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Sample records for abbott park il

  1. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral capsules held by Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott), 100 Abbott Park Rd., Abbott Park, IL 60064. Abbott has voluntarily requested that approval of this application be withdrawn, thereby waiving its opportunity for a...

  2. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...- 17-09); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 8052... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area Pursuant to its authority under the...

  4. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on February 24, 2011, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories... location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division. The Department has determined that these...

  5. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in 2004-05,…

  6. "A Prairie Childhood" by Edith Abbott: An Excerpt from "The Children's Champion," a Biography of Grace Abbott

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John

    2003-01-01

    Grace Abbott's courageous struggles--to protect the rights of immigrants, to increase the role of women in government, and to improve the lives of all children--are filled with adventurous tales of the remarkable human ability to seek out suffering and to do something about it. "A Prairie Childhood" is an excerpt from the Grace Abbott biography…

  7. 78 FR 77771 - PennantPark SBIC Il, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that PennantPark SBIC II, LP, 1590 Madison... exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts...

  8. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  9. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  10. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  11. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  12. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... on-site at the Santa Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology... International, reporting to Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site...

  13. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by Education Law Center and…

  14. Women in History--Grace Abbott: A Leader in Social Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari Cole

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Grace Abbott, one of the earlier 20th century American women leaders in Progressivism. Abbott's heritage influenced her lifetime commitment to social improvement. She was born on November 17, 1878 in Grand Island, Nebraska into a family of activists. Her Quaker mother, Elizabeth Griffin Abbott, came from an abolitionist…

  15. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  16. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report: Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite-Coney, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  17. The Instructional Guide for Abbott Skills Enhancement Classes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Ronda; Gee, Mary Kay

    This guide, which integrates adult basic education (ABE) curriculum, job skills for Abbott Laboratories, and work-related foundation skills, is designed for an instructional program in the skill areas of reading, writing, oral communications, mathematics, and problem solving. In addition to creating a uniform process and product to promote…

  18. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    PubMed

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products. PMID:22493409

  19. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ..., Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc., submitted a notification for expanded... FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77...

  20. Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study: Fifth Grade Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Youn, Min-Jong; Frede, Ellen C.

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey's Abbott Preschool program is of broad national and international interest because the Abbott program provides a model for building a high-quality system of universal pre-K through public-private partnerships that transform the existing system. The program offers high-quality pre-K to all children in 31 New Jersey communities with high…

  1. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... (Board Order 611, 12/ 14/1991, 57 FR 61045, 12/14/1992) and authority was later expanded in 1999 and 2009 (Board Order 1051, 8/30/1999, 64 FR 48578, 9/7/1999 and Board Order 1654, 12/18/2009, 75 FR 340-341, 1/5... compounds; radioactive residues; elements, isotopes and compounds with cobalt-60 radioactivity only;...

  2. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used

  3. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Results: Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. Conclusion: The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required. PMID:26649001

  4. Fulfilling the Promise of Abbott: The Lighthouse Assessment Process--Improving Programs through Measured Outcomes. Policy Progress, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to better prepare young children for the challenges of kindergarten and first grade, the Supreme Court of New Jersey, in its 1998 landmark decision of "Abbott v. Burke" (Abbott V), required the State's poorest school districts to implement high quality, intensive preschool for all 3-and 4-year old children. To take advantage of the…

  5. AUTOMATED BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL FISH PATHOGENS USING THE ABBOTT QUANTUM II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quantum II, originally designed by Abbott Diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of Enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. he instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. ample cartri...

  6. Early Childhood Education: The Sustainability of the Benefits of Preschool Participation in Abbott Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The landmark New Jersey Supreme Court school funding case, "Abbott v. Burke", established the availability of preschool for all three- and four-year-olds living within the state's thirty-one poorest districts as a means of eradicating the effects of poverty. Longitudinal studies have shown the value of high quality preschool programs for improving…

  7. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  8. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 4283, 1/25/2011) and... Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant to its Authority Under the... 153, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.,...

  9. Preconcepts in Physics. Report to the John Abbott College Research and Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, L. O.

    This study was conducted to examine the basic conceptual knowledge and understanding of physics possessed by students enrolled in introductory physics, mechanics and waves and optics courses at John Abbott College (JAC). The study used a 36-item multiple-choice test of physics preconcepts developed by Halloun and Hestenes. The Halloun and Hestenes…

  10. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing. PMID:19000975

  11. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  12. Cytomegalovirus quantification in plasma with Abbott RealTime CMV and Roche Cobas Amplicor CMV assays.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maxime-Antoine; Rodrigue, Marc-André; Deschênes, Louise; Boivin, Guy; Longtin, Jean

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the performance of Abbott RealTime CMV assay (ARC) compared to Roche Cobas Amplicor CMV Monitor Test (RCM) for quantification of CMV in plasma of transplant patients. Commercial panels were used to test linearity, precision and interference and 83 clinical samples were used for the accuracy and precision analyses. All 43 RCM-positive clinical samples tested positive by ARC. The overall concordance between the two tests was good (98%). Based on 17 samples, the inter-assay median coefficient of variation was 13%. A linearity panel ranging from approximately 1 to 7log10copies/mL was used to confirm linearity (R(2)=0.99). CMV viral load measurement was not affected by different concentrations of HSV-1 or EBV DNA. We conclude that The Abbott RealTime CMV assay offers good sensitivity, precision and linearity and is suitable for monitoring CMV viral loads in transplant recipients. Standardization with the WHO CMV standard allows for comparison with other assays. PMID:26341060

  13. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  14. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  15. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity. PMID:20027770

  16. 15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  17. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories. PMID:26071001

  18. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  19. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  20. Hidden processes in structural representations: A reply to Abbott, Austerweil, and Griffiths (2015).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael N; Hills, Thomas T; Todd, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    In recent work exploring the semantic fluency task, we found evidence indicative of optimal foraging policies in memory search that mirror search in physical environments. We determined that a 2-stage cue-switching model applied to a memory representation from a semantic space model best explained the human data. Abbott, Austerweil, and Griffiths demonstrate how these patterns could also emerge from a random walk applied to a network representation of memory based on human free-association norms. However, a major representational issue limits any conclusions that can be drawn about the process model comparison: Our process model operated on a memory space constructed from a learning model, whereas their model used human behavioral data from a task that is quite similar to the behavior they attempt to explain. Predicting semantic fluency (e.g., how likely it is to say cat after dog in a sequence of animals) from free association (how likely it is to say cat when given dog as a cue) should be possible with a relatively simple retrieval mechanism. The 2 tasks both tap memory, but they also share a common process of retrieval. Assuming that semantic memory is a network from free-association behavior embeds variance due to the shared retrieval process directly into the representation. A simple process mechanism is then sufficient to simulate semantic fluency because much of the requisite process complexity may already be hidden in the representation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120911

  1. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  2. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  3. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  4. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... images of northeastern South Africa, near Kruger National Park, were acquired on September 7, 2000. The left image shows an 85-kilometer ... Sep 7, 2000 Images:  Kruger Park location:  Africa thumbnail:  ...

  5. NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

  6. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  7. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  8. Orienting Park Visitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

  9. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. PMID:26085611

  10. Comparison of Perceptions of "Preparedness" of John Abbott C.E.G.E.P. Nursing Graduates: Prior to Graduation and After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iton, Carmen; Sabiston, Judy

    A study of John Abbott College's nursing graduates was conducted to determine how well prepared for their professional responsibilities the graduates saw themselves just prior to graduation and later after working in the nursing field. A sample of 98 nursing students who graduated between 1986 and 1988 was surveyed, with 93% responding to the…

  11. Characterization of Samples Identified as Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 without Subtype by Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II Assay Using the New Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO Test

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Camelia; Ebel, Anne; Reinhardt, Birgit; Merlin, Sandra; Proust, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping continues to be relevant for therapeutic strategies. Some samples are reported as genotype 1 (gt 1) without subtype by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (GT II) test. To characterize such samples further, the Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO (Plus) assay, which targets the core region for gt 1a, gt 1b, and gt 6 detection, was evaluated as a reflex test in reference to NS5B or 5′-untranslated region (UTR)/core region sequencing. Of 3,626 routine samples, results of gt 1 without subtype were received for 171 samples (4.7%), accounting for 11.5% of gt 1 specimens. The Plus assay and sequencing were applied to 98 of those samples. NS5B or 5′-UTR/core region sequencing was successful for 91/98 specimens (92.9%). Plus assay and sequencing results were concordant for 87.9% of specimens (80/91 samples). Sequencing confirmed Plus assay results for 82.6%, 85.7%, 100%, and 89.3% of gt 1a, gt 1b, gt 6, and non-gt 1a/1b/6 results, respectively. Notably, 12 gt 6 samples that had been identified previously as gt 1 without subtype were assigned correctly here; for 25/28 samples reported as “not detected” by the Plus assay, sequencing identified the samples as gt 1 with subtypes other than 1a/1b. The genetic variability of HCV continues to present challenges for the current genotyping platforms regardless of the applied methodology. Samples identified by the GT II assay as gt 1 without subtype can be further resolved and reliably characterized by the new Plus assay. PMID:26582834

  12. 76 FR 80393 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Field Museum of Natural History has completed... Field Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects...

  13. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  14. 78 FR 55219 - Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL... zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan near Burnham Park during a...

  15. 5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  16. 75 FR 5104 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Madison County Historical Society, Edwardsville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Madison County Historical Society, Edwardsville, IL... inventory of human remains in the possession of the Madison County Historical Society, Edwardsville, IL. The... made by Madison County Historical Society professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  17. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from various... made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  18. 75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from near or in... History professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Confederated Tribes of the...

  19. 75 FR 438 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History...

  20. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human... remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation...

  1. Future Trends in Park Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

    1986-01-01

    The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)

  2. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  3. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  4. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  5. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  6. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  7. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  8. High School Parking Lots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reorganization of the site of Ben Davis High School in Wayne Township, Indiana as an example of improvements to school parking lot design and vehicle/pedestrian traffic flow and security. Includes design drawings. (EV)

  9. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  10. mTOR Mediates IL-23 Induction of Neutrophil IL-17 and IL-22 Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feidi; Cao, Anthony; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Liu, Han; Wu, Wei; Carlsen, Eric D; Dann, Sara M; Soong, Lynn; Sun, Jiaren; Zhao, Qihong; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-05-15

    It has been shown recently that neutrophils are able to produce IL-22 and IL-17, which differentially regulate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is still largely unknown how the neutrophil production of IL-22 and IL-17 is regulated, and their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we found that IL-23 promoted neutrophil production of IL-17 and IL-22. IL-23 stimulated the neutrophil expression of IL-23R as well as rorc and ahr. Retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ t and aryl-hydrocarbon receptor differentially regulated IL-23 induction of neutrophil IL-17 and IL-22. In addition, IL-23 induced the activation of mTOR in neutrophils. Blockade of the mTOR pathway inhibited IL-23-induced expression of rorc and ahr, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 production. By using a microbiota Ag-specific T cell-mediated colitis model, we demonstrated that depletion of neutrophils, as well as blockade of IL-22, resulted in a significant increase in the severity of colitis, thereby indicating a protective role of neutrophils and IL-22 in chronic colitis. Collectively, our data revealed that neutrophils negatively regulate microbiota Ag-specific T cell induction of colitis, and IL-23 induces neutrophil production of IL-22 and IL-17 through induction of rorc and ahr, which is mediated by the mTOR pathway. PMID:27067005

  11. Strategies targeting the IL-4/IL-13 axes in disease.

    PubMed

    May, Richard D; Fung, Michael

    2015-09-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are pleiotropic Th2 cytokines produced by a wide variety of different cell types and responsible for a broad range of biology and functions. Physiologically, Th2 cytokines are known to mediate host defense against parasites but they can also trigger disease if their activities are dysregulated. In this review we discuss the rationale for targeting the IL-4/IL-13 axes in asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, COPD, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune disease and fibrotic disease as well as evaluating the associated clinical data derived from blocking IL-4, IL-13 or IL-4 and IL-13 together. PMID:26255210

  12. Premarket Evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay

    PubMed Central

    Espino, A. A.; Maceira, V. P.; Nattanmai, S. M.; Butt, S. A.; Wroblewski, D.; Hannett, G. E.; Musser, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories. PMID:24554744

  13. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    PubMed Central

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Results Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Conclusion Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control. PMID:26981018

  14. Abbott RealTime PCR assay is useful for evaluating virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the utility of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay (ART) for the monitoring of chronic hepatitis C patients. The serum samples of 183 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b who had completed a 48-week period of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment were prospectively analyzed. Serum HCV RNA levels were measured both by ART and by the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor test, version2.0 (CAM) at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 of treatment, and at 24 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). A significant positive correlation of pretreatment HCV RNA levels was found between ART and CAM (r = 0.595, P < 0.0001). Of the 183 patients, 66 (36.0%) achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The logarithmic decline of the HCV RNA level from the pretreatment level determined by ART in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients at all time points tested. The logarithmic decline determined by CAM in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients only at week 4, but there was no significant difference at other weeks. Of 124 patients who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by ART, 58 (46.8%) had a relapse of viremia at 24 weeks after EOT, whereas 77 of 143 patients (53.8%) who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by CAM had a relapse. The relapse rate was lower when determined by ART than by CAM, but not significantly so. ART is more useful than CAM for evaluating the virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:21528383

  15. Parking management tactics. Volume 3: reference guide. [Parking

    SciTech Connect

    DiRenzo, J.F.; Cima, B.; Barber, E.

    1981-06-01

    Information contained in this guide was formulated from parking management experiences of 20 cities previously investigated and documented. The guide provides information on the planning, implementation, and operation of six types of parking management tactics: on-street parking supply tactics, off-street parking supply tactics for activity centers, fringe and corridor parking facilities, pricing tactics, enforcement and adjudication tactics, and marketing tactics. The guide assesses the essential aspects of the tactics as well as presents some useful analysis procedures for evaluating parking management actions. The Reference Guide is a stand-alone document for use by transportation planners and traffic engineers. It is the third volume of a three-volume series of reports on parking management. The first volume, entitled Overview, is designed for management. The second volume, entitled Overview and Case Studies, is designed for technical staff or managers who want detailed city-by-city information on parking management tactics.

  16. FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  18. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well. PMID:24949298

  19. Park Z-epicanthoplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I; Park, Min S

    2007-08-01

    Numerous procedures to eliminate medial epicanthal folds have been described. Despite an abundance of available procedures, most surgeons are reluctant to perform medial epicanthoplasty for Asian eyelid cosmetic surgery because of frequent development of unsightly scars. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty differs from the previously described procedures by placement of the incision within, as opposed to adjacent to, the eyelid skin. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty is most beneficial in type III epicanthal folds and is also widely used for type II epicanthal folds. It is most useful for individuals seeking higher double folds and outer-parallel-type double eyelid folds. PMID:17658430

  20. Commentary: IL-4 and IL-13 receptors and signaling.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Sarah M; Heller, Nicola M

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 were discovered approximately 30years ago and were immediately linked to allergy and atopic diseases. Since then, new roles for IL-4 and IL-13 and their receptors in normal gestation, fetal development and neurological function and in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis have been appreciated. Studying IL-4/-13 and their receptors has revealed important clues about cytokine biology and led to the development of numerous experimental therapeutics. Here we aim to highlight new discoveries and consolidate concepts in the field of IL-4 and IL-13 structure, receptor regulation, signaling and experimental therapeutics. PMID:26187331

  1. Parking in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeba, P.

    2007-10-01

    We show that the spacing distribution between parked cars can be obtained as a solution of certain linear distributional fixed point equation. The results are compared with the data measured on the streets of Hradec Krälový. We also discuss a relation of these results to the random matrix theory.

  2. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  3. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  4. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  5. Pinnacles National Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-01-25

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3641, which became Public Law 112-245 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Exploring Jurassic Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Wiley, Clyde

    1993-01-01

    Describes several student-tested activities built around "Jurassic Park." The activities feature students engaged in role-playing scenarios, investigative research projects, journal writing and communications skills activities, cooperative learning groups, and learning experiences that make use of reading skills and mathematical knowledge. (PR)

  7. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique. ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR category:  ...

  8. Erythropoiesis: Short Report: Translation of Analysis Results between Serum Ferritin Assays, Ferritin RIA AmershamTM and Abbott AxSYMTM Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Milman, NILS; Byg, KELD-ERIK; Juul-Jørgensen, BIRGIT; Weis Bentzon, MICHAEL

    1999-01-01

    The serum ferritin assays, Ferritin RIA Amersham(TM) and Abbott AxSYM(TM) Ferritin were compared in order to translate values from one assay to the other. Serum ferritin was analysed with both assays in 102 samples. Logarithmic transformation of the results was performed in order to stabilize the variance. The relationship between the untransformed values was most exactly expressed by a proportionality: AxSYM Ferritin = 0.873 * RIA Ferritin. Due to this proportionality, the numerical difference between the assays increases with the ferritin concentration, although the percentage difference between the assays remains constant. PMID:11399562

  9. IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis: A novel therapeutic target for neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed

    Cross, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    Healthy and septic human neonates have elevated serum IL-18 levels compared with adults. Using a murine neonatal model of intraabdominal sepsis with systemic (intraperitoneal) IL-18 complementation, Wynn et al. report that IL-18 potentiated mortality in both neonatal sepsis and endotoxemia through the induction of IL-17A, and depended on IL-1 receptor 1 signaling (but not IL-1β). They propose that targeting this IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis may improve outcomes for human neonates with sepsis. However, given the important roles of Th17 responses and IL-18 in host defenses, some caution is in order during a potentially microbe-induced septic process in neonates. The important differences in neonatal and adult responses to sepsis highlighted in this paper emphasize the need for further study of the immune responses of neonates. PMID:27434223

  10. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott Avantage system for identification of frequently isolated nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Dyke, J W; Helgeson, N G; Cooper, B H; Redding, J S; Crawford, S A; Andruszewski, M T; Prowant, S A

    1984-01-01

    The capability of the Abbott Avantage system to identify 10 species of commonly isolated glucose nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli in a 5-h test period was evaluated in a collaborative study. The Avantage nonenteric data base uses 20 biochemical test reactions performed in an expanded Abbott bacterial identification cartridge plus the results of a manual oxidase test. The species included in the Avantage data base are Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter Iwoffi, Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium meningosepticum-IIb group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pasteurella multocida, and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The collaborative study included the testing of 200 coded challenge strains in all three laboratories and the subsequent testing of an additional group of 100 to 200 clinical isolates recovered independently by each laboratory. Reference identifications for all isolates were determined by conventional biochemical test reactions. The overall accuracy of identification of the coded challenge strains for the three laboratories was 97%, whereas 95% of 437 clinical isolates and selected stock cultures of clinical derivation were identified correctly. PMID:6392323

  11. Helping You Buy ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  12. The energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

  13. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  14. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY... deviation to the Chicago Air and Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action...

  15. 77 FR 23504 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL AGENCY... inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control...

  16. 78 FR 2436 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL AGENCY... inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control...

  17. Assessment of hydrologic and water quality data collected in Abbotts Lagoon watershed, Point Reyes National Seashore, California, during water years 1999 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Saleh, Dina K.; Zamora, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Abbotts Lagoon is part of Point Reyes National Seashore, located about 40 miles northwest of San Francisco and about 20 miles south of Bodega Bay. Water-quality samples were collected quarterly during water year 1999 at a site in each of three connected lagoons that make up Abbotts Lagoon and at a site in its most significant tributary. The quarterly samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a. A bed-sediment sample was collected in each lagoon during August 1999 and was analyzed for organic carbon, iron, and total phosphorus. Seven tributaries were sampled during a February 1999 storm and four during an April 1999 storm. These samples were analyzed only for nutrients. One storm sample collected in April 1999 from a tributary downstream of the I Ranch dairy was analyzed for a suite of 47 compounds indicative of wastewater. Continuous water-level recorders were installed in the most significant tributary and the two largest lagoons for portions of the study. A water budget analysis for an April 2000 storm indicated that the main tributary accounted for 85 percent of surface inflows to Abbotts Lagoon. The portion of the surface inflow from the main tributary was lower in the February 1999 storms and is a function of upstream storage and vegetative growth in the tributary basins. Another water budget analysis for a period of no surface inflow (June and July 2000) indicated that the net ground-water contribution was an outflow (seepage) from Abbotts Lagoon of about 0.3 ft3/s. Salinity increased and nutrient concentrations decreased from upstream to downstream in the chain of lagoons. The lower lagoon, nearest the ocean, had less organic carbon and total phosphorus in the bed sediment than the upper lagoons. The two tributaries originating in the I Ranch dairy had the highest concentrations of nutrients in storm runoff, and the highest loading rates and yields of ammonia and phosphorus. These tributaries account for only 10.3 percent of the area

  18. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  19. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  20. [ABACTO-SCREEN: a new system for the rapid screening of bacteriuria. Evaluation of the precision versus the traditional methods and compared with the Abbott MS-2].

    PubMed

    Allocca, F; Campolmi, M; Guarnieri, M; Verdiani, S; Alegente, G

    1987-09-01

    ABACTO-SCREEN is an automated turbidimetric system for rapid screening of bacteriuria composed by a multichannel photometric instrument and an original disposable. In this study the system has shown good sensitivity (6.9% of false negative results on the true positives) and specificity (22.4% of false positive results on the true negatives) when on assuming 100,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml as a threshold of positivity. Comparison with Abbott MS-2 has revealed better performances for sensitivity and comparable specificity. False negatives analysis has revealed probable influence of anaerobic bacteria in the plate counting or slowing in culture broth growth cause by antimicrobial substances in urine samples. PMID:3332379

  1. IL-17 promotes murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Amarilyo, Gil; Lourenço, Elaine V; Shi, Fu-Dong; La Cava, Antonio

    2014-07-15

    The proinflammatory activity of IL-17-producing Th17 cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. In this article, we provide direct evidence for a role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The induction of SLE by pristane in IL-17-sufficient wild-type mice did not occur in IL-17-deficient mice, which were protected from development of lupus autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis. The protection from SLE in IL-17-deficient mice was associated with a reduced frequency of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells and an expansion of CD4(+) regulatory T cells, and did not depend on Stat-1 signaling. These data affirm the key role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of SLE and strengthen the support for IL-17 blockade in the therapy of SLE. PMID:24920843

  2. Salute to the National Park Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.

    1976-01-01

    Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)

  3. IL-10 regulates murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhinan; Bahtiyar, Gul; Zhang, Na; Liu, Lanzhen; Zhu, Ping; Robert, Marie E; McNiff, Jennifer; Madaio, Michael P; Craft, Joe

    2002-08-15

    MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr); MRL-Fas(lpr)) mice develop a spontaneous lupus syndrome closely resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. To define the role of IL-10 in the regulation of murine lupus, IL-10 gene-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) MRL-Fas(lpr) (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-)) mice were generated and their disease phenotype was compared with littermates with one or two copies of an intact IL-10 locus (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/-) and MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/+) mice, respectively). MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice developed severe lupus, with earlier appearance of skin lesions, increased lymphadenopathy, more severe glomerulonephritis, and higher mortality than their IL-10-intact littermate controls. The increased severity of lupus in MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice was closely associated with enhanced IFN-gamma production by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and increased serum concentration of IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. The protective effect of IL-10 in this lupus model was further supported by the observation that administration of rIL-10 reduced IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibody production in wild-type MRL-Fas(lpr) animals. In summary, our results provide evidence that IL-10 can down-modulate murine lupus through inhibition of pathogenic Th1 cytokine responses. Modulation of the level of IL-10 may be of potential therapeutic benefit for human lupus. PMID:12165544

  4. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  5. Reconstitution of ST2 (IL-1R4) specific for IL-33 activity; no suppression by IL-1Ra though a common chain IL-1R3 (IL-1RAcP) shared with IL-1.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Eunsom; Kwak, Areum; Lee, Jungmin; Hong, Jaewoo; Lee, Jongho; Youn, Sulah; Bae, Suyoung; Kim, Busun; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kang, Tae-Bong; Her, Erk; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Youngmin; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptors are composed of ST2 (also known as IL-1R4), a ligand binding chain, and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP, also known as IL-1R3), a signal transducing chain. IL-1R3 is a common receptor for IL-1α, and IL-1β, IL-33, and three IL-36 isoforms. A549 human lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to IL-1α and IL-1β but not respond to IL-33. The lack of responsiveness to IL-33 is due to ST2 expression. ST2 was stably transfected into A549 cells to reconstitute its activity. RT-PCR and FACS analysis confirmed ST2 expression on the cell surface of A549/ST2 cells. Upon IL-33 stimulation, A549/ST2 cells induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner while A549/mock cells remained unresponsive. There was no difference in IL-1α and IL-1β activity in A549/ST2 cells compared to A549/mock cells despite the fact that IL-33 shares IL-1R3 with IL-1α/β. IL-33 activated inflammatory signaling molecules in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Anti-ST2 antibody and soluble recombinant ST2-Fc abolished IL-33-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in A549/ST2 cells but the IL-1 receptor antagonist failed to block IL-33-induced cytokines. This result demonstrates for the first time the reconstitution of ST2 in A549 human lung epithelial cell line and verified its function in IL-33-mediated cytokine production and signal transduction. PMID:27031441

  6. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  7. IL-15 temporally reorients IL-10 biased B-1a cells toward IL-12 expression.

    PubMed

    Kanti Ghosh, Amlan; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is known to strongly modulate T-cell function; however, its role in controlling mucosal immunity, including its ability to modulate B-1a cell activity, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that IL-15 upregulates activation molecules and the costimulatory molecule CD80 on viable B-1a cells. Cell activation was accompanied by the depletion of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-G, an inhibitor of cell activation that is present on B-1a cells. The IL-15 receptor CD122 was stimulated on B-1a cells by the cytokine showing its direct involvement in IL-15-mediated responses. IL-10 is responsible for the long term survival of B-1a cells in culture, which is initially promoted by IL-15. The upregulation of IL-10 was followed by the appearance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 in the presence of IL-15 and the loss of IL-10. This resulted in the cells switching to IL-12 expression. This anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory shift in the B-1a cell character was independent of the cell-specific marker CD5, which remained highly expressed throughout the in vitro life of the cells. The presence of the immunosuppressive receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L2 were features of a predominantly IL-10 response. PD-1 and PD-L2 can mediate juxtacrine signaling. However, the abrogation of PD-1 and its ligand was observed when the cells expressed IL-12. This demonstrates an inverse relationship between the receptor and ligand and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. The induction of IgM and IgA, which can play pivotal roles in mucosal immunity, was promoted in the presence of IL-15. Collectively, the data implicate IL-15 as the master cytokine that induces B-1a cells to mount a mucosal immune response. PMID:25748019

  8. Perception of urban park soundscape.

    PubMed

    Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

  9. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  10. IL-21 Signaling in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Warren J.; Wan, Chi-Keung

    2016-01-01

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine produced by T cells and natural killer T cells that has pleiotropic actions on a wide range of immune and non-immune cell types. Since its discovery in 2000, extensive studies on the biological actions of IL-21 have been performed in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports describing patients with primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations of IL21 or IL21R have further deepened our knowledge of the role of this cytokine in host defense. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that mediate IL-21’s actions has provided the rationale for targeting IL-21 and IL-21 downstream mediators for therapeutic purposes. The use of next-generation sequencing technology has provided further insights into the complexity of IL-21 signaling and has identified transcription factors and co-factors involved in mediating the actions of this cytokine. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the biology and signaling of IL-21 and how this knowledge can be potentially translated into clinical settings. PMID:26966515

  11. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  12. Free IL-15 Is More Abundant Than IL-15 Complexed With Soluble IL-15 Receptor-α in Murine Serum: Implications for the Mechanism of IL-15 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara G; Quinn, LeBris S

    2016-03-01

    IL-15 is a cytokine that is part of the innate immune system, as well as a proposed myokine released from skeletal muscle during physical exercise that mediates many of the positive physiological effects of exercise. Many of the immune functions of IL-15 are mediated by juxtacrine signaling via externalized IL-15 bound to membrane-associated IL-15 receptor-α (IL-15Rα). Serum and plasma samples also contain measurable concentrations of IL-15, believed to arise from proteolytic cleavage of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to generate soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα species. Here, we validate commercial assays that can distinguish the free form of IL-15 and IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes. These assays showed that most (86%) IL-15 in mouse serum resides in the free state, with a minor proportion (14%) residing in complex with IL-15Rα. Given the much shorter half-life of free IL-15 compared with IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes, these findings cast doubt on the currently accepted model for IL-15 secretion from cleavage of membrane-bound IL-15/IL-15Rα and suggest that IL-15 is released as a free molecule by an unknown mechanism. PMID:26812159

  13. IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in gyneco-obstetric infections.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Beatriz; Giménez, Francisco; López, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy. METHODS: The selected patients were: healthy or control group (n = 52), those with bacterial vaginosis (n = 47), those with vaginitis (n = 37), those with asymptomatic urinary infection (n = 15) and post-treatment. The level of cytokines was assayed by ELISA test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The IL-1beta levels in vaginal discharge were: control 103.5 +/- 24.2 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 1030 +/- 59.5, vaginitis 749.14 +/- 66.7l ( p < 0.0001), post-treatment 101.4 +/- 28.7. IL-6 values were similar in both control and infected groups, and there were no patients with chorioamnionitis. In vaginal discharge IL-6: control 14.2 +/- 3.9 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 13.2 +/- 3.8, vaginitis 13 +/- 4.2. IL-8 levels were: control 1643 +/- 130.3 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 2612.7 +/- 257.7, vaginitis 3437 +/- 460 (p < 0.0001), post-treatment 1693 +/- 126.6. In urine the results were: control 40.2 +/- 17 pg/ml, asymptomatic urinary infection 1200.7 +/- 375 (p < 0.0001). In patients with therapeutic success both IL-1beta and IL-8 returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Genitourinary infections induce a significant increase in IL-1beta and IL-8 levels in vaginal secretions, and IL-8 in urine as well. Both cytokines could be useful as evolutive markers of infection. PMID:16338780

  14. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  15. Vandal-Proof Your Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, J. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 380 park maintenance and facility managers to a questionnaire provided information on how they try to prevent vandalism affecting signs, picnic and related services, and sanitary facilities. (CB)

  16. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  17. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  18. IL-1β Suppresses Innate IL-25 and IL-33 Production and Maintains Helminth Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Maslowski, Kendle M.; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1β in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1β (IL-1β−/−), or treated with the soluble IL-1βR antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1β acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1β that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. PMID:23935505

  19. Role of IL-25 in Immunity.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Azar; Khosravi, Afra; Zadeh, Layla Jafar; Parizad, Elaheh Gholami

    2015-04-01

    IL-25 a 2o KDa protein mostly known as IL-17E, encoded by chromosome 14, and containing 117 amino acids. Cytokine IL-17 family consists of 6 members; IL-17A to IL-17F, among which IL-25 has a unique structure and function. The receptor of IL-25 (IL-17BR) is highly expressed in the main Th2 cells. IL-25 regulates the internal safety of adaptive immune responses which leads to begin allergic diseases and plays a role in stimulation of pulmonary mucosal cells and fibroblasts. IL-25 can also have some effects on production of other cytokines. For instance, production of IL-25 in human and mice or injection of IL-25 to animals has resulted in production of high concentrations of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Pilot studies have shown that mRNA of IL-25 has a high expression in Th2 cells. However, the mechanism through which IL-25 leads to Th2 immune response is still unknown. Reaction between IL-25 and IL-17BR leads to activation of transcription factors, such as NF-KB, STAT6, GATA3, NF-ATC1, JUNNB, MAPK, and JNK. IL-25 has been used against the kidney damage in mice. A large number of researchers in various countries, including the U.S. and Taiwan, have stated that IL-25 is a strong inflammatory cytokine protein which is involved in allergic inflammations. PMID:26023586

  20. Comparison of the BD Directigen Flu A+B Kit and the Abbott TestPack RSV with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA for rapid detection of influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Gröndahl, B; Puppe, W; Weigl, J; Schmitt, H-J

    2005-10-01

    The Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and the Abbott TestPack RSV enzyme immunoassay were each compared with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA by testing 635 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged < 16 years who had been hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infection during the epidemic season 2002-2003. In this study, the sensitivity of the Directigen Flu A+B assay was unacceptably low (29.3% and 10.0%, respectively) for the detection of influenza A and B viruses. The sensitivity of the Abbott TestPack RSV assay (77.4%) was acceptable and in agreement with the multiplex RT-PCR ELISA. PMID:16153263

  1. Anticancer Cytokines: Biology and Clinical Effects of IFN-α2, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21, and IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Theofanis; Tarhini, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts over nearly four decades have focused on ways to use cytokines to manipulate the host immune response towards cancer cell recognition and eradication. Significant advances were achieved with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-α (IFN-α), primarily in the treatment of patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, the utility of other cytokines showing promise in the preclinical setting has not been established largely because of toxicity, the complex functionality of each cytokine and the difficulty mimicking in preclinical models the human environment. In this paper we will review the basic biology and the clinical experiences with IFN-α, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21 and IL-12. We will also review ongoing clinical trials and discuss future directions including potential use of cytokines in combination with other effective immunotherapy approaches which have come of age in recent years. PMID:26320059

  2. Pivotal Roles of T-Helper 17-Related Cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ning; Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Watanabe, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by producing interleukin-17 (IL-17, also called IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and potentially TNF-α and IL-6 upon certain stimulation. IL-23, which promotes Th17 cell development, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 produced by the Th17 cells plays essential roles in various inflammatory diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the functional role of Th17 cells, with particular focus on the Th17 cell-related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in mouse models and human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23956763

  3. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations. PMID:23542765

  4. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A.; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti–IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti–IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti–IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.—Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, S. Y., Kim, J.-E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y.-P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. PMID:25609424

  5. IL-4 and IL-13 Inhibition in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Matthew C; Yamauchi, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, prevalent, multi-factorial condition that affects infants, children, and adults. Beyond topical therapy, a variety of systemic agents such as steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine, mycophenoloic acid, and other agents are utilized to treat moderate to severe AD. However, these agents are associated with potential long term adverse events and organ toxicity. There is an unmet need for a safer, long-term systemic agent to adequately control moderate to severe AD. The role of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, in AD has led to the development of biologic agents to treat AD. The aim of this article is to review the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in the pathogenesis of AD and discuss some of the clinical trial data that target and inhibit IL-4 and IL-13 in positively altering the course and outcome of AD.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):925-929. PMID:27537991

  6. Effects of Park Improvements on Park Use and Physical Activity Policy and Programming Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Golinelli, Daniela; Williamson, Stephanie; Sehgal, Amber; Marsh, Terry; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many assume that improving the quality and the perceived safety of facilities in parks and recreation centers are critical to attracting more users and increasing population physical activity. There are few studies in which these assumptions have been tested. Purpose To assess the impact of park improvements on park use and physical activity. Methods Five intervention parks and five matched comparison parks were studied by objectively measuring park use and collecting self reports of park use by residents before and after park improvements. After using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to count park users and measure their activity levels and conducting household interviews and intercept surveys with park users, propensity score analyses were used to adjust for differences in respondents’ characteristics between pre- and post-intervention and across conditions. Results Overall park use and physical activity declined in both intervention and control parks, with 39% of the decline directly attributable to fewer scheduled organized activities. Perceptions of park safety increased more in the intervention parks than in the comparison parks. Conclusions Improvements to parks may not automatically result in increased use and physical activity, especially when programming decreases. Multiple factors contribute to park use and need to be accounted for in future community-level interventions. Improving perceptions of safety alone are unlikely to result in increased park use. PMID:19944911

  7. Effects of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 on erythrocytes, platelets and clot viscoelasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Janette; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-01-01

    Complex interactions exist between cytokines, and the interleukin family plays a fundamental role in inflammation. Particularly circulating IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 are unregulated in systemic and chronic inflammatory conditions. Hypercoagulability is an important hallmark of inflammation, and these cytokines are critically involved in abnormal clot formation, erythrocyte pathology and platelet hyper-activation, and these three cytokines have known receptors on platelets. Although these cytokines are always unregulated in inflammation, we do not know how the individual cytokines act upon the structure of erythrocytes and platelets, and which of the viscoelastic clot parameters are changed. Here we study the effects of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 at low physiological levels, representative of chronic inflammation, by using scanning electron microscopy and thromboelastography. All three interleukins caused the viscoelastic properties to display an increased hypercoagulability of whole blood and pathology of both erythrocytes and platelets. The most pronounced changes were noted where all three cytokines caused platelet hyper-activation and spreading. Erythrocyte structure was notably affected in the presence of IL-8, where the morphological changes resembled that typically seen in eryptosis (programmed cell death). We suggest that erythrocytes and platelets are particularly sensitive to cytokine presence, and that they are excellent health indicators. PMID:27561337

  8. Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

    SciTech Connect

    Greaver, V.W.; Farrington, R.B.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.

  9. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  10. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  11. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed. PMID:26481614

  12. Wind power parks: 1983 survey

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, E.M.; Loperena, G.A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to survey the status of wind parks owned by non-utility organizations which generate electricity for sale to electric utilities under the provisions of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. Both technical (including wind turbine descriptions) and business-related information were gathered from over 100 wind park developers who were interviewed by telephone or in person. Following the survey, the wind parks were screened so that only those already on-line or with very good possibilities of coming on-line by mid-1984 were included. This screening, although subject to judgment, was based primarily on the status of several of the critical milestones necessary for project completion. This document includes descriptions of 85 wind parks established by over 60 developers. Of these, 73 are located in California. This concentration in California is the result of the confluence of tax advantages, financial, institutional, and resource factors currently most favorably found in that state. For the wind parks described in this document, installed generating capacity (based on nameplate ratings) is 87 MW as of July 1983, with plans calling for aggregate installation of some 730 MW by mid-1984. Continued expansion in wind turbine installations over the next several years will require that wind turbines demonstrate high equipment availability with acceptable operating and maintenance costs. If these can be achieved, if the cost effectiveness of the equipment improves by 20%, and if borrowing terms improve, then wind parks could remain economically viable businesses for non-utility owners even after the current tax advantages expire.

  13. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  14. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  15. Circulating low IL-23: IL-35 cytokine ratio promotes progression associated with poor prognosisin breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanghui; Liang, Yanfang; Guan, Xin; Chen, Hui; Liu, Qiankun; Lin, Bihua; Chen, Can; Huang, Mingyuan; Chen, Jianan; Wu, Weiquan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12 (formed by IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-23 (formed by IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-27 (formed by IL-27p28 and EBI3 subunits) and IL-35 (formed by IL-12p35 and EBI3 subunits), establishes a link between innate and adaptive immunity that involves different immune effector cells and cytokines to tumors. However, the role of IL-12 family in breast cancer (BC) progression and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated evidence indicating that EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19 or IL-27p28 were highly expressed in BC tissues, suggested that tumor derived EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were associated with tumor progression. Circulating IL-12 and IL-23 low expressed, but IL-27 and IL-35 high expressed in BC patients, especially circulating IL-23 associated with IL-35 to mediate BC tumor resection. Ki-67, p53 and EGFR expression on BC tissues, as well as CA125, CA153 and CA199 levels on BC bloods increased when circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio decreased. Together, for the first time, our data suggest that circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio may be an important indicator association with BC progression and prognosis. However, further research should be carried out to assess the implications of circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio in a larger sample size. PMID:27347332

  16. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  17. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  18. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Luis F.; García-Martínez, Karina; León, Kalet

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM). This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc). However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane. PMID:27195783

  19. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... by category of eligible parkers. Designation of parking spaces by name, grade, rank, or title...

  20. Injuries At Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160460.html Injuries at Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump Researchers say finding shows need for safety ... News) -- A wave of injuries at indoor trampoline parks has prompted a call for design and safety ...

  1. Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160184.html Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand Broken bones, fractures the most common complaints ... MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As trampoline parks spring up across the United States, injuries to ...

  2. Soluble IL7Rα potentiates IL-7 bioactivity and promotes autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Wangko; Highfill, Steven; Walsh, Scott T. R.; Beq, Stephanie; Morse, Elizabeth; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2013-01-01

    Human soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL7R)α circulates in high molar excess compared with IL-7, but its biology remains unclear. We demonstrate that sIL7Rα has moderate affinity for IL-7 but does not bind thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Functionally, sIL7Rα competes with cell-associated IL-7 receptor to diminish excessive IL-7 consumption and, thus, enhances the bioactivity of IL-7 when the cytokine is limited, as it is presumed to be in vivo. IL-7 signaling in the presence of sIL7Rα also diminishes expression of CD95 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, both regulatory molecules. Murine models confirm diminished consumption of IL-7 in the presence of sIL7Rα and also demonstrate a potentiating effect of sIL7Rα on IL-7–mediated homeostatic expansion and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis exacerbation. In multiple sclerosis and several other autoimmune diseases, IL7R genotype influences susceptibility. We measured increased sIL7Rα levels, as well as increased IL-7 levels, in multiple sclerosis patients with the predisposing IL7R genotype, consistent with diminished IL-7 consumption in vivo. This work demonstrates that sIL7Rα potentiates IL-7 bioactivity and provides a basis to explain the increased risk of autoimmunity observed in individuals with genotype-induced elevations of sIL7Rα. PMID:23610432

  3. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  4. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  5. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  6. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  7. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-07-12

    10/19/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-224. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2013-03-19

    04/23/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-27. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  11. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  12. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  13. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  14. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  15. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  16. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  17. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and... amended, (16 U.S.C. 470x-2(e)). The PTTBoard will meet at Lee H. Nelson Hall, the headquarters of...

  18. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates, removable windshield placards, or...

  19. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  20. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  1. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  2. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF IL-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, the IL-17 family of cytokines (IL-17A-F) has a very distinct expression pattern and a different biological function. IL-17 is mainly secreted by activated CD4+ T cells and has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 has been shown to exert an important role in host...

  3. Production of IL-13 in spleen cells by IL-18 and IL-12 through generation of NK-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruyasu; Kashiwamura, Shin-ichiro; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Ogura, Takeharu; Gamachi, Naomi; Okamura, Haruki

    2006-02-21

    Treatment of Nylon wool-passed cells (NWC) prepared from the spleen of C57BL/6 mice with IL-18 and IL-12, but not with IL-18 alone, resulted in induction of IFN-gamma, a Th1 cytokine, and GM-CSF at 24 h, and IL-13, a Th2 cytokine at 72 h. The induction of IL-13 was suppressed by anti-GM-CSF antibody, indicating involvement of GM-CSF in IL-13 production. When NWC incubated with IL-18 and IL-12 for 72 h ("primary treatment") were treated again with the same cytokines ("secondary treatment"), IL-13 was induced much more quickly than observed in the primary treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of NWC after the primary treatment showed marked increases in the CD4(-)CD8(-) non-T cell population bearing CD25(+), CD45RB(super high) and CD122(+). These cells were positive for CD49b but negative for NK1.1, indicating that they were not typical but NK-like cells. The NK-like cells produced IL-13 in response to the treatment with IL-18 alone, indicating that the generation of these cells in the primary treatment likely accounts for the quick production of IL-13 in the secondary treatment. These results show that IL-18 and IL-12 generates the NK-like cells in NWC by a process mediated by GM-CSF that are ready for producing IL-13. PMID:16549365

  4. Soluble IL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient upper extremity soft tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Rechardt, Martti; Shiri, Rahman; Matikainen, Sampsa; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Karppinen, Jaro; Alenius, Harri

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies suggest a role for IL-1β in the pathophysiology of upper extremity soft tissue disorders (UESTDs). We studied the levels of interleukin-1 family members in patients with incipient UESTDs and compared them with healthy controls. In this case control study, we included 163 patients with UESTDs and symptom duration shorter than 1 month and 42 healthy controls matched for age and gender at the group level. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IL-33, TNFα and sensitized C-reactive protein as well as IL-1 family soluble receptors sIL-1RII and sST2 were assessed. We used unconditional logistic regression models to study the associations between cytokines and UESTDs. After adjustment for potential confounders, the serum levels of sIL-1RII (p<0.001) and sST2 (p=0.014) were higher in the patients than the controls. The level of IL-18 was lower in the patients than the controls (p=0.005). There were no significant differences between the patients and controls regarding the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-33, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, or sensitized C-reactive protein. The levels of circulating sIL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient UESTDs, suggesting an important role for these IL-1 family members in the early course of UESTDs. PMID:21371906

  5. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-γ. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  6. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a) Aircraft—Designated airstrip. (1) Jackson...

  7. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  8. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... National Historical Park as a unit of the National Park System. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gay...: (b) PATERSON GREAT FALLS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK.-- (1) ESTABLISHMENT.-- (A) IN GENERAL.--Subject...

  9. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  10. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  11. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  12. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  13. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  14. 36 CFR 7.27 - Dry Tortugas National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry Tortugas National Park. 7.27 Section 7.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.27 Dry Tortugas National Park. (a) What terms do I need to know? The...

  15. 36 CFR 7.16 - Yosemite National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yosemite National Park. 7.16 Section 7.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.16 Yosemite National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) Open season and limit of catch. The open...

  16. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing regulations, based on management...

  17. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  18. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  20. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  1. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless otherwise designated, fishing in a...

  2. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) The following waters are closed...

  3. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  6. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  7. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  8. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  10. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  13. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  16. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  20. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  4. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  8. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  9. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  11. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  12. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  15. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  16. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  17. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  20. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  2. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  9. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  10. The role of IL-37 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Vivi A; Zhu, Ziwen; Xiao, Huaping; Wakefield, Mark R; Bai, Qian; Fang, Yujiang

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a new member of the IL-1 family which all have a similar β-barrel structure. Since its discovery, IL-37 has been studied extensively in immunological field. It has been established that IL-37 possesses anti-inflammatory characteristics both in innate immune response as well as in acquired immune responses by downregulating pro-inflammatory molecules. This review will discuss the role of IL-37 in immunological processes and neoplastic pathogenesis. PMID:27251377

  11. Evaluation of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB genetic variants influence on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, different genetic variants located within the IL2/IL21 genetic region as well as within both IL2RA and IL2RB loci have been associated to multiple autoimmune disorders. We aimed to investigate for the first time the potential influence of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB most associated polymorphisms with autoimmunity on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Methods A total of 196 patients with endogenous non-anterior uveitis and 760 healthy controls, all of them from Caucasian population, were included in the current study. The IL2/IL21 (rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs907715), IL2RA (2104286, rs11594656 and rs12722495) and IL2RB (rs743777) genetic variants were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays. Results A statistically significant difference was found for the rs6822844 (IL2/IL21 region) minor allele frequency in the group of uveitis patients compared with controls (P-value=0.02, OR=0.64 CI 95%=0.43-0.94) although the significance was lost after multiple testing correction. Furthermore, no evidence of association with uveitis was detected for the analyzed genetic variants of the IL2RA or IL2RB loci. Conclusion Our results indicate that analyzed IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB polymorphisms do not seem to play a significant role on the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition although further studies are needed in order to clear up the influence of these loci on the non-anterior uveitis susceptibility. PMID:23676143

  12. IL-3 synergises with basophil-derived IL-4 and IL-13 to promote the alternative activation of human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Borriello, Francesco; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Pecoraro, Antonio; Granata, Francescopaolo; Staiano, Rosaria Ilaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Beguinot, Francesco; Schroeder, John; Marone, Gianni

    2015-07-01

    Basophil-derived IL-4 is involved in the alternative activation of mouse monocytes, as recently shown in vivo. Whether this applies to human basophils and monocytes has not been established yet. Here, we sought to characterise the interaction between basophils and monocytes and identify the molecular determinants. A basophil-monocyte co-culture model revealed that IL-3 and basophil-derived IL-4 and IL-13 induced monocyte production of CCL17, a marker of alternative activation. Critically, IL-3 and IL-4 acted directly on monocytes to induce CCL17 production through histone H3 acetylation, but did not increase the recruitment of STAT5 or STAT6. Although freshly isolated monocytes did not express the IL-3 receptor α chain (CD123), and did not respond to IL-3 (as assessed by STAT5 phosphorylation), the overnight incubation with IL-4 (especially if associated with IL-3) upregulated CD123 expression. IL-3-activated JAK2-STAT5 pathway inhibitors reduced the CCL17 production in response to IL-3 and IL-4, but not to IL-4 alone. Interestingly, monocytes isolated from allergen-sensitised asthmatic patients exhibited a higher expression of CD123. Taken together, our data show that the JAK2-STAT5 pathway modulates both basophil and monocyte effector responses. The coordinated activation of STAT5 and STAT6 may have a major impact on monocyte alternative activation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25824485

  13. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianli; Peng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Li, Mingcai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future. PMID:25873772

  14. Parks as a tool for HIV management.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Hipp, J Aaron; Scheuermann, Mary; Önen, Nur; Overton, E Turner

    2015-01-01

    Access to parks improves overall health outcomes in the general population. Given that HIV infection has become a chronic disease to manage, among populations engaged in medical care, parks may be promoted as physical activity opportunities in order to manage chronic comorbid conditions. We conducted a cross-sectional examination of the relationships between sociodemographic and biomedical characteristics to park proximity among 635 individuals receiving outpatient HIV care. The data collected included HIV-related biomarkers, depression, and diagnoses of other chronic diseases. The total acres of parks an individual is exposed within one-quarter mile from their home were assessed. The cohort included 635 individuals (67% men, 73% black, and 21% white, mean age 42 years). Unemployment was negatively associated with park availability. Park proximity was not associated with depression or HIV biomarkers. As yet, little effort has been committed to promoting park usage as a low-cost, sustainable method to addressing comorbidities among individuals with HIV. PMID:23995296

  15. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1974-01-01

    On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

  16. Cratylia mollis 1, 4 lectin: a new biotechnological tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction and generation of immunological memory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1 μ g/mL and the second at 5 μ g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100 ng/mL and the second with 5 μ g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies. PMID:23586026

  17. Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    2010-01-01

    The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

  18. Cytoplasmic tail of IL-13Ralpha2 regulates IL-4 signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Allison-Lynn; Nordgren, Ida Karin; Kirby, Isabelle; Holloway, John W; Holgate, Stephen T; Davies, Donna E; Tavassoli, Ali

    2009-08-01

    IL (interleukin)-4 and IL-13 are key cytokines in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disease. IL-4 and IL-13 share many functional properties as a result of their utilization of a common receptor complex comprising IL-13Ralpha1 (IL-13 receptor alpha-chain 1) and IL-4Ralpha. The second IL-13R (IL-13 receptor) has been identified, namely IL-13Ralpha2. This has been thought to be a decoy receptor due to its short cytoplasmic tail and its high binding affinity for IL-13 but not IL-4. IL-13Ralpha2 exists on the cell membrane, intracellularly and in a soluble form. Recent reports revealed that membrane IL-13Ralpha2 may have some signalling capabilities, and a soluble form of IL-13Ralpha2 can be generated in the presence of environmental allergens such as DerP. Interestingly, IL-13Ralpha2 has also been shown to regulate both IL-13 and IL-4 response in primary airway cells, despite the fact that IL-13Ralpha2 does not bind IL-4. The regulator mechanism is still unclear but the physical association of IL-13Ralpha2 with IL-4Ralpha appears to be a key regulatory step. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of IL-13Ralpha2 may interfere with the association or activation of signalling molecules, such as JAK1 (Janus kinase 1), on IL-4Ralpha and thus prevents downstream signal cascade. The receptor has more complicated functions than a simple decoy receptor. In this review, we discuss newly revealed functions of IL-13Ralpha2. PMID:19614610

  19. HUSTON PARK ROADLESS AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A probable resource potential for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in stratiform sulfide deposits is assigned to areas in the northern and southeastern parts of the Huston Park Roadless Area, Wyoming. These areas are underlain by volcanic rock successions favorable for stratiform sulfide deposits. However, no indication of mineralized rock was identified during a mineral survey. Study of granites of the southern Sierra Madre are needed to determine whether or not they have promise as a source of tin and tungsten.

  20. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  1. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  2. The Associations Between Park Environments and Park Use in Southern US Communities

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Jorge A.; Wilcox, Sara; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hooker, Steven P.; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Hussey, James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document park use and park and neighborhood environment characteristics in rural communities, and to examine the relationship between park characteristics and park use. Methods The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities measured use in 42 target areas across 6 community parks in May 2010 and October 2010. Direct observation instruments were used to assess park and neighborhood environment characteristics. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between the condition, number of amenities, and number of incivilities in a target area with target area use. Findings Ninety-seven people were observed across all parks during May 2010 data collection and 116 people during October 2010 data collection. Low park quality index scores and unfavorable neighborhood environment characteristics were observed. There was a significant positive association between number of incivilities in a target area and target area use (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.09–3.38; P = .03). Conclusions The number of people observed using the parks in this study was low, and it was considerably less than the number observed in other studies. The objective park and neighborhood environment characteristics documented in this study provide a more comprehensive understanding of parks than other studies. Further examining the complex relationship between park and neighborhood environment characteristics and park use is important, as it can inform park administrators and city planners of characteristics that are best able to attract visitors. PMID:24717017

  3. Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Paul G

    2004-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above. PMID:15504491

  4. Of Inflammasomes and Alarmins: IL-1β and IL-1α in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Kidney injury implies danger signaling and a response by the immune system. The inflammasome is a central danger recognition platform that triggers local and systemic inflammation. In immune cells, inflammasome activation causes the release of mature IL-1β and of the alarmin IL-1α Dying cells release IL-1α also, independently of the inflammasome. Both IL-1α and IL-1β ligate the same IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) that is present on nearly all cells inside and outside the kidney, further amplifying cytokine and chemokine release. Thus, the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system is a central element of kidney inflammation and the systemic consequences. Seminal discoveries of recent years have expanded this central paradigm of inflammation. This review gives an overview of arising concepts of inflammasome and IL-1α/β regulation in renal cells and in experimental kidney disease models. There is a pipeline of compounds that can interfere with the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system, ranging from recently described small molecule inhibitors of NLRP3, a component of the inflammasome complex, to regulatory agency-approved IL-1-neutralizing biologic drugs. Based on strong theoretic and experimental rationale, the potential therapeutic benefits of using such compounds to block the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system in kidney disease should be further explored. PMID:27516236

  5. Directing traffic: IL-17 and IL-22 coordinate pulmonary immune defense.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Jeremy P; Kolls, Jay K

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here, we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (γδ T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL-17 and IL-22 during acute infections, while CD4(+) T-helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine-induced immunity. The characterization of dendritic cell (DC) subsets has revealed their central roles in T-cell activation. CD11b(+) DCs stimulated with bacteria or fungi secrete IL-1β and IL-23, potent inducers of IL-17 and IL-22. On the other hand, recognition of viruses by plasmacytoid DCs inhibits IL-1β and IL-23 release, increasing susceptibility to bacterial superinfections. IL-17 and IL-22 primarily act on the lung epithelium, inducing antimicrobial proteins and neutrophil chemoattractants. Recent studies found that stimulation of macrophages and DCs with IL-17 also contributes to antibacterial immunity, while IL-22 promotes epithelial proliferation and repair following injury. Chronic diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated with IL-17 and IL-22 responses directed against innocuous antigens. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the IL-17/IL-22 pathway in pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24942687

  6. The Role of IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 in Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Conventional Infant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Alutis, Marie E.; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Bereswill, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that, within 1 week following peroral Campylobacter jejuni infection, conventional infant mice develop self-limiting enteritis. We here investigated the role of IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 during C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection of infant mice. The pathogen efficiently colonized the intestines of IL-18–/– mice only, but did not translocate to extra-intestinal compartments. At day 13 postinfection (p.i.), IL-22–/– mice displayed lower colonic epithelial apoptotic cell numbers as compared to wildtype mice, whereas, conversely, colonic proliferating cells increased in infected IL-22–/– and IL-18–/– mice. At day 6 p.i., increases in neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes were less pronounced in gene-deficient mice, whereas regulatory T cell numbers were lower in IL-23p19–/– and IL-22–/– as compared to wildtype mice, which was accompanied by increased colonic IL-10 levels in the latter. Until then, colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1 increased in IL-23p19–/– mice, whereas IL-18–/– mice exhibited decreased cytokine levels and lower colonic numbers of T and B cell as well as of neutrophils, macrophages, and monocytes as compared to wildtype controls. In conclusion, IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 are differentially involved in mediating C. jejuni-induced immunopathology of conventional infant mice. PMID:27429795

  7. Differential regulation by IL-4 and IL-10 of radiation-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production and ICAM-1 expression by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, A; Squiban, C; Gourmelon, P; Lafont, H; Gaugler, M H

    1999-11-01

    Radiation exposure results in an inflammatory reaction with acute as well as subacute consequences. Leukocyte infiltration is one of the predominant early histological changes and involves both cytokines and adhesion molecules. Endothelial cells play a key role in this reaction. We have previously shown the increased production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 and the upregulation in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression by HUVEC following gamma ray exposure. In the present study, we used the cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 to regulate these radiation-induced manifestations. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with IL-4 and IL-10 (50 pg/ml) either before or after 10- Gy irradiation. Three and seven days after irradiation, IL-6 and IL-8 production by HUVEC (either treated or non-treated) was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results show that IL-4, when added after irradiation, reversed the radiation-induced increase in IL-8 production, although slightly increased IL-6 production. IL-10 decreased both IL-8 and IL-6 production when added after irradiation. ICAM-1 expression was evaluated 3 days after irradiation by flow cytometry. The radiation-induced upregulation in ICAM-1 expression remained unaffected by the use of IL-4. Altogether, our results show that radiation-induced endothelial cell activation may be ameliorated by IL-4 and/or IL-10, which is of significance in designing strategies for cytokine-mediated intervention and/or therapy of radiation damage. PMID:10547270

  8. IL-10 induces gene expression in macrophages: partial overlap with IL-5 but not with IL-4 induced genes.

    PubMed

    Stumpo, Rita; Kauer, Manfred; Martin, Stephan; Kolb, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    The hypothesis that IL-10, in addition to down-regulating pro-inflammatory activities of macrophages, induces an alternative state of macrophage reactivity was tested. We therefore conducted a systematic search for genes induced by IL-10 using the method of suppression subtractive hybridisation. Of an initial 1,300 candidate clones obtained, several screening rounds led to the identification of 51 clones which were reproducibly at least twofold up-regulated in mouse J774 macrophages in response to treatment with IL-10. Of these, 41 genes were homologous to known genes involved in cell metabolism or immunoregulation, five contained novel sequences and another five were homologous to ESTs without known function. One major finding was that about 25% of the IL-10 genes were also found expressed in response to IFNgamma, and several of these also reappeared in IL-4 or IL-5 induced mRNA species. Hence, Th1 and Th2 type cytokines may elicit a common basal activation response in macrophages. The second major finding was that 57% of IL-10 induced genes reappeared in IL-5 induced mRNA but no more than 18% were also found in IL-4 induced mRNA of J774 cells. We conclude that the gene expression response to IL-10 in macrophages is partially different from the response to IL-5 and is substantially different from the response to IL-4, which suggests an unexpected diversity of biological phenotypes induced by different Th2 type cytokines. PMID:14561490

  9. Involvement of IL17A, IL17F and IL23R Polymorphisms in Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Omrane, Inés; Medimegh, Imen; Baroudi, Olfa; Ayari, Hager; Bedhiafi, Walid; Stambouli, Nejla; Ferchichi, Marwa; Kourda, Nadia; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Mezlini, Amel; Bougatef, Karim; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2015-01-01

    IL23/IL17 pathway plays an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In general, the genes encoding the cytokines are genetically polymorphic and polymorphisms in genes IL23R and IL17 have been proved to be associated with its susceptibility to inflammatory diseases as well as cancer including colorectal cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that these interleukins are involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor effects of various cancers. Previously, we showed that there is a significant association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms as well as the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the clinical features of the disease. The purpose of the present work is to investigate an association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms in 102 Tunisian patients with colorectal cancer treatment. The association was analyzed by statistical tools. We found that patients with mutated genotypes of IL17A G197A SNP could be a risk factor for the inefficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unlike IL17F variant, patients with wild type genotypes require surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. On the one hand, we found no evidence that supports a significant association between IL23R polymorphism and the combined genotypes of these three genes and the colorectal cancer treatment. On the other hand, we showed that there is an important interaction between IL17A/IL17F polymorphisms and the stage of the disease as well as its treatment. Finally, patients with IL17F wild type genotype highlighted that there is a valid longer OS without all treatments and with radiotherapy and a neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, we observed that there are no relationships between IL17A, IL23R and the survival of these patients neither with nor without the treatment. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in IL17A and IL17F genes may be a predictive source of colorectal cancer therapy type. Therefore, IL17F may serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall

  10. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800, Beckman Coulter LH 780, and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on adult specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new Beckman Coulter DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) and Beckman Coulter LH 780 hematology analyzers using 430 adult specimens. The DxH 800 provided a CBC and differential that correlated well with those of the Sapphire and LH 780, with most parameters showing correlation coefficients (r) of more than 0.97. In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, all 3 instruments showed similar and acceptable accuracy to the reference method except for nucleated RBC (NRBC) enumeration, in which the DxH 800 and Sapphire outperformed the LH 780. We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the DxH 800 were 77.0%, 87.1%, and 73.0%, respectively, compared with the Sapphire at 75.8%, 93.5%, and 68.8%, respectively, and LH 780 at 66.1%, 93.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. PMID:21571967

  11. Abbott Preschool: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Laura Fasbach

    2009-01-01

    When New Jersey set out to level the educational playing field between the state's poorest and wealthiest school districts a decade ago, one of the mission's most important components was ensuring teacher quality met the same high standards regardless of zip code. Research shows, a teacher's own education and training in early childhood education…

  12. Abbott, Francis (1799-1883)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Watchmaker, born in Derby, England, convict, transported to Tasmania in 1845. He made astronomical observations at the Rossbank Observatory after the end of his sentence until its closure in 1854 and in his private laboratory in Hobart....

  13. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (77 FR 12761). The proposed rule was... Robert Love, Chief Ranger, Saguaro National Park, Darla Sidles, Superintendent, Saguaro National...

  14. 2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  16. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  17. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  18. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  19. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  20. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  1. Interleukin (IL)-25: Pleiotropic roles in asthma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiujuan; Sun, Yongchang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Ying

    2016-05-01

    IL-25, also named IL-17E, is a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, which can promote and augment T helper type 2 (Th2) responses locally or systemically. Growing evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that the expression of IL-25 and its cognate receptor, IL-17RB/RA, is markedly upregulated in asthmatic conditions. It has also been found that IL-25 induces not only typical eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but also airway remodelling, manifested by goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial collagen deposition and angiogenesis. This review will focus on the discovery, cellular origins and targets of IL-25, and try to update current animal and human studies elucidating the roles of IL-25 in asthma. We conclude that although IL-25 is a pleiotropic cytokine, it may only play its dominant role in a certain specific asthmatic endotype, named 'IL-25 high' phenotype. Thus, targeting IL-25 or its receptor might selectively benefit some subgroups with asthma. Furthermore, the major IL-25 producing as well as responsive cells in the changeable milieu of asthma should be assessed in the future. PMID:26699081

  2. Neighborhood Poverty, Park Use, and Park-Based Physical Activity in a Southern California City

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:23010338

  3. 76 FR 9360 - Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... National Park Service Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting AGENCY: National Park..., 2011, Meeting of the Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting...). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at McVeigh Social Hall, Kalaupapa National Historical Park,...

  4. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  5. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  6. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  7. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  8. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  9. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meetings... be held at the Ford Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and...

  10. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  11. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  12. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  13. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  14. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  15. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  16. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  17. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  18. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  19. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  20. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  1. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  2. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  3. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  4. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  5. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  6. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  7. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  8. 75 FR 52969 - National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the National Park System Advisory Board will meet September 15-16... in the afternoon will tour park sites in the National Capital Region. On September 16, the Board...

  9. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Yosemite National Park is... boundary of Yosemite National Park. DATES: The effective date of this boundary revision is July 24,...

  10. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  11. 77 FR 60461 - United States v. Standard Parking Corporation, KSPC Holdings, Inc. and Central Parking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Standard Parking Corporation, KSPC Holdings, Inc. and Central Parking Corporation; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... District of Columbia in United States of America v. Standard Parking Corporation, et al., Civil Action...

  12. Park Planning Handbook. Fundamentals of Physical Planning for Parks and Recreation Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    This book is written primarily as a textbook for students of recreation and park administration. It is organized in two parts. Part one gives a detailed description of the process of park planning, phase by phase, explaining the functions, roles, contributions, and responsibilities of the members of the park planning team, from predesign…

  13. Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

  14. IL-21 and IL-4 Collaborate To Shape T-Dependent Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Helen M; Vogelzang, Alexis; Warren, Joanna; Loetsch, Claudia; Natividad, Karlo D; Chan, Tyani D; Brink, Robert; Batten, Marcel; King, Cecile

    2015-12-01

    The selection of affinity-matured Ab-producing B cells is supported by interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. In addition to cell surface-expressed molecules, cytokines produced by Tfh cells, such as IL-21 and IL-4, provide B cell helper signals. In this study, we analyze how the fitness of Th cells can influence Ab responses. To do this, we used a model in which IL-21R-sufficient (wild-type [WT]) and -deficient (Il21r(-/-)) Ag-specific Tfh cells were used to help immunodeficient Il21r(-/-) B cells following T-dependent immunization. Il21r(-/-) B cells that had received help from WT Tfh cells, but not from Il21r(-/-) Tfh cells, generated affinity-matured Ab upon recall immunization. This effect was dependent on IL-4 produced in the primary response and associated with an increased fraction of memory B cells. Il21r(-/-) Tfh cells were distinguished from WT Tfh cells by a decreased frequency, reduced conjugate formation with B cells, increased expression of programmed cell death 1, and reduced production of IL-4. IL-21 also influenced responsiveness to IL-4 because expression of both membrane IL-4R and the IL-4-neutralizing soluble (s)IL-4R were reduced in Il21r(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the concentration of sIL-4R was found to correlate inversely with the amount of IgE in sera, such that the highest IgE levels were observed in Il21r(-/-) mice with the least sIL-4R. Taken together, these findings underscore the important collaboration between IL-4 and IL-21 in shaping T-dependent Ab responses. PMID:26491200

  15. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2011-11-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme. PMID:21896776

  16. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R.

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  17. An activation-induced IL-15 isoform is a natural antagonist for IL-15 function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Song, Yuan; Lin, Dandan; Liu, Yonghao; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Sun, Weiping; Zhuang, Min; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) expression induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, inhibits the apoptosis of activated T cells and prolongs the survival of CD8(+) memory T cells. Here we identified an IL-15 isoform lacking exon-6, IL-15ΔE6, generated by alternative splicing events of activated immune cells, including macrophages and B cells. In vitro study showed that IL-15ΔE6 could antagonize IL-15-mediated T cell proliferation. The receptor binding assay revealed that IL-15ΔE6 could bind to IL-15Rα and interfere with the binding between IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Over-expression of IL-15ΔE6 in the murine EAE model ameliorated the EAE symptoms of the mice. The clinical scores were significantly lower in the mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 than the control mice and the mice expressing IL-15. The inflammation and demyelination of the EAE mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 were less severe than the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 expression reduced the percentages of inflammatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord, and inhibited the infiltration of macrophages to the CNS. Our results demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 could be induced during immune activation and function as a negative feedback mechanism to dampen IL-15-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:27166125

  18. An activation-induced IL-15 isoform is a natural antagonist for IL-15 function

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Song, Yuan; Lin, Dandan; Liu, Yonghao; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Sun, Weiping; Zhuang, Min; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) expression induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, inhibits the apoptosis of activated T cells and prolongs the survival of CD8+ memory T cells. Here we identified an IL-15 isoform lacking exon-6, IL-15ΔE6, generated by alternative splicing events of activated immune cells, including macrophages and B cells. In vitro study showed that IL-15ΔE6 could antagonize IL-15-mediated T cell proliferation. The receptor binding assay revealed that IL-15ΔE6 could bind to IL-15Rα and interfere with the binding between IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Over-expression of IL-15ΔE6 in the murine EAE model ameliorated the EAE symptoms of the mice. The clinical scores were significantly lower in the mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 than the control mice and the mice expressing IL-15. The inflammation and demyelination of the EAE mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 were less severe than the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 expression reduced the percentages of inflammatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord, and inhibited the infiltration of macrophages to the CNS. Our results demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 could be induced during immune activation and function as a negative feedback mechanism to dampen IL-15-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:27166125

  19. Enhanced Interleukin (IL)-13 Responses in Mice Lacking IL-13 Receptor α 2

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nancy; Whitters, Matthew J.; Jacobson, Bruce A.; Witek, JoAnn; Sypek, Joseph P.; Kasaian, Marion; Eppihimer, Michael J.; Unger, Michelle; Tanaka, Takashi; Goldman, Samuel J.; Collins, Mary; Donaldson, Debra D.; Grusby, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. At least two distinct receptor components, IL-4 receptor (R)α and IL-13Rα1, mediate the diverse actions of IL-13. We have recently described an additional high affinity receptor for IL-13, IL-13Rα2, whose function in IL-13 signaling is unknown. To better appreciate the functional importance of IL-13Rα2, mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 were generated by gene targeting. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were increased in IL-13Rα2−/− mice despite the fact that serum IL-13 was absent and immune interferon γ production increased compared with wild-type mice. IL-13Rα2–deficient mice display increased bone marrow macrophage progenitor frequency and decreased tissue macrophage nitric oxide and IL-12 production in response to lipopolysaccharide. These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. PMID:12642602

  20. Polymorphisms in the IL2, IL2RA and IL2RB genes in multiple sclerosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Cavanillas, María L; Alcina, Antonio; Núñez, Concepción; de las Heras, Virginia; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; Bartolomé, Manuel; de la Concha, Emilio G; Fernández, Oscar; Arroyo, Rafael; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Urcelay, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-2/IL-2R signalling promotes proliferation and survival of activated T cells and has an essential non-redundant role in the production of regulatory T cells. Associations with different autoimmune diseases of polymorphisms in a linkage disequilibrium block in which the IL2/IL21 genes map (4q27), and also in genes encoding the IL2RA and IL2RB subunits (located in 10p15 and 22q13, respectively), were identified through genome-wide studies. Polymorphisms in these three genes were studied in 430 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in 550 ethnically matched controls from Madrid (Spain). Replication and meta-analysis with results from an independent cohort of 771 MS patients and 759 controls from Andalucía (Spain) confirmed the association of polymorphisms in the IL2RA gene (PMantel–Haenszel, odds ratio (OR)M–H (95% confidence interval, CI) for rs2104286: 0.0001, 0.75 (0.65–0.87); for rs11594656/rs35285258: 0.004, 1.19 (1.06–1.34); for rs41295061: 0.03, 0.77 (0.60–0.98)); showed a trend for association of the IL2/IL21 rs6822844 (PM–H=0.07, ORM–H (95% CI)=0.86 (0.73–1.01)), but did not corroborate the association for IL2RB. Regression analyses of the combined Spanish cohort revealed the independence of two IL2RA association signals: rs2104286 and rs11594656/rs35285258. The relevant role of the IL2RA gene on MS susceptibility adds support to its common effect on autoimmune risk and the suggestive association of IL2/IL21 warrants further investigation. PMID:20179739

  1. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Richard N.

    2015-08-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to observe 22 millisecond pulsars in three bands: 40cm (band centre 732 MHz), 20cm (1369 MHz) and 10cm (3100 MHz). Coherent de-dispersion systems are used for the 40cm and 20cm bands and digital polyphase filterbanks are used for the 20cm and 10cm bands. Observations are made at intervals of two to three weeks and observations times for each pulsar in each band are typically one hour. Regular PPTA observations commenced in early 2005 but earlier timing data, primarily in the 20cm band, exist for many of the pulsars back to 1994. Pipeline processing scripts are based on PSRCHIVE routines and take into account instrumental offsets. Timing analyses include modelling of dispersion variations and red and white noise in the data. The primary scientific goal of the PPTA project is the detection of gravitational waves, either a stochastic background from supermassive black-hole binary systems in distant galaxies or from individual binary systems. The PPTA data sets have many other applications including establishment of a pulsar-based timescale, improvement of solar-system ephemerides and studies of the individual pulsars. PPTA data sets have been made available to the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium and analysis of the combined data sets is progressing. Recent developments, both instrumental and science-related, will be described.

  2. 78 FR 51207 - Kobuk Valley National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Denali National Park SRC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Park Service Kobuk Valley National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Denali National Park SRC; Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law 92-463, 86 Stat. 770), the National Park...

  3. 75 FR 3488 - Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission.... 92-463, 86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App. 1, Sec. 10), that the Acadia National Park Advisory Commission... his designee, on matters relating to the management and development of the park, including but...

  4. IL-6 in diabetes and cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Dan; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that participates in normal functions of the immune system, haematopoiesis, metabolism, as well as in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles of IL-6 have been described, which are distinguished by different cascades of signalling transduction, namely classic and trans-signalling. The present review summarizes the basic principles of IL-6 signalling and discusses its roles in diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, with emphasis on the different outcomes mediated by the two modes of IL-6 signalling and the value of developing therapeutic strategies to specifically target the deleterious trans-signalling of IL-6. PMID:24697653

  5. Rural Latino Youth Park Use: Characteristics, Park Amenities, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brain E.; Thompson, Beti

    2010-01-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity. PMID:20924779

  6. Revisiting IL-6 antagonism in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Thomas; Manfroi, Benoit; Huard, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    IL-6, a cytokine with broad functions in inflammation and immunity, has been extensively studied for its role on normal antibody-producing plasma cells. In addition, IL-6 is recognized as a proliferative factor for multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant plasma cell tumor developing in the bone marrow. Blocking IL-6 signaling was thus developed into a therapeutic approach for MM already early after its discovery, in 1991. Unfortunately, the first clinical trials did not demonstrate a clear benefit, but despite this apparent failure hopes on IL-6 antagonism are still high and trials ongoing. The cellular source of IL-6 has long been a matter of debate. IL-6 was first recognized as an autocrine factor produced by the malignant plasma cells themselves, but later reports clearly showed that IL-6 was a paracrine factor, produced by the microenvironment, mostly by cells from the myeloid lineage. Recently, we have confirmed that IL-6 originates from myeloid lineage cells, mainly from myeloid precursors. We have also demonstrated that IL-6 amplifies the pool of myeloid cells producing a second key factor for MM, a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). These findings form a new rationale for IL-6 inhibition in MM and for new ways to use IL-6 blocking in the clinics. PMID:27497026

  7. Mercury contamination from mine and natural sources in Harley Gulch, downstream from the Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury Mines, Lake County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hothem, R. L.; Rytuba, J. J.; Goldstein, D.; Brussee, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury (Hg) mine area in central California has released Hg tailings into the Harley Gulch watershed since 1862. Harley Gulch flows into Cache Creek which is a significant source of Hg into San Francisco Bay Delta. Thermal mine water effluent emanating from the Turkey Run adit flows into the upper part of the watershed. Despite remediation efforts, Hg tailings and enriched sediment remain in the Harley Gulch wetlands and in the creek downstream from the mine area. Water, sediment, and biota have been sampled from below the mine area to 15 km downstream to the confluence with Cache Creek in order to assess the impact of Hg on water quality and biota. Two previously unrecognized natural sources of Hg in the watershed are connate groundwater with elevated levels of Hg, and biogenic sediment composed of phytoplankton that accumulates in the upper part of the watershed during the dry season. The connate groundwater source contains isotopically-heavy Mg-Ca-Cl-CO3-SO4 water that has elevated concentrations of Ba, W, Ti, and Hg. This water first enters Harley Gulch in the central part of the wetland immediately downstream from the mine area and continues to contribute water downstream for a distance of 1.5 km. It is both chemically and isotopically distinct from the thermal mine water effluent from the Turkey Run adit. The biogenic source consists of blooms of phytoplankton that accumulate to a thickness of up to 0.2 m. Phytoplankton have a large bioaccumulation factor of Hg and monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) that results in a high concentrations of Hg and MMeHg (Hg: 5-25 μg/g, MMeHg 5.2 ng/g) in the biogenic sediment. The tan biogenic sediment at the surface consists of living diatoms and below it is a layer of black reduced biogenic sediment consisting of diatom fragments with micron- to submicron-sized FeS, HgS, and barite grains. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate to sulfide in the pore waters of the biogenic sediment that reacts with

  8. 115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around alligator back and parking overlook in foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  9. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE TOWARD NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE TOWARD NORTHWEST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER PARK IS RIGHT SIDE OF ROAD IN PHOTOGRAPH) - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. Too Few Americans Take Advantage of Local Parks

    MedlinePlus

    ... many people use their services, but parks and recreation departments have not had any metrics to adequately ... managed by more than 9,000 park and recreation departments. Local parks range in size from 2 ...

  12. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless otherwise authorized by a posted traffic...

  13. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be avoided. (c) Illegal parking contributes to congestion and slows traffic flow on an installation... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use... eliminates conditions causing traffic accidents. (d) The “Denver boot” device is authorized for use as...

  14. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  15. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  16. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  17. Instruction and Delight: Theme Parks and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret J.

    Education continues to operate as an enclave of elite culture and is battling for interest and respect with the mass media, technology, and the popular arts. These cultures must be brought together. Using the creative ideas generated by theme parks is an effective method of importing popular culture into the schools. Theme parks provide a total…

  18. Disability Awareness Training Manual for Park Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laurie C.

    Designed to increase the awareness and understanding of disabilities by Virginia park personnel, this guide provides information about the characteristics and needs of park visitors who have disabilities. Four different categories of disabilities are addressed: (1) mobility impairments; (2) visual impairments; (3) hearing impairments; and (4)…

  19. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  20. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  1. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  2. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  3. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  4. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  5. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  6. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  7. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  8. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  9. Design of Parking Lots and Garages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William R.

    Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

  10. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  11. Measurement Properties of a Park Use Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Golinelli, Daniela; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.62–0.65 and 0.62–0.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.40–0.50 and 0.50–0.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.78–0.88 (percent agreement 69%–82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.75–0.84 (percent agreement 64%–73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:23853386

  12. Method Boundness among Zoo and Park Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Meyers, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    A national survey of 131 park and zoo educators' teaching beliefs was conducted in 14 parks and zoos in the United States in 1996. The Van Tilburg/Heimlich Teaching Beliefs Scale and a self-report time on task and importance of task were used. Outcomes showed that a preponderance of respondents would self-identify their beliefs to be…

  13. Science Parks from a University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the establishment and development of science parks in the United Kingdom from the universities' perspective. Discusses their impact on the processes of invention, innovation, technology transfer, commercialization, and enterprise and outlines strategies available to universities for involvement in science park development. (Contains 22…

  14. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  15. Communication and Recycling in Park Campgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Sam H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Canby Washington State Park campground recycling program by determining whether campers (N=147) read and followed the provided instructions when disposing of garbage, understood the sorting and disposal instructions, and arrived at the park equipped with receptacles for recyclables and non-recyclables.…

  16. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  17. IL-17RC: A partner in IL-17 signaling and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Allen W.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    The IL-17 cytokine family members IL-17A and IL-17F mediate inflammatory activities via the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) complex, comprised of the IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Proper regulation of the IL-17 signaling axis results in effective host defense against extracellular pathogens, while aberrant signaling can drive autoimmune pathology. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-17 signal transduction can yield an enhanced understanding of inflammatory immune processes and also create an avenue for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of IL-17-dependent diseases. To date, the fundamental signaling mechanisms used by the IL-17R complex are still incompletely defined. While current structure-function studies have primarily focused on the IL-17RA subunit, recent research indicates that the IL-17RC subunit plays a key role in modulating IL-17 responses. This review will examine what is known regarding IL-17RC function and provide a framework for future work on this subunit and its impact on human health. PMID:20012905

  18. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  19. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  20. Negative feedback on IL-23 exerted by IL-17A during pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Silverpil, Elin; Wright, Adam K A; Hansson, Marit; Jirholt, Pernilla; Henningsson, Louise; Smith, Margaretha E; Gordon, Stephen B; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Gjertsson, Inger; Glader, Pernilla; Lindén, Anders

    2013-10-01

    It is now established that IL-17 has a broad pro-inflammatory potential in mammalian host defense, in inflammatory disease and in autoimmunity, whereas little is known about its anti-inflammatory potential and inhibitory feedback mechanisms. Here, we examined whether IL-17A can inhibit the extracellular release of IL-23 protein, the upstream regulator of IL-17A producing lymphocyte subsets, that is released from macrophages during pulmonary inflammation. We characterized the effect of IL-17A on IL-23 release in several models of pulmonary inflammation, evaluated the presence of IL-17 receptor A (RA) and C (RC) on human alveolar macrophages and assessed the role of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 as a mediator of the effect of IL-17A on the release of IL-23 protein. In a model of sepsis-induced pneumonia, intravenous exposure to Staphylococcus aureus caused higher IL-23 protein concentrations in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from IL-17A knockout (KO) mice, compared with wild type (WT) control mice. In a model of Gram-negative airway infection, pre-treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-17A Ab and subsequent intranasal (i.n.) exposure to LPS caused higher IL-23 and IL-17A protein concentrations in BAL samples compared with mice exposed to LPS, but pre-treated with an isotype control Ab. Moreover, i.n. exposure with IL-17A protein per se decreased IL- 23 protein concentrations in BAL samples. We detected IL-17RA and IL-17RC on human alveolar macrophages, and found that in vitro stimulation of these cells with IL-17A protein, after exposure to LPS, decreased IL-23 protein in conditioned medium, but not IL-23 p19 or p40 mRNA. This study indicates that IL-17A can partially inhibit the release of IL-23 protein during pulmonary inflammation, presumably by stimulating the here demonstrated receptor units IL-17RA and IL-17RC on alveolar macrophages. Hypothetically, the demonstrated mechanism may serve as negative feedback to protect from excessive IL-17A

  1. The IL-13 Receptor-α1 Chain Is Essential for Induction of the Alternative Macrophage Activation Pathway by IL-13 but not IL-4

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Faruk; Dickensheets, Harold; Pedras-Vasconcelos, Joao; Ramalingam, Thirumalai; Helming, Laura; Gordon, Siamon; Donnelly, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages co-express both the IL-2Rγ chain (γc) and IL-13Rα1. These receptor chains can heterodimerize with IL-4Rα to form type-I or type-II IL-4 receptor complexes, respectively. We used macrophages derived from Il2rg and Il13ra1 knockout mice to evaluate the requirements for these receptor chains for induction of the alternative macrophage activation (AMA) pathway by IL-4 and IL-13. Absence of γc significantly decreased activation of STAT6 by IL-4 but not IL-13. However, although activation of STAT6 by IL-4 was markedly reduced in γc KO macrophages, it was not abolished, indicating that IL-4 can still signal through type-II IL-4 receptors via the IL-13Rα1 chain. IL-13 failed to activate STAT6 in macrophages derived from Il13ra1 KO mice; however, these cells remained fully responsive to IL-4. The inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to signal in Il13ra1−/− macrophages correlated with the inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to induce expression of genes such as Arg1, Retnla and Ccl11 that are characteristically expressed by alternatively activated macrophages. In addition, IL-13 but not IL-4 failed to induce membrane fusion and giant cell formation by Il13ra1 KO macrophages. These findings demonstrate that the IL-13Rα1 chain is essential for induction of the AMA pathway by IL-13 but not IL-4. PMID:25766112

  2. IL-4 acts as a homeostatic regulator of IL-2-induced TNF and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Fernandez, C; Oblakowski, P; Meager, A; Duncombe, A S; Rill, D M; Hoffbrand, A V; Brenner, M K

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine secreted by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes. IL-2-stimulated lymphocytes also secrete two cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), which contribute to effector function and which may themselves recruit fresh, cytokine-secreting effector cells. We have now investigated whether the IL-4 induced is able to homeostatically regulate secretion of the TNF and IFN-gamma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphocytes from normal donors and from patients with neoplastic disease were cultured in the presence of IL-2 alone, IL-4 alone or with both cytokines. IL-2 induced high levels of TNF and IFN-gamma secretion in both groups. The addition of recombinant IL-4 to these IL-2-stimulated cultures lead to significant inhibition of IFN-gamma and TNF production. IFN-gamma secretion was reduced by 50-99% in normal donors and by between 11% and 99% in patients (P less than 0.001). TNF levels induced by IL-2 were similarly reduced by IL-4 both in normal donors (P less than 0.003) and in patients (P less than 0.01). These inhibitory effects were produced by IL-4 at doses of IL-2 attainable in vivo. Inhibition appears to represent a homeostatic regulatory mechanism which may limit recruitment of fresh activated killer (AK) cells. When endogenous IL-4 activity in IL-2-activated lymphocytes was blocked by anti-IL-4 antibody, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF were secreted (P less than 0.05). Since both TNF and IFN-gamma may contribute to the anti-neoplastic action of IL-2, manipulating the level of IL-4 activity in vivo could augment the benefits of IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:1901829

  3. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 amended various provisions of NPATMA. One provision exempted national park... is 50 operations or less annually. Exempt parks are as follows: Big Bend National Park, TX...

  4. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center.

    The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  6. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  7. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  8. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  9. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  10. New Literacies in Schome Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Julia

    In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.

  11. Targeting IL-33 in autoimmunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Petra, Anastasia I; Taracanova, Alexandra; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Conti, Pio

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines. Whereas IL-1 is processed and released by live immune cells in response to infection or other triggers, IL-33 is mostly released as a danger signal ("alarmin") from damaged cells. IL-33 may also be processed and released from activated mast cells (MCs) with subsequent autocrine and paracrine actions. IL-33 augments the stimulatory effects of IgE and substance P on MCs but can also trigger release of cytokines from MCs on its own. Blood IL-33 levels are increased in asthma, atopic dermatitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. However, prolonged elevation of IL-33 downregulates FcεRI and may be protective in atherosclerosis, suggesting different roles in immune-regulated diseases. Even though neutralizing IL-33, knocking-down its receptor, or using its soluble "decoy" receptor has resulted in anti-inflammatory effects, there appear to be different outcomes in different tissues. Hence, selective regulation of IL-33 synthesis, release, and signaling may be required to provide effective treatment options. PMID:25906776

  12. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Abigail L.; Smith, Nicola C.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; Leach, William J.; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Rooney, Brian P.; Murrell, George A. C.; Millar, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β) in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:24757284

  13. Modulation effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junbo; Guo, Li; Pang, Guangchang; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Mingchun

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to explore and evaluate the effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 in mice, and the regulative effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the cytokine system. Using an ELISA assay, the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 were examined in mice after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts. The results showed that the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased compared with the control groups (p<0.01), while the level of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly decreased (p<0.01). Semen Ziziphi Spinosae possesses certain modulation effects on cytokines, and the immuno-regulating function and hypnosis effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae may be relevant to these modulation effects on cytokines. PMID:21328141

  14. IL-23/IL-17 axis in spondyloarthritis-bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Siba P; Raychaudhuri, Smriti K

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other types of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Besides IFN-γ and TNF-α; IL-23/IL-17 cytokines play a dominant role in the inflammatory and proliferative cascades of SpA. Recently, in a series of elegant experiments using mouse models and human tissues, it has been demonstrated that IL-23-induced Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) can contribute to following pathologic events associated with SpA: development of psoriatic plaque, pannus formation in the joint, joint erosion, and new bone formation. In this review article, we have discussed the contributing role of the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine axis in the pathogenesis of PsA and AS. IL-23/IL-17-targeted therapies are very promising for SpA, and we have provided an outline about usefulness of these new groups of biologics in SpA. PMID:27075462

  15. IL-33 drives biphasic IL-13 production for noncanonical Type 2 immunity against hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Yin; Lewkowich, Ian P.; Dawson, Lucas A.; Downey, Jordan; Yang, Yanfen; Smith, Dirk E.; Herbert, De'Broski R.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic helminths are a major cause of chronic human disease, affecting more than 3 billion people worldwide. Host protection against most parasitic helminths relies upon Type 2 cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate interleukin (IL) 4 and 13 production from CD4+ T helper 2 cells (TH2) and innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) remain incompletely understood. The epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 promote Type 2 responses, but the extent of functional redundancy between these cytokines is unclear and whether Type 2 memory relies upon either IL-25 or IL-33 is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate a pivotal role for IL-33 in driving primary and anamnestic immunity against the rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. IL-33–deficient mice have a selective defect in ILC2–derived IL-13 during both primary and secondary challenge infections but generate stronger canonical CD4+ T helper 2 cells responses (IL-4, IgE, mast cells, and basophils) than WT controls. Lack of IL-13 production in IL-33–deficient mice impairs resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) expression and eosinophil recruitment, which are two mechanisms that eliminate N. brasiliensis parasites from infected hosts. Thus, IL-33 is requisite for IL-13 but not IL-4–driven Type 2 responses during hookworm infection. PMID:23248269

  16. Interleukin newcomers creating new numbers in rheumatology: IL-34 to IL-38.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Gaëlle; Thiolat, Allan; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2013-10-01

    The development of innovative technologies is steadily increasing the body of knowledge on molecules involved in physiological functions. Thus, several interleukins (ILs) have been identified and characterized in the past few years. Here, we detail the structural and functional characteristics of IL-34 to IL-38 with special attention to their involvement in inflammatory joint disease. IL-34 chiefly increases osteoclast activation and proliferation and therefore, it plays a direct role in bone destruction as seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) express IL-35, which therefore exerts anti-inflammatory effects by restoring Treg suppressive capabilities and by inhibiting the Th17 pathway. IL-37 has anti-inflammatory effects mediated by a negative feedback loop that decreases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-36 belongs to the IL-1 family and has three different forms. Although this cytokine has been chiefly studied in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it also exerts pro-inflammatory effects in RA. The specific IL-36 antagonist, IL-36Ra binds to the IL-36 receptor, thereby, preventing signal transduction. Finally, IL-38 is a recently identified cytokine whose effect may resemble that of IL-36Ra as it binds to the IL-36 receptor and inhibits its effects, particularly the Th17-response. Although the exact roles for these cytokines awaits elucidation, the current improvements in our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate chronic inflammatory conditions, such as RA may lead to the identification of new treatment targets. PMID:23849463

  17. Epithelial IL-23R Signaling Licenses Protective IL-22 Responses in Intestinal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aden, Konrad; Rehman, Ateequr; Falk-Paulsen, Maren; Secher, Thomas; Kuiper, Jan; Tran, Florian; Pfeuffer, Steffen; Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Breuer, Alexandra; Luzius, Anne; Jentzsch, Marlene; Häsler, Robert; Billmann-Born, Susanne; Will, Olga; Lipinski, Simone; Bharti, Richa; Adolph, Timon; Iovanna, Juan L; Kempster, Sarah L; Blumberg, Richard S; Schreiber, Stefan; Becher, Burkhard; Chamaillard, Mathias; Kaser, Arthur; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2016-08-23

    A plethora of functional and genetic studies have suggested a key role for the IL-23 pathway in chronic intestinal inflammation. Currently, pathogenic actions of IL-23 have been ascribed to specific effects on immune cells. Herein, we unveil a protective role of IL-23R signaling. Mice deficient in IL-23R expression in intestinal epithelial cells (Il23R(ΔIEC)) have reduced Reg3b expression, show a disturbed colonic microflora with an expansion of flagellated bacteria, and succumb to DSS colitis. Surprisingly, Il23R(ΔIEC) mice show impaired mucosal IL-22 induction in response to IL-23. αThy-1 treatment significantly deteriorates colitis in Il23R(ΔIEC) animals, which can be rescued by IL-22 application. Importantly, exogenous Reg3b administration rescues DSS-treated Il23R(ΔIEC) mice by recruiting neutrophils as IL-22-producing cells, thereby restoring mucosal IL-22 levels. The study identifies a critical barrier-protective immune pathway that originates from, and is orchestrated by, IL-23R signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:27524624

  18. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures.

    PubMed

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K

    2012-11-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1β, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted in increased IFN-γ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Rα, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33 had an increased IL-5 secretion. Interestingly, E4BP4 gene expression and the percentage of E4BP4(+) cells of the recently shown IL-10 transcriptional regulator E4BP4 correlated with IL-10 gene expression and protein secretion in Th1 cultures. Taken together, we report that the IL-1 family "alarmins" IL-18 and IL-33 in addition to amplifying both Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines block production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in Th1 cultures. PMID:23028054

  19. Microenvironment-derived IL-1 and IL-17 interact in the control of lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Yaron; Rinott, Gal; Dotan, Shahar; Elkabets, Moshe; Rider, Peleg; Voronov, Elena; Apte, Ron N

    2011-03-15

    Inflammatory cytokines modulate immune responses in the tumor microenvironment during progression/metastasis. In this study, we have assessed the role of IL-1 and IL-17 in the control of antitumor immunity versus progression in a model of experimental lung metastasis, using 3LL and B16 epithelial tumor cells. The absence of IL-1 signaling or its excess in the lung microenvironment (in IL-1β and IL-1R antagonist knockout [KO] mice, respectively) resulted in a poor prognosis and reduced T cell activity, compared with WT mice. In IL-1β KO mice, enhanced T regulatory cell development/function, due to a favorable in situ cytokine network and impairment in APC maturation, resulted in suppressed antitumor immunity, whereas in IL-1R antagonist KO mice, enhanced accumulation and activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells were found. Reduced tumor progression along with improved T cell function was found in IL-17 KO mice, compared with WT mice. In the microenvironment of lung tumors, IL-1 induces IL-17 through recruitment of γ/δ T cells and their activation for IL-17 production, with no involvement of Th17 cells. These interactions were specific to the microenvironment of lung tumors, as in intrafootpad tumors in IL-1/IL-17 KO mice, different patterns of invasiveness were observed and no IL-17 could be locally detected. The results highlight the critical and unique role of IL-1, and cytokines induced by it such as IL-17, in determining the balance between inflammation and antitumor immunity in specific tumor microenvironments. Also, we suggest that intervention in IL-1/IL-17 production could be therapeutically used to tilt this balance toward enhanced antitumor immunity. PMID:21300825

  20. Evaluation of 3 automated real-time PCR (Xpert C. difficile assay, BD MAX Cdiff, and IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 assay) for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin gene compared to toxigenic culture in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaeeun; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the performance of the 3 automated systems (Cepheid Xpert, BD MAX, and IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000) detecting Clostridium difficile toxin gene compared to toxigenic culture. Of the 254 stool specimens tested, 87 (48 slight, 35 moderate, and 4 heavy growth) were toxigenic culture positive. The overall sensitivities and specificities were 82.8% and 98.8% for Xpert, 81.6% and 95.8% for BD MAX, and 62.1% and 99.4% for IMDx, respectively. The specificity was significantly higher in IMDx than BD MAX (P= 0.03). All stool samples underwent toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay testing, and of the 254 samples, only 29 samples were positive and 2 of them were toxigenic culture negative. Considering the rapidity and high specificity of the real-time PCR assays compared to the toxigenic culture, they can be used as the first test method for C. difficile infection/colonization. PMID:26081240

  1. IL-8 and IL-6 primarily mediate the inflammatory response in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Mendieta, Danelia; De la Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Barrera-Villalpando, Maria Isabel; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Arreola, Rodrigo; Hernández-Ferreira, Erick; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pavón, Lenin

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that has been linked to inflammatory reactions and changes in the systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines that modulate responses in the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We found that concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in FM patients. Both cytokines correlated with clinical scores, suggesting that IL-6 and IL-8 have additive or synergistic effects in perpetuating the chronic pain in FM patients. These findings indicate that IL-6 and IL-8 are two of the most constant inflammatory mediators in FM and that their levels correlate significantly with the severity of symptoms. PMID:26711564

  2. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Ferreira, Andressa Maria Coelho; Szeremetta, Bani

    2006-07-01

    The present study provides an evaluation of noise pollution in six Urban Parks located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (L(eq)) were measured in 303 points (each point measured during 3 min) spread throughout the Parks. Measured values were confronted with local legislation (Law 10625) allowed limits, and the Parks were thus classified as "acoustically polluted or unpolluted". Measured values were also evaluated according to international legislation: Decree no. 12 of the City Council of Rome, DIN 18005 for German cities, the World Health Organization, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Urban parks in the downtown area of Curitiba, surrounded by roads of heavy traffic and in the midst of intense commercial activities, do not satisfy any of the standards used. The most noise-polluted parks in Curitiba were the Public Walk Park and the Botanical Garden Park, with measured L(eq) of 64.8 dB(A) and 67 dB(A). PMID:16897555

  3. Burning Cars in a Parking Lot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoin, Jean

    2011-08-01

    Knuth's parking scheme is a model in computer science for hashing with linear probing. One may imagine a circular parking lot with n sites; cars arrive at each site with unit rate. When a car arrives at a vacant site, it parks there; otherwise it turns clockwise and parks at the first vacant site which is found. We incorporate fires into this model by throwing Molotov cocktails on each site at a smaller rate n - α , where 0 < α < 1 is a fixed parameter. When a car is hit by a Molotov cocktail, it burns and the fire propagates to the entire occupied interval which turns vacant. We show that with high probability when n → ∞, the parking lot becomes saturated at a time close to 1 (i.e. as in the absence of fire) for α > 2/3, whereas for α < 2/3, the average occupation approaches 1 at time 1 but then quickly drops to 0 before the parking lot is ever saturated. Our study relies on asymptotics for the occupation of the parking lot without fires in certain regimes which may be of independent interest.

  4. Terrain classification maps of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.

  5. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Queen, D; Gallegos, G; Surano, K

    2002-04-18

    This report is an in-depth study of results from environmental sampling conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. The purpose of the sampling was to determine the extent and origin of plutonium found in soil at concentrations above fallout-background levels in the park. This report describes the sampling that was conducted, the chemical and radio-chemical analyses of the samples, the quality control assessments and statistical analyses of the analytical results, and LLNL's interpretations of the results. It includes a number of data analyses not presented in LLNL's previous reports on Big Trees Park.

  6. Critical Role of IL-22/IL22-RA1 Signaling in Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina; Elsegeiny, Waleed; Conboy, Parker; Chen, Kong; Kolls, Jay K

    2016-09-01

    IL-22-IL-22R signaling plays a crucial role in regulating host defenses against extracellular pathogens, particularly in the intestine, through the induction of antimicrobial peptides and chemotactic genes. However, the role of IL-22-IL-22R is understudied in Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection, a prevalent pathogen of pneumonia. This paper presents the findings of IL-22 signaling during a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia and improvement of bacterial burden upon IL-22 administration. IL-22 was rapidly induced in the lung during pneumococcal infection in wild-type mice, and Il22(-/-) mice had higher pneumococcal burdens compared with controls. Additionally, mice with hepatic-specific deletion of Il22ra1 also had higher bacterial burdens in lungs compared with littermate controls after intrapulmonary pneumococcal infection, suggesting that IL-22 signaling in the liver is important to control pneumococcal pneumonia. Thus, we hypothesized that enhancement of IL-22 signaling would control pneumococcal burden in lung tissues in an experimental pneumonia model. Administration of rIL-22 systemically to infected wild-type mice decreased bacterial burden in lung and liver at 24 h postinfection. Our in vitro studies also showed that mice treated with IL-22 had increased C3 expression in the liver compared with the isotype control group. Furthermore, serum from mice treated with IL-22 had improved opsonic capacity by increasing C3 binding on S. pneumoniae Taken together, endogenous IL-22 and hepatic IL-22R signaling play critical roles in controlling pneumococcal lung burden, and systemic IL-22 decreases bacterial burden in the lungs and peripheral organs by potentiating C3 opsonization on bacterial surfaces, through the increase of hepatic C3 expression. PMID:27456484

  7. Human IL-2 mutein with higher antitumor efficacy than wild type IL-2.

    PubMed

    Carmenate, Tania; Pacios, Anabel; Enamorado, Michel; Moreno, Ernesto; Garcia-Martínez, Karina; Fuente, Dasha; León, Kalet

    2013-06-15

    IL-2 has been used for the treatment of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but this therapy has limited efficacy and severe toxicity. Currently, it is assumed that part of the limited efficacy is due to the IL-2-driven preferential expansion of regulatory T cells, which dampen the antitumor immunity. In this study, we characterize a human IL-2 mutant with higher antitumor efficacy and lower toxicity than wild type human IL-2 (wtIL-2). The mutant differs from wtIL-2 by four mutations at the interface with the α subunit of IL-2R. The IL-2 mutant induces in vitro proliferation of CD8(+)CD44(hi) and NK1.1 cells as efficiently as does wtIL-2, but it shows a reduced capacity to induce proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The IL-2 mutant shows a higher antimetastatic effect than does wtIL-2 in several transplantable tumor models: the experimental metastasis model of MB16F0 melanoma and the experimental and spontaneous metastasis models for the mouse pulmonary carcinoma 3LL-D1222. Relevantly, the IL-2 mutant also exhibits lower lung and liver toxicity than does wtIL-2 when used at high doses in mice. In silico simulations, using a calibrated mathematical model, predict that the properties of IL-2 mutein are a consequence of the reduction, of at least two orders of magnitude, in its affinity for the α subunit of IL-2R (CD25). The human IL-2 mutant described in the present work could be a good candidate for improving cancer therapy based on IL-2. PMID:23677467

  8. Characterization of IL-7 and IL-7R in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Sarah R.; Chamberlain, Nathan D.; Volin, Michael V.; Pope, Richard M.; Talarico, Nicholas E; Mandelin, Arthur M.; Shahrara, Shiva

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to characterize the expression of IL-7 and IL-7R in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue and to examine their regulation and pathogenic role in macrophages, endothelial cells and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts. Methods Expression of IL-7 and IL-7R was demonstrated in RA and normal synovial tissues employing immunohistochemistry. Expression and regulation of IL-7 and IL-7R was determined in RA peripheral blood in vitro differentiated macrophages, RA synovial tissue fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) by real-time RT-PCR and/or flow cytometry. Next, IL-7 activated macrophages, RA fibroblasts and endothelial cells were examined for production of proangiogenic factors employing ELISA. Results IL-7 and IL-7R were coexpressed on RA synovial tissue lining and sublining macrophages and endothelial cells. Consistently, expression of IL-7 and its receptor were significantly elevated in RA synovial fluid and peripheral blood macrophages as well as RA fibroblasts compared to normal cells. TLR4 ligation and stimulation with TNF-α modulated expression of IL-7 and IL-7R on RA macrophages and HMVECs. However, in RA fibroblasts only expression of IL-7R was increased by LPS and TNF-α activation. IL-7 also mediated RA pathogenesis by inducing production of potent proangiogenic factors from macrophages and endothelial cells. Conclusion We identify, for the first time, regulators of IL-7 and IL-7R expression in RA fibroblasts, RA peripheral blood in vitro differentiated macrophages and endothelial cells and we document a novel role of IL-7 in RA angiogenesis. PMID:21647866

  9. Regulation of the IL-10/IL-12 axis in human dendritic cells with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gad, Monika; Ravn, Peter; Søborg, Ditte A; Lund-Jensen, Karina; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Jensen, Simon S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we have used monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to design a screening model for the selection of microorganisms with the ability to suppress DC-secreted IL-12p70, a critical cytokine for the induction of T-helper cell type 1 immune responses under inflammatory conditions. By the treatment of DCs with cocktails containing TLR agonists and proinflammatory cytokines, the cells increased the secretion of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12p70. Clinically used probiotics were tested for their IL-10- and IL-12p70-stimulating properties in immature DCs, and showed a dose-dependent change in the IL-10/IL-12p70 balance. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(™) and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 showed a strong induction of IL-12p70, whereas Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 and Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 preferentially induced IL-10. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 induced both IL-10 and IL-12p70, whereas the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii induced low levels of cytokines. When combining these microorganisms with the Th1-promoting cocktails, E. coli Nissle 1917 and B. infantis 35624 were potent suppressors of IL-12p70 secretion in an IL-10-independent manner, indicating a suppressive effect on Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. The present model, using cocktail-stimulated DCs with potent IL-12p70-stimulating capacity, may be used as an efficient tool to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of microorganisms for potential clinical use. PMID:21707779

  10. IL-22, cell regeneration and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nikoopour, Enayat; Bellemore, Stacey M; Singh, Bhagirath

    2015-07-01

    IL-22 as a cytokine is described with opposing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Cell regeneration, tissue remodelling and balance between commensal bacteria in the gut and host immune system are considered as anti-inflammatory features of IL-22, whereas production of IL-22 from Th17 cells links this cytokine to pro-inflammatory pathways. Th17 cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are two major producers of IL-22 and both cell types express ROR-γt and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factors. Typically, the immune system cells are the main producers of IL-22. However, targets of this cytokine are mostly non-hematopoietic cells such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells of lung and intestine. Association of IL-22 with other cytokines or transcription factors in different cell types might explain its contrasting role in health and disease. In this review we discuss the regulation of IL-22 production by AhR- and IL-23-driven pathways. A clear understanding of the biology of IL-22 will provide new opportunities for its application to improve human health involving many debilitating conditions. PMID:25467639

  11. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County,...

  12. 75 FR 20859 - Notice of Realty Action, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania and Valley Forge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Realty Action, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania and Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the... is located within the boundary of Independence National Historical Park (INDE). The privately...

  13. 78 FR 62658 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1849 C Street...

  14. Transcytosis of IL-11 and Apical Redirection of gp130 Is Mediated by IL-11α Receptor.

    PubMed

    Monhasery, Niloufar; Moll, Jens; Cuman, Carly; Franke, Manuel; Lamertz, Larissa; Nitz, Rebecca; Görg, Boris; Häussinger, Dieter; Lokau, Juliane; Floss, Doreen M; Piekorz, Roland; Dimitriadis, Eva; Garbers, Christoph; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-07-26

    Interleukin (IL)-11 signaling is involved in various processes, including epithelial intestinal cell regeneration and embryo implantation. IL-11 signaling is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11R1 or IL-11R2, two IL-11α-receptor splice variants, and gp130. Here, we show that IL-11 signaling via IL-11R1/2:gp130 complexes occurs on both the apical and basolateral sides of polarized cells, whereas IL-6 signaling via IL-6R:gp130 complexes is restricted to the basolateral side. We show that basolaterally supplied IL-11 is transported and released to the apical extracellular space via transcytosis in an IL-11R1-dependent manner. By contrast, IL-6R and IL-11R2 do not promote transcytosis. In addition, we show that transcytosis of IL-11 is dependent on the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 and that synthetic transfer of the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 to IL-6R promotes transcytosis of IL-6. Our data define IL-11R as a cytokine receptor with transcytotic activity by which IL-11 and IL-6:soluble IL-6R complexes are transported across cellular barriers. PMID:27425614

  15. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  16. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, José L.; Fernando, Maria R.; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L.; Matisz, Chelsea E.; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  17. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  18. The Relationship of Cytokines IL-13 and IL-17 with Autoantibodies Profile in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Siloşi, Isabela; Boldeanu, Mihail Virgil; Cojocaru, Manole; Badea, Ramona Georgiana

    2016-01-01

    Aims. In the present study, we aimed to assess the concentrations of IL-13 and IL-17 in serum of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA), the investigation of correlation between the concentrations of these cytokines and disease activity score, and the concentration of some autoantibodies and the evaluation of the utility of IL-13 and -17 concentration measurements as markers of disease activity. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 30 patients and from 28 controls and analysed parameters. Results. The serum concentrations of IL-13, IL-17, anti-CCP, and IgM-RF were statistically significantly higher in patients with eRA, compared to the controls. IL-13 concentrations in the severe and moderate groups with eRA were statistically higher than in the mild and control groups. Also, in the case of IL-17, serum concentrations increased proportionally with the disease activity of eRA. We observe that concentrations of IL-13 and -17 did not correlate with autoantibodies. IL-17 concentration significantly positively correlated with CRP, while IL-13 concentration significantly negatively correlated with CRP. Disease activity score, DAS28, was strongly positively correlated with levels of ESR and weakly positively correlated with concentrations of anti-RA33 autoantibodies. IL-13 has a higher diagnostic utility than IL-17, CRP, ESR, IgM-RF, and anti-CCP as markers of disease activity. Conclusions. The presence of higher IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels in patients, compared with those of controls, confirms that these markers, found with high specificity, might be involved in the pathogenesis of eRA. IL-13 and IL-17 might be of better usefulness in the prediction of eRA activity status than IgM-RF and anti-CCP. PMID:27579330

  19. The Relationship of Cytokines IL-13 and IL-17 with Autoantibodies Profile in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Siloşi, Isabela; Boldeanu, Mihail Virgil; Cojocaru, Manole; Biciuşcă, Viorel; Pădureanu, Vlad; Bogdan, Maria; Badea, Ramona Georgiana; Avramescu, Carmen; Petrescu, Ileana Octavia; Petrescu, Florin; Siloşi, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. In the present study, we aimed to assess the concentrations of IL-13 and IL-17 in serum of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA), the investigation of correlation between the concentrations of these cytokines and disease activity score, and the concentration of some autoantibodies and the evaluation of the utility of IL-13 and -17 concentration measurements as markers of disease activity. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 30 patients and from 28 controls and analysed parameters. Results. The serum concentrations of IL-13, IL-17, anti-CCP, and IgM-RF were statistically significantly higher in patients with eRA, compared to the controls. IL-13 concentrations in the severe and moderate groups with eRA were statistically higher than in the mild and control groups. Also, in the case of IL-17, serum concentrations increased proportionally with the disease activity of eRA. We observe that concentrations of IL-13 and -17 did not correlate with autoantibodies. IL-17 concentration significantly positively correlated with CRP, while IL-13 concentration significantly negatively correlated with CRP. Disease activity score, DAS28, was strongly positively correlated with levels of ESR and weakly positively correlated with concentrations of anti-RA33 autoantibodies. IL-13 has a higher diagnostic utility than IL-17, CRP, ESR, IgM-RF, and anti-CCP as markers of disease activity. Conclusions. The presence of higher IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels in patients, compared with those of controls, confirms that these markers, found with high specificity, might be involved in the pathogenesis of eRA. IL-13 and IL-17 might be of better usefulness in the prediction of eRA activity status than IgM-RF and anti-CCP. PMID:27579330

  20. Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Erinjeri, Joseph P; Thomas, Contessa T; Samoila, Alaiksandra; Fleisher, Martin; Gonen, Mithat; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Thornton, Raymond H; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; Covey, Anne M.; Brody, Lynn A.; Alago, William; Maybody, Majid; Brown, Karen T.; Getrajdman, George; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify changes in plasma cytokine levels following image-guided thermal ablation of human tumors and to identify the factors that independently predict changes in plasma cytokine levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole blood samples were collected from 36 patients at 3 time points: pre-ablation, post-ablation (within 48 hours), and in follow-up (1–5 weeks after ablation). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using cytokine level as the dependent variable and sample collection, time, age, sex, primary diagnosis, metastatic status, ablation site, and ablation type as the independent variables. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the plasma level of IL-6 post-ablation when compared to pre-ablation (9.6+/−31 fold, p<0.002). IL-10 also showed a significant increase postablation (1.9 +/−2.8 fold, p<0.02). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, and TNFa were not significantly changed after ablation. Cryoablation resulted in the largest change in IL-6 level (>54 fold), while radiofrequency and microwave ablation showed 3.6 and 3.4-fold changes, respectively. Ablation of melanomas showed the largest change in IL-6 48 hours after ablation (92×), followed by ablation of kidney (26×), liver (8×), and lung (6×) cancers. Multivariate analysis revealed that ablation type (p<0.0003), and primary diagnosis (p<0.03) were independent predictors of changes to IL-6 following ablation. Age was the only independent predictor of IL-10 levels following ablation (p<0.019). CONCLUSION Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10, without increasing the plasma level of IL-1a, IL-2, or TNFa. PMID:23582441

  1. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section... Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing and parking. (a) Drivers will not stop, park, or leave... or leave their vehicle off the roadway. In any case, parking or standing the vehicle upon the...

  2. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section... Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing and parking. (a) Drivers will not stop, park, or leave... or leave their vehicle off the roadway. In any case, parking or standing the vehicle upon the...

  3. 75 FR 4417 - Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of... Statement, Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 102(2)(C) of... Environmental Impact Statement (Plan), Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. On December 3,...

  4. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  5. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  6. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  7. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  8. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  9. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Colonial National Historical... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  10. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colonial National Historical... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  11. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Colonial National Historical... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  12. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  13. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Colonial National Historical... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  14. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing... food, drink, or lodging for sale may be operated on any privately owned lands within Glacier...

  15. 75 FR 13572 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... dates of the April 7, 2006 and October 5, 2006 meetings of the Gettysburg National Military Park..., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325. Agenda: The April 7, 2006 meeting in addition to the following consist of...

  16. 76 FR 77552 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... sets forth the dates of April 19, 2012 and September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park... p.m. to 9 p.m. Location: The meetings will be held at the Ford Education Center in the...

  17. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  18. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  19. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  20. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH TOWARDS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART (BOTTOM LEFT), BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (BOTTOM RIGHT), BIRMINGHAM CITY HALL (CENTER RIGHT), JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (CENTER LEFT) AND LINN PARK (CENTER) - Linn Park, Bounded by Park Place, Eighth Avenue, Short Twentieth & Twenty-first Streets, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  3. Building for Quality Education--The Educational Park Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClurkin, W.D.

    Speakers and discussions at this one day conference were dedicated to building for quality education, with major emphasis on the concept of educational parks. The five major speeches are--(1) Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Parks, (2) Educational Parks: Appalachian Style, emphasizing a twist in the park idea in order to accommodate…

  4. 9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  5. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized by a posted traffic sign or directed by a uniformed guard, shall stand or park a motor vehicle: (1... posted signs and shall register their vehicles at the front desk of Erskine Hall, Ruth Building...

  6. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ariwite, Roderick

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  7. Science Parks: Strategic Options for Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstad, Tom

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of the emergence of science parks as an option for university-industry cooperation focuses on the university's role and the need for careful planning of the university's involvement. (Author/MSE)

  8. Fires in Shenandoah National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large smoke plume has been streaming eastward from Virginia's Shenandoah National Park near Old Rag Mountain. Based on satellite images, it appears the blaze started sometime between October 30 and 31. This true-color image of the fire was obtained on November 1, 2000 by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Thermal Infrared data, overlaid on the color image, reveals the presence of two active fires underneath the smoke plume. The northern fire (upper) is burning near the Pinnacles Picnic Area along Skyline Drive. The southern fire (lower) is on Old Rag Mountain. Old Rag is one of the most popular hikes in the Washington, DC area, and features extremely rugged terrain, with granite cliffs up to 90 feet high. This scene was produced using MODIS direct broadcast data received and processed at the Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The smoke plume appears blue-grey while the red and yellow pixels show the locations of the smoldering and flaming portions of the fire, respectively. Image by Liam Gumley, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC

  9. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  10. Automated parking garage system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A one-twenty-fifth scale model of the key components of an automated parking garage system is described. The design of the model required transferring a vehicle from an entry level, vertically (+Z, -Z), to a storage location at any one of four storage positions (+X, -X, +Y, +Y, -Y) on the storage levels. There are three primary subsystems: (1) a screw jack to provide the vertical motion of the elevator, (2) a cam-driven track-switching device to provide X to Y motion, and (3) a transfer cart to provide horizontal travel and a small amount to vertical motion for transfer to the storage location. Motive power is provided by dc permanent magnet gear motors, one each for the elevator and track switching device and two for the transfer cart drive system (one driving the cart horizontally and the other providing the vertical transfer). The control system, through the use of a microprocessor, provides complete automation through a feedback system which utilizes sensing devices.

  11. Clinical Significance of IL-23 Regulating IL-17A and/or IL-17F Positive Th17 Cells in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenhua; Wang, Hui; Wu, Yunlong; Sun, Zheng; Wu, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression level and clinical significance of (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+) Th17 cells under IL-23 regulation in patients of chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls (HC). Materials and Methods. The whole peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 CP patients and 25 healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to test the (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+) Th17 expression level. Recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23) was used to detect Th17 differentiation and expansion. Correlation coefficient analysis between Th17 expression level and clinical parameters was analyzed by SPSS software. Results. Flow cytometry results showed that IL-17A+IL-17F− and IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 were both increased in CP group than in HC group (P < 0.01), while, under recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23) stimulation, the number of IL-17A+IL-17F− Th17 cells was significantly increased in both CP and HC groups (P < 0.01). Interestingly, IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 cells were only increased in CP group after rhIL-23 stimulation. Additionally, correlation coefficient analysis showed significant correlation between IL-17A+IL-17F− Th17 cell and attachment loss or probing depth (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study indicates that both the IL-17A+IL-17F− and IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 cells may be involved in pathogenesis of periodontitis. The role of these Th17 cells in the disease pathogenesis needs to be further investigated. PMID:25525302

  12. Evaluation of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-12 during pregnancy in bitches.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, M; Piccinno, M; Roncetti, M; Mutinati, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-04-01

    Complex cytokine networks play an important role in a wide range of pregnancy-related processes. During physiological pregnancy, the balance of T helper lymphocytes Th1 and Th2 is strongly shifted toward Th2, which has a protective role in the feto-maternal interaction. The aim of the present study is to establish the serum concentrations, ranges, and trends of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, and inflammatory IL-12A, during three phases of gestation in the bitch (20-30, 31-40, and 41-57 days of gestation). Our results indicate that, in early gestation, IL-4 and -10 serum concentrations are elevated and might depend on progesterone that could act as a potent inhibitor of Th1 responses inducing, conversely, the production of Th2-type cytokines (i.e., IL-10 and IL-4). On the other hand, between 30 and 40 days of gestation, the concentrations of the anti-inflammatory ILs decrease probably because of high concentrations of prolactin, which is endowed with immunostimulatory properties on different immune cell types. In the third phase of gestation (41-57 days), an increase in IL-10 occurs, which might depend on high levels of 17β-estradiol that, during pregnancy, interfere with the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T lymphocytes, acting as an anti-inflammatory factor. Conversely, the low and persistent concentrations of inflammatory IL-12A, throughout pregnancy, compared with anti-inflammatory ILs, might depend on the characteristic cytokine products of Thl and Th2 cells that are known to be mutually inhibitory. The monitoring of immunological status via the levels of cytokines during pregnancy in the bitch, could represent a diagnostic tool to predict and/or prevent pregnancy abnormality, as demonstrated in women. PMID:23422356

  13. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  14. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, William; Vasquez, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

  15. Gut-busters -- IL-17 Ain’t Afraid Of No IL-23

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-23 ameliorate clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. Paradoxically, IL-17 neutralization exacerbates colitis. In this issue, Lee et al. and Maxwell et al. reveal a protective function of IL-17 through maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, helping to explain this dichotomy (Lee et al., 2015; Maxwell et al., 2015). PMID:26488809

  16. Expression of IL-4/IL-13 receptors in differentiating human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    White, Steven R; Martin, Linda D; Stern, Randi; Laxman, Bharathi; Marroquin, Bertha A

    2010-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 elicit several important responses in airway epithelium including chemokine secretion and mucous secretion that may contribute to airway inflammation, cell migration, and differentiation. These cytokines have overlapping but not identical effector profiles likely due to shared subunits in their receptor complexes. These receptors are variably described in epithelial cells, and the relative expression, localization, and function of these receptors in differentiated and repairing epithelial cells are not clear. We examined IL-4/IL-13 receptor expression and localization in primary airway epithelial cells collected from normal human lungs and grown under conditions yielding both undifferentiated and differentiated cells inclusive of basal, goblet, and ciliated cell phenotypes. Gene expression of the IL-4Rα, IL-2Rγc, IL-13Rα1, and IL-13Rα2 receptor subunits increased with differentiation, but different patterns of localization and protein abundance were seen for each subunit based on both differentiation and the cell subtypes present. Increased expression of receptor subunits observed in more differentiated cells was associated with more substantial functional responses to IL-4 stimulation including increased eotaxin-3 expression and accelerated migration after injury. We demonstrate substantial differences in IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunit expression and responsiveness to IL-4 based on the extent of airway epithelial cell differentiation and suggest that these differences may have functional consequences in airway inflammation. PMID:20729386

  17. Functional expression of IL-12 receptor by human eosinophils: IL-12 promotes eosinophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nutku, E; Zhuang, Q; Soussi-Gounni, A; Aris, F; Mazer, B D; Hamid, Q

    2001-07-15

    In murine models of allergic inflammation, IL-12 has been shown to decrease tissue eosinophilia, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We evaluated the expression of IL-12R and the effect of IL-12 on eosinophil survival. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits in human peripheral blood eosinophils. Surface expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits on freshly isolated human eosinophils was optimally expressed after incubation with PMA. To determine the functional significance of IL-12R studies, we studied cell viability and apoptosis. Morphological analysis and propidium iodide staining for cell cycle demonstrated that recombinant human IL-12 increased in vitro human eosinophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of IL-5 together with IL-12 abrogated eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting that IL-12 and IL-5 have antagonistic effects. Our findings provide evidence for a novel role for IL-12 in regulating eosinophil function by increasing eosinophil apoptosis. PMID:11441113

  18. IL-1α and inflammasome-independent IL-1β promote neutrophil infiltration following alum vaccination.

    PubMed

    Oleszycka, Ewa; Moran, Hannah B T; Tynan, Graham A; Hearnden, Claire H; Coutts, Graham; Campbell, Matthew; Allan, Stuart M; Scott, Christopher J; Lavelle, Ed C

    2016-01-01

    Despite its long record of successful use in human vaccines, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of alum are not fully understood. Alum is a potent inducer of interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion in vitro in dendritic cells and macrophages via Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. However, the contribution of IL-1 to alum-induced innate and adaptive immune responses is controversial and the role of IL-1α following alum injection has not been addressed. This study shows that IL-1 is dispensable for alum-induced antibody and CD8 T cell responses to ovalbumin. However, IL-1 is essential for neutrophil infiltration into the injection site, while recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and eosinophils is IL-1 independent. Both IL-1α and IL-1β are released at the site of injection and contribute to the neutrophil response. Surprisingly, these effects are NLRP3-inflammasome independent as is the infiltration of other cell populations. However, while NLRP3 and caspase 1 were dispensable, alum-induced IL-1β at the injection site was dependent on the cysteine protease cathepsin S. Overall, these data demonstrate a previously unreported role for cathepsin S in IL-1β secretion, show that inflammasome formation is dispensable for alum-induced innate immunity and reveal that IL-1α and IL-1β are both necessary for alum-induced neutrophil influx in vivo. PMID:26536497

  19. Water resources management plan: Great Basin National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.W.; Flora, M.

    1994-06-01

    The enabling legislation creating Great Basin National Park calls for the National Park Service (NPS) to protect, manage, and administer the park in such manner as to conserve and protect the scenery as well as the natural, geologic, historic, and archaeological resources of the park. NPS policies require that each unit of the National Park System develop and implement a General Management Plan (GMP). This plan is designed to serve as a management action plan to guide park water-related activities over the next 10 to 15 years. This WRMP is complementary to, and consistent with, other existing park management documents, including the GMP (NPS 1993) and Resource Management Plan (in review).

  20. IL-2 regulation of soluble IL-2 receptor levels following thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan, J A; Sparkes, B G; Lalani, S; Peters, W J; Mills, G B

    1992-01-01

    In the immunosuppressed burn patient serum levels of both IL-2 and a soluble form of IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2R alpha) are significantly elevated. Strikingly, the production of these markers by the in vitro activated patients' cells is decreased. This study examines the role of IL-2 in the decreased production of the sIL-2R alpha in vitro in patients with major burns (n = 18, 30 to greater than 70% total body surface area). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from patients with highly elevated serum sIL-2R alpha, and from healthy controls (n = 12) were activated with concanavalin A (Con A) at initiation. In patients' cultures mitogen-induced increments of sIL-2R alpha levels were significantly lower. There was a significant negative correlation (r = 0.64, P less than 0.001) between a high serum sIL-2R alpha level and a decreased lectin-induced sIL-2R alpha release in vitro. Low levels of sIL-2R alpha in patients' samples were not normalized by increasing the number of T lymphocytes. Also exogenous rIL-1 was without effect, whereas rIL-3 increased sIL-2R alpha release in some cultures. However, sIL-2R alpha levels were significantly increased in patients' cultures by (i) addition of exogenous IL-2; (ii) removal of adherent cells; (iii) addition of cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin; (iv) bypassing cell surface activation by the combination of the calcium ionophore A23187 and the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoyl acetate. The cyclic AMP-elevating drug, forskolin, abrogated the ability of exogenous IL-2 to increase sIL-2R alpha production. Thus, in the burn patient, the reduced in vitro sIL-2R alpha release appears to relate to abnormalities in IL-2 production and action mediated through its functional surface receptor. Elevated levels of sIL-2R alpha in vivo may, therefore, reflect systemic activation of T lymphocytes in response to biologically active IL-2. PMID:1382903

  1. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Daniel R.; Friedman, Irving

    1985-12-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 × 10 10 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park.

  2. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  3. Deubiquitinating enzymes regulate PARK2-mediated mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqing; Serricchio, Mauro; Jauregui, Miluska; Shanbhag, Riya; Stoltz, Tasha; Di Paolo, Caitlin T; Kim, Peter K; McQuibban, G Angus

    2015-01-01

    The selective degradation of mitochondria by the process of autophagy, termed mitophagy, is one of the major mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control. The best-studied mitophagy pathway is the one mediated by PINK1 and PARK2/Parkin. From recent studies it has become clear that ubiquitin-ligation plays a pivotal role and most of the focus has been on the role of ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins in mitophagy. Even though ubiquitination is a reversible process, very little is known about the role of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in mitophagy. Here, we report that 2 mitochondrial DUBs, USP30 and USP35, regulate PARK2-mediated mitophagy. We show that USP30 and USP35 can delay PARK2-mediated mitophagy using a quantitative mitophagy assay. Furthermore, we show that USP30 delays mitophagy by delaying PARK2 recruitment to the mitochondria during mitophagy. USP35 does not delay PARK2 recruitment, suggesting that it regulates mitophagy through an alternative mechanism. Interestingly, USP35 only associates with polarized mitochondria, and rapidly translocates to the cytosol during CCCP-induced mitophagy. It is clear that PARK2-mediated mitophagy is regulated at many steps in this important quality control pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an important role of mitochondrial-associated DUBs in mitophagy. Because defects in mitochondria quality control are implicated in many neurodegenerative disorders, our study provides clear rationales for the design and development of drugs for the therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. PMID:25915564

  4. Acid Rain in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Deviney, Frank A., Jr.; Olson, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Visitors to Shenandoah National Park (SNP) enjoy the animal and plant life and the scenery but may not realize how vulnerable these features are to various threats, such as invasion of exotic plants and insects, improper use of park resources by humans, and air and water pollution. The National Park Service strives to protect natural resources from such threats to ensure that the resources will be available for enjoyment now and in the future. Because SNP has limited influence over the air pollution that envelops the region, acidic deposition--commonly known as acid rain--is one of the more challenging threats facing park managers. With the help of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, park managers can understand how acid rain interacts with ground- and surface-water resources, which enables them to explain why reductions in air pollution can help preserve park resources. Such understanding also provides essential insight into ecosystem processes, as managers strive to unravel and resolve other environmental problems that are interrelated to acid rain.

  5. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  6. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuexian O; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S; Broaddus, Russell R; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-05-12

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F-deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  7. IL-23A, IL-23R, IL-17A and IL-17R polymorphisms in different psoriatic arthritis clinical manifestations in the northern Italian population.

    PubMed

    Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Boiardi, Luigi; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Garagnani, Paolo; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Farnetti, Enrico; Casali, Bruno; Chiarolanza, Ilaria; Nicoli, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Salvarani, Carlo

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the genetic variability of IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes on an in-depth phenotypically characterized northern Italian Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) case-control cohort, in search for associations specific to different PsA clinical sub-phenotypes. We examined 118 patients with PsA according to CASPAR criteria (mean age 57 ± 13, female 38.4 %, mean disease duration 13.9 ± 8.6 years, peripheral disease 83.8 %, axial manifestations 34.5 %, radiological erosive disease 49 %) compared with 248 controls of the same ethnic origin matched for age and sex. The presence of axial disease was defined by the clinical axial involvement and/or the presence of radiological alteration consistent with spondyloarthropathy according to New York criteria. The presence of peripheral disease (arthritis and/or enthesitis) was defined only on clinical basis. A total of 40 SNPs, mapping within the genes mentioned above, were genotyped in both groups and used to perform association analyses by subdividing the PsA sample into subgroups according to different clinical manifestations on the basis of axial and peripheral involvements. No differences between patients and controls were found in the distribution of the IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants. Comparing patients with axial disease versus those without, we found that axial manifestations were significantly associated with the presence of IL-23R rs12401432 GG homozygosity (26.8 % vs. 5.3 %, p corr = 0.019, OR 2.63 [95 % CI 1.13-6.16]). No differences in distribution of the allelic variants were found comparing patients with versus those without peripheral disease or patients with versus without radiological peripheral erosions. In PA patients of northern Italian origin, IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants are not associated with disease susceptibility. However, a strong association with the IL-23RA rs12401432 GG genotype is associated with axial involvement of the disease

  8. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  9. 75 FR 11169 - Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of... filed: February 1, 2010. d. Submitted by: Reedsport OPT Wave Park, LLC. e. Name of Project: Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project. ] f. Location: Pacific Ocean in state waters about 2.5 miles off the coast...

  10. The Unique Functions of the Type-II IL-4 Receptor are revealed in IL-13R¿1-deficient mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IL-4 receptor is a central mediator of Th2-mediated diseases and associates with either the common gamma chain (type-I IL-4R) or IL-13Ra1 (type-II IL-4R) to form two receptor complexes. Here, using IL-13Ra1-/- mice, we characterized the distinct functions of the type-II IL-4R. In contrast to IL-...

  11. Cigarette smoke affects IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17 receptor expression in the lung tissue: Ex vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Angela Marina; Riccobono, Loredana; Siena, Liboria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Di Sano, Caterina; Anzalone, Giulia; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Pipitone, Loredana; Vitulo, Patrizio; Profita, Mirella

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Th-17 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. We aimed to evaluate the role of cigarette smoke on the expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R in airways of COPD patients. Epithelial and subepithelial immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R was assessed in surgical specimens from COPD patients (n=15) and from healthy subjects (HC) (n=10) by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, human epithelial cell line 16HBE and A549 as well as PBMC from normal donors were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) to evaluate the IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R expression by flow cytometry. Furthermore, rhIL-17A and CSE stimulation was evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis in 16HBE and in A549. In central and distal airways immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R significantly increased in the epithelium and IL-17A in the subepithelium from COPD than in HC. In distal airway, immunoreactivity for IL-17F increased in the subepithelium of COPD than in HC. IL-17A immunoreactivity positively correlate with IL-17R and total pack years in the epithelium from central and distal airways of COPD patients. In vitro, CSE stimulation significantly increased IL-17F and IL-17R in 16HBE (2.5%) and A549 (5%) while IL-17A and IL-17F in PBMC (10%). IL-17A and CSE stimulation, rather than CSE or rhIL-17A alone, significantly increased proliferation in 16HBE and apoptosis in A549. Cigarette smoke increases Th17 immunity in lung tissue of COPD patients, promoting the mechanism of proliferation and apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:26198032

  12. Effects of IL-23 and IL-27 on osteoblasts and osteoclasts: inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Chika; Fukawa, Takeshi; Ono, Katsuhiro; Ohwaki, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Wada, Seiki

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-27 are IL-6/IL-12 family members that play a role in the regulation of T helper 1 cell differentiation. Cytokines are known to be involved in the bone remodeling process, although the effects of IL-23 and IL-27 have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the possible roles of these cytokines on osteoblast phenotypes and osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-27 induced signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 activation in osteoblasts. However, neither IL-23 nor IL-27 showed any significant effects on alkaline phosphatase activity, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression, mRNA expression such as alkaline phosphatase type I procollagen, or the proliferation of osteoblasts. Osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow cells induced by soluble RANKL was partially inhibited by IL-23 and IL-27 with reduced multinucleated cell numbers, but these interleukins did not affect the proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells. These results indicate that IL-23 and IL-27 could partly modify cell fusion or the survival of multinucleated osteoclasts. On the other hand, partially purified T cells, which are activated by 2 microg/ml anti-CD3 antibody, completely inhibited osteoclastogenesis by M-CSF/RANKL. On using T cells activated with 0.2 microg/ml anti-CD3 antibody, in which osteoclastogenesis was partially inhibited, the interleukins had additive effects for inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Although the consequences of phosphorylated signals in osteoblasts have not been identified, IL-23 and IL-27, partly and indirectly through activated T cells, inhibited osteoclastogenesis, indicating that these interleukins may protect against bone destructive autoimmune disorders. PMID:17704992

  13. IL-33 and IL-4 impair barrier functions of human vascular endothelium via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chalubinski, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Luczak, Emilia; Gorzelak, Paulina; Borowiec, Maciej; Gajewski, Adrian; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Broncel, Marlena

    2015-10-01

    The vascular endothelium forms a barrier that controls flow of solutes and proteins and the entry of leukocytes into tissue. Injured tissue releases IL-33, which then alarms the immune system and attracts Th2 cells, thus increasing local concentration of IL-4. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of IL-33 and IL-4 on barrier functions of the human endothelium, expression of tight and adherent junction proteins, apoptosis and adhesive molecule surface expression in human endothelium in order to describe the mechanism of this effect. IL-33 and IL-4 decreased endothelial integrity and increased permeability. When added together, both cytokines lowered the endothelial integrity twice as much as used alone. This effect was accompanied by the down-regulation of occludin and VE-cadherin mRNA expression. Additionally, IL-4, but not IL-33, induced cell apoptosis. Both IL-33 and IL-4 showed the additive potency to down-regulate VE-cadherin mRNA expression. IL-33, unlike IL-4, increased the surface expression of ICAM-1, but not PECAM-1 in endothelial cells. Our results indicate that IL-33 may reversibly destabilize the endothelial barrier, thus accelerating the supply with immunomodulators and assisting leukocytes to reach wounded tissue. However, extended and less-controlled down-regulation of endothelial barrier, which may be a consequence of IL-33-initiated, but in fact IL-4-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, may be deleterious and may eventually lead to the aggravation of inflammatory processes and the prolongation of tissue dysfunction. PMID:26231284

  14. Interleukin-23 (IL-23)-IL-17 Cytokine Axis in Murine Pneumocystis carinii Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Xiaowen L.; Happel, Kyle I.; Young, Erana A.; Shellito, Judd E.

    2007-01-01

    Host defense mechanisms against Pneumocystis carinii are not fully understood. Previous work in the murine model has shown that host defense against infection is critically dependent upon host CD4+ T cells. The recently described Th17 immune response is predominantly a function of effector CD4+ T cells stimulated by interleukin-23 (IL-23), but whether these cells are required for defense against P. carinii infection is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that P. carinii stimulates the early release of IL-23, leading to increases in IL-17 production and lung effector CD4+ T-cell population that mediate clearance of infection. In vitro, stimulation of alveolar macrophages with P. carinii induced IL-23, and IL-23p19 mRNA was expressed in lungs of mice infected with this pathogen. To address the role of IL-23 in resistance to P. carinii, IL-23p19−/− and wild-type control C57BL/6 mice were infected and their fungal burdens and cytokine/chemokine responses were compared. IL-23p19−/− mice displayed transient but impaired clearance of infection, which was most apparent 2 weeks after inoculation. In confirmatory studies, the administration of either anti-IL-23p19 or anti-IL-17 neutralizing antibody to wild-type mice infected with P. carinii also caused increases in fungal burdens. IL-17 and the lymphocyte chemokines IP-10, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were decreased in the lungs of infected IL-23p19−/− mice in comparison to their levels in the lungs of wild-type mice. In IL-23p19−/− mice infected with P. carinii, there were fewer effector CD4+ T cells in the lung tissue. Collectively, these studies indicate that the IL-23-IL-17 axis participates in host defense against P. carinii. PMID:17403873

  15. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor by normal and cancerous human ovarian tissues: possible implication of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Levy, Ruthy Shaco; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  16. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Shaco Levy, Ruthy; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  17. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis and IL-10 Receptor Blockade as Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Henry W.; Lu, Christina M.; Mauze, Smita; Freeman, Sherry; Moreira, Andre L.; Kaplan, Gilla; Coffman, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages. To develop a rationale for IL-10 inhibition as treatment in visceral infection, Th1 cytokine-driven responses were characterized in Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice in which IL-10 was absent or overexpressed or its receptor (IL-10R) was blockaded. IL-10 knockout and normal mice treated prophylactically with anti-IL-10R demonstrated accelerated granuloma assembly and rapid parasite killing without untoward tissue inflammation; IL-12 and gamma interferon mRNA expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase reactivity, and responsiveness to antimony chemotherapy were also enhanced in knockout mice. In IL-10 transgenic mice, parasite replication was unrestrained, and except for antimony responsiveness, measured Th1 cell-dependent events were all initially impaired. Despite subsequent granuloma assembly, high-level infection persisted, and antimony-treated transgenic mice also relapsed. In normal mice with established infection, anti-IL-10R treatment was remarkably active, inducing near-cure by itself and synergism with antimony. IL-10's deactivating effects regulate outcome in experimental visceral leishmaniasis, and IL-10R blockade represents a potential immuno- and/or immunochemotherapeutic approach in this infection. PMID:12379707

  18. Distinct expression of interleukin (IL)-36α, β and γ, their antagonist IL-36Ra and IL-38 in psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Boutet, M-A; Bart, G; Penhoat, M; Amiaud, J; Brulin, B; Charrier, C; Morel, F; Lecron, J-C; Rolli-Derkinderen, M; Bourreille, A; Vigne, S; Gabay, C; Palmer, G; Le Goff, B; Blanchard, F

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ are expressed highly in skin and are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, while the antagonists IL-36Ra or IL-38, another potential IL-36 inhibitor, limit uncontrolled inflammation. The expression and role of IL-36 cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) is currently debated. Here, we observed that during imiquimod-induced mouse skin inflammation and in human psoriasis, expression of IL-36α, γ and IL-36Ra, but not IL-36β and IL-38 mRNA, was induced and correlated with IL-1β and T helper type 17 (Th17) cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, CCL20). In mice with collagen-induced arthritis and in the synovium of patients with RA, IL-36α, β, γ, IL-36Ra and IL-38 were all elevated and correlated with IL-1β, CCL3, CCL4 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), but not with Th17 cytokines. In the colon of mice with dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis and in patients with CD, only IL-36α, γ and IL-38 were induced at relatively low levels and correlated with IL-1β and IL-17A. We suggest that only a minor subgroup of patients with RA (17-29%) or CD (25%) had an elevated IL-36 agonists/antagonists ratio, versus 93% of patients with psoriasis. By immunohistochemistry, IL-36 cytokines were produced by various cell types in skin, synovium and colonic mucosa such as keratinocytes, CD68⁺ macrophages, dendritic/Langerhans cells and CD79α⁺ plasma cells. In primary cultures of monocytes or inflammatory macrophages (M1), IL-36β and IL-36Ra were produced constitutively, but IL-36α, γ and IL-38 were produced after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These distinct expression profiles may help to explain why only subgroups of RA and CD patients have a potentially elevated IL-36 agonists/antagonists ratio. PMID:26701127

  19. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  20. Park Managers' Predictions of the Motivations of Visitors to Two National Park Service Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, J. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Managers at Cape Hatteras National Seashore and Shenandoah National Park predicted the motivations of visitors to the parks. Cape Hatteras managers' predictions were frequently in error, while Shenandoah managers' predictions were generally accurate. These findings are viewed along with previous research to provide a tentative hypothesis…

  1. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AE08 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System...) requires promulgation of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes outside of developed areas and... promulgation of special regulations for the designation of bicycle routes outside of developed areas...

  2. Bark in the Park: A Review of Domestic Dogs in Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Wescott, Geoffrey; Miller, Kelly K.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Schneider, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of domestic dogs Canis familiaris in public open spaces is increasingly controversial. In our review of the literature, we located 133 publications of various types (papers, reports etc.) that examine some aspect of dogs in parks and open spaces (50 % focussed solely on dogs). There has been an exponential growth in the cumulative number of articles ( R 2 = 0.96; 82 % published since 1997); almost all pertain to temperate latitudes (97 %) and most to the northern hemisphere (62 %). Most articles focus on impacts on wildlife (51 %), zoonotic diseases (17 %), and people's perceptions regarding dogs (12 %). Articles mostly describe problems associated with dogs, while reports of low compliance with dog regulations are common. We outline six major findings regarding dogs in parks: (1) there is a paucity of information on dogs in parks, particularly in relation to their interactions with wildlife and regarding their management; (2) published studies are mainly restricted to a handful of locations in developed countries; (3) sectors of societies hold different views over the desirability of dogs in parks; (4) the benefits and risks of dogs to humans and park values are poorly documented and known; (5) dogs represent a notable disease risk in some but not all countries; and (6) coastal parks are over-represented in the literature in terms of potential negative impacts. Park managers globally require better information to achieve conservation outcomes from dog management in parks.

  3. 76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... snowmobiles and snowcoaches operating in the park meet air and sound requirements and be accompanied or... continued improvements in the park's air quality. Sound Emission Requirements Snowmobiles Sound restrictions... procedures could alter the measurement results. The NPS sound emission requirement was initially...

  4. Pros in Parks: Integrated Programming for Reaching Our Urban Park Operations Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.; Walker, Jamie Rae

    2016-01-01

    In addition to regular job duties, such as tree care, mulching, irrigation, and pesticide management, urban park workers have faced environmental changes due to drought, wildfires, and West Nile virus. They simultaneously have endured expectations to manage growing, diversifying park usage and limitations on career development. An integrated…

  5. IL-17/IL-17 receptor system in autoimmune disease: mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Qian, Youcun

    2012-06-01

    IL-17 (interleukin-17), a hallmark cytokine of Th17 (T-helper 17) cells, plays critical roles in host defence against bacterial and fungal infections, as well as in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The present review focuses on current knowledge of the regulation, functional mechanisms and targeting strategies of IL-17 in the context of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence shows that IL-17 is highly up-regulated at sites of inflammatory tissues of autoimmune diseases and amplifies the inflammation through synergy with other cytokines, such as TNF (tumour necrosis factor) α. Although IL-17 was originally thought to be produced mainly by Th17 cells, a newly defined T-cell subset with a specific differentiation programme and tight regulation, several other cell types (especially innate immune cells) are also found as important sources for IL-17 production. Although IL-17 activates common downstream signalling, including NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) and mRNA stability, the immediate receptor signalling has been shown to be quite unique and tightly regulated. Mouse genetic studies have demonstrated a critical role for IL-17 in the pathogenesis of variety of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and MS (multiple sclerosis). Importantly, promising results have been shown in initial clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 or its receptor (IL-17R) to block IL-17-mediated function in treating autoimmune patients with psoriasis, RA and MS. Therefore targeting IL-17/IL-17R, IL-17-producing pathways or IL-17-mediated signalling pathways can be considered for future therapy in autoimmune diseases. PMID:22324470

  6. Serum Levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in Patients With Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Kaplan, İbrahim; Polat, Nihat; Akil, Mehmet Ata; Akyüz, Abdurrahman; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; İnci, Ümit; Kayan, Fethullah; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (RMS) is a complication of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. RHD is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease that is associated with cytokine activities. The etiology of RMS is not fully understood yet. Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 have a key role in development of the autoimmunity. The expression of these cytokines in RMS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in RMS patients compared to healthy subjects.A total of 35 patients admitted to cardiology outpatient clinic between December 2014 and May 2015 who were diagnosed with RMS formed the study group. Age- and gender-matched 35 healthy subjects were included as the control group. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The patients with RMS had higher WBC count, hsCRP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs), left atrial diameter (LAD), IL-17, and IL-23 levels compared to the control subjects. The levels of IL-17 (P = 0.012) and IL-23 (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the RMS group. Correlation analysis revealed that IL-17 and IL-23 levels had a significant correlation with each other and with hsCRP and LAD.We demonstrated that serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 are significantly higher in patients with RMS compared to those of healthy subjects. IL-17 and IL-23 expression may have a possible role in inflammatory processes that result in RMS development. PMID:27149476

  7. Serum Levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in Patients With Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Kaplan, İbrahim; Polat, Nihat; Akil, Mehmet Ata; Akyüz, Abdurrahman; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; İnci, Ümit; Kayan, Fethullah; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (RMS) is a complication of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. RHD is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease that is associated with cytokine activities. The etiology of RMS is not fully understood yet. Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 have a key role in development of the autoimmunity. The expression of these cytokines in RMS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in RMS patients compared to healthy subjects. A total of 35 patients admitted to cardiology outpatient clinic between December 2014 and May 2015 who were diagnosed with RMS formed the study group. Age- and gender-matched 35 healthy subjects were included as the control group. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The patients with RMS had higher WBC count, hsCRP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs), left atrial diameter (LAD), IL-17, and IL-23 levels compared to the control subjects. The levels of IL-17 (P = 0.012) and IL-23 (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the RMS group. Correlation analysis revealed that IL-17 and IL-23 levels had a significant correlation with each other and with hsCRP and LAD. We demonstrated that serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 are significantly higher in patients with RMS compared to those of healthy subjects. IL-17 and IL-23 expression may have a possible role in inflammatory processes that result in RMS development. PMID:27149476

  8. Competition of IL-1 and IL-1ra determines lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA.

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, M P; Stankiewicz, W; Płusa, T; Chciałowski, A; Szmigielski, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) left in microcultures for 24h without mitogen do not respond to subsequent stimulation with PHA. They regain reactivity if the native culture medium is absorbed with other party lymphocytes or partially replaced with the medium from a PHA-stimulated culture. The observations suggest that, during the incubation, some inhibitory agent had accumulated in the culture medium. AIM: The study was performed to determine the nature of the observed phenomenon in respect of the possible role of monocytes and their products IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and to test for immunodiagnostic purposes the significance of quantifying the lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA in patients suffering from inflammatory prosesses. METHODS: Lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA, calculated as the lymphocyte-monokine interaction (LM) index, was determined in the microcultures of PBMC isolated from the blood of healthy donors or of patients with acute tonsilitis. The values of LM indices were compared with the ratios of IL-1ra/IL-1beta concentration estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the culture supernatants. The influences of exogenous IL-1beta, IL-1ra, anti-IL1ra antibodies and antibiotic cefaclor on the monokine concentrations and on the values of LM index were tested. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the level of lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA (LM index) is inversely proportional to the ratio of IL-1ra/IL-1beta concentration in the culture. The low LM values at high IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratios in PBMC cultures from healthy donors, reversed proportions found in patients' PBMC (acute tonsilitis), and the cefaclor-induced reduction of LM value with correlated increase of the IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratio suggest that the LM assay may prove to be useful for immunodiagnostic purposes. PMID:11545246

  9. Role of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Caicun; Ren, Shengxiang

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of the key cytokines with pleiotropic effects on immune system. It has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of IL-2 in regulating lymphocytes that has led to exciting new directions for cancer immunotherapy. While improved IL-2 formulations might be used as monotherapies, their combination with other anticancer immunotherapies, such as adoptive cell transfer regimens, antigen-specific vaccination, and blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitory molecules, for example cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) mono-antibodies, would held the promise of treating metastatic cancer. Despite the comprehensive studies of IL-2 on immune system have established the application of IL-2 for cancer immunotherapy, a number of poignant obstacles remain for future research. In the present review, we will focus on the key biological features of IL-2, current applications, limitations, and future directions of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27471638

  10. Extracorporeal photopheresis promotes IL-1β production.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Erhan; Jakobs, Christopher; Peric, Adriana; Michel, Gabriela; Baal, Nelli; Bein, Gregor; Brüne, Bernhard; Hornung, Veit; Hackstein, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a widely used clinical cell-based therapy exhibiting efficacy in heterogenous immune-mediated diseases such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma, graft-versus-host disease, and organ allograft rejection. Despite its documented efficacy in cancer immunotherapy, little is known regarding the induction of immunostimulatory mediators by ECP. In this article, we show that ECP promotes marked release of the prototypic immunostimulatory cytokine IL-1β. ECP primes IL-1β production and activates IL-1β maturation and release in the context of caspase-1 activation in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells. Of interest, IL-1β maturation by ECP was fully intact in murine cells deficient in caspase-1, suggesting the predominance of an inflammasome-independent pathway for ECP-dependent IL-1β maturation. Clinically, patient analysis revealed significantly increased IL-1β production in stimulated leukapheresis concentrates and peripheral blood samples after ECP. Collectively, these results provide evidence for promotion of IL-1β production by ECP and offer new insight into the immunostimulatory capacity of ECP. PMID:25681340

  11. Increased IL-23 and IL-17 expression by peripheral blood cells of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Jiang, Tingwang; Zhang, Weiwei; Ren, Chuanlu; Wang, Qianqian; Qin, Qin; Chen, Jie; Deng, Anmei; Zhong, Renqian

    2013-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a typical autoimmune disease for which the pathogenesis remains unclear. IL-23 and IL-17 are pro-inflammatory cytokines of the "IL-23/IL-17 axis," which may play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-23 and IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients with PBC and its clinical significance. We used quantitative PCR to determine mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-23 receptor, and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PBC patients. ELISA's were used to determine patients' serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17. IL-23- and IL-17-producing cells in liver biopsis were also analyzed. Compared to a healthy control group, the mRNA expression levels of IL-23 p19, its corresponding receptor, IL-23R, and IL-17 in PBMC's from PBC patients were significantly increased, and these levels were correlated with PBC disease stages. PBC patients' serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 were higher than those in a post-hepatic cirrhosis group and a healthy group, and were significantly higher in the early PBC disease stages than in the advanced PBC stages. There were significantly more IL23+ and IL-17+ mononuclear cells in portal areas of liver tissues in advanced stages of this disease than in the early stages. The serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 in PBC patients were positively correlated with serum GGT levels. Thus, IL-23 and IL-17 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PBC by promoting inflammation. Because the IL-23 and IL-17 levels in the peripheral blood of PBC patients were increased and were correlated with clinical stages, they may be indices that could be used to clinically monitor PBC. PMID:23910013

  12. A CC' loop decoy peptide blocks the interaction between Act1 and IL-17RA to attenuate IL-17- and IL-25-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caini; Swaidani, Shadi; Qian, Wen; Kang, Zizhen; Sun, Paige; Han, Yue; Wang, Chenhui; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Yin, Weiguo; Zhang, Chunjiang; Fox, Paul L; Aronica, Mark; Hamilton, Thomas A; Misra, Saurav; Deng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-25 signaling induce the expression of genes encoding inflammatory factors and are implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) is an adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase that is critical for signaling by either IL-17 or IL-25, and it is recruited to their receptors (IL-17R and IL-25R) through heterotypic interactions between the SEFIR [SEF (similar expression to fibroblast growth factor genes) and IL-17R] domain of Act1 and that of the receptor. SEFIR domains have structural similarity with the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of Toll-like receptors and IL-1R. Whereas the BB' loop of TIR is required for TIR-TIR interactions, we found that deletion of the BB' loop from Act1 or IL-17RA (a common subunit of both IL-17R and IL-25R) did not affect Act1-IL-17RA interactions; rather, deletion of the CC' loop from Act1 or IL-17RA abolished the interaction between both proteins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that a peptide corresponding to the CC' loop of Act1 bound directly to IL-17RA. A cell-permeable decoy peptide based on the CC' loop sequence inhibited IL-17- or IL-25-mediated signaling in vitro, as well as IL-17- and IL-25-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice. Together, these findings provide the molecular basis for the specificity of SEFIR-SEFIR versus TIR-TIR domain interactions and consequent signaling. Moreover, we suggest that the CC' loop motif of SEFIR domains is a promising target for therapeutic strategies against inflammatory diseases associated with IL-17 or IL-25 signaling. PMID:22045852

  13. IL-33 Signaling in Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ma-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine super-family, acts as both a traditional cytokine and an intracellular nuclear factor. It is generally released from damaged immune cells and signals through its receptor ST2 in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, plays important roles in type-2 innate immunity, and functions as an “alarmin” or a danger signal for cellular damage or cellular stress. Here, we review recent advances of the role of IL-33 in lung injury and explore its potential significance as an attractive therapeutic target.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13 Genes and Susceptibility to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Shamran, Haidar A.; Ghazi, Haidar F.; AL-Salman, Ahmed; Al-Juboory, Ahmad A.; Taub, Dennis D.; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Singh, Udai P.

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is one of the most aggressive and most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The exact causes of glioma are not well known, but evidence suggests the involvement of genetic factors in addition to environmental risk factors. The present study aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in IL-10-1082A/G, IL-12p40 1188C/A, and IL-13+2044G/A (rs20541) are associated with the incidence of glioma in Iraqi patients. Ninety-six patients with different grades of glioma and 40 apparently healthy individuals were recruited. A blood sample and genomic DNA were collected from all subjects. The amplification refractory mutation system and sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for genotyping of IL-10-1082A/G and IL-12p40 1188C/A, respectively; whereas, the IL-13+2044G/A was detected by DNA sequencing after amplification of the genes by PCR. All SNPs were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and each appeared in three genotypes in patients and controls. In IL-10-1082A/G, these genotypes frequencies were AA (75%), AG (22.93%) and GG (2.07%) in patients as compared to similar frequencies (62.5%), (27.5%) and (10%) respectively, in controls. The variant IL-12p40 1188C/A genotype was AA (72.92%), AC (23.96%), and CC (3.13%%) in patients as compared to 65%, 30%, and 5%, respectively, in controls. The frequencies of IL-13+2044G/A genotypes (GG, GA, and AA) were 89.58%, 9.37%, and 1.04% among patients versus 47.5%, 32.5% and 20%, respectively, among controls. These results suggest a protective role of mutant alleles G and A in IL-10-1082A/G and IL-13+2044G/A against gliomas. Further studies with more rigorous parameter designs will be needed to confirm the current findings. PMID:26516307

  15. Ecosystem management for parks and wilderness

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, J.K.; Johnson, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to indicate why a new vision is necessary for park and wilderness management and to discuss strategies for cooperative management. It is not intended to define precisely what those goals should be. The workshop participants represented too narrow a group to set those goals even in a preliminary way, a fact recognized early in the workshop. However, this group was able to define a framework for future management to serve as a forum for park and wilderness ecosystem management. There will never be a single blueprint, a cookbook approach that will fit every park and wilderness situation. Unique legal, biological, and social situations guarantee that individualistic solutions be defined, and that those solutions remain flexible to incorporate new information and values within the intent of Congress. These themes comprise the common thread of the chapters to follow. The first and last chapters synthesize the workshop discussions. The intervening chapters are organized in a disciplinary fashion discussing legal issues, vegetation, wildlife, effects on terrestrial and aquatic resources from long-range air transport, perspectives on economics and human ecology, and finally three management perspectives. Each recognizes the problems of managing these park and wilderness ecosystems through past, outmoded paradigms, and the dangers of defining a rigid set of new paradigms. As a whole, the book provides a comprehensive view of our current problems and future opportunities for ecosystem management in parks and wilderness.

  16. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, A E; Barcham, G J; Brandon, M R; Nash, A D

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine with a wide range of effects on a variety of cell types. By hybridization with human IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta cDNA probes, the corresponding ovine cDNAs were isolated from a stimulated alveolar macrophage cDNA library. The sequences of these cDNAs showed that ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta encode proteins of 268 and 266 amino acids, respectively, with both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showing a high degree of homology with their human, mouse and bovine equivalents. In a mammalian COS cell-expression system these cDNAs produced biologically active IL-1. Further experiments demonstrated the importance of sequences within the 3' untranslated portion of the cDNAs in determining the level of expression of these molecules. The analysis of expression of IL-1 alpha- and IL-1 beta-specific mRNA in response to endotoxin, phorbol myristic acid (PMA) or PMA plus ionomycin revealed a distinct pattern of differential regulation of the two genes. From genomic analysis both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta appear to exist as single copies in the ovine genome. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1769692

  18. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  19. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Rα expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Rα-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  20. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  1. Oral Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I fimbriae ameliorate arthritis via IL-35, not IL-27.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Irina; Thornburg, Theresa; Callis, Gayle; Holderness, Kathryn; Maddaloni, Massimo; Pascual, David W

    2014-01-15

    A Salmonella therapeutic expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor Ag I (CFA/I) fimbriae protects against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by eliciting two regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets: TGF-β-producing Foxp3(-)CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells and IL-10-producing Foxp3(+)CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells. However, it is unclear whether CFA/I fimbriae alone are protective and whether other regulatory cytokines are involved, especially in the context for the EBI3-sharing cytokines, Treg-derived IL-35 and APC-derived IL-27, both capable of suppressing Th17 cells and regulating autoimmune diseases. Subsequent evaluation revealed that a single oral dose of purified, soluble CFA/I fimbriae protected against CIA as effectively as did Salmonella-CFA/I and found that Foxp3(+)CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells were the source of secreted IL-35, whereas IL-27 production by CD11c(+) cells was inhibited. Inquiring into their relevance, CFA/I fimbriae-treated IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice were equally protected against CIA as were wild-type mice, suggesting a limited role for IL-27. In contrast, CFA/I fimbriae-mediated protection was abated in EBI3(-/-) mice, accompanied by the loss of TGF-β- and IL-10-producing Tregs. Adoptive transfer of C57BL/6 CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells to EBI3(-/-) mice with concurrent CFA/I plus IL-35 treatment effectively stimulated Tregs suppressing proinflammatory collagen II-specific Th cells. In contrast, recipients cotransferred with C57BL/6 and EBI3(-/-) CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells and treated with CFA/I plus IL-35 were not protected, implicating the importance of endogenous IL-35 for conferring CFA/I-mediated protection. Thus, CFA/I fimbriae stimulate IL-35 required for the coinduction of TGF-β and IL-10. PMID:24337375

  2. rIL-10 enhances IL-10 signalling proteins in foetal alveolar type II cells exposed to hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-07-01

    Although the mechanisms by which hyperoxia promotes bronchopulmonary dysplasia are not fully defined, the inability to maintain optimal interleukin (IL)-10 levels in response to injury secondary to hyperoxia seems to play an important role. We previously defined that hyperoxia decreased IL-10 production and pre-treatment with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) protected these cells from injury. The objectives of these studies were to investigate the responses of IL-10 receptors (IL-10Rs) and IL-10 signalling proteins (IL-10SPs) in hyperoxic foetal alveolar type II cells (FATIICs) with and without rIL-10. FATIICs were isolated on embryonic day 19 and exposed to 65%-oxygen for 24 hrs. Cells in room air were used as controls. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA were analysed by ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. IL-10SPs were assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA increased significantly in FATIICs during hyperoxia, but JAK1 and TYK2 phosphorylation showed the opposite pattern. To evaluate the impact of IL-8 (shown previously to be increased) and the role of IL-10Rs, IL-10SPs were reanalysed in IL-8-added normoxic cells and in the IL-10Rs' siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells. The IL-10Rs' siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells and IL-8-added normoxic cells showed the same pattern in IL10SPs with the hyproxic cells. And pre-treatment with rIL-10 prior to hyperoxia exposure increased phosphorylated IL-10SPs, compared to the rIL-10-untreated hyperoxic cells. These studies suggest that JAK1 and TYK2 were significantly suppressed during hyperoxia, where IL-8 may play a role, and rIL-10 may have an effect on reverting the suppressed JAK1 and TYK2 in FATIICs exposed to hyperoxia. PMID:26059905

  3. A novel IL-23p19/Ebi3 (IL-39) cytokine mediates inflammation in Lupus-like mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Wei, Yinxiang; Xiao, He; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yu; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Ma, Ning; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Egwuagu, Charles E; Wang, Renxi

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-12 family cytokines have emerged as critical regulators of immunity with some members (IL-12, IL-23) associated with disease pathogenesis while others (IL-27, IL-35) mitigate autoimmune diseases. Each IL-12 family member is comprised of an α and a β chain, and chain-sharing is a key feature. Although four bona fide members have thus far been described, promiscuous chain-pairing between alpha (IL-23p19, IL-27p28, IL-12/IL-35p35) and beta (IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-27/IL-35Ebi3) subunits, predicts six possible heterodimeric IL-12 family cytokines. Here, we describe a new IL-12 member composed of IL-23p19 and Ebi3 heterodimer (IL-39) that is secreted by LPS-stimulated B cells and GL7(+) activated B cells of lupus-like mice. We further show that IL-39 mediates inflammatory responses through activation of STAT1/STAT3 in lupus-like mice. Taken together, our results show that IL-39 might contribute to immunopathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus, and could be used as a possible target for its treatment. PMID:27019190

  4. IL-17A expression in HIV-specific CD8 T cells is regulated by IL-4/IL-13 following HIV-1 prime-boost immunization.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Jayashree; Jackson, Ronald J; Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2015-03-01

    Although Th1 and Th2 cytokines can inhibit interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells, how these cells are regulated under different infectious conditions is still debated. Our previous studies have shown that vaccination of IL-4 and IL-13 gene knockout (KO) mice can induce high-avidity HIV K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells with better protective efficacy. In this study, when IL-13, IL-4, STAT6 KO, and wild-type BALB/c mice were prime-boost immunized with an HIV poxviral modality, elevated numbers of IL-17A(+) splenic K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were observed in all the KO mice compared with the wt BALB/c control. Similarly, when wt BALB/c mice were immunized with IL-13Rα2-adjuvanted HIV vaccines (that transiently inhibited IL-13 activity and induced high-avidity CD8 T cells with enhanced protective efficacy), elevated IL-17A(+) K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were detected both in the lung and the spleen. However, at the transcriptional level, elevated TGF-β, IL-6, ROR-γt, and IL-17A mRNA copy numbers were mainly detected in IL-4 KO, but not the IL-13 KO mice. These data suggested that TGF-β, IL-6, ROR-γt, but not IL-23a, played a role in IL-17A regulation in K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 differentially regulate the expression of IL-17A in K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells at the transcriptional and translational level, respectively, implicating IL-17A as an indirect modulator of CD8 T cell avidity and protective immunity. PMID:25493691

  5. IL-13 but not IL-4 signaling via IL-4Rα protects mice from papilloma formation during DMBA/TPA two-step skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Michael; Quarcoo, David; Chashchina, Anna A; Bozrova, Svetlana V; Qin, Zhihai; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Blankenstein, Thomas; Kammertoens, Thomas; Drutskaya, Marina S

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) was shown to be tumor-promoting in full carcinogenesis studies using 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Because heretofore the role of IL-4 in DMBA/TPA (9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz-anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) two-stage carcinogenesis was not studied, we performed such experiments using either IL-4−/− or IL-4Rα−/− mice. We found that IL-4Rα−/− but not IL-4−/− mice have enhanced papilloma formation, suggesting that IL-13 may be involved. Indeed, IL-13−/− mice developed more papillomas after exposure to DMBA/TPA than their heterozygous IL-13-competent littermate controls. However, when tested in a full carcinogenesis experiment, exposure of mice to 25 μg of MCA, both IL-13−/− and IL-13+/− mice led to the same incidence of tumors. While IL-4 enhances MCA carcinogenesis, it does not play a measurable role in our DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis experiments. Conversely, IL-13 does not affect MCA carcinogenesis but protects mice from DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis. One possible explanation is that IL-4 and IL-13, although they share a common IL-4Rα chain, regulate signaling in target cells differently by employing distinct JAK/STAT-mediated signaling pathways downstream of IL-13 or IL-4 receptor complexes, resulting in different inflammatory transcriptional programs. Taken together, our results indicate that the course of DMBA/TPA- and MCA-induced carcinogenesis is affected differently by IL-4 versus IL-13-mediated inflammatory cascades. PMID:24403255

  6. A CC′ Loop Decoy Peptide Blocks the Interaction Between Act1 and IL-17RA to Attenuate IL-17- and IL-25-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caini; Swaidani, Shadi; Qian, Wen; Kang, Zizhen; Sun, Paige; Han, Yue; Wang, Chenhui; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Yin, Weiguo; Zhang, Chunjiang; Fox, Paul L; Aronica, Mark; Hamilton, Thomas A; Misra, Saurav; Deng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-25 signaling induce the expression of genes that encode inflammatory factors and they are implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) is an adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase that is critical for IL-17 and IL-25 signaling, and it is recruited to their receptors through heterotypic interactions between their SEFIR [SEF (similar expression to fibroblast growth factor genes)/IL-17R] domains. Modeling of SEFIR domains has shown their structural similarity with the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the IL-1R. Whereas the BB′ loop of TIR is required for TIR-TIR interactions, we found that deletion of the BB′ loop from Act1 or IL-17RA (a common subunit of IL-17R and IL-25R) did not affect Act1–IL-17RA interactions. Instead, deletion of the CC′ loop from Act1 or IL-17RA abolished the interaction between Act1 and IL-17RA, suggesting that SEFIR and TIR domains interact in different manners. Surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that a peptide corresponding to the CC′ loop bound directly to IL-17RA. A cell-permeable decoy peptide based on the CC′ loop sequence inhibited IL-17- and IL-25-mediated signaling, and it inhibited IL-17- and IL-25-induced responses in vitro and pulmonary inflammation in vivo. Together, these findings provide the molecular basis for the specificity of SEFIR versus TIR domain interactions and consequent signaling. Moreover, we suggest that the CC′ loop motif of SEFIR domains is a promising target for therapeutic strategies against IL-17- and IL-25-asssociated inflammatory diseases. PMID:22045852

  7. The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

    The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

  8. IL-10 and TNFα Genotypes in SLE

    PubMed Central

    López, Patricia; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The production of two regulators of the inflammatory response, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), has been found to be deeply deregulated in SLE patients, suggesting that these cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic polymorphisms at the promoter regions of IL-10 and TNFα genes have been associated with different constitutive and induced cytokine production. Given that individual steady-state levels of these molecules may deviate an initial immune response towards different forms of lymphocyte activation, functional genetic variants in their promoters could influence the development of SLE. The present review summarizes the information previously reported about the involvement of IL-10 and TNFα genetic variants on SLE appearance, clinical phenotype, and outcome. We show that, in spite of the heterogeneity of the populations studied, the existing knowledge points towards a relevant role of IL-10 and TNFα genotypes in SLE. PMID:20625422

  9. Homeostasis of IL-15 dependent lymphocyte subsets in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cepero-Donates, Yuneivy; Rakotoarivelo, Volatiana; Mayhue, Marian; Ma, Averil; Chen, Yi-Guang; Ramanathan, Sheela

    2016-06-01

    IL-15 is a member of the gamma chain family of cytokines (γc - CD132). The IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) complex consists of 3 subunits: the ligand-binding IL-15Rα chain (CD215), the β chain (CD122; also used by IL-2), and the common γ chain. The biological activities of IL-15 are mostly mediated by the IL-15:IL-15Rα complex, produced by the same cell and 'trans-presented' to responder cells expressing the IL-15Rβγc. The peculiar and almost unique requirement for IL-15 to be trans-presented by IL-15Rα suggests that the biological effects of IL-15 signaling are tightly regulated even at the level of availability of IL-15. Tissue-specific deletion of IL-15Rα has shown macrophage-and dendritic cell-derived IL-15Rα mediate the homeostasis of different CD8(+) T cell subsets. Here we show that hepatocyte and macrophage- specific expression of IL-15Rα is required to maintain the homeostasis of NK and NKT cells in the liver. Thus, homeostasis of IL-15-dependent lymphocyte subsets is also regulated by trans-presentation of IL-15 by non-hematopoietic cells in the tissue environment. PMID:26778709

  10. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)–regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular “molecular sensor” that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links “danger recognition” to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Still’s, Behcet’s, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1β-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  11. The IL-23 axis in Salmonella gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Godinez, Ivan; Keestra, A Marijke; Spees, Alanna; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-11-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes cause a localized gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. In contrast, primary immunodeficiencies that impair interleukin-23 (IL-23)-dependent pathways are associated in humans with disseminated NTS bloodstream infections (bacteraemia). The recent use of animal models has helped to define the role the IL-23 axis plays during NTS gastroenteritis, but additional work is needed to elucidate how this host defence pathway prevents NTS bacteraemia. PMID:21740501

  12. Cytokines and migraine: increase of IL-5 and IL-4 plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Munno, I; Centonze, V; Marinaro, M; Bassi, A; Lacedra, G; Causarano, V; Nardelli, P; Cassiano, M A; Albano, O

    1998-06-01

    Thirty-two patients suffering from migraine without aura were assessed during in interictal period to evaluate the contribution of cytokines to the pathophysiology of migraine. To this end, plasma levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Plasma levels of both IFN-gamma and IL-10 were not increased in the patients and did not differ significantly from healthy controls. Of interest, we observed a strong increase of IL-5 levels in 84.3% as well as increased IL-4 levels in 37.5% of patients with migraine without aura. These results suggests a preferential enhancement of some Th2-type cytokines, and may support the growing arguments of an immunoallergic mechanism in the pathophysiology of migraine. PMID:9664752

  13. Involvement of IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist on intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Aureli, A; Sebastiani, P; Del Beato, T; Marimpietri, A E; Graziani, A; Sechi, E; Di Loreto, S

    2014-11-01

    Imbalances in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been increasingly correlated with several neurodevelopmental disorders and their role in neuronal development is being investigated. To assess the possible influence of cytokines on the onset of intellectual disability (ID), we studied the polymorphisms of thirteen proinflammatory cytokine genes in 81 patients and 61 healthy controls. We demonstrated a significant association of interleukin-6 (IL-6) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-174 G/C and nt565 G/A), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) (Mspa-I 11100) SNP with ID. Moreover, the IL-6 SNPs is an unfavorable genetic predisposition for females. The evaluation of circulating levels of IL-6 and IL-1RA showed that the serum concentrations of IL-6 were significantly higher in ID patients than in controls. These data suggest that functional cytokine gene polymorphisms may influence the development of ID. PMID:25124963

  14. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Sellman, A. N.; Smedes, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled aerial thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park was assembled from the videotape record of 13 individual thermographs obtained with linescan radiometers. Post mission processing of the videotape record rectified the nadir line to a topographic map base, corrected for v/h variations in adjacent flight lanes, corrected for yaw and pitch distortions, and distortions produced by nonlinearity of the side-wise scan. One of the purposes of the thermographic study was to delineate the areas of thermal emission (hot springs, geysers, etc.) throughout the Park, a study which could have great value in reconnaissance surveys of geothermal areas in remote regions or regions of high relief.

  15. IL-10: Expanding the Immune Oncology Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ivan H.; Wu, Victoria; McCauley, Scott; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Mumm, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in immunoncology have dramatically changed the treatment options available to cancer patients. However, the fundamental challenges with this therapeutic modality are not new and still persist with the current wave of immunoncology compounds. These challenges are centered on the activation and expansion, induction of intratumoral infiltration and persistence of highly activated, cytotoxic, tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. We have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of action of pegylated recombinant interleukin-10, (PEG-rIL-10) both pre-clinically with murine (PEG-rMuIL-10) and now clinically (AM0010) with human pegylated interleukin-10. The preponderance of data suggest that IL-10’s engagement of its receptor on CD8+ T cells enhances their activation status leading to antigen specific expansion. Quantitation of CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration reveals that treatment of both humans and mice with pegylated rIL-10 results in 3–4 fold increases of intratumoral, cytotoxic, CD8+ T cells. In addition, mice cured of their tumors with PEG-rMuIL-10 exhibit long term immunological protection from tumor re-challenge and long term treatment of cancer patients with AM0010 results in the persistence of highly activated CD8+ T cells. Cumulatively, these data suggest the IL-10 represents an emerging therapeutic that specifically addresses the fundamental challenges of the current wave of immunoncology assets. PMID:26661378

  16. Lichens of the U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium.

  17. [Recreational attraction of urban park wetlands in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    Taking the 20 urban park wetlands in Beijing as test objects, a 3-layer evaluation index system including urban park wetland landscape quality, location condition, and accessibility for the recreational attraction of urban bark wetlands was established, and, by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and an integrating index evaluation method, the recreational attraction of the urban park wetlands in Beijing was quantitatively assessed, and validated with questionnaire data. In Beijing, the urban park wetlands with high recreational attraction were in the order of the Summer Palace, Olympic Park, Qinglong Lake Park, Beihai Park, Yuanmingyuan Park, Yuyuantan Park, Shidu, Golden Sea Lake scenic area, Taoranting Park, and Yeyahu wetland. The Rice Fragrance Lake wetland and Zhenzhuhu scenic area had the lowest recreational attraction, and the others were fair. The evaluation results were supported by the questionnaire data, which indicated that the index system and evaluation model were useful. According to the recreational services, the 20 park wetlands in Beijing could be clustered into four categories, which could be managed in different ways. Appropriately assessing the recreational services of urban park wetlands could help the decision-making on the urban parks optimal planning and designing, improve human living environment, and optimize the spatial distribution of urban landscape. PMID:23189684

  18. Diesel Exhaust Particles Upregulate Interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 in Nasal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il-Ho; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ae; Lee, Heung-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major source of air pollution. Nasal fibroblasts are known to produce various cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate DEP-induced cytokines and chemokines in nasal fibroblasts and to identify the signaling pathway involved. Methods A cytokine and chemokine array performed after stimulation of nasal fibroblasts with DEP revealed that levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were increased most significantly among various cytokines and chemokines. RT—PCR and ELISA were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8. Signaling pathways of p-38, Akt, and NF-κB were analyzed by western blotting, luciferase assay, and ELISA. Organ cultures of nasal interior turbinate were also developed to demonstrate the ex vivo effect of DEP on the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and the associated signaling pathway. Results DEP increased the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 in nasal fibroblasts at mRNA and protein levels. DEP induced phosphorylation of p38, Akt, and NF-κB, whereas inhibitors of p38, Akt, and NF-κB blocked these phophorylations and the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8. These findings were also observed in ex vivo organ culture of nasal inferior turbinate. Conclusions DEP induces expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via p38, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways in nasal fibroblasts. This finding suggests that air pollution might induce or aggravate allergic rhinitis or chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:27295300

  19. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) Mediates Susceptibility to Visceral Leishmaniasis by Suppressing the IL-17-Neutrophil Response.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Gustavo F S; Nascimento, Manuela S L; Davoli-Ferreira, Marcela; Sacramento, Lais A; Lima, Mikhael H F; Almeida, Roque P; Carregaro, Vanessa; Silva, João Santana

    2016-08-01

    The relationship established between Leishmania infantum and the vertebrate host can lead to a self-healing infection or to the manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic systemic infection associated with high rates of mortality. We hypothesized that regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-27 (IL-27), play a role in susceptibility to L. infantum infection. IL-27 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of IL-27p28 and EBi3 subunits which, when combined, bind to IL-27R, leading to STAT-1 and -3 activation, playing a role in the regulation of the immune response. We observed in this work that IL-27 regulates the Th1/Th17 profiles in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. infantum We showed here that the pathogen recognition by endosomal Toll-like receptors triggers a type I interferon (IFN) response, which acts through the type I IFN receptor and interferon regulatory factor 1 to induce IL-27 production by macrophages. Furthermore, IL-27 plays a major regulatory role in vivo, because Ebi3(-/-) mice can efficiently control parasite replication despite reduced levels of IFN-γ compared to wild-type mice. On the other hand, the absence of Ebi3 leads to exacerbated IL-17A production in the infected organs as well as in a coculture system, suggesting a direct regulatory action of IL-27 during L. infantum infection. As a consequence of exacerbated IL-17A in Ebi3(-/-) mice, a greater neutrophil influx was observed in the target organs, playing a role in parasite control. Thus, this work unveiled the molecular steps of IL-27 production after L. infantum infection and demonstrated its regulatory role in the IL-17A-neutrophil axis. PMID:27245409

  20. IL-33 Facilitates Oncogene Induced Cholangiocarcinoma in Mice by an IL-6 Sensitive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisaku; Rizvi, Sumera; Razumilava, Nataliya; Bronk, Steven F.; Davila, Jaime I.; Champion, Mia D.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Chen, Xin; Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm originating from the biliary apparatus. In humans, CCA risk factors include hepatobiliary inflammation and fibrosis. The recently identified IL-1 family member, IL-33, has been shown to be a biliary mitogen which also promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to generate a mouse model of CCA mimicking the human disease. Ectopic oncogene expression in the biliary tract was accomplished by the Sleeping Beauty transposon transfection system with transduction of constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). Intrabiliary instillation of the transposon-transposase complex was coupled with lobar bile duct ligation in CL57BL/6 mice, followed by administration of IL-33 for three consecutive days. Tumors developed in 72% of the male mice receiving both oncogenes plus IL-33 by 10 weeks, but in only 20% of the male mice transduced with the oncogenes alone. Tumors expressed SOX9 and pancytokeratin (PanCK) [features of cholangiocarcinoma] but were negative for HepPar1 [a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. RNA profiling revealed substantive overlap with human CCA specimens. Not only did IL-33 induce IL-6 expression by human cholangiocytes, but IL-33 likely facilitated tumor development in vivo by an IL-6 sensitive process, as tumor development was significantly attenuated in Il-6 -/- male animals. Furthermore, tumor formation occurred at a similar rate when IL-6 was substituted for IL-33 in this model. In conclusion, the transposase-mediated transduction of constitutively active AKT and YAP in the biliary epithelium coupled with lobar obstruction and IL-33 administration results in the development of CCA with morphological and biochemical features of the human disease. This model highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines in CCA oncogenesis. PMID:25580681

  1. IL-37 Alleviates Rheumatoid Arthritis by Suppressing IL-17 and IL-17-Triggering Cytokine Production and Limiting Th17 Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; Jiang, Bo; Deng, Jun; Du, Jing; Xiong, Wen; Guan, Youfei; Wen, Zhongyang; Huang, Kunzhao; Huang, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    IL-37, a new member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is a natural inhibitor of innate immunity associated with autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether IL-37 has antiarthritic effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In this study, we analyzed the expression of IL-37 in PBMCs, serum, and lymphocytes from RA patients as well as CD4(+) T cells polarized under Th1/Th2/Th17 conditions. The role of IL-37 was assessed by investigating the effects of recombinant human (rh)IL-37 and an adenovirus encoding human IL-37 (Ad-IL-37) on Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines in RA patients and CIA mice. We found that active RA patients showed higher IL-37 levels compared with patients with inactive RA and healthy controls. Upregulated IL-37 expression also was found in CD3(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells from RA patients and in Th1/Th17-differentiation conditions. rhIL-37 markedly decreased IL-17 expression and Th17 cell frequency in PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells from RA patients. Furthermore, IL-37 exerted a more suppressive effect on Th17 cell proliferation, whereas it had little or no effect on Th17 cell differentiation. IL-17 and IL-17-driving cytokine production were significantly reduced in synovium and joint cells from CIA mice receiving injections of Ad-IL-37. Our findings indicate that IL-37 plays a potent immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of human RA and CIA models via the downregulation of IL-17 and IL-17-triggering cytokine production and the curbing of Th17 cell proliferation. PMID:25917106

  2. Fine mapping and trans-ethnic genotyping establish IL2/IL21 genetic association with lupus and localize this genetic effect to IL21

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis; Kim-Howard, Xana; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Ziegler, Julie; Sanchez, Elena; Kimberly, Robert P.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D.; Martin, Javier; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Vilá, Luis M.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; James, Judith A.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Moser, Kathy L.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Nath, Swapan K.; Harley, John B.; Sawalha, Amr H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Genetic association of the IL2/IL21 region at 4q27 has been previously reported in lupus and a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Herein, using a very large cohort of lupus patients and controls, we localize this genetic effect to the IL21 gene. Methods We genotyped 45 tag SNPs across the IL2/IL21 locus in two large independent lupus sample sets. We studied a European-derived set consisting of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 healthy controls, and an African-American set of 1,569 patients and 1,893 healthy controls. Imputation in 3,004 WTCCC additional control individuals was also performed. Genetic association between the genotyped markers was determined, and pair-wise conditional analysis was performed to localize the independent genetic effect in the IL2/IL21 locus in lupus. Results We established and confirmed the genetic association between IL2/IL21 and lupus. Using conditional analysis and trans-ethnic mapping, we localized the genetic effect in this locus to two SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium; rs907715 located within IL21 (OR=1.16 (1.10–1.22), P= 2.17 ×10−8), and rs6835457 located in the 3’-UTR flanking region of IL21 (OR= 1.11 (1.05–1.17), P= 9.35×10−5). Conclusion We have established the genetic association between lupus and IL2/IL21 with a genome-wide level of significance. Further, we localized this genetic association within the IL2/IL21 linkage disequilibrium block to IL21. If other autoimmune IL2/IL21 genetic associations are similarly localized, then the IL21 risk alleles would be predicted to operate in a fundamental mechanism that influences the course of a number of autoimmune disease processes. PMID:21425124

  3. Expression of IL-1Rrp2 by human myelomonocytic cells is unique to DCs and facilitates DC maturation by IL-1F8 and IL-1F9.

    PubMed

    Mutamba, Shilla; Allison, Asher; Mahida, Yashwant; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2012-03-01

    We report for the first time that expression of the novel IL-1 cytokine receptor IL-1Rrp2 (IL-1R6) is unique to DCs within the human myelomonocytic lineage. IL-1Rrp2 was expressed by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) which was dose-dependently increased by IL-4 and correlated with increased numbers of differentiated MDDCs. Human plasmacytoid DCs also express IL-1Rrp2 but the receptor is not expressed by either myeloid DC type 1 (mDC1) or mDC2 cells. We also show that IL-1F8 or IL-1F9 cytokines, which signal through IL-1Rrp2, induce maturation of MDDCs, as measured by increased expression of HLA-DR and CD83 and decreased expression of CD1a. Furthermore, IL-1F8 stimulated increased CD40 and CD80 expression and IL-18 and IL-12 p70 production by MDDCs, which induced proliferation of IFN-γ-producing CD3(+) lymphocytes (indicative of inflammatory Th1 subsets). IL-1F8 and IL-1F2 were equipotent in their ability to stimulate IL-18 secretion from MDDCs but IL-1F8 was not as potent as IL-1F2 in stimulating secretion of IL-12p70 from MDDCs or inducing lymphocyte proliferation Therefore, IL-1Rrp2 expression by some DC subsets may have an important function in the human immune response in vivo via its role in differentiation of inflammatory Th1 lymphocytes. PMID:22144259

  4. Anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody promotes bone fracture healing through regulating IL-20-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiu, Yi-Shu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Po-Tin; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Ming-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss and skeletal fragility in bone fracture are caused by an imbalance in bone remodeling. The current challenge in bone fracture healing is to promote osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. We aimed to explore the role of IL-20 in osteoblastogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and bone fracture. Serum IL-20 was significantly correlated with serum sclerostin in patients with bone fracture. In a mouse model, anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7E increased bone formation during fracture healing. In vitro, IL-20 inhibited osteoblastogenesis by upregulating sclerostin, and downregulating osterix (OSX), RUNX2, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). IL-20R1 deficiency attenuated IL-20-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and maturation and reduced the healing time after a bone fracture. We conclude that IL-20 affects bone formation and downregulates osteoblastogenesis by modulating sclerostin, OSX, RUNX2, and OPG on osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that IL-20 is involved in osteoregulation and anti-IL-20 mAb is a potential therapeutic for treating bone fracture or metabolic bone diseases. PMID:27075747

  5. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V.; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D.; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A.; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W.; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W.; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M.; Wood, Lauren D.

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  6. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M; Wood, Lauren D

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  7. Regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production and function in macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaojing; Yan, Wenjun; Zheng, Hua; Du, Qinglin; Zhang, Lixing; Ban, Yi; Li, Na; Wei, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 and Interleukin-12 are produced primarily by pathogen-activated antigen-presenting cells, particularly macrophages and dendritic cells. IL-10 and IL-12 play very important immunoregulatory roles in host defense and immune homeostasis. Being anti- and pro-inflammatory in nature, respectively, their functions are antagonistically opposing. A comprehensive and in-depth understanding of their immunological properties and signaling mechanisms will help develop better clinical intervention strategies in therapy for a wide range of human disorders. Here, we provide an update on some emerging concepts, controversies, unanswered questions, and opinions regarding the immune signaling of IL-10 and IL-12. PMID:26918147

  8. Parks, Place and Pedagogy - Education Partnerships with the National Park Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Nash, B.; Klawiter, M.; Huntoon, J. E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Gochis, E. E.; MiTEP

    2011-12-01

    The Michigan Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP) is a multi-year program of teacher leadership development that empowers science teachers in Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson to lead their schools and districts through the process of improving science teaching and learning. A component of this program is facilitated through partnership between academia, K-12 educators, and the National Park Service (NPS) that aims to develop place-based education strategies that improve diversity and Earth Science literacy. This tangible education method draws upon both the sense of place that National Parks offer and the art of interpretation employed by the park service. Combined, these deepen cognitive process and provide a more diverse reflection of what place means and the processes behind shaping what we see. Our partnerships present participants the opportunity to intern in a Midwest national park for 3-8 weeks during their third year in the program. In summer 2011, eleven teachers from the Grand Rapids school district participated in this innovative way of learning and teaching Earth Science. One goal was to develop geological interpretive materials desired and needed for the parks. Secondly, and important to place-based educational methodologies, these deliverables will be used as a way of bringing the parks to urban classrooms. Participants lived in the parks and worked directly with both national park and Michigan Tech staff to create lesson plans, podcasts, media clips, video, and photographic documentation of their experiences. These lesson plans will be hosted in the Views of the National Park website in an effort to provide innovative teaching resources nationally for teachers or free-choice learners wishing to access information on Midwest national parks. To the benefit of park staff, working with teachers from urban areas offered an opportunity for park staff to access diverse learners in urban settings unable to visit the park. The foundation has been laid for

  9. Inherited IL-12p40 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Prando, Carolina; Samarina, Arina; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Cobat, Aurelie; Picard, Capucine; AlSum, Zobaida; Al-Jumaah, Suliman; Al-Hajjar, Sami; Frayha, Husn; Al-Mousa, Hamoud; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Adimi, Parisa; Feinberg, Jacqueline; de Suremain, Maylis; Jannière, Lucile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Mansouri, Nahal; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Nallusamy, Revathy; Kumararatne, Dinakantha S.; Bloorsaz, Mohamad Reza; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Elloumi-Zghal, Houda; Chemli, Jalel; Bouguila, Jihene; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Alaki, Emadia; AlFawaz, Tariq S.; Al Idrissi, Eman; ElGhazali, Gehad; Pollard, Andrew J.; Murugasu, Belinda; Wah Lee, Bee; Halwani, Rabih; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed; Al Shehri, Mohammed A.; Al-Zahrani, Mofareh; Bin-Hussain, Ibrahim; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Parvaneh, Nima; Abel, Laurent; Mansouri, Davood; Barbouche, Ridha; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Autosomal recessive interleukin (IL)-12 p40 (IL-12p40) deficiency is a rare genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the genetic, immunologic, and clinical features of 49 patients from 30 kindreds originating from 5 countries (India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia). There are only 9 different mutant alleles of the IL12B gene: 2 small insertions, 3 small deletions, 2 splice site mutations, and 1 large deletion, each causing a frameshift and leading to a premature stop codon, and 1 nonsense mutation. Four of these 9 variants are recurrent, affecting 25 of the 30 reported kindreds, due to founder effects in specific countries. All patients are homozygous and display complete IL-12p40 deficiency. As a result, the patients lack detectable IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 and have low levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The clinical features are characterized by childhood onset of bacille Calmette-Guérin (attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain) (BCG) and Salmonella infections, with recurrences of salmonellosis (36.4%) more common than recurrences of mycobacterial disease (25%). BCG vaccination led to BCG disease in 40 of the 41 patients vaccinated (97.5%). Multiple mycobacterial infections were rare, observed in only 3 patients, whereas the association of salmonellosis and mycobacteriosis was observed in 9 patients. A few other infections were diagnosed, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 3), nocardiosis (n = 2), and klebsiellosis (n = 1). IL-12p40 deficiency has a high but incomplete clinical penetrance, with 33.3% of genetically affected relatives of index cases showing no symptoms. However, the prognosis is poor, with mortality rates of up to 28.6%. Overall, the clinical phenotype of IL-12p40 deficiency closely resembles that of interleukin 12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency. In conclusion, IL-12p40 deficiency is more common than initially thought and should be considered worldwide in patients

  10. Evaluation of Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile Assays for Direct Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sun Mee; Shin, Won Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the performance of four commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs: Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile) for direct and rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxin genes. Methods We compared four NAATs on the same set of 339 stool specimens (303 prospective and 36 retrospective specimens) with toxigenic culture (TC). Results Concordance rate among four NAATs was 90.3% (306/339). Based on TC results, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.9% for Xpert; 86.3% and 89.3% for Max; 84.3% and 94.4% for IMDx; and 82.4% and 93.7% for Illumigene, respectively. For 306 concordant cases, there were 11 TC-negative/NAATs co-positive cases and 6 TC-positive/NAATs co-negative cases. Among 33 discordant cases, 18 were only single positive in each NAAT (Xpert, 1; Max, 12; IMDx, 1; Illumigene, 4). Positivity rates of the four NAATs were associated with those of semi-quantitative cultures, which were maximized in grade 3 (>100 colony-forming unit [CFU]) compared with grade 1 (<10 CFU). Conclusions Commercial NAATs may be rapid and reliable methods for direct detection of tcdA and/or tcdB in stool specimens compared with TC. Some differences in the sensitivity of the NAATs may partly depend on the number of toxigenic C. difficile in stool specimens. PMID:26709260

  11. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800 and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on pediatric and neonatal specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new UniCel DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) using 156 pediatric specimens in Microtainer tubes (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). The CBC and differential showed good interinstrument correlation, including WBCs (r = 0.995), RBCs (r = 0.992), hemoglobin (r = 0.998), mean corpuscular volume (r = 0.988), platelets (r = 0.997), neutrophils (r = 0.988), lymphocytes (r = 0.984), monocytes (r = 0.815), eosinophils (r = 0.840), basophils (r = 0.049), and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs; r = 0.906). In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, the DxH 800 and Sapphire showed comparable performance for nearly all parameters except for NRBCs, for which the DxH 800 correlated better (r = 0.989) than the Sapphire (r = 0.906). We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency of the DxH 800 was 78.0% vs the Sapphire at 68.1%. Both instruments showed identical sensitivity (91.1%), but the specificity for the DxH 800 (71.9%) was higher than that of the Sapphire (57.3%). PMID:21571966

  12. PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interactions contribute to the susceptibility to leprosy: a case–control study of North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytokines and related molecules in immune-response pathways seem important in deciding the outcome of the host–pathogen interactions towards different polar forms in leprosy. We studied the role of significant and functionally important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, published independently from our research group, through combined interaction with an additional analysis of the in silico network outcome, to understand how these impact the susceptibility towards the disease, leprosy. Design The study was designed to assess an overall combined contribution of significantly associated individual SNPs to reflect on epistatic interactions and their outcome in the form of the disease, leprosy. Furthermore, in silico approach was adopted to carry out protein–protein interaction study between PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Setting Population-based case–control study involved the data of North India. Protein–protein interaction networks were constructed using cytoscape. Participants Study included the data available from 2305 Northern Indians samples (829 patients with leprosy; 1476 healthy controls), generated by our research group. Primary and secondary outcome measures For genotype interaction analysis, all possible genotype combinations between selected SNPs were used as an independent variable, using binary logistic regression with the forward likelihood ratio method, keeping the gender as a covariate. Results Interaction analysis between PARK2 and significant SNPs of anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokine genes, including BAT1 to BTNL2-DR spanning the HLA (6p21.3) region in a case–control comparison, showed that the combined analysis of: (1) PARK2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), BTNL2-DR, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and TGFBR2 increased the risk towards leprosy (OR=2.54); (2) PARK2, BAT1, NFKBIL1, LTA, TNF-LTB, IL12B and IL10RB provided increased protection (OR=0.26) in comparison with their

  13. 35. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTH COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING ESE. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. 12. VIEW OF NATURAL BRIDGE OVERLOOK PARKING AREA, FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF NATURAL BRIDGE OVERLOOK PARKING AREA, FACING NORTHEAST. NOTE DETERIORATION OF WALL AND USE OF AESTHETICALLY INTRUSIVE FENCING. - Bryce Canyon National Park Rim Road, State Highway 63 to Rainbow Point, Tropic, Garfield County, UT

  18. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. 6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, OFF SPUR FROM METCALF BOTTOMS TO WEAR COVE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 107. Doughton Park Recreation Area Lodge. Opened in 1949, this ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Doughton Park Recreation Area Lodge. Opened in 1949, this was the first lodge to open on the parkway. View looking north across the meadows. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC