and leisure pursuits of doctors and medical students. Our research shows the richness of cultural engagement of medical students, their broad range of cultural interests and their ability to contribute to research and scholarship in the medical humanities. Mutual recognition of strengths, weaknesses and differences of scholarly approach is critical to successful development of the enterprise. Recognising and building on the interests, sympathies and contributions of medicine and its practitioners to the medical humanities is a fundamental component of this task. Future directions might include introductory courses for humanities scholars in aspects of healthcare and medicine. PMID:26944516

  5. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  6. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  7. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  8. Optical keyboard

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  9. Optical properties of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Ilyasov, Ildar K.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.

    1995-01-01

    Optical properties of human hair are the subject of great interest for the realization of any possible cosmetic applications. This paper represents the results of hair microstructure as an optical substance investigation, indicates melanin and keratin absorption spectra, and shows experimentally discovered anisotropia of optical properties of human hair. Radiation weakening coefficient value at the range from 450 up to 800 nm is estimated. Thresholds of hair destruction by Nd, Ho, Cu, and Er laser radiation are obtained. Perspectives of laser application for epilation and other medical purposes are evaluated.

  10. Systemic corticosteroids in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Zhang, Jason; Spitze, Arielle; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most prevalent optic nerve disorders seen in ophthalmic practice. The role of corticosteroid therapy in NAION remains a highly controversial area of debate in ophthalmology. This brief review will provide an overview of the current clinical evidence on this topic as well as some comment on the medical debate. PMID:25449939

  11. Medical narratives in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Tange, H J; Hasman, A; de Vries Robbé, P F; Schouten, H C

    1997-08-01

    In this article, we describe the state of the art and directions of current development and research with respect to the inclusion of medical narratives in electronic medical-record systems. We used information about 20 electronic medical-record systems as presented in the literature. We divided these systems into 'classical' systems that matured before 1990 and are now used in a broad range of medical domains, and 'experimental' systems, more recently developed and, in general, more innovative. In the literature, three major challenges were addressed: facilitation of direct data entry, achieving unambiguous understandability of data, and improvement of data presentation. Promising approaches to tackle the first and second challenge are the use of dynamic data-entry forms that anticipate sensible input, and free-text data entry followed by natural-language interpretation. Both these approaches require a highly expressive medical terminology. How to facilitate the access to medical narratives has not been studied much. We found facilitating examples of presenting this information as fluent prose, of optimising the screen design with fixed position cues, and of imposing medical narratives with a structure of indexable paragraphs that can be used in flowsheets. We conclude that further study is needed to develop an optimal searching structure for medical narratives. PMID:9476152

  12. Optical Micromachining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) with Marshall Space Flight Center, Potomac Photonics, Inc., constructed and demonstrated a unique tool that fills a need in the area of diffractive and refractive micro-optics. It is an integrated computer-aided design and computer-aided micro-machining workstation that will extend the benefits of diffractive and micro-optic technology to optical designers. Applications of diffractive optics include sensors and monitoring equipment, analytical instruments, and fiber optic distribution and communication. The company has been making diffractive elements with the system as a commercial service for the last year.

  13. Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Maragò, Onofrio M.; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    1. Introduction; Part I. Theory: 2. Ray optics; 3. Dipole approximation; 4. Optical beams and focusing; 5. Electromagnetic theory; 6. Computational methods; 7. Brownian motion; Part II. Practice: 8. Building an optical tweezers; 9. Data acquisition and optical tweezers calibration; 10. Photonic force microscope; 11. Wavefront engineering and holographic optical tweezers; 12. Advanced techniques; Part III. Applications: 13. Single molecule biophysics; 14. Cell biology; 15. Spectroscopy; 16. Optofluidics and lab on a chip; 17. Colloid science; 18. Microchemistry; 19. Aerosol science; 20. Statistical physics; 21. Nanothermodynamics; 22. Plasmonics; 23. Nanostructures; 24. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms; 25. Towards the quantum regime at the mesoscale; Index.

  14. Antidiabetic medications and polypharmacy.

    PubMed

    Peron, Emily P; Ogbonna, Kelechi C; Donohoe, Krista L

    2015-02-01

    Polypharmacy, or the use of multiple medications, is a serious concern for providers who care for older adults, as polypharmacy is associated with medication nonadherence, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, and adverse drug events. Multiple medications, high chronic disease burden, and age-related physiologic changes make management of older adults with diabetes increasingly difficult. Given high medication burden and potential for increased medication sensitivity in this patient population, it is prudent that providers are aware of potential risks and benefits of antidiabetic medications and implement shared decision-making practices to ensure appropriate care for older adults with diabetes. PMID:25453298

  15. Medical spa marketing.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Dinkes, Adam; Oskin, Larry

    2008-07-01

    Medical spas are different. We are not just selling medical and dermatology services; we are offering clients viable new solutions to their skin care, body care, and hair care challenges. Traditional medical marketing becomes blurred today, as the expansion and acceptance of medical spas helps you to effectively compete with traditional skin care clinics, salons, and spas, while offering more therapeutic treatments from professionally licensed doctors, nurses, aestheticians, massage therapists, spa professionals, and medical practitioners. We recommend that you make the choice to successfully and competitively become a market-driven medical spa with an annual strategic plan, rather than an operationally driven business. PMID:18555955

  16. STS-1 medical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The report includes a review of the health of the crew before, during and immediately after the first Shuttle orbital flight (April 12-14, 1981). Areas reviewed include: health evaluation, medical debriefing of crewmembers, health stabilization program, medical training, medical kit carried inflight; tests and countermeasures for space motion sickness, cardiovascular profile, biochemistry and endocrinology results; hematology and immunology analyses; medical microbiology; food and nutrition; potable water; shuttle toxicology; radiological health; cabin acoustical noise. Also included is information on: environmental effects of Shuttle launch and landing, medical information management; and management, planning and implementation of the medical program.

  17. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  18. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... do occur: Headaches, problems sleeping, sleepiness, and strange dreams. Constipation, intestinal gas, nausea, and changes in taste. ... Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco References American Cancer Society. Guide to quitting smoking. Last revised ...

  19. Medical X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ... and Exporting Electronic Products Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ...

  20. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  1. Ending pregnancy with medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the medicines that are used to end pregnancy. Take any medicines that should not be used with a medical abortion. Do not have access to a doctor or an emergency room. Getting Ready for a Medical Abortion The ...

  2. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During ... médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give birth every year, ...

  3. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They range ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep instructions ...

  4. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  5. Medications to Treat Cushing's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Professionals Cushing’s Patient Pamphlets Clinical Trials CSRF Forums Books Links Glossary News & Events About CSRF Mission ... from Patients Coping with Cushing's Patient Stories Patient Forum Resources Resource List Glossary Cushing's Doctors For Medical ...

  6. Polymyositis: Medical Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Polymyositis (PM) is a highly treatable disease. ... Polymyositis (PM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find MDA in your Community Grants ...

  7. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  8. Understanding Medical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... you hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study ... when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. Some questions that can help you evaluate ...

  9. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  10. Dermatomysitis: Medical Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Dermatomysitis (DM) is a highly treatable disease. ... Dermatomyositis (DM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Living With Dermatomyositis (DM) News Not ...

  11. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ... Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local ...

  12. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users. PMID:22873011

  13. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  14. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), a test that uses images of your body Medical Dictionary: A direct link to the MedlinePlus.gov medical dictionary Go to medlineplus.gov/medicalwords/ Summer 2009 Issue: Volume 4 Number 3 Page Backcover

  15. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... suggest medical treatments to reduce the symptoms of fibroids or to stop the growth of fibroids. These ...

  16. Medication for older patients.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of literature documents multiple morbidities and multiple medication use among older people with intellectual disabilities. In Ireland in 2012, 8.6% of all medication-related adverse events were reported from the disability sector. PMID:27581916

  17. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get records for non-emergency situations (like switching to a new doctor), it's best to give ... Your Medical Care Health Insurance Basics Finding Low-Cost Medical Care Health Insurance: Cracking the Code Questions ...

  18. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  19. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  20. Medical applications of holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Jumpei

    1991-02-01

    A method for displaying 3D images of medical objects by using holographic stereogram is described together with basic properties of reconstructed images of cylindrical holographic stereograms. INTRODUCTI ON A holographic stereogram (HS) is a synthesized hologram from an original film which consists of a series of ordinary photographs taken from different directions of an object and is possible to apply to an object whose hologram is very difficult or impossible to take with conventional techniques [U. Such a feature of HS can be used for 3D display of medical images such as X-ray images computer assisted tomogrphy (CT) images nuclear magnetic reasonance images (MRI) or ultrasonic images of a patient. CYLINDRICAL HOLOGRAPHI C STEREOGRAMS The original film of the medical HS is taken by rotating around the body axis of a patient a U-shaped arm equipment one end of which has a pulse X-ray source and the other end a movie camera with an image intensifier [2]. Synthesis of HS is carried out by using a special optical system the hologram is shaped into a cylinder and is reconstructed by illuminating the hologram with a small white light source located on the axis of the cylinder. Such a HS is called multiplex hologram (MH) the most popular HS and the reconstructed image can be observed in the cylinder. The formation of reconstructed image is made in unusual way and fundamental properties

  1. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  2. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  3. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  4. Medical Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a medical assisting program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the medical assisting field, such as medical law and ethics, typing,…

  5. Medics in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify medicine. It…

  6. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Douglas J.; Kerstman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and approach for the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software decision support tool that forecasts medical events during spaceflight and optimizes medical systems during simulations. It includes information on the software capabilities, program stakeholders, use history, and the software logic.

  7. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass...

  12. Geometrical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd

    This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.

  13. Optical computing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  14. Optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Block, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention just over 20 years ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology and physics. Capabilities have evolved from simple manipulation to the application of calibrated forces on—and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of—optically trapped objects. We review progress in the development of optical trapping apparatus, including instrument design considerations, position detection schemes and calibration techniques, with an emphasis on recent advances. We conclude with a brief summary of innovative optical trapping configurations and applications. PMID:16878180

  15. Masquerading optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Katherine; Vakros, Georgios; Girgis, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the ophthalmology emergency department with a 10-day history of blurred vision. The best-corrected visual acuities and Ishihara colour vision were bilaterally reduced with a left relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination was otherwise normal. Retrobulbar optic neuritis (ON) was presumed as she had suffered with this previously and was known to have multiple sclerosis (MS). She was recalled the following week for visual field (VF) testing, which was not available at the time of presentation. VFs demonstrated an incongruous left homonymous hemianopia. She was immediately referred to the medical team to investigate for a stroke, which was subsequently excluded. Thereafter, a trial of pulsed methylprednisolone was commenced, resulting in near complete resolution of the hemianopia. This case demonstrates not only the importance of VF testing, but also how ON may present with any field defect, including mimicking a stroke, a point valuable to ophthalmologists and medics alike. PMID:26240099

  16. Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183

  17. The Nurse's Medication Day

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski; Sandelowski, Margarete; Mark, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The medication administration stage of the medication-use process is especially vulnerable to error because errors are least likely to be caught before reaching the patient. Medication administration, however, remains poorly understood. In this article we describe medication administration as observed in an ethnographic study conducted on one medical and one surgical unit. A central finding was that medication administration entailed a complex mixture of varied and often competing demands that temporally structured the nurses' entire workday. Articulation work was evident in time management strategies nurses used to handle demands from institutional policies, technical devices, patients, the physical environment, and the medications themselves. The average number of doses of medication per patient was more than double the number policy groups have indicated. Medication administration is neither simply the giving of drugs nor does it have clearly defined temporal boundaries. Because of its inseparability from other nurses' work, medication administration inherently entails interruption, thereby calling into question the current emphasis on reducing interruptions as a tactic to decrease medication errors. PMID:21693688

  18. The medicalization of life

    PubMed Central

    Illich, Ivan

    1975-01-01

    Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

  19. Inflight medical kits.

    PubMed

    Rayman, R B

    1998-10-01

    Great controversy surrounds the issue of United States (US) air carrier inflight medical kits. Although there are four medications mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that appeared to be adequate as determined by a 1988 survey, there is now a renewed call to review the medical kit contents with an eye toward making them more robust. This has been prompted by several well publicized inflight medical events and the fact that overseas airlines have a very wide array of pharmaceuticals and supplies. Consequently, the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) convened a Task Force of physicians across the major specialties to put forward recommendations regarding medication, medical supplies, and automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). These deliberations were based upon a survey of AsMA physician members. PMID:9773906

  20. Whither medical humanities?

    PubMed

    Singh, Navjeevan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the medical humanities (MH) and their role in medical education is in its infancy in India. Students are initiated into professional (medical) education too early in life, usually at the expense of a basic grounding in the humanities, resulting in warped intellectual growth. The author, arguing against the wholesale import of foreign systems, advocates free inquiry by medical educators to evolve a humanities programme for medical students derived from our own cultural context. This essay describes the early experiences of efforts to make a beginning at the University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. The author reviews the various strategies used and the challenges of introducing the subject to the current generation of medical students. PMID:22864074

  1. Medical device error.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gerald R

    2002-12-01

    This article discusses principal concepts for the analysis, classification, and reporting of problems involving medical device technology. We define a medical device in regulatory terminology and define and discuss concepts and terminology used to distinguish the causes and sources of medical device problems. Database classification systems for medical device failure tracking are presented, as are sources of information on medical device failures. The importance of near-accident reporting is discussed to alert users that reported medical device errors are typically limited to those that have caused an injury or death. This can represent only a fraction of the true number of device problems. This article concludes with a summary of the most frequently reported medical device failures by technology type, clinical application, and clinical setting. PMID:12400632

  2. Optical Techniques in Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially-controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities. PMID:26412943

  3. Optical techniques in optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-07-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities.

  4. QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony

    2015-08-14

    Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. PMID:26160375

  5. Optical properties of mouse biotissues and their optical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. D.; Mokeeva, A. M.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Agrba, P. D.; Kirillin, M. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    Based on spectrophotometric measurements in the range of 700-1100 nm performed with the use of an integrating sphere, we have obtained absorption and scattering spectra of internal organs of mouse, as well as of aqueous solutions of India ink and Lipofundin, which are basic model media for creating optical phantoms of biological tissues. To retrieve the spectra of optical characteristics, we have used original formulas that relate the parameters of the medium with measured spectrophotometric characteristics and that are constructed based on classical analytical models of propagation of light in turbid media. As a result of comparison of spectra of biotissues and model media, we have developed a mixture of Lipofundin and India ink serving as mouse optical phantoms for problems of optical medical diagnostics.

  6. Optical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyant, James; Hochberg, Eric; Breault, Robert; Greivenkamp, John; Hunt, Gary; Mason, Pete; Mcguire, James; Meinel, Aden; Morris, Mike; Scherr, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Optical testing is one of the most vital elements in the process of preparing an optical instrument for launch. Without well understood, well controlled, and well documented test procedures, current and future mission goals will be jeopardized. We should keep in mind that the reason we test is to provide an opportunity to catch errors, oversights, and problems on the ground, where solutions are possible and difficulties can be rectified. Consequently, it is necessary to create tractable test procedures that truly provide a measure of the performance of all optical elements and systems under conditions which are close to those expected in space. Where testing is not feasible, accurate experiments are required in order to perfect models that can exactly predict the optical performance. As we stretch the boundaries of technology to perform more complex space and planetary investigations, we must expand the technology required to test the optical components and systems which we send into space. As we expand the observational wavelength ranges, so must we expand our range of optical sources and detectors. As we increase resolution and sensitivity, our understanding of optical surfaces to accommodate more stringent figure and scatter requirements must expand. Only with research and development in these areas can we hope to achieve success in the ever increasing demands made on optical testing by the highly sophisticated missions anticipated over the next two decades. Technology assessment and development plan for surface figure, surface roughness, alignment, image quality, radiometric quantities, and stray light measurement are presented.

  7. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases…

  8. Optical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  9. Optical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  10. Design of freeform optics for an ophthalmological application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Ingo; Yi, Allen; Li, Likai; Beckert, Erik; Steinkopf, Ralf; Gengenbach, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Optical freeform surfaces are gaining importance in different optical applications. A huge demand arises e.g. in the fields of automotive and medical engineering. Innovative systems often need high-quality and high-volume optics. Injectionmoulded polymer optics represents a cost-efficient solution. However, it has to be ensured that the tight requirements with respect to the system's performance are met by the replicated freeform optics. To reach this goal, it is not sufficient to only characterise the manufactured optics by peak-to-valley or rms data describing a deviation from the nominal surface. Instead, optical performance of the manufactured freeform optics has to be analysed and compared with the performance of the nominal surface. This can be done by integrating the measured surface data of the manufactured freeform optics into the optical simulation model. The feedback of the measured surface data into the model allows for a simulation of the optical performance of the optical subsystem containing the real freeform optics manufactured. Hence, conclusions can be drawn as to whether the specifications with respect to e.g. imaging quality are met by the real manufactured optics. This approach will be presented using an Alvarez-Humphrey optics as an example of a tuneable optics of an ophthalmological application. The focus of this article will be on design for manufacturing the freeform optics, the integration of the measured surface data into the optical simulation model, simulation of the optical performance, and analysis in comparison to the nominal surface.

  11. Holographic data processing methods for medical prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. A.; Grosmann, M. H.; Kartavenko, V. I.; Larkin, A. I.; Trukhanov, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The various methods of laser coherent photonic implementations of multiparametric classification are discussed in this paper. The holographic and optical data processing methods for medical application are considered. Inverse two-phase coding and analysis of light distribution in the correlation plane enables us to realize a number of algorithms: search for a precedent, Hamming distance measurement, Bayes probability algorithm, deterministic and ‘correspondence’ algorithms. The experimental holographic results for medicine prognosis are shown.

  12. The medical alumni story.

    PubMed

    Lim, K H

    2005-07-01

    The Medical Alumni is unique in being the oldest alumni association with medical, dental and pharmacy graduates from our seminal medical school, that has now evolved into the faculties of medicine in 2 countries, namely Malaysia and Singapore. Founded in 1923, the medical alumni association has undergone several name changes with its evolution and activism. After the Japanese Occupation, it was given its present name in 1947, comprising 3 branches working under a common Constitution operating in 2 separate countries. It is also unique in being the only association recognised by the Registrar of Societies with membership in 2 countries. Following the development of medical professional and academic bodies, the medical alumni wound down its medico-political activities to concentrate on providing social and mutual support for its members and its alma mater. PMID:16010406

  13. Medical education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty. PMID:18464135

  14. Development of fibre optic broadband sources at 1 μm region for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifanov, Irina; Berendt, Martin O.; Salcedo, José R.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Lobo Ribeiro, António B.

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments on broadband optical sources emitting at 1050 nm wavelength for medical applications, in particular optical coherence tomography (OCT), have revealed enhanced depth penetration into the choroid, reduced scattering losses and improved image performances in eyes with turbid media, when compared to the most commercial used semiconductor optical source technology at 820 nm. In this paper, we present our study of fibre optic broadband sources (BBS) at 1 micron region, based on the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from rare-earth doped silica fibres for the integration into OCT systems. The target specifications for this type of sources are: 1050 nm central emission wavelength, with spectral width of ~70 nm, tens of miliwatts of output power and smoothly shaped output spectra. Several combinations of rare-earth doped optical fibres integrated into different fibre optic configurations have been tested. Optical bandwidth optimization and spectral shaping using different fibre optic techniques are presented and their autocorrelation function compared.

  15. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  16. Skylab medical technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonesifer, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    To perform the extensive medical experimentation on man in a long-term, zero-g environment, new medical measuring and monitoring equipment had to be developed, new techniques in training and operations were required, and new methods of collecting and analyzing the great amounts of medical data were developed. Examples of technology transfers to the public sector resulted from the development of new equipment, methods, techniques, and data. This paper describes several of the examples that stemmed directly from Skylab technology.

  17. Medical waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  18. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L. )

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland, OR, Houston, TX, and Galveston, TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulation of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  19. [Perspectives in medical liability].

    PubMed

    Pizarro W, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transferring to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurance and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to professional liability. PMID:18769798

  20. Cannabinoids: Medical implications.

    PubMed

    Schrot, Richard J; Hubbard, John R

    2016-01-01

    Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy. While herbal cannabis has not met rigorous FDA standards for medical approval, specific well-characterized cannabinoids have met those standards. Where medical cannabis is legal, patients typically see a physician who "certifies" that a benefit may result. Physicians must consider important patient selection criteria such as failure of standard medical treatment for a debilitating medical disorder. Medical cannabis patients must be informed about potential adverse effects, such as acute impairment of memory, coordination and judgment, and possible chronic effects, such as cannabis use disorder, cognitive impairment, and chronic bronchitis. In addition, social dysfunction may result at work/school, and there is increased possibility of motor vehicle accidents. Novel ways to manipulate the endocannbinoid system are being explored to maximize benefits of cannabinoid therapy and lessen possible harmful effects. PMID:26912385

  1. Optical photopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.M.

    1995-12-01

    The ability to manipulate light is becoming increasingly important in electronics, communications and automotive applications. Advanced materials are often necessary to efficiently harness and transform light into useful information, visual imagery and/or energy. DuPont is currently developing a family of optical photopolymers, OmniDex{reg_sign} holographic recording materials, waveguide materials for Polyguide{trademark} integrated optic technology, and Surphex{trademark} photopolymer embossable films. When properly imaged with light these materials form optical devices. The material properties and mechanism by which images and devices are recorded will be discussed along with process of use. Applications will also be highlighted.

  2. Particulate contaminants of intravenous medications and infusions.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, C M; Ball, P R; Booth, S; Kelshaw, M A; Potter, S R; McCollum, C N

    1987-04-01

    Particulate contamination in small volume parenteral medications has been studied and compared with that found in a selection of large volume infusions. Particle counts in 39 commonly used small volume medications and 7 large volume infusions were performed by an automated light blockage method (HIAC) or by optical microscopy. Based on these results and a random survey of drug therapy of intensive care patients, it is concluded that the contribution of intravenous medications to the total particle load received by such patients is likely to be many times greater than from infusion fluids. Until firm evidence regarding the harmful systemic effects of drug particles is available and the manufacturing regulations adjusted appropriately, final in-line filtration of infusions immediately proximal to the intravenous cannula should be considered when drugs are being given intravenously. PMID:2884285

  3. Optical Tecnology Developments in Biomedicine: History, Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applications are also discussed here. PMID:23905030

  4. Optical tecnology developments in biomedicine: history, current and future.

    PubMed

    Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Yu

    2011-09-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applications are also discussed here. PMID:23905030

  5. Stitching Techniques Advance Optics Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Because NASA depends on the fabrication and testing of large, high-quality aspheric (nonspherical) optics for applications like the James Webb Space Telescope, it sought an improved method for measuring large aspheres. Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Goddard Space Flight Center, QED Technologies, of Rochester, New York, upgraded and enhanced its stitching technology for aspheres. QED developed the SSI-A, which earned the company an R&D 100 award, and also developed a breakthrough machine tool called the aspheric stitching interferometer. The equipment is applied to advanced optics in telescopes, microscopes, cameras, medical scopes, binoculars, and photolithography."

  6. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al. Optic Glioma in Children: A Retrospective Analysis of 101 Cases. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2013; 36(3):287-292. Karcioglu ZA, Haik BG. Eye, orbit, and adnexal structures. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, ...

  7. An optically-triggered semiconductor switch for high power laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng W.; Warren, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The work involves research leading to an optically triggered switch for a high power laser pulse. The switch uses a semiconductor heterostructure whose optical properties are modified by a low power laser trigger such as a laser diode. Potential applications include optical control of pulsed power systems, control of medical lasers and implementation of security features in optical warhead architectures.

  8. Ocean optics

    SciTech Connect

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  9. Access to Medical Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy

    Although confidentiality with regard to medical records is supposedly protected by the American Medical Associaton's principles of Ethics and the physician-patient privilege, there are a number of laws that require a physician to release patient information to public authorities without the patient's consent. These exceptions include birth and…

  10. History of Medical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  11. Skylab medical program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    The following major medical subsystems in Skylab are outlined: (1) operational equipment; (2) life science experiments; (3) medical operations; and (4) operational experience. Throughout the Skylab flight program, alterations in equipment and procedures were made for each succeeding mission to capitalize on the flight experience of the previous mission.

  12. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  13. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  14. Control with anorexiant medications.

    PubMed Central

    Volume, C. I.; Farris, K. B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show why women are still seeking anorexiant medications despite current concerns over their use. DESIGN: In-depth interviews using grounded theory methodology. SETTING: Participants chose where they were to be interviewed. PARTICIPANTS: Women older than 18 years who had previously taken or were currently taking anorexiant medications for the purpose of losing weight. METHOD: Nine women completed two semistructured in-depth interviews during which they described their experiences from the time they began pharmacologic therapy for obesity until they discontinued the medications. Interview data were compiled and analyzed until saturation was reached. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Control was an important factor for the women. Their previous lack of control was due to frustration with failed dieting attempts and feeling pressure from others to lose weight. Prescription medications controlled physiologic hunger while the women sought to lose weight. Increased control over hunger and a decrease in weight gave participants confidence to continue their weight-loss efforts without the medications. Once the medications were discontinued, the women were able to maintain weight control through various lifestyle modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Anorexiant medications provide some women with a perception of control that helps them lose weight and not regain it. Health care professionals should be aware of their patients' struggles with weight loss and understand the importance of these medications for some patients. PMID:9839060

  15. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  16. Medication and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Laurie L.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)

  17. Emergency Medical Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of emergency medical technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 4 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

  18. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  19. Medical Veteran Utilization Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan (Robert R.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to encourage policy makers, administrators, and personnel officers in hospitals and other health facilities to recruit and hire the thousands of well-trained, experienced men and women who leave the military medical services each year. The document lists the advantages to the medical institution when employing medically…

  20. Medical Services Assistant Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Phyllis A.

    Designed to develop 12th-grade multiple competencies courses, this curriculum prepares the student to assist a physician, dentist, or other health professional with the management of a medical office and to perform basic health services procedures. Course descriptions are provided for the two courses in the curriculum: medical services assistant…

  1. Medical Training Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Steven S. Saliterman developed his Dynacath Critical Care Patient Simulator as a training system for medical personnel involved in critical care management and hemodynamic monitoring. The system incorporates NASA simulation technology and allows hospitals and medical manufacturers to conduct training away from the patient's bedside. Dr. Saliterman was formerly employed by Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center.

  2. Medical Practice Makes Perfect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cedaron Medical Inc., was founded in 1990 as a result of a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) grant from Johnson Space Center to develop a Hand Testing and Exercise Unit for use in space. From that research came Dexter, a comprehensive workstation that creates a paperless environment for medical data management.

  3. Using medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Hart, Dionne; Bowen, Juan; DeJesus, Ramona; Maldonado, Alejandro; Jiwa, Fatima

    2010-04-01

    Research has demonstrated that appropriate use of interpreters in clinical encounters improves outcomes and decreases adverse events. This article reviews both the medical reasons for working with trained medical interpreters and the related laws, and offers practical tips for working effectively with interpreters. PMID:20481167

  4. Medical Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

  5. Medical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  6. Medical School Hotline

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Winona K

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of an ongoing series describing various components of the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) medical education curricula, activities, and initiatives relevant to the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) accreditation standards.1 JABSOM's LCME visit will take place in early 2017. This article provides an overview of JABSOM's diversity/pipeline programs and partnerships. PMID:27437165

  7. Restoring medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity. PMID:22915177

  8. Medical education in Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgantopoulou, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present an overview of current medical education in Greece. Greece has a centuries-long tradition in practising and teaching medicine. Medical training, although rigorous, is particularly humane. All Medical Schools in Modern Greece are currently, undergoing a series of changes in an effort to modernize training. The medical education system is also getting harmonized to European Standards for Higher Education, relating to Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Continuous Medical Education of doctors. A specific strength of the Greek educational system is its ethos that emphasises good working conditions and excellent support and supervision at all levels. The current overhauls in Higher Education occupy students, academics and the society at large. Political issues, such as accountability, regulation and autonomy of academia are generating debate. The two-cycle, Bachelor-Master, Undergraduate Model, as described in the Bologna Declaration is still to be implemented. Quality control measures are currently introduced in all academic sectors. PMID:19253151

  9. [Implantable medical devices].

    PubMed

    Crickx, B; Arrault, X

    2008-01-01

    Medical devices have been individualized to include a category of implantable medical devices, "designed to be totally implanted in the human body or to replace an epithelial surface or a surface of the eye, through surgery, and remain in place after the intervention" (directive 93/42/CEE and decree of 20 April 206). Each implantable medical device has a common name and a commercial name for precise identification of the model (type/references). The users' service and the implanting physician should be clearly identified. There are a number of rules concerning health traceability to rapidly identify patients exposed to risks in which the implantable medical devices of a particular batch or series were used and to monitor the consequences. The traceability data should be preserved 10 years and the patient's medical file for 20 years. PMID:18442666

  10. Style in medical journals.

    PubMed Central

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-01-01

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed. PMID:6414596

  11. Medical Student Health Promotion: The Increasing Role of Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estabrook, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…

  12. Cardiovascular Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetsu, Taishi; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    The potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for intravascular imaging and assessing the microstructure of atherosclerosis was suggested already by Huang et al. at the very beginning of OCT [1]. For ophthalmology, the eye provides a natural window for OCT to image the retinal microstructure, and OCT has rapidly become the standard imaging modality to diagnose retinal disease and assess disease progression and response to therapy [1, 2]. Intravascular imaging is more invasive by nature and requires imaging through a catheter probe. This has triggered the development of advanced fiber-optic OCT systems with compact, rotating fiber probes, to image the vessel by circumferentially scanning the luminal wall [3, 4]. In 1998, we established the first cardiac OCT research group at the Massachusetts General Hospital to explore the clinical applications of OCT. The first imaging of rabbit aorta was reported by Fujimoto et al. [5], followed by the first swine measurements in vivo by Tearney et al. [6], and finally the first assessment of coronary arteries in patients by Jang et al. [7]. The scope of this chapter is to highlight the steps taken to bring intravascular OCT from bench to bedside over the last 15 years. We will give a general description of atherosclerosis and its pathophysiology and the specific technical implementation of OCT for intravascular imaging through a fiber-optic probe. The motivation is to provide sufficient medical details to provide a basic introduction to the terminology, principles, and challenges of intracoronary imaging.

  13. An optical model for implementing Parrondo's game and designing stochastic game with long-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Tieyan

    2012-11-01

    An optical model of classical photons propagating through array of many beam splitters is developed to give a physical analogy of Parrondo's game and Parrondo-Harmer-Abbott game. We showed both the two games are reasonable game without so-called game paradox and they are essentially the same. We designed the games with long-term memory on loop lattice and history-entangled game. The strong correlation between nearest two rounds of game can make the combination of two losing game win, lose or oscillate between win and loss. The periodic potential in Brownian ratchet is analogous to a long chain of beam splitters. The coupling between two neighboring potential wells is equivalent to two coupled beam splitters. This correspondence may help us to understand the anomalous motion of exceptional Brownian particles moving in the opposite direction to the majority. We designed the capital wave for a game by introducing correlations into independent capitals instead of sub-games. Playing entangled quantum states in many coupled classical games obey the same rules for manipulating quantum states in many body physics.

  14. Optical DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaywargi, Deepak; Lewis, Dave; Kirovski, Darko

    A certificate of authenticity (COA) is an inexpensive physical object with a random and unique structure S which is hard to near-exactly replicate. An inexpensive device should be able to scan object’s physical “fingerprint,” a set of features that represents S. In this paper, we explore one set of requirements that optical media such as DVDs should satisfy, to be considered as COAs. As manufacturing of such media produces inevitable errors, we use the locations and count of these errors as a “fingerprint” for each optical disc: its optical DNA. The “fingerprint” is signed using publisher’s private-key and the resulting signature is stored onto the optical medium using a post-production process. Standard DVD players with altered firmware that includes publisher’s public-key, should be able to verify the authenticity of DVDs protected with optical DNA. Our key finding is that for the proposed protocol, only DVDs with exceptional wear-and-tear characteristics would result in an inexpensive and viable anti-counterfeiting technology.

  15. New Medical Device Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, as a member of the Harmonization by Doing (HBD) project, I discuss the significance of regulatory science in global medical device development and our experience in the international collaboration process for medical devices. In Japan, most innovative medical therapeutic devices were previously developed and exported by foreign-based companies. Due to this device lag, Japanese had minimal opportunities for receiving treatment with innovative medical devices. To address this issue, the Japanese government has actively accepted foreign clinical trial results and promoted global clinical trials in projects such as HBD. HBD is a project with stakeholders from academia, regulatory authorities, and industry in the US and Japan to promote global clinical trials and reduce device lags. When the project started, medical device clinical trials were not actively conducted in Japan at not just hospitals but also at medical device companies. We started to identify issues under the concept of HBD. After 10 years, we have now become key members in global clinical trials and able to obtain approvals without delay. Recently, HBD has started promoting international convergence. Physicians and regulatory authorities play central roles in compiling guidelines for the clinical evaluation of medical device development, which will be a more active field in the near future. The guidelines compiled will be confirmed with members of academia and regulatory authorities in the United Sates. PMID:27040333

  16. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN'S MEDICAL IMPRINTS.

    PubMed

    CANTU, J Q

    1965-01-01

    The printing house of Benjamin Franklin produced several works of a medical nature in Colonial America at a time when very few medical treatises were being written or printed. Benjamin Franklin was also indirectly responsible for the founding of the first medical library in this country. For these reasons he was, in addition to his many other talents, an early contributor to American medical literature. Included in this bibliography are all the known medical books, pamphlets, and broadsides in English with Benjamin Franklin's name in the imprint, issued in America. These eighteen titles span the years 1732 to 1765 and are presented chronologically with indications of their relation to the practice and practitioners of Colonial medicine. Benjamin Franklin's press produced as wide a variety of contributions as did his versatile life, and the early history of medicine in this country bears the influence of both.I am pleased with your scheme of a Medical Library at the Hospital, and I fancy I can procure you some donations among my medical friends here, if you will send me a catalogue of what books you already have. Enclosed I send you the only book of the kind in my possession here, having just received it as a present from the author.-Benjamin Franklin to Dr. Cadwallader Evans, London, May 5, 1767 (1). PMID:14223741

  17. Benjamin Franklin's Medical Imprints

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, Jane Quale

    1965-01-01

    The printing house of Benjamin Franklin produced several works of a medical nature in Colonial America at a time when very few medical treatises were being written or printed. Benjamin Franklin was also indirectly responsible for the founding of the first medical library in this country. For these reasons he was, in addition to his many other talents, an early contributor to American medical literature. Included in this bibliography are all the known medical books, pamphlets, and broadsides in English with Benjamin Franklin's name in the imprint, issued in America. These eighteen titles span the years 1732 to 1765 and are presented chronologically with indications of their relation to the practice and practitioners of Colonial medicine. Benjamin Franklin's press produced as wide a variety of contributions as did his versatile life, and the early history of medicine in this country bears the influence of both. I am pleased with your scheme of a Medical Library at the Hospital, and I fancy I can procure you some donations among my medical friends here, if you will send me a catalogue of what books you already have. Enclosed I send you the only book of the kind in my possession here, having just received it as a present from the author.—Benjamin Franklin to Dr. Cadwallader Evans, London, May 5, 1767 (1). PMID:14223741

  18. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  19. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  20. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  1. Kennedy Space Center Medical Operations and Medical Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the emergency medical operations at Kennedy Space center, the KSC launch and landing contingency modes, the triage site, the medical kit, and the medications available.

  2. Self-Medication

    PubMed Central

    Lottier, William I.

    1978-01-01

    Self-medication and drug interaction have been a problem in recent years. Pharmacists in ethical pharmacies and neighborhood establishments can best monitor these problems through use of patient profile records and consultations. The pharmacist should advise the public on over-the-counter (OTC) purchases. Auxiliary labels are recommended for use on containers to prevent drug interactions. Members of the black community have some specific problems with respect to self medications. These are addressed in this article. Self-medication, under supervision, is proper and can be controlled. PMID:712861

  3. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats. PMID:24338090

  4. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." PMID:26900112

  5. Origins of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1986-01-01

    Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s. PMID:3544507

  6. Medical and trauma evacuations.

    PubMed

    Neri, Myles; De Jongh, Rene

    2004-02-01

    Evacuating ill or injured expatriates on international assignments from globally challenging locations is a potent source of concern for individuals who are involved before, during, and after overseas assignments. It is essential to minimize the risk for such evacuations and to make the evacuations proceed as smoothly and safely as possible. The first half of this article addresses the planning and processes that are required to make inevitable medical evacuations as safe and smooth as possible. The second half reviews the non-medical consequences that medical and security evacuations can have for employees, dependents, and employers. PMID:15043365

  7. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  8. The research and development of the adaptive optics in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuhan; Zhang, Xiaofang; Chen, Weilin

    2015-08-01

    Recently the combination of adaptive optics and ophthalmology has made great progress and become highly effective. The retina disease is diagnosed by retina imaging technique based on scanning optical system, so the scanning of eye requires optical system characterized by great ability of anti-moving and optical aberration correction. The adaptive optics possesses high level of adaptability and is available for real time imaging, which meets the requirement of medical retina detection with accurate images. Now the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are widely used, which are the core techniques in the area of medical retina detection. Based on the above techniques, in China, a few adaptive optics systems used for eye medical scanning have been designed by some researchers from The Institute of Optics And Electronics of CAS(The Chinese Academy of Sciences); some foreign research institutions have adopted other methods to eliminate the interference of eye moving and optical aberration; there are many relevant patents at home and abroad. In this paper, the principles and relevant technique details of the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are described. And the recent development and progress of adaptive optics in the field of eye retina imaging are analyzed and summarized.

  9. Novel fibre-optic-based ionization radiation probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David A.

    2004-06-01

    CsI ionization radiation probes interrogated via a fiber optic transceiver link for monitoring medical procedures such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, Brachytherapy and Nuclear Medicine are presented together with potential industrial, environmental and military applications.

  10. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  11. Optical coupler

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2004-06-15

    In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

  12. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  13. Statistical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. W.

    This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

  14. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  15. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  16. An overview of the medical informatics curriculum in medical schools.

    PubMed Central

    Espino, J. U.; Levine, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    As medical schools incorporate medical informatics into their curriculum the problems of implementation arise. Because there are no standards regarding a medical informatics curriculum, medical schools are implementing the subjects in various ways. A survey was undertaken to amass an overview of the medical informatics curriculum nationally. Of the responding schools, most have aspects of medical informatics incorporated into current courses and utilize existing faculty. Literature searching, clinical decision-making, and Internet are the basic topics in the current curricula. The trend is for medical informatics to be incorporated throughout all four years of medical school. Barriers are the difficulties in faculty training, and slow implementation. PMID:9929263

  17. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  18. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... should not be used for people who: Are under age 18. Are pregnant. Have a history of medical ... with nicotine patches, gums, sprays or lozenges. Children under age 18 should not take this drug. Most people ...

  19. American Podiatric Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the winners. Learn More about The National Advertisement Advertisement @APMA Tweets by @APMA Follow @APMA Featured Webinars ... plans for his term in office. Watch now! Advertisement © 2016 American Podiatric Medical Association, Inc. All rights ...

  20. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890

  1. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  2. Deregulating mandatory medical prescription.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C N

    1986-01-01

    This Article links the legal evolution of mandatory medical prescription since 1900 to the police-power's prohibition of alcohol and the opiates as well as to the self-interested monopolization of new drugs by physicians. The Article advances a theory of professionalization consistent with the evidence that mandatory prescription is not in the public interest. The Article suggests that the supremacy of self-medication is consistent with competition policy, the medical profession's fiduciary duty to clients, reduced medical costs and improved health. The author analyzes the consequences of regulating drug production, testing, marketing and consumtion by granting decision-making authority to the lowest-cost risk avoider, suggesting this as a plausible basis for legal reform. PMID:3327377

  3. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Sjögren’s, Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications The SSF thanks Lynn Petruzzi, RN, MSN, for this Patient Education Sheet. Educate your healthcare givers! • Tell your surgeon, ...

  4. Medications for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... colored labels and stick them on your medicine bottles to simplify your routine. For example, blue can ... easier to take. Purchase timer caps for pill bottles to remind you when to take medication. Also, ...

  5. Medications and Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... colored labels and stick them on your medicine bottles to simplify your routine. For example, blue can ... easier to take. Purchase timer caps for pill bottles to remind you when to take medication. Also, ...

  6. Medications for Inducing Ovulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant because their ovaries do not release (ovulate) eggs. Fertility specialists may use medications that work on ... not ovulate regularly, and 2) to cause multiple eggs to develop and be released at one time. ...

  7. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. PMID:11366751

  8. Medical futility and nursing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C

    1995-01-01

    Defining medical futility is central to the efforts of clinicians and ethicists who seek to identify the limits of patient autonomy. This article is a critique of current efforts to define and then use policies of medical futility to justify refusing requests for treatment and care that have no perceived medical benefit. After exploring the current definitions of medical futility in the bioethics and clinical literature, comparisons of the advantages and disadvantages of the following three options are provided: allowing patients to decide all but physiologic futility, allowing clinicians to decide futility, and pursuing negotiated compromise. The third option--negotiated compromise--is recommended. A role is developed for nurses in preventing and resolving conflict about futile treatment. PMID:8530119

  9. Your Pet's Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly used types of medications in dogs and cats, but is by no means a complete list ... from a viral infection. Examples in dogs and cats include penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfa, cephalexin and enrofloxacin. Non- ...

  10. Medications (for IBS)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... discomfort, usually if the symptoms occur soon after eating. Examples include dicyclomine (Bentyl), and hyoscyamine (Levsin). Read ... who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and specialized motility and/ ...

  11. Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    WRIISC War Related Illness and Injury Study Center Office of Public Health Department of Veterans Affairs MEDICALLY UNEXPLAINED SYMPTOMS ... showed that CFS was more common in Gulf War Veterans than non- Gulf War Veterans ( Kang et ...

  12. Occupational Medical Program

    1993-12-08

    The Occupational Medical Program (OMP) oversees all Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) health care, and provides services to all managing and operating (M&O) contractors at the INEL and for the Department of Energy Idaho Office (DOE-ID). The evolution of the automated OMP at the INEL is guided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directives and regulations. The OMP is developing a multiyear plan for the computerization of patient and demographics, epidemiology, medical records, andmore » surveillance. This plan will require the following six development phases: Employee Demographic Phase, Patient Surveillance Certification and Restrictions Phase, Electronic Notification Phase, Epidemiology-Industrial Hygiene/Radiation Exposure/OMP Integration Phase, Medical Scheduling Phase, and Medical Records Phase.« less

  13. Pain medications - narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007489.htm Pain medications - narcotics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are ...

  14. Understanding Medical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study seem ... a randomized controlled clinical trial? Where was the research done? If a new treatment was being tested, ...

  15. Psychotropic Medications for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordoba, Oscar A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the clinical conditions and medications used with children who have emotional and behavioral problems including hyperactivity, enuresis, anxiety, depression, mental retardation, and Tourette's Syndrome. Discusses the role of the social worker, ethical issues, and training needs. (JAC)

  16. Catastrophic medical expenditure risk.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; O'Donnell, Owen

    2016-03-01

    We propose a measure of household exposure to particularly onerous medical expenses. The measure can be decomposed into the probability that medical expenditure exceeds a threshold, the loss due to predictably low consumption of other goods if it does and the further loss arising from the volatility of medical expenses above the threshold. Depending on the choice of threshold, the measure is consistent with a model of reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. Unlike the risk premium, the measure is only sensitive to particularly high expenses, and can identify households that expect to incur such expenses and would benefit from subsidised, but not actuarially fair, insurance. An empirical illustration using data from seven Asian countries demonstrates the importance of taking account of informal insurance and reveals clear differences in catastrophic medical expenditure risk across and within countries. In general, risk is higher among poorer, rural and chronically ill populations. PMID:26812650

  17. American Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Network JAMA JAMA Cardiology JAMA Dermatology JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery JAMA Internal Medicine JAMA Neurology JAMA Oncology ... Medical Association) JAMA Cardiology JAMA Dermatology JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery JAMA Internal Medicine JAMA Neurology JAMA Oncology ...

  18. Medications: Myths Versus Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements can take a toll on your body’s chemistry and alter the effectiveness of some medications. One ... Privacy Policy Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure ...

  19. The coming medical apocalypse.

    PubMed

    Washburn, E R

    1999-01-01

    Is there a medical apocalypse in our future? Will it happen soon? No one can say for sure, but five ominous trends suggest that a medical meltdown could occur at any time. These trends are: (1) The practice of providing medical care becoming too complex from both a business and a legal perspective; (2) Less money being spent on medical care without any corresponding reduction in services provided, creating long-term operating deficits; (3) Investor-owned, for-profit corporations changing the focus of medicine by putting shareholder concerns ahead of patient care; (4) Employment-linked health care insurance creating a growing uninsured population, adding extra financial stress to our hospitals; and, (5) Providers losing faith in their future and becoming increasingly demoralized about practicing the healing arts. These dangerous trends are considered, along with some suggestions that physician executives and organizations might take to protect themselves. PMID:10387269

  20. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause several complications. ... difficulty sitting, standing, or performing normal daily activities. Orthopedic Considerations Doctors and therapists classify individuals with SMA ...

  1. Anorexia nervosa - medical complications.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Philip S; Brown, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other mental health disorders, eating disorders have a high prevalence of concomitant medical complications. Specifically, patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) have a litany of medical complications which are commonly present as part of their eating disorders. Almost every body system can be adversely, affected by this state of progressive malnutrition. Moreover, some of the complications can have permanent adverse effects even after there is a successful program of nutritional rehabilitation and weight restoration. Within this article we will review all body systems affected by AN. There is also salient information about both, how to diagnose these medical complications and which are the likely ones to result in permanent sequelae if not diagnosed and addressed early in the course of AN. In a subsequent article, the definitive medical treatment for these complications will be presented in a clinically practical manner. PMID:25834735

  2. When Medication Is Prescribed

    MedlinePlus

    ... or combination of medications for the patient. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): citalopram (brand name: Celexa) escitalopram ( ... brand names: Paxil, Pexeva) sertraline (brand name: Zoloft) Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): venlafaxine (brand name: ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease Medications Fact Sheet Treatment for Mild to ...

  4. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  5. Medical Library Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11th, 2016 Patricia Flatley Brennan, registered nurse, informatician, industrial engineer, and renowned researcher is appointed as Director of the National Library of Medicine Tweets Copyright © 2016 Medical Library Association. ...

  6. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fall hay fever symptoms. While avoiding the allergens that trigger symptoms is the best way to ... before you first come into contact with spring allergens, the medication can prevent the release of histamine ...

  7. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people ... facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  8. STS-2 medical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, S.L.; Johnson, P.C., Jr.; Mason, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    All medically related activities of the Space Transportation System 2 flight are described, ranging from preflight to postflight. Several medical problems occured during the flight. There was marginal operation on-board potable water system caused by a malfunctioning fuel cell. Work and rest cycles by the crew were altered to maximize the scientific data acquisition. Inadequate time was allocated for food preparation and consumption. There was low water intake by the crew because of the water shortage.

  9. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  10. [Medical accountability: current elements].

    PubMed

    Bergoignan-Esper, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, a new law significantly modified the legal treatment of medical accidents in France, encouraging dialogue and conciliation rather than litigation. Specific structures were created to settle disputes without recourse to the judiciary system. A mechanismfor national solidarity was also created in order to indemnfy some victims. More than ten years later the number of court cases has diminished but vigilance is still required, notably because of the increasingly large sums awarded to victims of medical accidents. PMID:26753401

  11. Physicians: Choosing Your Medical Specialty

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Text size Email How to Choose a Medical Specialty Choosing a medical specialty is a career- ... most challenging aspects of patient care. “Choosing a Medical Specialty”—A Guide on What to Expect from ...

  12. Effects of Medications on Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  13. Rationing medical education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit. PMID:27358649

  14. Optical pantograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert R. (Inventor); Davis, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An optical pantograph for directing light beams and the like from a source to a receiver according to the movement of a pointer. The device can be used for, among other things, directing a laser beam and the like to a target for etching patterns on a target according to the movement of a pointer relative to a pattern trace.

  15. Optical electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of an optical diode consisting of a metal-dielectric-metal junction in which the high-speed electric conduction process occurs due to quantum mechanical electron tunneling across the dielectric barrier is briefly reviewed. Potential applications of the diode are discussed.

  16. Optical Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstar, John

    1987-01-01

    Classifies and briefly describes several types of optical storage media available today--read-only and write-once analog disks, read-only and write-once digital disks and erasable disks. The appropriateness of CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory) for use in libraries of developing nations is discussed in terms of users' information needs and…

  17. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking.

  18. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking.

  19. Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Ajoy; Thyagarajan, K.

    With the development of extremely low-loss optical fibers and their application to communication systems, a revolution has taken fiber glass place during the last 40 years. In 2001, using glass fibers as the transmission medium and lightwaves as carrier wave waves, information was transmitted at a rate more than 1 Tbit/s (which is roughly equivalent to transmission of about 15 million simultaneous telephone conversations) through one hair thin optical fiber. Experimental demonstration of transmission at the rate of 14 Tbit/s over a 160 km long single fiber was demonstrated in 2006, which is equivalent to sending 140 digital high definition movies in 1 s. Very recently record transmission of more than 100 Tbit/s over 165 km single mode fiber has been reported. These can be considered as extremely important technological achievements. In this chapter we will discuss the propagation characteristics of optical fibers with special applications to optical communication systems and also present some of the noncommunication applications such as sensing.

  20. Diophantine Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouan, D.

    2016-09-01

    What I call Diophantine optics is the exploitation in optics of some remarkable algebraic relations between powers of integers. The name comes from Diophantus of Alexandria, a greek mathematician, known as the father of algebra. He studied polynomial equations with integer coefficients and integer solutions, called diophantine equations. Since constructive or destructive interferences are playing with optical path differences which are multiple integer (odd or even) of λ/2 and that the complex amplitude is a highly non-linear function of the optical path difference (or equivalently of the phase), one can understand that any Taylor development of this amplitude implies powers of integers. This is the link with Diophantine equations. We show how, especially in the field of interferometry, remarkable relations between powers of integers can help to solve several problems, such as achromatization of a phase shifter or deep nulling efficiency. It appears that all the research that was conducted in this frame of thinking, relates to the field of detection of exoplanets, a very active domain of astrophysics today.

  1. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  2. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  3. Optical superheterodyne receiver.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, K.; Lang, K.; Lucy, R. F.; Peters, C. J.

    1967-01-01

    Optical communication experiments to compare coherent and noncoherent optical detection fading characteristics in different weather conditions, using laser transmitter and optical superheterodyne receiver

  4. Optical Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2013-03-01

    Part I. Principles and Techniques: 1. General principles and characteristics of optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, E. B. Alexandrov and D. Budker; 2. Quantum noise in atomic magnetometers M. V. Romalis; 3. Quantum noise, squeezing, and entanglement in radio-frequency optical magnetometers K. Jensen and E. S. Polzik; 4. Mx and Mz magnetometers E. B. Alexandrov and A. K. Vershovskiy; 5. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (serf) magnetometers I. Savukov and S. J. Seltzer; 6. Optical magnetometry with modulated light D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. Pustelny, V. V. Yashchuk and D. Budker; 7. Microfabricated atomic magnetometers S. Knappe and J. Kitching; 8. Optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, P. R. Hemmer, J. R. Maze and R. L. Walsworth; 9. Magnetometry with cold atoms W. Gawlik and J. M. Higbie; 10. Helium magnetometers R. E. Slocum, D. D. McGregor and A. W. Brown; 11. Surface coatings for atomic magnetometry S. J. Seltzer, M.-A. Bouchiat and M. V. Balabas; 12. Magnetic shielding V. V. Yashchuk, S.-K. Lee and E. Paperno; Part II. Applications: 13. Remote detection magnetometry S. M. Rochester, J. M. Higbie, B. Patton, D. Budker, R. Holzlöhner and D. Bonaccini Calia; 14. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance with atomic magnetometers M. P. Ledbetter, I. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer and D. Budker; 15. Space magnetometry B. Patton, A. W. Brown, R. E. Slocum and E. J. Smith; 16. Detection of biomagnetic fields A. Ben-Amar Baranga, T. G. Walker and R. T. Wakai; 17. Geophysical applications M. D. Prouty, R. Johnson, I. Hrvoic and A. K. Vershovskiy; Part III. Broader Impact: 18. Tests of fundamental physics with optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. K. Lamoreaux and T. E. Chupp; 19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes E. A. Donley and J. Kitching; 20. Commercial magnetometers and their application D. C. Hovde, M. D. Prouty, I. Hrvoic and R. E. Slocum; Index.

  5. Optical tweezers technique and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, HongLian; Li, ZhiYuan

    2013-12-01

    Since their advent in the 1980s, optical tweezers have attracted more and more attention due to their unique non-contact and non-invasion characteristics and their wide applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medical science and nanoscience. In this paper, we introduce the basic principle, the history and typical applications of optical tweezers and review our recent experimental works on the development and application of optical tweezers technique. We will discuss in detail several technological issues, including high precision displacement and force measurement in single-trap and dual-trap optical tweezers, multi-trap optical tweezers with each trap independently and freely controlled by means of space light modulator, and incorporation of cylindrical vector optical beams to build diversified optical tweezers beyond the conventional Gaussian-beam optical tweezers. We will address the application of these optical tweezers techniques to study biophysical problems such as mechanical deformation of cell membrane and binding energy between plant microtubule and microtubule associated proteins. Finally we present application of the optical tweezers technique for trapping, transporting, and patterning of metallic nanoparticles, which can be harnessed to manipulate surface plasmon resonance properties of these nanoparticles.

  6. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  7. DESIGN OF THE RCMS LATTICE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    CARDONA,J.; KEWISCH,J.; PEGGS,S.

    2002-06-02

    THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON (RCMS) IS DESIGNED TO BE A VERY LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE ACCELERATOR. THIS IS POSSIBLE DUE TO THE SMALL BEAM SIZE THAT HAS BEEN CHOSEN EARLY DURING THE DESIGN STAGE. THIS CHOICE HAS IMPLICATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF THE LATTICE OPTICS. IN THIS PAPER, WE PRESENT AN OVERVIEW OF THE RCMS OPTICS LATTICE, THE KIND OF MAGNETS TO BE USED AND ALSO A DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIAL OPTIC MODULE THAT MATCHES THE ROTATING GANTRY WITH THE REST OF THE FIXED ACCELERATOR. TECHNIQUESDEVELOPED TO WIN ADDITIONAL SPACE BETWEEN QUADRUPOLES WITHOUT DISTRUBING BETA FUNCTIONS ARE ALSO PRESENTED.

  8. Medical care of spacecrews, (Medical care, equipment, and prophylaxis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Treatment and prevention of the physiologic problems of spacecrews are discussed. Preflight procedures, inflight monitoring and medication, and postflight examination are described. Specific factors covered include: medical screening and astronaut selection; health stabilization and exposure prevention; preflight medical examinations and training; biomedical data; medical kits; diagnosis and treatment; and implications of postflight findings.

  9. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  10. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. Scope of Submission The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Optical Ethernet feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions

  11. Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://www.ihrfoundation.org/hypertension/info/C172 Surgery Optic Nerve Fenestration When sight is at risk and drug therapy has been unsuccessful, an optic nerve fenestration (also called an optic nerve sheath ...

  12. The Royal Naval Medical Services: delivering medical operational capability. the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning.

    PubMed

    Faye, M

    2013-01-01

    This article looks to dispel the mysteries of the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning whilst giving an overview of activity within the Medical Operational Capability area of Medical Division (Med Div) within Navy Command Headquarters (NCHQ) during a period when the Royal Naval Medical Services (RNMS) have been preparing and reconfiguring medical capability for the future contingent battle spaces. The rolling exercise program has been used to illustrate the ongoing preparations taken by the Medical Operational Capability (Med Op Cap) and the Medical Force Elements to deliver medical capability in the littoral and maritime environments. PMID:24511796

  13. Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories

    PubMed Central

    Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit

  14. Medical Tourism Abroad

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hinai, Saleh S.; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed S.; Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to understand why people seek medical advice abroad given the trouble and expense this entails. The types of medical problems for which treatment abroad was sought, preferred destinations and satisfaction with the treatment were explored. A secondary aim was to give feedback to stakeholders in the health care system on how to handle this issue and meet the needs of the community. Methods: 45 patients who had recently travelled abroad for treatment were asked to complete a questionnaire or were interviewed by telephone. Results: 40 questionnaires were received. 68% of the respondents were male. Orthopaedic diseases were the most common conditions leading patients to seek treatment abroad. Thailand was the most popular destination followed by India (50% and 30% respectively). 85% of respondents went abroad for treatment only, 10% for treatment and tourism and 2.5% were healthy, but travelled abroad for a checkup. Interestingly, 15% of the participants went abroad without first seeking medical care locally. Out of those initially treated in Oman, 38.2% had no specific diagnosis and 38.2% had received treatment, but it was not effective. 73% of respondents obtained information on treatment abroad from a friend. The Internet and medical tourism offices were the least used sources of information. 15% of the patients experienced complications after their treatment abroad. Conclusion: Various facts about medical treatment abroad need to be disseminated to the public. This will necessitate greater effort in public health promotion and education. PMID:22087396

  15. Medical School Hotline

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States. PMID:25821652

  16. Integrated Medical Model Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons. B.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project.

  17. Transportation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  18. Medical therapy of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Micali, S; Grande, M; Sighinolfi, M C; De Carne, C; De Stefani, S; Bianchi, G

    2006-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis treatment has become easier and less invasive with the development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and endourologic techniques. However, medical therapy represents a well-established and complementary approach that can improve the efficacy of SWL and endourology. During recent decades, pharmacologic intervention has become more effective in stone disease: drugs can control the pain of renal colic, interfere at various levels in lithogenesis, and contribute to the expulsion of stones. It is well known that lithogenesis is a multifactorial process influenced by environmental-nutritional factors (low urinary volume, diet rich in animal protein, etc) and metabolic alterations; i.e., hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, and deficiency of stone-inhibiting factors (citrate, magnesium, glycosaminoglycans [GAGs]). Specific drugs such as citrate, allopurinol, and thiazide represent highly effective treatments for the promoting factors. Furthermore, recent findings suggest an interesting role for a phytotherapeutic agent, Phillantus niruri, and its inhibitory action on calcium oxalate crystallization related to the higher incorporation of GAGs into the calculi. Another step forward in medical management of stone disease is expulsive therapy. Many studies have proven the efficacy of medical expulsive therapy with nifedipine and alpha-blockers: their specific action on ureteral smooth muscle in association with anti-edema drugs accounts for their efficacy in expelling ureteral stones. In this paper, we provide an update on the medical treatment of stone disease, focusing our attention on what is known and what is new in renal colic and litholithic and expulsive medical therapy. PMID:17144848

  19. Design and fabrication of optical polymer waveguide devices for optical interconnects and integrated optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guomin

    Optical interconnects is a promising technique to boost the speed of electronic systems through replacing high speed electrical data buses using optical ones. Optical coherence tomography is an attractive imaging technique that has been widely used in medical imaging applications with capability of high resolution subsurface cross sectional imaging in living tissues. Both the optical interconnects and the optical coherence tomography imaging may benefit from the use of integrated optics technology in particular polymer waveguides that can be designed and fabricated to improve the device capability, system compactness, and performance reliability. In this dissertation, we first present our innovative design and realization on the polymer waveguides with 45° integrated mirrors for optical interconnects using the vacuum assisted microfluidic (VAM) soft lithography. VAM is a new microfluidic based replication technique which can be utilized to improve the performance of imprinted devices by eliminating the residue planar layer and accomplish complex devices incorporating different materials in the same layer. A prism-assisted inclined UV lithography technique is introduced to increase the slanted angles of the side walls of the microstructures and to fabricate multidirectional slanted microstructures. It is also used to fabricate 45° integrated mirrors in polymer waveguides to support surface normal optical coupling for optical interconnects. A dynamic card-to-backplane optical interconnects system has also been demonstrated based on polymer waveguides with tunable optofluidic couplers. The operation of the tunable optofluidic coupler is accomplished by controlling the position of air bubbles and index matching liquid in the perpendicular microfluidic channel for refractive index modulation. The dynamic activation and deactivation of the backplane optofluidic couplers can save the optical signal power. 10 Gbps eye diagrams of the dynamic optical interconnect link

  20. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  1. A Fibre-Optic Communications Network for Teaching Clinical Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Describes an interactive television system based on fiber-optic communications technology which is used to facilitate participation by University of London medical students in lecture/tutorials by teachers in different hospital locations. Highlights include advantages of fiber-optics, cable manufacture and installation, opto-electronic interface,…

  2. Optic nerve atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. ...

  3. Ocean optics IX

    SciTech Connect

    Blizard, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on optics and optical properties. Topics include: optical properties of water laser bathymetry, scattering from marine organisms, optically stimulated sound from bubbles, underwater laser-based imaging systems, and remote sensing of ocean physical properties.

  4. Optic nerve atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to ... problem most often affects older adults. The optic nerve can also be damaged by shock, toxins, radiation, ...

  5. Biosensors and other medical and environmental probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents a overview of work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory directed toward the development of biosensors which can be used to monitor for an array of medical and environmental effects. The article describes the variety of problems which have been addressed by development of such sensors, and the range of staff who have been actively involved in this effort. The first such sensor developed at ORNL was an optical fiber whose end was treated with an antibody which would react with the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Section titles from the article provide an idea of the breadth of applications addressed: medical telesensors; microcantilevers; detecting cancer and health abnormalities; bioreporters; miniaturized devices; biosensors and DNA analysis; lipids in bacteria and human fingerprints; and anthropometry.

  6. References to medical authors in non-medical Latin literature.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Innocenzo

    2014-01-01

    My contribution focuses on discussing the knowledge Roman non-medical authors had of medical literature. My research suggests that the medical authors known and cited belong mainly to the classical and Hellenistic age. The occasions or reasons for an intellectual in antiquity to turn his attention to medical texts were mainly twofold: to bolster a philosophical or ethical claim, and to confirm medical theories. PMID:25195323

  7. Implementation of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative: medical students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Bagala, John Paul; Macheka, Nyasha D; Abebaw, Hiwot; Wen, Leana S

    2014-08-01

    The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is contributing to the transformation of medical training in Africa. In this paper, medical students present their perspective on how MEPI initiatives have influenced five key areas related to African medical trainees: educational infrastructure, information technology, community-based training, scientific research, and professional outlook and goals. They propose three new areas of focus that could further assist MEPI in bettering medical training in Africa. PMID:25072574

  8. Optical aeronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, S.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Optical measurements of thermospheric and ionospheric processes and their interpretation are reviewed and the chemical reactions and their effects on emissions are discussed. Also included are the phenomena which excite the airglow and aurora, i.e., the solar UV/EUV flux and auroral particle precipitation. Consideration is given to solar flux, atomic emissions, molecular emissions, hydrogen geocorona, and molecular oxygen and the green line nightglow.

  9. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  10. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-07-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  11. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  12. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-08-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  13. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  14. Comparison of silica-core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Brian P.

    1991-07-01

    Silica-core optical fibers have become a standard vehicle to remotely deliver high-power laser energy from surgical lasers operating between 200 and 2400 nm. The three primary types of silica-core fibers: plastic-clad; hard-clad; and silica-clad; are discussed. The performance advantages of each are addressed and actual general-surgery medical applications are provided.

  15. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-02-07

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  16. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  17. Foveated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Kyle R.

    2016-05-01

    Foveated imaging can deliver two different resolutions on a single focal plane, which might inexpensively allow more capability for military systems. The following design study results provide starting examples, lessons learned, and helpful setup equations and pointers to aid the lens designer in any foveated lens design effort. Our goal is to put robust sensor in a small package with no moving parts, but still be able to perform some of the functions of a sensor in a moving gimbal. All of the elegant solutions are out (for various reasons). This study is an attempt to see if lens designs can solve this problem and realize some gains in performance versus cost for airborne sensors. We determined a series of design concepts to simultaneously deliver wide field of view and high foveal resolution without scanning or gimbals. Separate sensors for each field of view are easy and relatively inexpensive, but lead to bulky detectors and electronics. Folding and beam-combining of separate optical channels reduces sensor footprint, but induces image inversions and reduced transmission. Entirely common optics provide good resolution, but cannot provide a significant magnification increase in the foveal region. Offsetting the foveal region from the wide field center may not be physically realizable, but may be required for some applications. The design study revealed good general guidance for foveated optics designs with a cold stop. Key lessons learned involve managing distortion, telecentric imagers, matching image inversions and numerical apertures between channels, reimaging lenses, and creating clean resolution zone splits near internal focal planes.

  18. The medicalization of love.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D; Sandberg, Anders; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals or other emerging technologies could be used to enhance (or diminish) feelings of lust, attraction, and attachment in adult romantic partnerships. Although such interventions could conceivably be used to promote individual (and couple) well-being, their widespread development and/or adoption might lead to the 'medicalization' of human love and heartache--for some, a source of a serious concern. In this essay, we argue that the medicalization of love need not necessarily be problematic, on balance, but could plausibly be expected to have either good or bad consequences depending upon how it unfolds. By anticipating some of the specific ways in which these technologies could yield unwanted outcomes, bioethicists and others can help to direct the course of love's medicalization--should it happen to occur--more toward the 'good' side than the 'bad.' PMID:24937632

  19. [Medical education in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Barnard, H

    2002-06-15

    Modern medical training in Egypt was started by Antoine Clot Bey in 1837 and became part of the university programme in 1919. At present, it comprises six years of university education, followed by one year of internships and one year of compulsory employment with a state-owned hospital. There are now 13 medical faculties in Egypt, using three different curricula: traditional, Islamic and innovative. Their implementation is hampered by the large number of students (15,500 men and 7500 women), the low salaries and motivation of the instructors, the teaching in English rather than Arabic and the lack of recent study materials. It is therefore rather difficult to compare the effectiveness of the Egyptian system with that in the Netherlands. Due partly to the differences in language and culture, Dutch authorities are reluctant to recognise Egyptian medical diplomas. PMID:12092309

  20. Format( )MEDIC( )Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, K.

    1994-09-01

    This document is a description of a computer program called Format( )MEDIC( )Input. The purpose of this program is to allow the user to quickly reformat wind velocity data in the Model Evaluation Database (MEDb) into a reasonable 'first cut' set of MEDIC input files (MEDIC.nml, StnLoc.Met, and Observ.Met). The user is cautioned that these resulting input files must be reviewed for correctness and completeness. This program will not format MEDb data into a Problem Station Library or Problem Metdata File. A description of how the program reformats the data is provided, along with a description of the required and optional user input and a description of the resulting output files. A description of the MEDb is not provided here but can be found in the RAS Division Model Evaluation Database Description document.

  1. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. PMID:24880186

  2. Medical schools and physicians

    PubMed Central

    Troupin, James L.

    1955-01-01

    Statistics have been compiled to show the relation of the numbers of physicians, medical schools, and students to areas and populations throughout the world. Some of the figures are estimates and assumptions, and because of this the author repeatedly warns against tempting deductions and conclusions. This quantitative survey is intended to assist those responsible for over-all planning of health and medical services and indicates the needs, adequacy of numbers and future potential attainments compared to the size of the population served. In many countries an increase in the numbers of doctors is indicated and in this connexion the problem of the intake and output of medical schools is discussed. A plea is made for improved methods of collecting and recording these statistics. PMID:20604000

  3. Exploring Medical Identity Theft

    PubMed Central

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification. PMID:20169017

  4. Unsolicited medical opinion.

    PubMed

    Ratzan, R M

    1985-05-01

    By virtue of their professional ethics as healers and because of their specialized technical knowledge and clinical experience in assessing and reacting to real and potential emergencies, physicians have an obligation to offer an unsolicited medical opinion when the following conditions are met: (1) physicians assess a high probability of potentially serious disease in a stranger because of information presented to them, either in the form of a communication or physical signs; (2) physicians judge this information to be latent (not readily interpretable as potentially dangerous by the stranger) and likely to remain latent prior to the onset of symptoms; (3) the physicians possess the medical knowledge appropriate to the professional interpretation of this information. Although not a morally risk-free endeavor (invasion of privacy and the potential creation of a 'sick role' whether or not the diagnosis is correct), offering an unsolicited medical opinion under the above conditions can prevent suffering and save lives in unsuspecting strangers. PMID:4009080

  5. Exploring medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification. PMID:20169017

  6. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear. PMID:15825245

  7. Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.

  8. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  9. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena. PMID:24405197

  10. Emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Chandler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    When NASA was established in 1958, it was known that space flight would require efforts beyond those of NASA to ensure the health and safety of our astronauts. On 10 Aug. 1958, a Secretary of Defense memorandum was signed that assigned the first Department of Defense (DOD) Manager to provide support to NASA for Project Mercury. This established a chain of command through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense. The current charter is dated 19 Mar. 1986 and assigns the DOD Manager responsibilities to the Commander and Chief, US Space Command. The DOD Managers charter has many support areas and among them are recovery of astronauts and medical support. Today these efforts support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Programs. Briefly, the program works with each organization tasking the other through a requirements document. Level of care, communications, and recovery requirements are established; NASA and the DOD provide the capability to meet them. NASA is also responsible for the specialized training and equipment needed to meet these requirements. A Shuttle launch a KSC requires an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) coordinator on console to facilitate communications, ensure proper coverage, and coordinate with area hospitals. A contingent of NASA medical personnel are assembled to provide triage and medical support capabilities. The DOD provides medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) helicopters with surgeons and pararescue specialists (PJ's) or emergency medical technicians (EMT's). Each helicopter is equipped with at least one doctor and one PJ/EMT per astronaut crew member. Transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites and end of mission (EOM) sites have similar structures, with TAL sites utilizing fixed wingg aircraft for MEDEVAC. The DOD also supports contingency planning for the support and return of crew members from the Space Station Freedom. Much of this support has been directed at the recovery of crew members following the landing of an Assured Crew Return

  11. Guideline 5: Selection of Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The fifth in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on selection of medications. Guidelines cover selection of medications for psychiatric disorders, selection of medications for target symptoms, and preferred medications within different…

  12. Medical Texts for Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, John

    1978-01-01

    A list of 25 medical books for public libraries is based on a survey of central Massachusetts health librarians. The books are divided into two groups: basic texts in the major medical fields, and texts in the medical subspecialities fields. A list of additional medical bibliographies is included. (Author/JPF)

  13. Medical Scenarios Relevant to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Hurs, Victor; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) was tasked by the JSC Space Medicine and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) to incorporate medical simulation into 1) medical training for astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO) and medical flight control teams and 2) evaluations of procedures and resources required for medical care aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Development of evidence-based medical scenarios that mimic the physiology observed during spaceflight will be needed for the MOST to complete these two tasks. The MOST used a human patient simulator, the ISS-like resources in the Medical Simulation Laboratory (MSL), and evidence from space operations, military operations and medical literature to develop space relevant medical scenarios. These scenarios include conditions concerning airway management, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and mitigating anaphylactic symptoms. The MOST has used these space relevant medical scenarios to develop a preliminary space medical training regimen for NASA flight surgeons, Biomedical Flight Controllers (Biomedical Engineers; BME) and CMO-analogs. This regimen is conducted by the MOST in the MSL. The MOST has the capability to develop evidence-based space-relevant medical scenarios that can help SLSD I) demonstrate the proficiency of medical flight control teams to mitigate space-relevant medical events and 2) validate nextgeneration medical equipment and procedures for space medicine applications.

  14. Medical pedagogical resources management.

    PubMed

    Pouliquen, Bruno; Le Duff, Franck; Delamarre, Denis; Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to help the management of training resources for students using a pedagogical network available at the Medical School of Rennes. With the increase of the number of connections and the number of medical documents available on this network, the management of new contents requires a lot of efforts for the webmaster. In order to improve the management of the resources, we implemented an automatic web engine for teachers, able to manage the links for the most interesting resources for their practice. PMID:14664034

  15. Foundations of medical librarianship.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerhoff, E

    1977-01-01

    The development of medical librarianship during the last forty years is examined as reflected in the changes of its resources, technology, education, and knowledge base. A shift from historical to scientific inquiry constitutes the direction of medical librarianship. Its nexus is the gathering of information and the transfer of knowledge. The social and human resources for this ongoing change and the basis for a quest for excellence is seen in the pool of talent represented by hospital librarians and the aspirations of the women's movement for equality. PMID:332265

  16. Medical Products Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

  17. Medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy are shown. Systems using both linear and non-linear propagation of ultrasound are described. The blood velocity can also be non-invasively visualized using ultrasound and the basic signal processing for doing this is introduced. Examples for spectral velocity estimation, color flow imaging and the new vector velocity images are presented. PMID:17092547

  18. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  19. Medical Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The MD Image System, a true-color image processing system that serves as a diagnostic aid and tool for storage and distribution of images, was developed by Medical Image Management Systems, Huntsville, AL, as a "spinoff from a spinoff." The original spinoff, Geostar 8800, developed by Crystal Image Technologies, Huntsville, incorporates advanced UNIX versions of ELAS (developed by NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory for analysis of Landsat images) for general purpose image processing. The MD Image System is an application of this technology to a medical system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer, and can accept, store and analyze images from other sources such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  20. Medical Comorbidity and Complications.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Scott E; Walker, Leslie Renee

    2016-07-01

    Like their peers in the general youth population, youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC) are at risk for substance use, including nonmedical use of prescription medications. However, given dangerous disease-substance interactions, the stakes for detecting and intervening on substance use are perhaps even higher for YCMC. Given the risk for nonadherence with chronic disease management, it is incumbent on primary care providers, specialty providers, and behavioral health specialists to be vigilant in asking about substance use and providing brief counseling and referral to substance use treatment when appropriate. PMID:27338973

  1. Confidentiality and medical records

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R. V. H.; Richards, S. Jane

    1978-01-01

    Protecting confidential information disclosed to doctors has been one of the most important ethical traditions of the medical profession. However, the patient's right to such confidentiality is threatened because it is legally unclear how far ownership by Government of the paper on which NHS records are kept or of the computer system in which they are stored confers right of access. We hope the medical profession will examine this problem urgently and offer some suggestions as to how patients' confidences can continue to be protected in the future. PMID:702427

  2. Enrolled nurse medication administration.

    PubMed

    Kimberley, Anne; Myers, Helen; Davis, Sue; Keogh, Penny; Twigg, Di

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an initiative undertaken at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Perth, Western Australia to enhance the professional development of enrolled nurses to allow them to administer medications without the direct supervision of a registered nurse. This practice change proved to be a positive step for the hospital and for enrolled nurses. Benefits for patients were identified as greater continuity of care and increased timeliness of medication admiuistrqtion. The benefits for enrolled nurses were increased job satisfaction, improved morale and self esteem while the main benefit for registered nurses was decreased stres and workload. PMID:17929736

  3. A novel nanoarchitecture with optical, solar, medical and biochemical utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, M. J.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z. F.

    2009-03-01

    We discuss a nanoscale platform offering widespread utility in nanophotonics, photovoltaics, visual prosthetics, and biological and chemical sensing. As a subwavelength wave-guide architecture, these nanostructures can be used in array form for high efficiency solar cells, as well as in a wide range of nanoscale manipulations of light without deleterious plasmonic effects. They are also being developed as a high electrode-density (10^8/cm^2) retinal implant. Finally, a modification of the basic structure enables the fabrication of a highly sensitive ``nanocavity'' biochemical sensor. We will report on aspects of each application. We also thank the following collaborators: N. Argenti, D. Cai, T.C. Chiles, P. Dhakal, Y. Gao, T. Kirkpatrick, Y.C. Lan, G. McMahon, J.I. Oh, B. Rizal, J. Rybczynski.

  4. Power optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  5. Power optics

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  6. Medication Errors in Outpatient Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors may occur during parental administration of prescription and over-the-counter medications in the outpatient pediatric setting. Misinterpretation of medication labels and dosing errors are two types of errors in medication administration. Health literacy may play an important role in parents' ability to safely manage their child's medication regimen. There are several proposed strategies for decreasing these medication administration errors, including using standardized dosing instruments, using strictly metric units for medication dosing, and providing parents and caregivers with picture-based dosing instructions. Pediatric healthcare providers should be aware of these strategies and seek to implement many of them into their practices. PMID:27537086

  7. EDITORIAL: Fluctuations and noise in photonics and quantum optics: a special issue in memory of Hermann Haus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2004-08-01

    This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of fluctuational phenomena in photonics and quantum optics. The topics discussed in this issue extend from fundamental physics to applications of noise and fluctuational methods from quantum to classical systems, and include: bullet Quantum measurement bullet Quantum squeezing bullet Solitons and fibres bullet Gravitational wave inferometers bullet Fluorescence phenomena bullet Cavity QED bullet Photon statistics bullet Noise in lasers and laser systems bullet Quantum computing and information bullet Quantum lithography bullet Teleportation. This Special Issue is published in connection with the SPIE International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on 1-4 June 2003. The symposium contained six parallel conferences, and the papers in this Special Issue are connected to the conference entitled `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics'. This was the first in a series of symposia organized with the support of the SPIE that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The co-founders of the symposium series were Laszlo B Kish (Texas A&M University) and Derek Abbott (The University of Adelaide). The Chairs of the `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics' conference were Derek Abbott, Jeffrey H Shapiro and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Kristi Kelso and Marilyn Gorsuch of the SPIE, USA. Sadly, less than two weeks before the conference, Hermann A Haus passed away. Hermann Haus was a founding father of the field of noise in optics and quantum optics. He submitted three papers to the conference and was very excited to attend; as can be seen in the collection of papers, he was certainly present in spirit. In honour of his creativity and pioneering work in this field, we have

  8. Optical correlators: systems and domains of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragulinescu, Andrei; Cojoc, Dan

    2005-08-01

    The paper presents the basic concepts of the optical correlators. In our knowledge, it is the first systematic presentation of the applications of optical correlators. The main three types of optical correlators: the optical correlator in incoherent light, the optical correlator in coherent light (VanderLugt) and the joint transform correlator are presented. The optical correlators are very powerll systems used for image recognition, that perform a correlation between a bidimensional function which represents a Scene that must be analyzed and another bidimensional function that contains information about the reference function. This correlation is optically realized by a Fourier transform between the two functions. The optical Correlators have found a lot of applications for image recognition and target detection in various fields, such as the military field, robotics, medical field, industry a.s.o. Among the various applications of the optical correlators we can mention: digital fingerprints identification, credit card security, antique scripts recognition, determination of the cosmic ships and satellites behavior, amelioration of cancer tests precision, quality control etc.

  9. Parallel optical sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  10. Modernizing and Transforming Medical Education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College

    PubMed Central

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-01-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college’s medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college’s administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  11. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

    PubMed

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-08-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  12. Urologic medications and ophthalmologic side effects: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Perlis, Nathan; Radomski, Sidney B.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly prescribed urologic medications can have significant ophthalmologic side effects. The existing information can be conflicting. We looked at alpha-blockers and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS), phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and lastly anticholinergic medications and glaucoma. There is no conclusive scientific data on what to do if the risk of urinary retention is low to moderate, however, we recommend that patients having cataract surgery should stop alpha-blocker medications preoperatively. If there is a high risk of urinary retention, the alpha-blocker should not be withheld, with the active involvement of the ophthalmologist. The role of using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) can be considered. There is no convincing evidence that PDE5 inhibitors cause non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), but patients should be advised of the possible risk of visual loss, especially in patients with risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG or closed angle glaucoma) is very rarely caused by anticholinergic medications in patients with narrow angle anterior eye chambers. However, these medications are safe in patients with open angle glaucoma or treated closed angle glaucoma. Urologists should inquire about the patient’s glaucoma history from his/her ophthalmologist before starting an anticholinergic medication. PMID:22396371

  13. EDITORIAL: Recent developments in biomedical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruikang K.; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-04-01

    The rapid growth in laser and photonic technology has resulted in new tools being proposed and developed for use in the medical and biological sciences. Specifically, a discipline known as biomedical optics has emerged which is providing a broad variety of optical techniques and instruments for diagnostic, therapeutic and basic science applications. New laser sources, detectors and measurement techniques are yielding powerful new methods for the study of diseases on all scales, from single molecules, to specific tissues and whole organs. For example, novel laser microscopes permit spectroscopic and force measurements to be performed on single protein molecules; new optical devices provide information on molecular dynamics and structure to perform `optical biopsy' non-invasively and almost instantaneously; and optical coherence tomography and diffuse optical tomography allow visualization of specific tissues and organs. Using genetic promoters to derive luciferase expression, bioluminescence methods can generate molecular light switches, which serve as functional indicator lights reporting cellular conditions and responses in living animals. This technique could allow rapid assessment of and response to the effects of anti-tumour drugs, antibiotics, or antiviral drugs. This issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology highlights recent research in biomedical optics, and is based on invited contributions to the International Conference on Advanced Laser Technology (Focused on Biomedical Optics) held at Cranfield University at Silsoe on 19--23 September 2003. This meeting included sessions devoted to: diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy; optical coherence tomography and coherent domain techniques; optical sensing and applications in life science; microscopic, spectroscopic and opto-acoustic imaging; therapeutic and diagnostic applications; and laser interaction with organic and inorganic materials. Twenty-one papers are included in this special issue. The first paper

  14. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  15. Solve Medical Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

  16. Fomepizole (orphan medical).

    PubMed

    Hantson, P

    2001-06-01

    Orphan Medical has developed fomepizole as a potential treatment for both ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning. The drug was launched as Antizol in January 1998 for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning [273949] after US marketing approval was grantedin December 1997 [271563]. It has also received US approval for methanol poisoning [393217] and UK approval for ethylene glycol poisoning [329495]. In 1999, Orphan Medical's partner, Cambridge Laboratories, intended to pursue European approval under the mutual recognition procedure [329495]. However, by September 2000, Cambridge Laboratories had discontinued their involvement with fomepizole and IDIS World Medicines had licensed the rights to distribute the drug in the UK [412142]. In February 2000, the Canadian Therapeutic Products Programme (TPP) granted fomepizole Priority Review, provided that an NDA was submitted by March 14, 2000 [354665]. In August 2000, the TPP accepted this NDA and set a target date for approval in the fourth quarter of 2000 [379474]. The TPP granted fomepizole a Notice of Compliance permitting the sale of fomepizole in Canada in December 2000. The company's marketing partner in Canada, Paladin Labs had launched fomepizole by January 2001 [396953]. In June 2000, Tucker Anthony Cleary Gull stated that the Orphan Drug status which Orphan Medical had obtained for fomepizole would provide marketing exclusivity through December 2004. The analysts also stated that fomepizole had accounted for 40% of Orphan Medical's revenue in financial year 1999, although +/- 30% of sales were estimated to be due to stockpiling [409606]. PMID:16001315

  17. Undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-01

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating. Images p259-a PMID:8499026

  18. Nuclear Medical Technology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H., Ed.

    This 1-day colloquium, attended by 23 participants representing societies, government agencies, colleges and universities, and other training programs, was conducted for the purpose of reporting on and discussing the curriculums developed at the University of Cincinnati for training nuclear medical technologists. Pilot programs at both the…

  19. Denying Medical Students' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

  20. Avoiding Medical Identity Theft

    MedlinePlus

    + - START A PHR HEALTH LITERACY TOOLS + RESOURCES BLOG FAQ Accessing Your Health Records Common Privacy Myths Your Privacy Rights What is a PHR? Information ... Create a PHR Choose a PHR What is Health Literacy? Understanding Your Medical Record Glossary of Terms Health ...

  1. Reinventing the medical librarian.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R K

    1989-01-01

    The caliber of the librarian is a health sciences library's most important resource. This paper explores factors which have influenced who has, or who has not, entered the profession of medical librarianship, and discusses several attributes which the author considers critical for restructuring the profession to meet current and future needs. PMID:2790341

  2. Women in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.

    Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…

  3. Reducing medical waste.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. PMID:20510944

  4. Symposium: Teaching Medical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Stephen A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents seven brief papers reflecting workshops given at the 1994 Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Each workshop presented a teaching module concerning issues in medical geography. Methodological issues included interpretations of vital statistics and epidemiological diffusion. Theoretical issues included womens' health data…

  5. Mycetoma Medical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medical treatment of mycetoma depends on its fungal or bacterial etiology. Clinically, these entities share similar features that can confuse diagnosis, causing a lack of therapeutic response due to inappropriate treatment. This review evaluates the response to available antimicrobial agents in actinomycetoma and the current status of antifungal drugs for treatment of eumycetoma. PMID:25330342

  6. Medical Handbook for Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides information on an airline pilot's physical and mental status and related medical factors which may affect his/her performance. Contents include information on the physical examination for pilots, the flyer's environment, hypoxia, hyperventilation, gas in the body, the ears, alcohol, drugs and flying, carbon monoxide, vision,…

  7. Medical Assisting Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rose

    Eight student learning guides are provided for a medical assisting program at the secondary, postsecondary, or adult level. Each learning guide is composed of these component parts: a title page that states the task, purpose, program and task numbers, estimated time, and prerequisites; an optional learning contract that includes terminal…

  8. My Medicated Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee Burdette

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author, director of Watauga College and residential learning communities at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina, shares her experience dealing with first year college students who are taking medication to manage depression, anxiety, or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. She stresses that this is a…

  9. Slow medical education.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians. PMID:25426738

  10. Medical imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  11. Medical Oxygen Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the air a patient uses to breathe. Fire needs oxygen to burn. If a fire should start in an oxygen-enriched area, the ... Homes where medical oxygen is used need specific fire safety rules to keep people safe from fire ...

  12. Medical Laser Industry Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Mike

    1989-06-01

    What I want to do now is go through the entire market, as it exists now, the medical market, segment by segment, and estimate market size for each segment, as well as indicate what the predominant trends are in each segment. So, Fig. 1 will serve as an overview for the entire talk. This should put the whole thing in perspective.

  13. PONCE MEDICAL SCHOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 has funded an environmental allergen study to be conducted in the Bayamon region of Puerto Rico, by the University of Ponce Medical School. Measurements of the standard environmental allergens (dust mite, cockroach, cat, etc.) will be made in the homes of asthmatic ...

  14. Evaluation of Medical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Howard S.; Hiatt, Howard H.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of a medical intervention requires measurements of both its benefits and risks as compared to those of alternative forms of management. The requisite measurements are more difficult to make than this description suggests, and the accumulation of information is inhibited by certain characteristics of our pattern of health…

  15. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  16. Professionalism in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…

  17. Optical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A wide angle, low focal ratio, high resolution, catoptric, image plane scanner is described. The scanner includes the following features: (1) a reflective improvement on the Schmidt principle, (2) a polar line scanner in which all field elements are brought to and corrected on axis, and (3) a scanner arrangement in which the aperture stop of the system is imaged at the center of curvature of a spherical primary mirror. The system scans are a large radial angle and an extremely high rate of speed with relatively small scanning mirrors. Because the system is symmetrical about the optical axis, the obscuration is independent of the scan angle.

  18. Optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  19. Optical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, J. J.; Gundersen, J.; Lee, A. T.; Richards, P. L.; Wollack, E.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes contributions to the CMBpol Technology Study Workshop concerning optical coupling structures. These are structures in or near the focal plane which convert the free space wave to a superconducting microstrip on a SI wafer, or to the waveguide input to a HEMT receiver. In addition to an introduction and conclusions by the editor, this paper includes independent contributions by Bock on 'Planar Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarimetry', by Gunderson and Wollack on 'Millimeter-Wave Platlet Feeds', and by Lee on 'Multi-band Dual-Polarization Lens-coupled Planar Antennas for Bolometric CMB polarimetry.'

  20. Optical microphone

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.