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Sample records for abbott realtime cmv

  1. Fully Automated Quantification of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Whole Blood with the New Sensitive Abbott RealTime CMV Assay in the Era of the CMV International Standard

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, Nathalie; Scieux, Catherine; Resche-Riggon, Matthieu; Feghoul, Linda; Xhaard, Alienor; Gallien, Sébastien; Molina, Jean-Michel; Socié, Gérard; Viglietti, Denis; Simon, François; Mazeron, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Fully standardized reproducible and sensitive quantification assays for cytomegalovirus (CMV) are needed to better define thresholds for antiviral therapy initiation and interruption. We evaluated the newly released Abbott RealTime CMV assay for CMV quantification in whole blood (WB) that includes automated extraction and amplification (m2000 RealTime system). Sensitivity, accuracy, linearity, and intra- and interassay variability were validated in a WB matrix using Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) panels and the WHO international standard (IS). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 1.37% and 2.09% at 5 log10 copies/ml and 2.41% and 3.80% at 3 log10 copies/ml, respectively. According to expected values for the QCMD and Abbott RealTime CMV methods, the lower limits of quantification were 104 and <50 copies/ml, respectively. The conversion factor between international units and copies (2.18), determined from serial dilutions of the WHO IS in WB, was significantly different from the factor provided by the manufacturer (1.56) (P = 0.001). Results from 302 clinical samples were compared with those from the Qiagen artus CMV assay on the same m2000 RealTime system. The two assays provided highly concordant results (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.92), but the Abbott RealTime CMV assay detected and quantified, respectively, 20.6% and 47.8% more samples than the Qiagen/artus CMV assay. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the results, along with the automation, fulfilled the quality requirements for implementation of the Abbott RealTime CMV assay in clinical settings. Our results highlight the need for careful validation of conversion factors provided by the manufacturers for the WHO IS in WB to allow future comparison of results obtained with different assays. PMID:23616450

  2. [Analytical performances of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine].

    PubMed

    De Monte, Anne; Cannavo, Isabelle; Caramella, Anne; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause of sensoneurinal disability due to infectious congenital disease. The diagnosis of congenital CMV infection is based on the search of CMV in the urine within the first two weeks of life. Viral culture of urine is the gold standard. However, the PCR is highly sensitive and faster. It is becoming an alternative choice. The objective of this study is the validation of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine. Repeatability, reproducibility, detection limit and inter-sample contamination were evaluated. Urine samples from patients (n=141) were collected and analyzed simultaneously in culture and PCR in order to assess the correlation of these two methods. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR were also calculated. The Abbott RealTime CMV PCR in urine is an automated and sensitive method (detection limit 200 UI/mL). Fidelity is very good (standard deviation of repeatability: 0.08 to 0.15 LogUI/mL and reproducibility 0.18 LogUI/mL). We can note a good correlation between culture and Abbott RealTime CMV PCR (kappa 96%). When considering rapid culture as reference, real-time PCR was highly sensitive (100%) and specific (98.2%). The real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 is optimal for CMV detection in urine.

  3. Analytical and clinical evaluation of the Abbott RealTime hepatitis B sequencing assay.

    PubMed

    Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Ji-Youn; Lee, Myoung-Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2016-12-01

    Long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) treatment leads to selection for drug-resistant mutations in patients undergoing hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy. The Abbott RealTime HBV Sequencing assay (Abbott assay; Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL, USA) targets the reverse transcriptase region of the polymerase gene and as such has the ability to detect NA resistance-associated mutations in HBV. We evaluated the analytical performance of the Abbott assay and compared its diagnostic performance to that of a laboratory-developed nested-PCR and sequencing method. The analytical sensitivity of the Abbott assay was determined using a serially-diluted WHO International Standard. To validate the clinical performances of the Abbott assay and the laboratory-developed assay, 89 clinical plasma samples with various levels of HBV DNA were tested using both assays. The limit of detection of the Abbott assay, was 210IU/ml and it successfully detected mutations when the mutant types were present at levels ≥20%. Among 89 clinical specimens, 43 and 42 were amplification positive in the Abbott and laboratory-developed assays, respectively, with 87.6% overall agreement (78/89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78.6-93.4). The Abbott assay failed to detect the minor mutant populations in two specimens, and therefore overall concordance was 85.3% (76/89), and the kappa value was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67-0.90). The Abbott assay showed comparable diagnostic performance to laboratory-developed nested PCR followed by direct sequencing, and may be useful as a routine method for detecting HBV NA resistance-associated mutations in clinical laboratory settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Copan FLOQSwab for the molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Abbott RealTime CT PCR.

    PubMed

    Coorevits, L; Vanscheeuwijck, C; Traen, A; Bingé, L; Ryckaert, I; Padalko, E

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated Copan FLOQSwabs next to Abbott swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by Abbott RealTime PCR. We collected 1062 paired swabs from female sex workers. The study was divided in two arms, according to the order of swab collection. If the Abbott swab was collected first, 501 couples were concordant and two discordant (Abbott negative and Copan positive). If the Copan swab was collected first, 537 couples were concordant and 10 discordant (eight Abbott negative and Copan positive and two Abbott positive and Copan negative). All discordant samples contained low levels of C. trachomatis. Technical issues lead to retesting of 64 Copan and 21 Abbott swabs. Our results show that Copan FLOQSwabs can be used interchangeably with Abbott swabs. While appearing to have an advantage in detecting more positive samples, the use of Copan swabs led to a higher retesting rate due to technical errors.

  5. Comparison of Abbott and Da-an real-time PCR for quantitating serum HBV DNA.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ning; Li, Rui; Yu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Wei; An, Yong; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-09-07

    To compare the performance of the Da-an real-time hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA assay and Abbott RealTime HBV assay. HBV DNA standards as well as a total of 180 clinical serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B were measured using the Abbott and Da-an real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Correlation and Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to compare the performance of the Abbott and Da-an assays. The HBV DNA levels were logarithmically transformed for analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0. The correlation between the two assays was analyzed by Pearson's correlation and linear regression. The Bland-Altman plots were used for the analysis of agreement between the two assays. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The HBV DNA values measured by the Abbott or Da-an assay were significantly correlated with the expected values of HBV DNA standards (r = 0.999, for Abbott; r = 0.987, for Da-an, P < 0.001). A Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between these two assays in detecting HBV DNA standards. Among the 180 clinical serum samples, 126 were quantifiable by both assays. Fifty-two samples were detectable by the Abbott assay but below the detection limit of the Da-an assay. Moreover, HBV DNA levels measured by the Abbott assay were significantly higher than those of the Da-an assay (6.23 ± 1.76 log IU/mL vs 5.46 ± 1.55 log IU/mL, P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between HBV DNA concentrations determined by the two assays in 126 paired samples (r = 0.648, P < 0.001). One hundred and fifteen of 126 (91.3%) specimens tested with both assays were within mean difference ± 1.96 SD of HBV DNA levels. The Da-an assay presented lower sensitivity and a narrower linear range as compared to the Abbott assay, suggesting the need to be improved.

  6. Performance evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II for hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yong-Hak; Ko, Sun-Young; Kim, Myeong Hee; Oh, Heung-Bum

    2010-04-01

    The Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc.) for HCV genotyping, which uses real-time PCR technology, has recently been developed. Accuracy and sensitivity of detection were assessed using the HCV RNA PHW202 performance panel (SeraCare Life Sciences). Consistency with restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) data, cross-reactivity with other viruses, and the ability to detect minor strains in mixtures of genotypes 1 and 2 were evaluated using clinical samples. All performance panel viruses were correctly genotyped at levels of >500 IU/mL. Results were 100% concordant with RFMP genotypic data (66/66). However, 5% (3/66) of the samples examined displayed probable genotypic cross reactivity. No cross reactivity with other viruses was evident. Minor strains in the mixtures were not effectively distinguished, even at quantities higher than the detection limit. The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay was very accurate and yielded results consistent with RFMP data. Although the assay has the advantages of automation and short turnaround time, we suggest that further improvements are necessary before it is used routinely in clinical practice. Efforts are needed to decrease cross reactivity among genotypes and to improve the ability to detect minor genotypes in mixed infections.

  7. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by the New Automated Abbott RealTime MTB Assay.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yung-Chieh; Liao, I-Chuang; Chen, Hung-Mo; Yan, Jing-Jou

    2016-07-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay, launched in June 2014, has been shown to have a competitive performance in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in respiratory specimens. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay in the detection of MTB in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. A total of 96 FFPE specimens obtained from microbiologically proven MTB cases (N=60) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium cases (N=36) were analyzed. The performance of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay was compared with that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were 63.3% and 97.2%, respectively, compared with 11.7% and 100% for the Cobas assay. The detection rate of the Abbott assay was much higher among 37 acid-fast-positive specimens than among 23 acid-fast-negative specimens (89.3% versus 21.7%, respectively). The detection rate of the assay was higher among 29 resection specimens than among 31 small biopsy specimens (86.2% versus 41.9%, respectively). Our results suggest that the Abbott RealTime MTB assay can be used to differentiate MTB from nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in acid-fast-positive FFPE tissues. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  8. Utility of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype Plus RUO assay used in combination with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Germer, Jeffrey J; Ptacek, Elizabeth R; Bommersbach, Carl E; Mitchell, P Shawn; Yao, Joseph D C

    Hepatitis virus C (HCV) genotype (GT) determination and subtype (ST) differentiation (1a versus 1b) remain important for the selection of appropriate direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. This study is a retrospective comparison of HCV GT and ST result distribution when using the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (HCVGT II) alone and in combination with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype Plus RUO assay (HCVGT Plus) for routine testing of clinical serum specimens at a reference laboratory. HCVGT II results of specimens tested from June 2014 through January 2016 (period 1) were compared with combined results from HCVGT II and HCVGT Plus (HCVGT II/Plus) performed from January 2016 through January 2017 (period 2). A total of 44,127 and 25,361 specimens were tested during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Use of HCVGT II/Plus significantly reduced the frequency of GT 1 results without ST (0.4%) when compared to preliminary HCVGT II results during period 2 (5.3%; p < 0.01) and final HCVGT II results in period 1 (5.5%; p < 0.01). HCVGT II/Plus also resulted in GT 6 reactivity in 38 specimens with results of "HCV detected" (n = 17) or GT 1 (n = 21) following initial HCVGT II testing during period 2. When compared to the use of HCVGT II alone, HCVGT II/Plus significantly reduced the frequency of GT 1 without ST results observed in a large reference laboratory, while also enabling the identification of HCV GT 6. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Real-Q Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Quantification Kit Using Two Real-Time PCR Systems for Quantifying CMV DNA in Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2016-11-01

    Standardized cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA quantification is important for managing CMV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q CMV Quantification Kit (Real-Q assay; BioSewoom, Korea) using whole blood (WB), with nucleic acid extraction using MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Real-time PCR was performed on two platforms: the 7500 Fast real-time PCR (7500 Fast; Applied Biosystems, USA) and CFX96 real-time PCR detection (CFX96; Bio-Rad, USA) systems. The WHO international standard, diluted with CMV-negative WB, was used to validate the analytical performance. We used 90 WB clinical samples for comparison with the artus CMV RG PCR kit (artus assay; Qiagen, Germany). Limits of detections (LODs) in 7500 Fast and CFX96 were 367 and 479 IU/mL, respectively. The assay was linear from the LOD to 10⁶ IU/mL (R² ≥0.9886). The conversion factors from copies to IU in 7500 Fast and CFX96 were 0.95 and 1.06, respectively. Compared with the artus assay, for values <1,000 copies/mL, 100% of the samples had a variation <0.7 log₁₀ copies/mL; >1,000 copies/mL, 73.3% and 80.6% of samples in 7500 Fast and CFX96, respectively, had <0.5 log₁₀ copies/mL. The Real-Q assay is useful for quantifying CMV in WB with the two real-time PCR platforms.

  10. [Performance evaluation of Abbott RealTime HBV Quantification Kit for HBV viral load by real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong Hee; Cha, Choong Hwan; An, Dongheui; Choi, Sung Eun; Oh, Heung Bum

    2008-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA quantification is necessary for starting and monitoring of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This study was intended to assess the clinical performance of Abbott RealTime HBV Quantification kit (Abbott Laboratories, USA). The performance was evaluated in terms of precision, linearity, detection sensitivity, cross-reactivity, and carry-over. A correlation with the Real-Q HBV Quantification kit (BioSewoom Inc., Korea) was also examined using serum samples from 64 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and underwent lamivudine therapy in Asan Medical Center. We verified the trueness of the system by comparing the outputs with the assigned values of the BBI panel (BBI Diagnostics, USA). Within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) were 3.56-4.71% and 3.03-4.98%, respectively. Linearity was manifested ranging from 53 to 10(9)copies/mL and the detection sensitivity was verified to be 51 copies/mL. None of hepatitis C virus showed cross-reactivity. No cross-contamination occurred when negative and positive samples were alternatively placed in a row. It showed a good correlation with the Real-Q HBV (r(2)=0.9609) and the test results for the BBI panel were also well agreed to the assigned values (r(2)=0.9933). The performance of Abbott RealTime HBV Quantification kit was excellent; thus, it should be widely used in starting and monitoring of antiviral therapy in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  11. Comparison of Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays for Detection of HPV Infection.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yu, Shinae; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Various assays for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have been introduced recently, including the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay. We sought to compare the performance of Abbott PCR to Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of HR HPV. A total of 941 cervical swab specimens were obtained. We submitted all specimens for HR HPV detection with HC2 and Abbott PCR, and then additionally analyzed discordant and concordant positive results using restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) genotyping analysis. HC2 detected one of 13 HR HPV types in 12.3% (116/941) of cases, while Abbott PCR detected one of 14 detectable HR HPV types in 12.9% (121/941) of cases. The overall agreement rate was 97.3% with a kappa coefficient of 0.879. Discordant results between these two assays were observed in 25 cases. HC2 showed a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 95.9%, while Abbott PCR showed a sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 96.8% when using RFMP results as the gold standard. For HPV 16/18 detection, Abbott PCR showed 95.8%/88.9% sensitivity and 99.2%/99.8% specificity, respectively. The overall coinfection rate between HPV 16, 18 and non-16/18 was 9.9% (12/121) in Abbott PCR analysis. Considering its high agreement rate with HC2, higher sensitivity/specificity compared to HC2, and ability to differentiate HPV 16/18 from other HPV types, Abbott PCR could be a reliable laboratory testing method for the screening of HPV infections. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV assay for quantitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Birgit D A; Muller, Zsofia; Stelzl, Evelyn; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H

    2007-02-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV assay for quantitative detection of HCV RNA has recently been introduced. In this study, the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV assay was evaluated and compared to the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV test. Accuracy, linearity, interassay and intra-assay variations were determined, and a total of 243 routine clinical samples were investigated. When accuracy of the new assay was tested, the majority of results were found to be within +/-0.5 log(10) unit of the results obtained by reference laboratories. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve up to 1.0 x 10(6)IU/ml. The interassay variation ranged from 15% to 32%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 5% to 8%. When clinical samples were tested by the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and the results were compared with those obtained by the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV test, the results for 93% of all samples with positive results by both tests were found to be within +/-1.0 log(10) unit. The viral loads for all patients measured by the Abbott and Roche assays showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.93); quantitative results obtained by the Abbott assay were found to be lower than those obtained by the Roche assay. The Abbott RealTime HCV assay proved to be suitable for use in the routine diagnostic laboratory. The time to results was similar for both of the assays.

  13. [Quantitative real-time PCR--usefulness in detection and monitoring of CMV infection after hematopeietic stem cells transplant].

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Brojer, Ewa; Nasiłowska, Barbara; Mariańska, Bozena

    2006-09-01

    It is recommended that all patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) should be monitored for CMV infection markers. The aim of the study was to check the usefulness of quantitative DNA CMV monitoring after alloHSCT. DNA CMV was tested by real-time PCR in sera and blood samples twice a week until 30th day after alloHSCT thereafter, once a week until 100th day and then, once every 2-3 weeks. 832 samples from 16 patients were tested. All patients were anti-CMV positive or/and received stem cells from seropositive donors. Introduction of antiviral treatment was based on initial viral load and its rate of increase. DNA CMV was detected in 13/16 patients; in 3 before 30h day after allo HSCT (group I) and in 10 (group II) after 30th day. In all patients from group I clinical symptoms were observed and DNA CMV was detected in sera and blood samples. Peak viral load was 2490-34 620 geq/ml. Although antiviral treatment was applied, reinfection was observed and infection lasted from 28 to 91 days. In 6 group II patients, clinical symptoms were observed and DNA CMV in sera and blood was detected for 16-56 days, DNA CMV peak load was 100-8950 geq/ml. In the remaining 4 patients, no clinical symptoms were observed--DNA CMV was detected in blood only for 7 to 14 days. In one patient with peak viral load 10,540 geq/ml, antiviral treatment was applied. In 3 with viral load of 400-2000 geq/ml, treatment was not introduced. The quantitative DNA CMV results were taken into account before the change of antiviral drugs for more effective drugs and the decrease of drug dose due to side effects. Application of quantititative DNA CMV testing allowed to optimise antiviral drug administration in immunosupressed patients after alloHSCT

  14. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in respiratory specimen using Abbott Realtime MTB detection and RIF/INH resistance assay.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kingsley King-Gee; Leung, Kenneth Siu-Sing; To, Sabrina Wai-Chi; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Shek, Victor Chi-Man; Tse, Cindy Wing-Sze; Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yam, Wing-Cheong

    2017-10-01

    Abbott RealTime MTB (Abbott-RT) in conjunction with Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott-RIF/INH) is a new, high-throughput automated nucleic acid amplification platform (Abbott-MDR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the genotypic markers for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance directly from respiratory specimens. This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this new platform for MTBC and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 610 sputum specimens in a tuberculosis high-burden setting. Using conventional culture results and clinical background as reference standards, Abbott-RT exhibited an overall sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% and 99.8%, respectively. Genotypic RIF/INH resistance of 178 "MTB detected" specimens was subsequently analyzed by Abbott-RIF/INH. Compared to phenotypic drug susceptibility test results, Abbott-RIF/INH detected resistance genotypic markers in 84.6% MDR-TB, 80% mono-RIF-resistant and 66.7% mono-INH-resistant specimens. Two of the RIF-resistant specimens carried a novel single, nonsense mutation at rpoB Q513 and in silico simulation demonstrated that the truncated RpoB protein failed to bind with other subunits for transcription. Overall, Abbott-MDR platform provided high throughput and reliable diagnosis of MDR-TB within a TB high-burden region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Characteristics and Comparison of Abbott and artus Real-Time Systems for Hepatitis B Virus DNA Quantification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ashrafali M.; Sivakumar, Jayashree; Anantharam, Raghavendran; Dayalan, Sujitha; Samuel, Prasanna; Fletcher, Gnanadurai J.; Gnanamony, Manu; Abraham, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Virological monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is critical to the management of HBV infection. With several HBV DNA quantification assays available, it is important to use the most efficient testing system for virological monitoring. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics and comparability of three HBV DNA quantification systems: Abbott HBV real-time PCR (Abbott PCR), artus HBV real-time PCR with QIAamp DNA blood kit purification (artus-DB), and artus HBV real-time PCR with the QIAamp DSP virus kit purification (artus-DSP). The lower limits of detection of these systems were established against the WHO international standards for HBV DNA and were found to be 1.43, 82, and 9 IU/ml, respectively. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation of plasma samples (1 to 6 log10 IU/ml) ranged between 0.05 to 8.34% and 0.16 to 3.48% for the Abbott PCR, 1.53 to 26.85% and 0.50 to 12.89% for artus-DB, and 0.29 to 7.42% and 0.94 to 3.01% for artus-DSP, respectively. Ninety HBV clinical samples were used for comparison of assays, and paired quantitative results showed strong correlation by linear regression analysis (artus-DB with Abbott PCR, r = 0.95; Abbott PCR with artus-DSP, r = 0.97; and artus-DSP with artus-DB, r = 0.94). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement for Abbott PCR and artus-DSP, with a mean difference of 0.10 log10 IU/ml and limits of agreement of −0.91 to 1.11 log10 IU/ml. No genotype-specific bias was seen in all three systems for HBV genotypes A, C, and D, which are predominant in this region. This finding illustrates that the Abbott real-time HBV and artus-DSP systems show more comparable performance than the artus-DB system, meeting the current guidelines for assays to be used in the management of hepatitis B. PMID:21795507

  16. Performance characteristics and comparison of Abbott and artus real-time systems for hepatitis B virus DNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ashrafali M; Sivakumar, Jayashree; Anantharam, Raghavendran; Dayalan, Sujitha; Samuel, Prasanna; Fletcher, Gnanadurai J; Gnanamony, Manu; Abraham, Priya

    2011-09-01

    Virological monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is critical to the management of HBV infection. With several HBV DNA quantification assays available, it is important to use the most efficient testing system for virological monitoring. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics and comparability of three HBV DNA quantification systems: Abbott HBV real-time PCR (Abbott PCR), artus HBV real-time PCR with QIAamp DNA blood kit purification (artus-DB), and artus HBV real-time PCR with the QIAamp DSP virus kit purification (artus-DSP). The lower limits of detection of these systems were established against the WHO international standards for HBV DNA and were found to be 1.43, 82, and 9 IU/ml, respectively. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation of plasma samples (1 to 6 log(10) IU/ml) ranged between 0.05 to 8.34% and 0.16 to 3.48% for the Abbott PCR, 1.53 to 26.85% and 0.50 to 12.89% for artus-DB, and 0.29 to 7.42% and 0.94 to 3.01% for artus-DSP, respectively. Ninety HBV clinical samples were used for comparison of assays, and paired quantitative results showed strong correlation by linear regression analysis (artus-DB with Abbott PCR, r = 0.95; Abbott PCR with artus-DSP, r = 0.97; and artus-DSP with artus-DB, r = 0.94). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement for Abbott PCR and artus-DSP, with a mean difference of 0.10 log(10) IU/ml and limits of agreement of -0.91 to 1.11 log(10) IU/ml. No genotype-specific bias was seen in all three systems for HBV genotypes A, C, and D, which are predominant in this region. This finding illustrates that the Abbott real-time HBV and artus-DSP systems show more comparable performance than the artus-DB system, meeting the current guidelines for assays to be used in the management of hepatitis B.

  17. Evaluation of the clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV for carcinogenic HPV detection.

    PubMed

    Halfon, Philippe; Benmoura, Dominique; Agostini, Aubert; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Martineau, Agnes; Blanc, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Abbott RealTime (RT) High-Risk (HR) HPV assay is a new qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of 14 HR HPV DNA. The assay can differentiate between the infection by HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types through the distinct fluorescent labels on the type specific probes. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Abbott RT HR HPV test, in comparison with biopsy, Hybrid Capture II (HCII), and Linear Array (LA), for detection of high-grade disease (CIN2+). The study population consisted of 143 women who were included in three referral gynecology clinics in Marseilles (France) between March 2007 and June 2008. The clinical performance of the RT HR HPV assay, performed on the fully automated m2000 system, was compared with HCII and LA. HR HPV positivity rate was similar for all tests (Abbott RT HR HPV and HCII, 62%, and LA 63%). All tests had high sensitivities and negative predictive values for CIN2+ detection (>90%). The agreement between HCII and Abbott RT HR HPV, and between HCII and LA were 93% (k=0.85) and 96% (k=0.91) respectively. As expected, HPV16 or HPV18 positivity was greater in advanced grades of disease, especially in CIN2+ patients: 85% in CIN2+ vs. 33% in Abbott RT HR HPV assay is good and closely correlated with the two other assays. The automation and ability to identify type 16 and 18 make this a very attractive option for HPV testing in laboratories and potentially provides improved patient management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  19. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P; Welsch, J; Holden, J; Ho, S Y; Webb, E M; Anderson, C; Bertuzis, R; Zhang, L; Miller, T; Leckie, G; Abravaya, K; Robinson, J

    2010-09-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians.

  20. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C. A.; Cartwright, C. P.; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J.; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T.; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians. PMID:20668135

  1. Predictive factors of spontaneous CMV DNAemia clearance in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Johan; Gatault, Philippe; Sautenet, Bénédicte; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Beby-Defaux, Agnes; Thierry, Antoine; Essig, Marie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Munteanu, Eliza; Alain, Sophie; Buchler, Matthias

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently after solid organ transplantation. Therapeutic strategies, in particular when to start a curative treatment, has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to assess predictive factors associated with spontaneous clearance of CMV DNAemia in kidney transplant recipients. All kidney recipients of a single center were recruited. Patients with at least one positive CMV DNAemia during the first year post transplantation were included in our analysis. Whole blood CMV PCR was performed using Abbott ® RealTime CMV, calibrated according to WHO standards and expressed in log10 IU/ml (Detection = 1.79 IU log10/ml). Post transplantation, prophylaxis (valganciclovir) was given for 3 months for CMV positive recipients (R+) and 6 months for CMV positive donors giving to seronegative recipients (D + R-). Clinical and biological symptoms attributable to CMV were collected. We defined as spontaneous CMV clearance undetectable DNAemia before the fourth follow up without treatment. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Results were prospectively assessed in a French multicenter validation cohort. Between 05/2012 and 05/2015, 95 patients had at least one positive CMV DNAemia. Thirty-six (37.8%) had spontaneous undetectable DNAemia. Fifty-nine patients had non-spontaneous CMV clearance. ROC analysis showed that an initial CMV DNAemia <2.75 log10/IU/mL was optimal to predict CMV spontaneous clearance. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with spontaneous CMV clearance were initial PCR level lower than 2.75 log10/IU/ml (OR = 33.8, 95% CI [7.1-160.0]), and absence of CMV DNAemia increase of more than 1 log10 between two analyses (OR = 128.0, 95% CI [11.9-1368.0]). Clinical and biological abnormalities were not associated CMV DNAemia spontaneous clearance. Observations made for the principal cohort were validated in an independent cohort of 49 kidney transplanted patients. Initial standardized

  2. Clinical evaluation of the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex from respiratory and non-respiratory samples.

    PubMed

    Hinić, Vladimira; Feuz, Kinga; Turan, Selda; Berini, Andrea; Frei, Reno; Pfeifer, Karin; Goldenberger, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Rapid and reliable diagnosis is crucial for correct management of tuberculosis. The Abbott RealTime MTB Assay represents a novel qualitative real-time PCR assay for direct detection of M. tuberculosis-complex (MTB) DNA from respiratory samples. The test targets two highly conserved sequences, the multi-copy insertion element IS6110 and the protein antigen B (PAB) gene of MTB, allowing even the detection of IS6610-deficient strains. We evaluated this commercial diagnostic test by analyzing 200 respiratory and, for the first time, 87 non-respiratory clinical specimens from our tertiary care institution and compared its results to our IS6110-based in-house real-time PCR for MTB as well as MTB culture. Overall sensitivity for Abbott RealTime MTB was 100% (19/19) in smear positive and 87.5% (7/8) in smear negative specimens, while the specificity of the assay was 100% (260/260). For both non-respiratory smear positive and smear negative specimens Abbott RealTime MTB tests showed 100% (8/8) sensitivity and 100% (8/8) specificity. Cycle threshold (Ct) value analysis of 16 MTB positive samples showed a slightly higher Ct value of the Abbott RealTime MTB test compared to our in-house MTB assay (mean delta Ct = 2.55). In conclusion, the performance of the new Abbott RealTime MTB Assay was highly similar to culture and in-house MTB PCR. We document successful analysis of 87 non-respiratory samples with the highly automated Abbott RealTime MTB test with no inhibition observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV-1 viral load measurement in venous blood and fingerprick blood using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 DBS assay.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Bagley, Zowie; Viana, Raquel; Lampinen, John; Leckie, Gregor; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; Wallis, Carole L

    2017-07-01

    HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood. To evaluate correlation, bias, and agreement, 497 HIV-1 positive adult clinical samples were collected from Ivory Coast, Uganda and South Africa. For each HIV-1 participant, DBS-fingerprick, DBS-venous and plasma sample results were compared. Correlation and bias values were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed at a threshold of 1000 HIV-1 copies/mL generated using the standard plasma protocol. The Abbott HIV-1 DBS protocol had an LOD of 839 copies/mL, a linear range from 500 to 1×10 7 copies/mL, an LLQ of 839 copies/mL, a ULQ of 1×10 7 copies/mL, and an inter-assay SD of ≤0.30 log copies/mL for all tested levels within this range. With clinical samples, the correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.896 between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and 0.901 between DBS-venous and plasma, and the bias was -0.07 log copies/mL between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and -0.02 log copies/mL between DBS-venous and plasma. The sensitivity of DBS-fingerprick and DBS-venous was 93%, while the specificity of both DBS methods was 95%. The results demonstrated that the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol is highly sensitive, specific and precise across a wide dynamic range and correlates well with plasma values. The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol provides an

  4. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test using urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off C T value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the C T threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off C T value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV

  5. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-05-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. PMID:26085611

  7. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-09-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for measurement of HIV-1 plasma viral load on genetically diverse samples from Greece

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 is characterized by increased genetic heterogeneity which tends to hinder the reliability of detection and accuracy of HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays. Methods In this study, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (Abbott RealTime) assay was compared to the Roche Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 (Cobas TaqMan) and the Siemens Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA 3.0) assays, using clinical samples of various viral load levels and subtypes from Greece, where the recent epidemiology of HIV-1 infection has been characterized by increasing genetic diversity and a marked increase in subtype A genetic strains among newly diagnosed infections. Results A high correlation was observed between the quantitative results obtained by the Abbott RealTime and the Cobas TaqMan assays. Viral load values quantified by the Abbott RealTime were on average lower than those obtained by the Cobas TaqMan, with a mean (SD) difference of -0.206 (0.298) log10 copies/ml. The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for samples of subtype A, B, and non-A/non-B were 0.089, -0.262, and -0.298 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, differences were less than 0.5 log10 for 85% of the samples, and >1 log10 in only one subtype B sample. Similarly, Abbott RealTime and bDNA 3.0 assays yielded a very good correlation of quantitative results, whereas viral load values assessed by the Abbott RealTime were on average higher (mean (SD) difference: 0.160 (0.287) log10 copies/ml). The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for subtype A, B and non-A/non-B samples were 0.438, 0.105 and 0.191 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, the majority of samples (86%) differed by less than 0.5 log10, while none of the samples showed a deviation of more than 1.0 log10. Conclusions In an area of changing HIV-1 subtype pattern, the Abbott RealTime assay showed a high correlation and good agreement of results when compared both to the Cobas TaqMan and bDNA 3.0 assays, for all

  9. HCV-RNA quantification in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, using the abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, FrancescoPaolo; Cento, Valeria; Sorbo, Maria Chiara; Manuelli, Matteo Ciancio; Lenci, Ilaria; Sforza, Daniele; Di Carlo, Domenico; Milana, Martina; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a rapid method to quantify HCV-RNA in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments, by using for the first time the Abbott RealTime HCV-assay. Non-tumoral (NT), tumoral (TT) liver samples, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid from patients undergoing orthotopic-liver-transplantation (N=18) or liver resection (N=4) were used for the HCV-RNA quantification; 5/22 patients were tested after or during direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment. Total RNA and DNA quantification from tissue-biopsies allowed normalization of HCV-RNA concentrations in IU/μg of total RNA and IU/10 6 liver-cells, respectively. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver biopsies, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid samples. Among the 17 untreated patients, a positive and significant HCV-RNA correlation between serum and NT liver-samples was observed (Pearson: rho=0.544, p=0.024). Three DAA-treated patients were HCV-RNA "undetectable" in serum, but still "detectable" in all tested liver-tissues. Differently, only one DAA-treated patient, tested after sustained-virological-response, showed HCV-RNA "undetectability" in liver-tissue. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, even when HCV-RNA was "undetectable" in serum. Abbott RealTime HCV-assay is a good diagnostic tool for HCV quantification in intra- and extra-hepatic compartments, whenever a bioptic sample is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical evaluation of Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® CMV Test using non-plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Cynthia; Wedekind, Laura; Li, Ge; vonRentzell, Jeanne E; Shah, Krunal; Rooney, Paul; Harrington, Amanda T; Zhao, Richard Y

    2018-05-24

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of loss of hearing, vision, and mental retardation in congenitally infected children. It is also associated with complications of organ-transplant and opportunistic HIV co-infection. The Roche COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® CMV Test is a FDA-approved test that measures CMV DNA viral load in plasma for the diagnosis and management of patients at risk for CMV-associated diseases. Besides plasma, CMV is often found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine. Thus, monitoring of CMV for critical care of patients in these non-plasma samples becomes necessary. The objective of this study was to conduct an analytic and clinical feasibility study of the Roche CMV Test in BAL, CSF, and urine. The lower limit of detection (LOD), analytic measurement range (AMR), assay sensitivity, specificity, and precision were determined. Results of this study showed the LODs were 50, 100 and 300 IU/mL for BAL, CSF, or urine, respectively. The AMRs were from log 10 2.48 to log 10 5.48. The assay specificity was 94.4% for BAL, and 100% for CSF and urine. The assay precision was all within the acceptable range. The performance of Roche test was further compared with two comparators including the RealTime CMV Assay (Abbott Molecular) and a CMV Quantitative PCR Test (Vela Diagnostics). There was a general positive correlation between the Roche method and the Abbott or the Vela method. Overall, this study suggests the Roche CMV Test is suitable for the quantification of CMV viral load DNA in the described non-plasma samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Two Commercial Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction and Integrated Quantitation Real-Time PCR Platforms for the Detection of Cytomegalovirus in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Tsai, You-Yuan; Lin, I-Ting; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Chang, Kung-Chao; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load in the transplant patients has become a standard practice for monitoring the response to antiviral therapy. The cut-off values of CMV viral load assays for preemptive therapy are different due to the various assay designs employed. To establish a sensitive and reliable diagnostic assay for preemptive therapy of CMV infection, two commercial automated platforms including m2000sp extraction system integrated the Abbott RealTime (m2000rt) and the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep for extraction integrated COBAS Taqman (CAP/CTM) were evaluated using WHO international CMV standards and 110 plasma specimens from transplant patients. The performance characteristics, correlation, and workflow of the two platforms were investigated. The Abbott RealTime assay correlated well with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (R2 = 0.9379, P<0.01). The Abbott RealTime assay exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of CMV viral load, and viral load values measured with Abbott RealTime assay were on average 0.76 log10 IU/mL higher than those measured with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (P<0.0001). Workflow analysis on a small batch size at one time, using the Roche CAP/CTM platform had a shorter hands-on time than the Abbott RealTime platform. In conclusion, these two assays can provide reliable data for different purpose in a clinical virology laboratory setting. PMID:27494707

  13. An in-house assay for BK polyomavirus quantification using the Abbott m2000 RealTime system.

    PubMed

    Muldrew, Kenneth L; Lovett, Jennie L

    2013-11-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) quantification is useful for monitoring renal transplant patient response to therapy. The Abbott m2000 RealTime System employed by some clinical laboratories to perform US Food and Drug Administration-approved assays can also be used to develop in-house assays such as the one presented here. This study aimed to validate an in-house quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the BKPyV major capsid VP1 gene for assessment of viral load using the Abbott m2000 RealTime System. BKPyV load was measured in 95 urine and plasma samples previously tested for BKPyV by one of three laboratories (46 BKPyV-positive samples consisting of 35 plasma and 11 urine samples; 49 samples negative for BKPyV consisting of 47 plasma and two urine samples). Two additional plasma specimens from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing survey were also analysed. Precision studies were performed by diluting a high-viral-titre patient sample into BKPyV-negative pooled plasma to create high-positive (6.16 log10 copies ml(-1)) and low-positive (3.16 log10 copies ml(-1)) samples. For precision studies of inter-assay variability, a high-positive (7.0 log10 copies ml(-1)) and a low-positive (3.0 log10 copies ml(-1)) sample were measured in 20 separate runs. The assay's limit of quantification and limit of detection were 2.70 and 2.25 log10 copies ml(-1), respectively. The assay was linear from 2.70 to 9.26 log10 copies ml(-1). Of the 48 known positives, 43 were detected as positive, with three reported by the reference laboratory as values lower than the limit of detection. Two known positives at 3.27 and 3.80 log10 copies ml(-1) tested negative by the m2000 BKPyV assay. Of the 49 known negative samples, 48 were negative by the m2000 BKPyV load assay, with one sample confirmed positive by a reference laboratory. Qualitative analysis prior to discrepancy testing demonstrated a sensitivity of 89.58 % and a specificity of 97.96 %. Precision studies

  14. An automated real-time free phenytoin assay to replace the obsolete Abbott TDx method.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher; Jones, Richard; Akl, Pascale; Blick, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Phenytoin is a commonly used anticonvulsant that is highly protein bound with a narrow therapeutic range. The unbound fraction, free phenytoin (FP), is responsible for pharmacologic effects; therefore, it is essential to measure both FP and total serum phenytoin levels. Historically, the Abbott TDx method has been widely used for the measurement of FP and was the method used in our laboratory. However, the FP TDx assay was recently discontinued by the manufacturer, so we had to develop an alternative methodology. We evaluated the Beckman-Coulter DxC800 based FP method for linearity, analytical sensitivity, and precision. The analytical measurement range of the method was 0.41 to 5.30 microg/mL. Within-run and between-run precision studies yielded CVs of 3.8% and 5.5%, respectively. The method compared favorably with the TDx method, yielding the following regression equation: DxC800 = 0.9**TDx + 0.10; r2 = 0.97 (n = 97). The new FP assay appears to be an acceptable alternative to the TDx method.

  15. CMV retinitis

    MedlinePlus

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a viral infection of the retina of the eye resulting in inflammation. ... CMV retinitis is caused by a member of a group of herpes-type viruses. Infection with CMV ...

  16. Performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Viral Load Assay Is Not Impacted by Integrase Inhibitor Resistance-Associated Mutations▿

    PubMed Central

    Young, Thomas P.; Cloherty, Gavin; Fransen, Signe; Napolitano, Laura; Swanson, Priscilla; Herman, Christine; Parkin, Neil T.; Hackett, John

    2011-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 viral load assay uses primers and probes targeted to integrase, which is also the target of integrase inhibitors such as raltegravir. Viral loads of 42 raltegravir-susceptible and 40 raltegravir-resistant specimens were determined using RealTime HIV-1 and Roche Monitor (v1.5). The differences in viral load measurements between assays were comparable in the two groups, demonstrating that the RealTime HIV-1 assay can tolerate raltegravir-selected mutations. PMID:21289145

  17. Comparison of the AdvanSure human papillomavirus screening real-time PCR, the Abbott RealTime High Risk human papillomavirus test, and the Hybrid Capture human papillomavirus DNA test for the detection of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yusun; Lee, Miae

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the performance of various commercial assays for the molecular detection of human papillomavirus (HPV); the recently developed AdvanSure HPV Screening real-time PCR assay (AdvanSure PCR) and the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV PCR assay (Abbott PCR) were compared with the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). All 3 tests were performed on 177 samples, and any sample that showed a discrepancy in any of the 3 tests was genotyped using INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping and/or sequencing. On the basis of these results, we obtained a consensus HPV result, and the performance of each test was evaluated. We also evaluated high-risk HPV 16/18 detection by using the 2 real-time PCR assays. Among the 177 samples, 65 were negative and 75 were positive in all 3 assays; however, the results of the 3 assays with 37 samples were discrepant. Compared with the consensus HPV result, the sensitivities and specificities of HC2, AdvanSure PCR, and Abbott PCR were 97.6%, 91.7%, and 86.9% and 83.9%, 98.8%, and 100.0%, respectively. For HPV type 16/18 detection, the concordance rate between the AdvanSure PCR and Abbott PCR assays was 98.3%; however, 3 samples were discrepant (positive in AdvanSure PCR and negative in Abbott PCR) and were confirmed as HPV type 16 by INNO-LiPA genotyping and/or sequencing. For HPV detection, the AdvanSure HPV Screening real-time PCR assay and the Abbott PCR assay are less sensitive but more specific than the HC2 assay, but can simultaneously differentiate type 16/18 HPV from other types.

  18. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 HIV-1 Real-Time and Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 HIV-1 assays on plasma specimens from Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssebugenyi, I; Kizza, A; Mpoza, B; Aluma, G; Boaz, I; Newell, K; Laeyendecker, O; Shott, J P; Serwadda, D; Reynolds, S J

    2011-07-01

    The need for viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings (RLS) has become apparent with studies showing the limitations of immunological monitoring. We compared the Abbott m2000 Real-Time (Abbott) HIV-1 assay with the Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 (Roche) HIV-1 assay over a range of VL concentrations. Three hundred and eleven plasma samples were tested, including 164 samples from patients on ART ≥ six months and 147 from ART-naïve patients. The Roche assay detected ≥400 copies/mL in 158 (50.8%) samples. Of these, Abbott produced 145 (91.8%) detectable results ≥400 copies/mL; 13 (8.2%) samples produced discrepant results. Concordance between the assays for detecting HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL was 95.8% (298/311). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Abbott to detect HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL were 91.8%, 100%, 100% and 92.2%, respectively. For the 151 samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL for both assays, a good linear correlation was found (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001; mean difference, 0.05). The limits of agreement were -0.97 and 1.07 log(10) copies/mL (mean ± 2 SD). The Abbott assay performed well in our setting, offering an alternative methodology for HIV-1 VL for laboratories with realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) capacity.

  19. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Schutten, M; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-06-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMan assays. Two different protocols used during the testing period with and without a pre-m1000 RNA isolation spin were compared. The difference proved to be nonsignificant. A uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) contamination control option in the HCV test for previous Roche COBAS Amplicor users was evaluated. It proved to decrease amplicon carryover by 100-fold independent of the amplicon input concentration. The protocol including UNG proved to overcome problems with false-positive negative controls. Comparison with other assays revealed only minor differences. The largest difference was observed between the Abbott HCV RealTime assay and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HCV Monitor version 2.0 assay.

  20. Performance evaluation of the QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit with Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HBV and HCV assays.

    PubMed

    Schneider, George J; Kuper, Kevin G; Abravaya, Klara; Mullen, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Marion; Bunse-Grassmann, Astrid; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Automated sample preparation systems must meet the demands of routine diagnostics laboratories with regard to performance characteristics and compatibility with downstream assays. In this study, the performance of QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit on the BioRobot EZ1 DSP was evaluated in combination with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HCV, and HBV assays, followed by thermalcycling and detection on the Abbott m2000rt platform. The following performance characteristics were evaluated: linear range and precision, sensitivity, cross-contamination, effects of interfering substances and correlation. Linearity was observed within the tested ranges (for HIV-1: 2.0-6.0 log copies/ml, HCV: 1.3-6.9 log IU/ml, HBV: 1.6-7.6 log copies/ml). Excellent precision was obtained (inter-assay standard deviation for HIV-1: 0.06-0.17 log copies/ml (>2.17 log copies/ml), HCV: 0.05-0.11 log IU/ml (>2.09 log IU/ml), HBV: 0.03-0.07 log copies/ml (>2.55 log copies/ml)), with good sensitivity (95% hit rates for HIV-1: 50 copies/ml, HCV: 12.5 IU/ml, HBV: 10 IU/ml). No cross-contamination was observed, as well as no negative impact of elevated levels of various interfering substances. In addition, HCV and HBV viral load measurements after BioRobot EZ1 DSP extraction correlated well with those obtained after Abbott m2000sp extraction. This evaluation demonstrates that the QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit provides an attractive solution for fully automated, low throughput sample preparation for use with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HCV, and HBV assays.

  1. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance, an assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary specimens.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning; Lampinen, John; Szostak, Magdalena; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients continues to present significant challenges to global health. To tackle these challenges, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was developed to accelerate the diagnosis of rifampicin and/or isoniazid resistant tuberculosis to within a day. This article summarizes the performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay; including reliability, analytical sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity/specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF version 1.0 and Hain MTBDRplus version 2.0. The limit of detection (LOD) of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was determined to be 32 colony forming units/milliliter (cfu/mL) using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv cell line. For rifampicin resistance detection, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For isoniazid resistance detection, the assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Hain MTBDRplus. The performance data presented herein demonstrate that the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay is a sensitive, robust, and reliable test for realtime simultaneous detection of first line anti-tuberculosis antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid in patient specimens. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Samples Identified as Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 without Subtype by Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II Assay Using the New Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO Test.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Camelia; Ebel, Anne; Reinhardt, Birgit; Merlin, Sandra; Proust, Stéphanie; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping continues to be relevant for therapeutic strategies. Some samples are reported as genotype 1 (gt 1) without subtype by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (GT II) test. To characterize such samples further, the Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO (Plus) assay, which targets the core region for gt 1a, gt 1b, and gt 6 detection, was evaluated as a reflex test in reference to NS5B or 5'-untranslated region (UTR)/core region sequencing. Of 3,626 routine samples, results of gt 1 without subtype were received for 171 samples (4.7%), accounting for 11.5% of gt 1 specimens. The Plus assay and sequencing were applied to 98 of those samples. NS5B or 5'-UTR/core region sequencing was successful for 91/98 specimens (92.9%). Plus assay and sequencing results were concordant for 87.9% of specimens (80/91 samples). Sequencing confirmed Plus assay results for 82.6%, 85.7%, 100%, and 89.3% of gt 1a, gt 1b, gt 6, and non-gt 1a/1b/6 results, respectively. Notably, 12 gt 6 samples that had been identified previously as gt 1 without subtype were assigned correctly here; for 25/28 samples reported as "not detected" by the Plus assay, sequencing identified the samples as gt 1 with subtypes other than 1a/1b. The genetic variability of HCV continues to present challenges for the current genotyping platforms regardless of the applied methodology. Samples identified by the GT II assay as gt 1 without subtype can be further resolved and reliably characterized by the new Plus assay. Copyright © 2016 Mokhtari et al.

  3. Comparison of DRY and WET vaginal swabs with cervical specimens in Roche Cobas 4800 HPV and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV tests.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Lim, Myong Cheol; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Hye Young; Hwang, Na Rae; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Self-collected vaginal swab samples have been proposed as an alternative specimen collection method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Two vaginal swabs (a cone-shaped flocked swab (DRY) and a L-shape FLOQSwab with 2mL eNAT transport medium (WET)) were compared to standard cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Additionally, they were also compared by using Roche Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche_HPV) and Abbott Real-time High Risk HPV (Abbott_HPV) tests. Ninety-six women were prospectively enrolled from the National Cancer Center in Korea between June and August 2015. WET and DRY vaginal swabs and cervical specimens were collected. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests were performed. The Roche_HPV test on cervical specimens was used as reference. The observed agreements (kappa) of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV between WET and DRY swabs were 89.6% (0.790, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.667-0.913) and 91.7% (0.833, 95%CI: 0.723-0.943), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between WET and DRY swabs (p>0.05 for all comparisons). For HPV16/18, the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET samples presented 93.8%/96.3% and 87.5%/97.5%, respectively. For other High Risk HPV (hrHPV), the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs presented 91.9%/91.5% and 97.3%/98.3, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of the Abbott_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs were 93.8%/98.8%, 87.5%/98.8% for HPV16/18, and 91.9%/93.2%, 100.0%/93.2% for other hrHPV, respectively. HPV tests performed similarly when using vaginal DRY and WET swab samples. Using DRY and WET swabs to collect vaginal specimens could be an alternative to collecting cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An OPTIMIZE study retrospective analysis for management of telaprevir-treated hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients by use of the Abbott RealTime HCV RNA assay.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Christoph; Dierynck, Inge; Cloherty, Gavin; Ghys, Anne; Janssen, Katrien; Luo, Donghan; Witek, James; Buti, Maria; Picchio, Gaston; De Meyer, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based response-guided triple therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are still widely used. Noncirrhotic treatment-naive and prior relapser patients receiving telaprevir-based treatment are eligible for shorter, 24-week total therapy if HCV RNA is undetectable at both weeks 4 and 12. In this study, the concordance in HCV RNA assessments between the Roche High Pure System/Cobas TaqMan and Abbott RealTime HCV RNA assays and the impacts of different HCV RNA cutoffs on treatment outcome were evaluated. A total of 2,629 samples from 663 HCV genotype 1 patients receiving telaprevir/pegylated interferon/ribavirin in OPTIMIZE were analyzed using the High Pure System and reanalyzed using Abbott RealTime (limits of detection, 15.1 IU/ml versus 8.3 IU/ml; limits of quantification, 25 IU/ml versus 12 IU/ml, respectively). Overall, good concordance was observed between the assays. Using undetectable HCV RNA at week 4, 34% of the patients would be eligible for shorter treatment duration with Abbott RealTime versus 72% with the High Pure System. However, using <12 IU/ml for Abbott RealTime, a similar proportion (74%) would be eligible. Of the patients receiving 24-week total therapy, 87% achieved a sustained virologic response with undetectable HCV RNA by the High Pure System or <12 IU/ml by Abbott RealTime; however, 92% of the patients with undetectable HCV RNA by Abbott RealTime achieved a sustained virologic response. Using undetectable HCV RNA as the cutoff, the more sensitive Abbott RealTime assay would identify fewer patients eligible for shorter treatment than the High Pure System. Our data confirm the <12-IU/ml cutoff, as previously established in other studies of the Abbott RealTime assay, to determine eligibility for shortened PI-based HCV treatment. (The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01241760.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS Feature on Clinical Laboratory Efficiencies of Abbott RealTime Assays for Detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents. PMID:24088850

  6. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS feature on clinical laboratory efficiencies of abbott RealTime assays for detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents.

  7. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH resistance assay when used to test Mycobacterium tuberculosis specimens from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance Assay (RT MTB RIF/INH) is an assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF)- and/or isoniazid (INH)-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The assay can be used to test sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage, and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NALC)/NaOH pellets prepared from these samples. The assay can be used in direct testing mode, or in reflex mode following a MTB positive result produced by its companion assay, Abbott RT MTB. In this study, the direct testing mode was used to test paired sputum and NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from sputum collected from Bangladesh TB patients. One hundred and thirty two paired samples were tested. The RT MTB RIF/INH inhibition rate was 0%. One hundred and twenty-two paired samples had results above the assay limit of detection and were analyzed by comparing with results from phenotypic drug sensitivity testing, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and MTBDR plus (Hain). RT MTB RIF/INH results were in good agreement with those of GeneXpert and Hain. The ability of this assay to detect RIF and INH resistance may contribute to the global control of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

  8. Measure of viral load by using the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay on dried blood and plasma spot specimens collected in 2 rural dispensaries in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbida, André Dieudonné; Sosso, Samuel; Flori, Pierre; Saoudin, Henia; Lawrence, Philip; Monny-Lobé, Marcel; Oyono, Yves; Ndzi, Edward; Cappelli, Giulia; Lucht, Frédéric; Pozzetto, Bruno; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Bourlet, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) locally collected in 2 rural dispensaries in Cameroon for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA. Forty-one subjects were sampled and spots of whole blood and plasma were deposited onto Whatman 903 cards and dried at ambient temperature under local conditions. Two sets of DBS and DPS cards were done per patient. The rest of the liquid plasma (LP) was frozen until use. LPs were tested at the "Chantal Biya" International Reference Centre (Yaoundé, Cameroon) by the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany). One series of DBS and DPS was transported and tested between 2 and 6 weeks later at the Virology Laboratory of Saint-Etienne (France). The second series was routed by mail and tested after up to 3 months of storage at ambient temperature. From the first series, the correlation rate between viral loads obtained from LP and DBS, and from LP and DPS, was 0.98 and 0.99, respectively; specificity of DBS and DPS results was 100%. The results obtained from the second series indicate a great stability of DBS after long-term storage. This study demonstrates that DBSs collected under local conditions in resource-limited settings are suitable for the differed quantification of HIV-1 RNA.

  9. Comparative evaluation of three automated systems for DNA extraction in conjunction with three commercially available real-time PCR assays for quantitation of plasma Cytomegalovirus DNAemia in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Dayana; Clari, María Ángeles; Costa, Elisa; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Solano, Carlos; José Remigia, María; Navarro, David

    2011-08-01

    Limited data are available on the performance of different automated extraction platforms and commercially available quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) methods for the quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma. We compared the performance characteristics of the Abbott mSample preparation system DNA kit on the m24 SP instrument (Abbott), the High Pure viral nucleic acid kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep system (Roche), and the EZ1 Virus 2.0 kit on the BioRobot EZ1 extraction platform (Qiagen) coupled with the Abbott CMV PCR kit, the LightCycler CMV Quant kit (Roche), and the Q-CMV complete kit (Nanogen), for both plasma specimens from allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients (n = 42) and the OptiQuant CMV DNA panel (AcroMetrix). The EZ1 system displayed the highest extraction efficiency over a wide range of CMV plasma DNA loads, followed by the m24 and the AmpliPrep methods. The Nanogen PCR assay yielded higher mean CMV plasma DNA values than the Abbott and the Roche PCR assays, regardless of the platform used for DNA extraction. Overall, the effects of the extraction method and the QRT-PCR used on CMV plasma DNA load measurements were less pronounced for specimens with high CMV DNA content (>10,000 copies/ml). The performance characteristics of the extraction methods and QRT-PCR assays evaluated herein for clinical samples were extensible at cell-based standards from AcroMetrix. In conclusion, different automated systems are not equally efficient for CMV DNA extraction from plasma specimens, and the plasma CMV DNA loads measured by commercially available QRT-PCRs can differ significantly. The above findings should be taken into consideration for the establishment of cutoff values for the initiation or cessation of preemptive antiviral therapies and for the interpretation of data from clinical studies in the Allo-SCT setting.

  10. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for specimens yielding "target not detected" results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test.

    PubMed

    Babady, N Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J; Yao, Joseph D C

    2010-03-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding "target not detected" results by CTM.

  11. Comparison of the analytical and clinical performances of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Hybrid Capture 2, and DNA Chip assays in gynecology patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungman; Kang, Youjin; Kim, Dong Geun; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2013-08-01

    The detection of high-risk (HR) HPV in cervical cancer screening is important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of 3 HR HPV assays in Gynecology patients. A total of 991 specimens were included in this study: 787 specimens for use with a Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and 204 specimens for a HPV DNA microarray (DNA Chip). All specimens were tested using an Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Real-time HR), PGMY PCR, and sequence analysis. Clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal cytology (severe than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) were 81.8% for Real-time HR, 77.3% for HC2, and 66.7% for DNA Chip, and clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal histology (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+) were 91.7% for HC2, 87.5% for Real-time HR, and 73.3% for DNA Chip. As compared to results of the sequence analysis, HC2, Real-time HR, and DNA Chip showed concordance rates of 94.3% (115/122), 90.0% (117/130), and 61.5% (16/26), respectively. The HC2 assay and Real-time HR assay showed comparable results to each other in both clinical and analytical performances, while the DNA Chip assay showed poor clinical and analytical performances. The Real-time HR assay can be a good alternative option for HR HPV testing with advantages of allowing full automation and simultaneous genotyping of HR types 16 and 18. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Abbott RealTime genotype II, GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr assays for hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Han, Mi-Soon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2017-07-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is a predictive marker for treatment response. We sequentially evaluated the performances of two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and one serology assay for HCV genotype: Abbott RealTime genotype II (RealTime II), GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP), and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr (HISCL Gr). We examined 281 clinical samples with three assays. The accuracy was assessed using the HCV Genotype Performance Panel PHW204 (SeraCare Life Sciences) for two NAATs. Discrepant cases were re-genotyped by the Versant HCV v.2.0 (line probe 2.0) assay. With the RealTime II assay, clinic samples were analyzed as follows: genotypes 1b (43.1%), 2 (40.2%), 1 subtypes other than 1a and 1b (12.5%), 3 (1.8%), 4 (1.4%), 1a (0.7%), 6 (0.4%), and mixed (1.1%). The RealTime II and RFMP assays showed a type concordance rate of 97.5% (274/281) (κ=0.80) and no significant discordance (p=0.25). Both assays accurately genotyped all samples in the Performance Panel by the subtype level. The HISCL Gr assay showed concordance rates of about 91% (κ<0.40) and statistically significant discordances with two NAATs (p<0.05). In confirmation tests, the results of RFMP assay were the most consistent with those of Versant 2.0 assay. The three HCV assays provided genotyping and serotyping results with good concordance rates. The two NAATs (RealTime II and RFMP) showed comparable performance and good agreement. However, the results of the HISCL Gr assay showed statistically significant differences with those of the NAATs.

  13. Comparison of clinical and analytical performance of the Abbott Realtime High Risk HPV test to the performance of hybrid capture 2 in population-based cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Ostrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja; Ucakar, Veronika; Hillemanns, Peter; Bokal, Eda Vrtacnik; Jancar, Nina; Klavs, Irena

    2011-05-01

    The clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV (human papillomavirus) test (RealTime) and that of the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (hc2) were prospectively compared in the population-based cervical cancer screening setting. In women >30 years old (n = 3,129), the clinical sensitivity of RealTime for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 (CIN2) or worse (38 cases) and its clinical specificity for lesions of less than CIN2 (3,091 controls) were 100% and 93.3%, respectively, and those of hc2 were 97.4% and 91.8%, respectively. A noninferiority score test showed that the clinical specificity (P < 0.0001) and clinical sensitivity (P = 0.011) of RealTime were noninferior to those of hc2 at the recommended thresholds of 98% and 90%. In the total study population (women 20 to 64 years old; n = 4,432; 57 cases, 4,375 controls), the clinical sensitivity and specificity of RealTime were 98.2% and 89.5%, and those of hc2 were 94.7% and 87.7%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity and analytical specificity of RealTime in detecting targeted HPV types evaluated with the largest sample collection to date (4,479 samples) were 94.8% and 99.8%, and those of hc2 were 93.4% and 97.8%, respectively. Excellent analytical agreement between the two assays was obtained (kappa value, 0.84), while the analytical accuracy of RealTime was significantly higher than that of hc2. RealTime demonstrated high intralaboratory reproducibility and interlaboratory agreement with 500 samples retested 61 to 226 days after initial testing in two different laboratories. RealTime can be considered to be a reliable and robust HPV assay clinically comparable to hc2 for the detection of CIN2+ lesions in a population-based cervical cancer screening setting.

  14. Evaluation of a new automated Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH assay for qualitative detection of rifampicin/isoniazid resistance in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pilar; Causse, Manuel; Vaquero, Manuel; Gutierrez, Juan Bautista; Casal, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    A new automated real-time PCR assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was evaluated. A total of 163 clinical samples (128 pulmonary and 35 extra-pulmonary) were processed using four PCR assay kits: Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH, Genotype MTBDRplus, Xpert/MTB RIF, and Anyplex MTB/MDR. The results of phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing using BACTECMGIT 960 were used as reference. The sensitivity and specificity of the new Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH assay in comparison with phenotypic testing was 96.3% (95%CI 87.32%-100%) for RIF and 100% (95%CI 99.3%-100%) for INH; the sensitivity was 78.8% (95%CI 66.8%-90.9%) and the specificity was 100% (95%CI 98.9%-100%). The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH test could be a valid method for detecting the most common mutations in strains resistant to RIF and INH.

  15. About CMV (Cytomegalovirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Redirect - Testing and Diagnosis of CMV Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir We ... to update your bookmark: https://www.cdc.gov/cmv/overview.html CMV Home About CMV Babies Born ...

  16. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB and MTB RIF/INH Assays in a Setting of High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    David, Anura; Noble, Lara; Nduna, Matilda; Da Silva, Pedro; Black, Andrew; Venter, Francois; Stevens, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for the initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV load. The latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime (RT) MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first-line drug resistance screening but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection. A prospective clinical validation study was conducted at a community health center in Johannesburg, South Africa, and consenting individuals with presumptive pulmonary TB were enrolled. The performance of the Abbott assays was compared with those of the Xpert MTB/RIF, liquid culture, drug susceptibility testing, and clinical case definitions. A statistical analysis was performed on 206 individuals (73% were HIV positive). The sensitivity and specificity of the RT MTB were 82.5% (confidence interval [CI], 67.2 to 92.7) and 93.1% (CI, 86.2 to 97.2) on raw sputum and 77.5% (CI, 61.5 to 89.2) and 95.1% (CI, 88.9 to 98.4) on concentrated sputum, respectively, compared with those from liquid culture. The RT MTB correctly identified 17/35 more smear-negative culture-positive specimens than the Xpert MTB/RIF. Both the RT MTB and the Xpert MTB/RIF displayed sensitivities >70% and specificities >90% in HIV-positive individuals. The available drug resistance results concurred with MTBDRplus and drug susceptibility profiles. The RT MTB assay has similar diagnostic performance to the Xpert MTB/RIF and is suited to testing presumptive TB patients coinfected with HIV. The existing laboratory information system connectivity, training, and technical support make this a viable polyvalent option to scale up TB alongside HIV laboratory testing services in South Africa. PMID

  17. Evaluation of the Abbott realtime HCV genotype II RUO (GT II) assay with reference to 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela X; Sears, Mitchell T; Cloherty, Gavin A; Hillyard, David R

    2014-05-01

    HCV genotyping is a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. To evaluate the concordance between the Abbott GT II assay and genotyping by sequencing subregions of the HCV 5'UTR, core and NS5B. The Abbott assay was used to genotype 127 routine patient specimens and 35 patient specimens with unusual subtypes and mixed infection. Abbott results were compared to genotyping by 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing. Sequences were genotyped using the NCBI non-redundant database and the online genotyping tool COMET. Among routine specimens, core/NS5B sequencing identified 93 genotype 1s, 13 genotype 2s, 15 genotype 3s, three genotype 4s, two genotype 6s and one recombinant specimen. Genotype calls by 5'UTR, core, NS5B sequencing and the Abbott assay were 97.6% concordant. Core/NS5B sequencing identified two discrepant samples as genotype 6 (subtypes 6l and 6u) while Abbott and 5'UTR sequencing identified these samples as genotype 1 with no subtype. The Abbott assay subtyped 91.4% of genotype 1 specimens. Among the 35 rare specimens, the Abbott assay inaccurately genotyped 3k, 6e, 6o, 6q and one genotype 4 variant; gave indeterminate results for 3g, 3h, 4r, 6m, 6n, and 6q specimens; and agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for mixed specimens. The Abbott assay is an automated HCV genotyping method with improved accuracy over 5'UTR sequencing. Samples identified by the Abbott assay as genotype 1 with no subtype may be rare subtypes of other genotypes and thus require confirmation by another method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CMV blood test

    MedlinePlus

    CMV antibody tests ... never been infected with CMV have no detectable antibodies to CMV. Normal value ranges may vary slightly ... The presence of antibodies to CMV indicates a current or past ... CMV. If the number of antibodies (called the antibody titer) ...

  19. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HCV assays for the monitoring of sofosbuvir-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Shimizu, Motohiro; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    On-treatment HCV kinetics play an invaluable role in evaluating the efficacy of interferon-based therapies. However, the importance of HCV RNA monitoring has not been well discussed concerning treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens, especially for the utility of the Abbott RealTime HCV (ART) assay. This study consisted of 151 patients infected with HCV genotype-1 or -2, including patients with prior treatment-experience or cirrhosis. HCV genotype-1 patients were treated with SOF/ledipasvir and genotype-2 patients with SOF/ribavirin, both for 12 weeks. Serial measurements of HCV RNA were performed with both the ART and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan v2.0 (CAP/CTM) assays simultaneously at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 of treatment. The rates of HCV RNA target not detected (TND) by ART were significantly lower than those by CAP/CTM between weeks 2 and 12 (end of treatment [EOT]), irrespective of prior treatment-experience or cirrhosis. 11 (11.6%) genotype-1 and 8 (14.3%) genotype-2 patients did not achieve HCV RNA TND by ART at EOT, in contrast to all having HCV RNA TND by CAP/CTM; however, all achieved sustained virological response. The time at which HCV RNA became TND or unquantifiable was not associated with treatment outcome by either the ART or CAP/CTM assay. Over 10% of the patients continued to have detectable HCV RNA by ART at EOT, irrespective of HCV genotype, prior treatment-experience and/or cirrhosis. However, prolonged residual HCV RNA was not associated with treatment failure.

  20. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II plus RUO (PLUS) assay with reference to core and NS5B sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela; Ebbert, Mark T W; Cloherty, Gavin A; Toolsie, Dan; Hillyard, David R

    2017-05-01

    HCV genotyping remains a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. Current commercial genotyping assays may have difficulty identifying 1a, 1b and genotype 6. To evaluate the concordance for identifying 1a, 1b, and genotype 6 between two methods: the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing. This study included 236 plasma and serum samples previously genotyped by core/NS5B sequencing. Of these, 25 samples were also previously tested by the Abbott RealTime HCV GT II Research Use Only (RUO) assay and yielded ambiguous results. The remaining 211 samples were routine genotype 1 (n=169) and genotype 6 (n=42). Genotypes obtained from sequence data were determined using a laboratory-developed HCV sequence analysis tool and the NCBI non-redundant database. Agreement between the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing for genotype 1 samples was 95.8% (162/169), with 96% (127/132) and 95% (35/37) agreement for 1a and 1b samples respectively. PLUS results agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for 83% (35/42) of unselected genotype 6 samples, with the remaining seven "not detected" by the PLUS assay. Among the 25 samples with ambiguous GT II results, 15 were concordant by PLUS and core/NS5B sequencing, nine were not detected by PLUS, and one sample had an internal control failure. The PLUS assay is an automated method that identifies 1a, 1b and genotype 6 with good agreement with gold-standard core/NS5B sequencing and can aid in the resolution of certain genotype samples with ambiguous GT II results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardization and performance evaluation of "modified" and "ultrasensitive" versions of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay, adapted to quantify minimal residual viremia.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Bloisi, Maria; Marsella, Patrizia; Sabatini, Rosella; Bibbò, Angela; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies investigating clinical significance of HIV-1 minimal residual viremia (MRV) suggest potential utility of assays more sensitive than those routinely used to monitor viral suppression. However currently available methods, based on different technologies, show great variation in detection limit and input plasma volume, and generally suffer from lack of standardization. In order to establish new tools suitable for routine quantification of minimal residual viremia in patients under virological suppression, some modifications were introduced into standard procedure of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay leading to a "modified" and an "ultrasensitive" protocols. The following modifications were introduced: calibration curve extended towards low HIV-1 RNA concentration; 4 fold increased sample volume by concentrating starting material; reduced volume of internal control; adoption of "open-mode" software for quantification. Analytical performances were evaluated using the HIV-1 RNA Working Reagent 1 for NAT assays (NIBSC). Both tests were applied to clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients. The "modified" and the "ultrasensitive" configurations of the assay reached a limit of detection of 18.8 (95% CI: 11.1-51.0 cp/mL) and 4.8 cp/mL (95% CI: 2.6-9.1 cp/mL), respectively, with high precision and accuracy. In clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients, "modified" and "ultrasensitive" protocols allowed to detect and quantify HIV RNA in 12.7% and 46.6%, respectively, of samples resulted "not-detectable", and in 70.0% and 69.5%, respectively, of samples "detected <40 cp/mL" in the standard assay. The "modified" and "ultrasensitive" assays are precise and accurate, and easily adoptable in routine diagnostic laboratories for measuring MRV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Molecular tests in diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using real-time PCR in HIV positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Alice Rogomenoma; Kabre, Madeleine; Bisseye, Cyrille; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Asshi, Maleki; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Traore, Lassina; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Ouermi, Djénéba; Pietra, Virginio; Barro, Nicolas; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Herpesvirus EBV, CMV and HHV-6 are viruses that evolve based on pandemic modeling and are responsible for congenital infections causing severe sequelae in infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of CMV, EBV and HHV-6 among HIV (+) and HIV (-) pregnant women in Ouagadougou. In this study 200 blood plasma samples taken from pregnant women, of whom 100 with HIV(+) and 100 with HIV(-), were analyzed using multiplex real-time PCR which detected three infections (EBV, CMV and HHV-6). Out of the 200 samples tested, 18(9.0%) were positive for at least one of the three viruses, 12(6.0%) were positive for EBV, 13(6.5%) were positive for CMV and 12(6.0%) were positive for HHV-6. Among the 18 cases with infections, 10 cases (55.6%) had co-infections of whom 90.0% (9/10) with multiple EBV/CMV/HHV6 infection and 10.0% with EBV/HHV6 co-infection. HHVs infection rate was higher among HIV (-) pregnant women than among HIV (+) pregnant women (12.0% versus 6.0%). Among HIV (+) pregnant women, PCR showed 7.1% (6/85) of HHVs infection in patients who were not treated with ARV against 0% in those treated with ARVs. Herpes virus infections are a common condition in pregnant women in Burkina Faso. They may represent a real threat to pregnant women because of complications and risks of infection in infants.

  3. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB INH/RIF Assays for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Resistance Markers in Respiratory and Extrapulmonary Specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Thiel, Sabine; Molodtsov, Nikolay; Antonenka, Uladzimir; Hoffmann, Harald

    2016-12-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB (RT MTB) assay is a new automated nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. In combination with the RealTime MTB INH/RIF (RT MTB INH/RIF) resistance assay, which can be applied to RT MTB-positive specimens as an add-on assay, the tests also indicate the genetic markers of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT MTB using different types of respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens and to compare performance characteristics directly with those of the FluoroType MTB assay. The resistance results obtained by RT MTB INH/RIF were compared to those from the GenoType MTBDRplus and from phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. A total of 715 clinical specimens were analyzed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of RT MTB was 92.1%; the sensitivity rates for smear-positive and smear-negative samples were 100% and 76.2%, respectively. The sensitivities of smear-negative specimens were almost identical for respiratory (76.3%) and extrapulmonary (76%) specimens. Specificity rates were 100% and 95.8% for culture-negative specimens and those that grew nontuberculous mycobacteria, respectively. RT MTB INH/RIF was applied to 233 RT MTB-positive samples and identified resistance markers in 7.7% of samples. Agreement with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing was 99.5%. In conclusion, RT MTB and RT MTB INH/RIF allow for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in different types of specimens and reliably indicate resistance markers. The strengths of this system are the comparably high sensitivity with paucibacillary specimens, its ability to detect INH and RIF resistance, and its high-throughput capacities. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  5. MISR CMV New Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-31

    Cloud Motion Vector (CMV) Product The MISR Level 3 Products are global or ... field campaigns at daily and monthly time scales. The CMV product provides conveniently organized, high quality retrievals of cloud ...

  6. Development of the Abbott RealTime ZIKA assay for the qualitative detection of Zika virus RNA from serum, plasma, urine, and whole blood specimens using the m2000 system.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Pandya, Kinnari; Gersch, Jeffrey; Siddiqui, Sarah; Schneider, George J

    2017-08-01

    Zika virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that has rapidly developed into a world-wide concern. Discovered in 1947, the virus was relatively obscure until an outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap islands and spread eventually to the Americas in 2015. Only 20% of patients infected with Zika virus develop symptoms. However, there can be serious consequences of infection including birth defects in developing fetuses and links to Guillain-Barré syndrome. The swift rise in infections has necessitated the development of diagnostic tests for both the detection of viral RNA and the presence of virus-specific antibodies. Abbott has developed a dual target RT-PCR assay for the detection of Zika virus RNA within serum, plasma, whole blood, and urine using the automated m2000 system for sample extraction to result reporting. The Abbott RealTime ZIKA assay has a limit of detection of 30 copies per mL in serum, 40 copies per mL in plasma and urine, and 120 copies per mL in whole blood and demonstrates high specificity against challenges from closely related infectious agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical characteristics and comparative evaluation of Aptima HCV quant Dx assay with the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV quantitative test v2.0.

    PubMed

    Worlock, A; Blair, D; Hunsicker, M; Le-Nguyen, T; Motta, C; Nguyen, C; Papachristou, E; Pham, J; Williams, A; Vi, M; Vinluan, B; Hatzakis, A

    2017-04-04

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima assay) is a fully automated quantitative assay on the Panther® system. This assay is intended for confirmation of diagnosis and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum specimens. The purpose of the testing described in this paper was to evaluate the performance of the Aptima assay. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision, and linearity of the Aptima assay were assessed. The performance of the Aptima assay was compared to two commercially available HCV assays; the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (Abbott assay, Abbott Labs Illinois, USA) and the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman HCV Quantitative Test v2.0 (Roche Assay, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton CA, USA). The 95% Lower Limit of Detection (LoD) of the assay was determined from dilutions of the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) and HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Probit analysis was performed to generate the 95% predicted detection limits. The Lower Limit of Quantitation (LLoQ) was established for each genotype by diluting clinical specimens and the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Specificity was determined using 200 fresh and 536 frozen HCV RNA negative clinical specimens including 370 plasma specimens and 366 serum specimens. Linearity for genotypes 1 to 6 was established by diluting armored RNA or HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative serum or plasma from 8.08 log IU/mL to below 1 log IU/mL. Precision was tested using a 10 member panel made by diluting HCV positive clinical specimens or spiking armored RNA into HCV negative plasma and serum. A method comparison was conducted against the Abbott assay using 1058 clinical specimens and against the Roche assay using 608 clinical specimens from HCV infected patients. In addition, agreement between the Roche assay and the Aptima assay using specimens with low

  8. Performance evaluation of the Aptima® HCV Quant Dx assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification in comparison to the Abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Bibbò, Angela; Sciamanna, Roberta; Pisciotta, Marina; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2017-07-01

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification assay CE-approved for the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Aptima's analytical performance was compared to the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (RealTime) in a clinical routine setting. Overall 295 clinical plasma samples (117 prospective/fresh; 178 retrospective/frozen) from HCV-infected patients were tested in Aptima and RealTime to determine concordance on qualitative and quantitative results. Linearity and precision at low viral loads (VLs; 0.8-3.3LogIU/mL) was tested using dilutions of the 5th WHO standard, in 10 and 20 replicates in the two assays, respectively. The ability to measure different HCV genotypes and accuracy were analyzed using the Seracare EQA panel. Inter-assay agreement for qualitative results (prospective samples) was 88% (kappa=0.78). For the 127 samples with quantitative results in both assays, Aptima yielded on average slightly higher values (by 0.24LogIU/mL; Bland-Altman method) than RealTime. Concordance between assay results was excellent (R=0.98). At low VLs (0.8-3.3LogIU/mL), Aptima demonstrated good linearity and precision, similar to RealTime. Aptima detected and accurately quantified all main HCV genotypes. Aptima demonstrated excellent precision, linearity, and accuracy in all genotypes tested. Good concordance was observed between Aptima and RealTime assays in clinical samples. The performance of the Aptima assay, on the fully automated Panther platform, makes it an excellent candidate for the detection and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ABT-773 (Abbott Laboratories).

    PubMed

    Lawrence, L E

    2001-06-01

    ABT-773 is a macrolide antibacterial agent under development by Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical Co Ltd for the potential treatment of bacterial infection [266579]. As of February 2001, ABT-773 had entered phase III trials in the US [398274]. Japanese phase II trials were expected to commence in June 2000 and a phase II trial is being designed for respiratory infections, with Abbott expecting filing in March 2002 [360455]. The bioavailability of ABT-773 in humans is unaffected by food [383228] and in a phase I, randomized, double-blind trial in healthy males only mild adverse effects, usually affecting the gastrointestinal system, were observed [383208]. Under an agreement, Abbott and Taisho are conducting joint research to discover new compounds; Abbott will have worldwide marketing, manufacturing and supply rights (except in Japan), and Taisho will receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the companies will co-market any resulting compounds [266579]. ABT-773 demonstrated good activity in vitro and in vivo against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus [383229], [383231], and was highly potent even against macrolide-resistant [382149], [382150] and invasive [383782] S pneumoniae.

  10. Evaluation of the IMMULITE® 2000 CMV IgM assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is challenging because of the high rate of asymptomatic infection and the low specificity of associated symptoms and signs. As a result, laboratory testing is an essential aid in making an accurate diagnosis. The presence of CMV IgM is indicative of primary CMV infection. In pregnancy, diagnosis of primary infection is important because primary maternal infection increases fetal infection risk substantially. Fetal infection can result in serious sequelae ranging from neurological deficits to death. Diagnosis among the immunocompromised is also critical for the timely initiation of therapy that can reduce morbidity and mortality risk. Methods The IMMULITE® 2000 CMV IgM assay qualitatively detects CMV IgM antibodies in human serum or plasma to aid in the diagnosis of current or recent CMV infection. To determine expected values in apparently healthy subjects, 136 samples were tested. Reproducibility, normal range, and method comparison studies were also performed to evaluate the assay's performance. The assay's reproducibility was evaluated across three sites. Seven hundred and eighteen (n = 718) individual patient serum samples, which included samples from CMV IgM-positive (n = 109, determined by the Abbott IMx CMV or the Diamedix CMV IgM assays), pregnant (n = 210), HIV-positive (n = 30), immunosuppressed (n = 102), and transplant patients (n = 17) and from patients with potentially cross-reacting conditions (n = 136) were evaluated in the method comparison study. The positive, negative, and overall agreement between the IMMULITE 2000 CMV IgM assay and the VIDAS CMV IgM assay (predicate assay) were determined. Results The assay demonstrated excellent reproducibility with a total CV of less than 10%. The positive, negative, and overall agreement between the IMMULITE 2000 assay and the VIDAS assay were > 95% for the method comparison samples. Among potentially cross-reactive samples, the overall agreement

  11. Evaluation of the IMMULITE® 2000 CMV IgM assay.

    PubMed

    Bal, Tricia A; Armstrong, Glenn; Han, Xiang Y

    2012-02-29

    Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is challenging because of the high rate of asymptomatic infection and the low specificity of associated symptoms and signs. As a result, laboratory testing is an essential aid in making an accurate diagnosis. The presence of CMV IgM is indicative of primary CMV infection. In pregnancy, diagnosis of primary infection is important because primary maternal infection increases fetal infection risk substantially. Fetal infection can result in serious sequelae ranging from neurological deficits to death. Diagnosis among the immunocompromised is also critical for the timely initiation of therapy that can reduce morbidity and mortality risk. The IMMULITE® 2000 CMV IgM assay qualitatively detects CMV IgM antibodies in human serum or plasma to aid in the diagnosis of current or recent CMV infection. To determine expected values in apparently healthy subjects, 136 samples were tested. Reproducibility, normal range, and method comparison studies were also performed to evaluate the assay's performance. The assay's reproducibility was evaluated across three sites. Seven hundred and eighteen (n = 718) individual patient serum samples, which included samples from CMV IgM-positive (n = 109, determined by the Abbott IMx CMV or the Diamedix CMV IgM assays), pregnant (n = 210), HIV-positive (n = 30), immunosuppressed (n = 102), and transplant patients (n = 17) and from patients with potentially cross-reacting conditions (n = 136) were evaluated in the method comparison study. The positive, negative, and overall agreement between the IMMULITE 2000 CMV IgM assay and the VIDAS CMV IgM assay (predicate assay) were determined. The assay demonstrated excellent reproducibility with a total CV of less than 10%. The positive, negative, and overall agreement between the IMMULITE 2000 assay and the VIDAS assay were > 95% for the method comparison samples. Among potentially cross-reactive samples, the overall agreement between the two assays was 96

  12. Monitoring of Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Specific Cell-Mediated Immunity in Heart Transplant Recipients: Clinical Utility of the QuantiFERON-CMV Assay for Management of Posttransplant CMV Infection.

    PubMed

    Chiereghin, Angela; Potena, Luciano; Borgese, Laura; Gibertoni, Dino; Squarzoni, Diego; Turello, Gabriele; Petrisli, Evangelia; Piccirilli, Giulia; Gabrielli, Liliana; Grigioni, Francesco; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2018-04-01

    The clinical utility of the QuantiFERON-CMV (QFN-CMV) assay in heart transplant recipients was assessed. Forty-four cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients were enrolled: 17 received antiviral prophylaxis, and 27 were managed preemptively. CMV-DNAemia monitoring was performed by the use of a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The QFN-CMV assay was retrospectively performed on blood samples collected at five posttransplant time points. A higher proportion of patients with an indeterminate QFN-CMV result after the suspension of prophylaxis than of patients who showed a global T-cell responsiveness developed CMV infection ( P = 0.036). Patients who reconstituted a CMV-specific response following the first CMV-DNAemia-positive result (42.9%) showed a median CMV-DNAemia peak 1 log of magnitude lower than that seen with patients with indeterminate results, and all controlled viral replication spontaneously. The 25% of patients with an indeterminate result developed CMV disease. In the preemptive strategy group, no differences in the development of subsequent infection, magnitude of viral load, and viral control were observed on the basis of QFN-CMV measurements performed before and after the first CMV-DNAemia-positive result. Considering both CMV prevention strategies, viral relapse was associated with the failure to reconstitute CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) after the resolution of the first episode of CMV infection ( P = 0.032). QFN-CMV measurements can be a useful tool for identifying patients (i) at higher risk of developing infection after discontinuing antiviral prophylaxis, (ii) with late CMV infection who would benefit from appropriate antiviral interventions, and (iii) at higher risk of viral relapses. QFN-CMV measurements taken within 1 month posttransplantation (early period) are not revealing. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Comparison of the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor, Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman and Abbott RealTime Test assays for quantification of hepatitis C virus and HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Dietmar; Gerritzen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of two newly developed automated real-time PCR assays, the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and the Abbott RealTime tests, in the quantification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. The widely used semi-automated COBAS Amplicor Monitor (CAM) assay served as the reference test. Several specimens were analyzed, including 102 plasma samples from HCV patients and 109 from HIV patients and 10 samples from negative donors, as well as Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) and National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls (NIBSC) proficiency program panels. Good correlation was observed among the three assays, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.8 (CAM-CAP/CTM), 0.89 (CAM-RealTime) and 0.91 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HCV and 0.83 (CAM-RealTime), 0.85 (CAM-CAP/CTM) and 0.89 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HIV. The overall concordance for negative/positive results was 100% for HCV and 98% for HIV. All assays were equally able to quantify HCV genotypes 1, 3, 5 and HIV group M (subtypes A-H) and N from QCMD and NIBSC panels. In terms of workflow, the RealTime assay requires more hands-on-time than the CAP/CTM assay. The results indicate that real-time PCR assays can improve the efficiency of end-point PCR tests by better covering viral dynamic ranges and providing higher throughput and automation.

  14. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB and MTB RIF/INH Assays in a Setting of High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley; David, Anura; Noble, Lara; Nduna, Matilda; Da Silva, Pedro; Black, Andrew; Venter, Francois; Stevens, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for the initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m 2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV load. The latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTi m e (RT) MTB and RealTi m e MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first-line drug resistance screening but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection. A prospective clinical validation study was conducted at a community health center in Johannesburg, South Africa, and consenting individuals with presumptive pulmonary TB were enrolled. The performance of the Abbott assays was compared with those of the Xpert MTB/RIF, liquid culture, drug susceptibility testing, and clinical case definitions. A statistical analysis was performed on 206 individuals (73% were HIV positive). The sensitivity and specificity of the RT MTB were 82.5% (confidence interval [CI], 67.2 to 92.7) and 93.1% (CI, 86.2 to 97.2) on raw sputum and 77.5% (CI, 61.5 to 89.2) and 95.1% (CI, 88.9 to 98.4) on concentrated sputum, respectively, compared with those from liquid culture. The RT MTB correctly identified 17/35 more smear-negative culture-positive specimens than the Xpert MTB/RIF. Both the RT MTB and the Xpert MTB/RIF displayed sensitivities >70% and specificities >90% in HIV-positive individuals. The available drug resistance results concurred with MTBDR plus and drug susceptibility profiles. The RT MTB assay has similar diagnostic performance to the Xpert MTB/RIF and is suited to testing presumptive TB patients coinfected with HIV. The existing laboratory information system connectivity, training, and technical support make this a viable polyvalent option to scale up TB alongside HIV laboratory testing services in South Africa. Copyright

  15. Lowering risk of CMV.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    Teenager Alicia Parks' severe disabilities are the result of being born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). Alicia's mother, paediatric nurse Mandy Parks, is calling for greater awareness of CMV among nurses. She explains the simple precautions that can reduce the spread of this common infection.

  16. Human papillomavirus detection using the Abbott RealTime high-risk HPV tests compared with conventional nested PCR coupled to high-throughput sequencing of amplification products in cervical smear specimens from a Gabonese female population.

    PubMed

    Moussavou-Boundzanga, Pamela; Koumakpayi, Ismaël Hervé; Labouba, Ingrid; Leroy, Eric M; Belembaogo, Ernest; Berthet, Nicolas

    2017-12-21

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. However, screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular tests holds promise for reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. The performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV test (AbRT) was evaluated in 83 cervical smear specimens and compared with a conventional nested PCR coupled to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to identify the amplicons. The AbRT assay detected at least one HPV genotype in 44.57% of women regardless of the grade of cervical abnormalities. Except for one case, good concordance was observed for the genotypes detected with the AbRT assay in the high-risk HPV category determined with HTS of the amplicon generated by conventional nested PCR. The AbRT test is an easy and reliable molecular tool and was as sensitive as conventional nested PCR in cervical smear specimens for detection HPVs associated with high-grade lesions. Moreover, sequencing amplicons using an HTS approach effectively identified the genotype of the hrHPV identified with the AbRT test.

  17. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... way to prevent infection is to practice good hygiene, particularly proper hand washing. An interventional study in ... a CMV infection found that teaching about good hygiene (and practicing good hygiene) reduced the risk of ...

  19. Priorities for CMV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Philip R.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Boppana, Suresh B.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Laughlin, Catherine A.; Ljungman, Per; Mocarski, Edward S.; Pass, Robert F.; Read, Jennifer S.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Plotkin, Stanley A.

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering preemptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of preemptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune

  20. Abbott Opinions #1-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    This document contains the following "Abbott Opinions": (1) "Early Childhood Education"; (2) "Adequate School Facilities"; (3) "Supplemental Programs and Whole School Reform in Elementary Schools"; (4) "Supplemental Programs in Middle and High Schools"; and (5) "Planning Programs and Budgets…

  1. Evaluation of performance across the dynamic range of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay as compared to VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 and AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5 using serial dilutions of 39 group M and O viruses.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Priscilla; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent; Devare, Sushil G; Hackett, John

    2007-04-01

    Performance of the Abbott m2000 instrument system and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay was evaluated using a panel of 37 group M (subtypes A-D, F, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG and unique recombinant forms) and 2 group O virus isolates. Testing was performed on 273 sample dilutions and compared to VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA) and AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5 (Monitor v1.5) test results. RealTime HIV-1, bDNA, and Monitor v1.5 tests quantified 87%, 78%, and 81% of samples, respectively. RealTime HIV-1 detected an additional 31 samples at < 40 copies/mL. For group M, RealTime HIV-1 dilution profiles and viral loads were highly correlated with bDNA and Monitor v1.5 values; 87% and 89% of values were within 0.5 log(10) copies/mL. In contrast, the group O viruses were not detected by Monitor v1.5 and were substantially underquantified by approximately 2 log(10) copies/mL in bDNA relative to the RealTime HIV-1 assay. Sequence analysis revealed that RealTime HIV-1 primer/probe binding sites are highly conserved and exhibit fewer nucleotide mismatches relative to Monitor v1.5. The automated m2000 system and RealTime HIV-1 assay offer the advantages of efficient sample processing and throughput with reduced "hands-on" time while providing improved sensitivity, expanded dynamic range and reliable quantification of genetically diverse HIV-1 strains.

  2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load in plasma for the diagnosis of CMV disease before engraftment in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Limaye, A P; Huang, M L; Leisenring, W; Stensland, L; Corey, L; Boeckh, M

    2001-02-01

    Among hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease before engraftment is rare but often fatal, and cell-based diagnostic tests have low sensitivity in this clinical setting. We used the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to test for CMV DNA in plasma samples from 15 HSCT recipients who developed CMV disease before engraftment and from 33 matched control patients. CMV DNA was detected in plasma in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 patients who had CMV disease before engraftment, compared with 5 (15.2%) of 33 control patients (P<.001). CMV DNA was detected a median of 13 days before the onset of CMV disease (range, 0-35 days). The maximum CMV virus load in plasma was >1 log(10) higher among case patients than among control patients (median, 1700 [range, 50 to 5.5x107] vs. <50 [range, <50-350] CMV DNA copies/mL plasma, respectively; P<.001). Quantitative PCR for CMV DNA in plasma appears to be useful for the identification of HSCT recipients at risk for CMV disease before engraftment.

  3. CMV Infection in Pediatric IBD.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmy-Feler, Anat; Kern-Isaacs, Sharona; Cohen, Shlomi

    2018-03-28

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are predisposed to infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis in adult IBD patients, particularly ulcerative colitis (UC), is related to severe or steroid-refractory disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the data on the prevalence and role of CMV colitis in children with IBD. Data on CMV colitis in children continue to be very limited due to its rarity. As in adults, children with coexisting UC and CMV tend to have more severe colitis, are resistant to corticosteroids, and are at high risk for colectomies on short- and long-term follow-up. In children, as in adults, the significance of CMV colitis, in terms of whether CMV is a pathogen that aggravates acute severe colitis or simply reflects disease severity, is still unknown.

  4. Improving clinical laboratory efficiency: a time-motion evaluation of the Abbott m2000 RealTime and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan PCR systems for the simultaneous quantitation of HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Coen, Sabrina; Belladonna, Stefano; Pulvirenti, F Renato; Clemens, John M; Capobianchi, M Rosaria

    2011-08-01

    Diagnostic laboratories need automation that facilitates efficient processing and workflow management to meet today's challenges for expanding services and reducing cost, yet maintaining the highest levels of quality. Processing efficiency of two commercially available automated systems for quantifying HIV-1 and HCV RNA, Abbott m2000 system and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan 96 (docked) systems (CAP/CTM), was evaluated in a mid/high throughput workflow laboratory using a representative daily workload of 24 HCV and 72 HIV samples. Three test scenarios were evaluated: A) one run with four batches on the CAP/CTM system, B) two runs on the Abbott m2000 and C) one run using the Abbott m2000 maxCycle feature (maxCycle) for co-processing these assays. Cycle times for processing, throughput and hands-on time were evaluated. Overall processing cycle time was 10.3, 9.1 and 7.6 h for Scenarios A), B) and C), respectively. Total hands-on time for each scenario was, in order, 100.0 (A), 90.3 (B) and 61.4 min (C). The interface of an automated analyzer to the laboratory workflow, notably system set up for samples and reagents and clean up functions, are as important as the automation capability of the analyzer for the overall impact to processing efficiency and operator hands-on time.

  5. Quantiferon-Cytomegalovirus assay: A potentially useful tool in the evaluation of CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell reconstitution in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Paouri, Bilio; Soldatou, Alexandra; Petrakou, Eftihia; Theodosaki, Maria; Tsentidis, Charalampos; Kaisari, Katerina; Oikonomopoulou, Christina; Matsas, Minos; Goussetis, Eugenios

    2018-05-18

    Pediatric HSCT recipients are at high risk for CMV reactivation due to their immature immune system and therapy following transplantation. Reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell immunity is associated with control and protection against CMV. The clinical utility of monitoring CMV-specific CMI to predict CMV viremia in pediatric HSCT patients using the Quantiferon-CMV (QIAGEN ® ) test was investigated prospectively. Thirty-seven pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients were enrolled from 3/2010-6/2012. CMV viremia was detected via weekly real-time PCR. The Quantiferon-CMV test was conducted pretransplant, early after transplantation, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days post-transplantation. The incidence of CMV viremia was 51% (19/37) with half of the episodes within ≤30 days post-transplant. Fifteen patients showed CMV-specific immunity (average of 82 days). The cumulative incidence of CMV reactivation in patients who developed CMV-specific immunity was lower than those who did not (15% vs 53%; P = .023). The ROC statistical analysis showed that the AUC was 0.725 in predicting viremia, for Quantiferon-CMV test. In this cohort, the Quantiferon-CMV assay was a valuable method for identifying pediatric HSCT patients at high risk for CMV viremia, suggesting potential clinical utility to individualize patient's management post-transplant. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Comparison of the CMV antigenemia test and CMV-DNA PCR results in solid organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Özkarata, Emre; Özkarataş, Emre; Özbek, Ö Alpay; Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is among the most common important viral infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Diagnostic tests for detecting CMV replication are widely used for this group of patients, however there is no clear agreement on the cut-off levels for interpretation of clinical decisions especially when the low level of viral load is detected. In this study, CMV pp65 antigenemia test results were compared with plasma CMV-DNA levels detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples of kidney and liver transplant recipients in the Central Laboratory of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between 2011 and 2013, and the correlation between these two tests and viral load equivalent to antigenemia positivity were determined. In the study, pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR results were evaluated retrospectively. The samples from the same patients were included if the time between antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR tests were less than 48 hours. SPSS v15.0 was used for correlation, regression and ROC curve analysis. The results of the 217 samples collected from 100 patients (59 male, 41 female; age range: 16-71, mean age: 46 ± 13 years), 36 liver and 64 kidney recipients were evaluated in the study. Of the patients 80% were CMV IgM negative, IgG positive; 1% was CMV IgG and IgM positive; 2% were CMV IgM and IgG negative, while for 17 patients serological results could not be reached. CMV pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA were both negative in 102 (47%) samples, while both were positive in 37 (17%) samples. The single sample from a case with CMV IgM and IgG positivity yielded negative results for both antigenemia and CMV-DNA tests. In 78 samples antigenemia were negative and CMV-DNA qPCR were positive, while there were no samples with antigenemia positive and qPCR negative. Mean values of antigenemia and qPCR tests were 23 positive cells/200.000 leukocytes (range: 1 to 230 positive cells) and 12.595 copies/ml (range: 180 to 106

  7. CMV seronegative donors: Effect on clinical severity of CMV infection and reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, P L J; van Egmond, H M; Veld, S A J; van de Meent, M; Eefting, M; de Wreede, L C; Halkes, C J M; Falkenburg, J H F; Marijt, W A F; Jedema, I

    2018-04-18

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells are crucial to prevent CMV disease. CMV seropositive recipients transplanted with stem cells from a CMV seronegative allogeneic donor (R + D - ) may be at risk for CMV disease due to absence of donor CMV-specific memory T-cells in the graft. We analyzed the duration of CMV reactivations and the incidence of CMV disease in R + D - and R + D + patients after alemtuzumab-based T-cell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation (TCD alloSCT). To determine the presence of donor-derived primary CMV-specific T-cell responses we analyzed the origin of CMV-specific T-cells in R + D - patients. The duration of CMV reactivations (54 versus 38 days, respectively, p = 0.048) and the incidence of CMV disease (0.14 versus 0.02, p = 0.003 at 1 year after alloSCT) were higher in R + D - patients compared to R + D + patients. In R + D - patients, CMV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells were mainly of recipient origin. However, in 53% of R + D - patients donor-derived CMV-specific T-cells were detected within the first year. In R + D - patients, immunity against CMV was predominantly mediated by recipient T-cells. Nevertheless, donor CMV serostatus significantly influenced the clinical severity of CMV reactivations indicating the role of CMV-specific memory T-cells transferred with the graft, despite the ultimate formation of primary donor-derived CMV-specific T-cell responses in R + D - patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune Monitoring for CMV in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yong, Michelle K; Lewin, Sharon R; Manuel, Oriol

    2018-03-14

    Immune monitoring to determine when and how the recovery of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells occurs post-transplantation may help clinicians to risk stratify individuals at risk of complications from CMV. We aimed to review all recent clinical studies using CMV immune monitoring in the pre- and post-transplant setting including the use of recently developed standardized assays (Quantiferon-CMV and the CMV ELISPOT) to better understand in whom, when, and how immune monitoring is best used. Pre-transplant assessment of CMV immunity in solid-organ transplant recipients where CMV seropositive recipients had undetectable cell-mediated responses despite past immunity has shown that they are at a much higher risk of developing CMV reactivation. Post-transplant CMV immune monitoring can guide (shorten or prolong) the duration of antiviral prophylaxis, identify recipients at risk of post-prophylaxis CMV disease, and predict recurrent CMV reactivation. Thus, CMV immune monitoring, in addition to current clinical and DNA-based monitoring for CMV, has the potential to be incorporated into routine clinical care to better improve CMV management in both the stem and solid-organ transplant population.

  9. CMV information: print, online, phone, video.

    PubMed

    1996-10-04

    There are a number of treatment options available for cytomegalovirus (CMV) and approved preventive treatments for persons at high risk. Partnership in Vision has published a CMV Retinitis Report. A one-hour continuing medication education course entitled CMV Prophylaxis and Intraocular Therapy is available on the World Wide Web. The National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA) has extended its CMV information hotline. Cidofovir is a new drug approved for marketing for CMV treatment. It is infused only once every two weeks. CMV videotapes are available from Hoffman-La Roche.

  10. Technology evaluation: adalimumab, Abbott laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Hanns M

    2002-04-01

    Adalimumab (D2E7), a human monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralizes TNFa, is being developed by Abbott (formerly Knoll), under license from Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT), for the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease. It is also being investigated for the potential treatment of coronary heart disease. Phase II studies for Crohn's disease and phase III for RA were ongoing throughout 2001. Limited data are only available for RA. In January 2002, it was reported that phase III trials of adalimumab for RA had been completed, but details have not been published in the primary literature so far. At this time CAT and Abbott expected to file for US approval in the second quarter of 2002 with a launch date anticipated for 2003. Phase III data are expected to be presented at the European League Against Rheumatism meeting in June 2002. In November 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted a US launch in June 2002 with peak US sales of $600 million in 2007 and a launch in non-US markets in 2003 with peak sales in these markets of $300 million in 2008. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted regulatory clearance in the second half of 2003. The probability of adalimumab reaching the market is estimated to be 70%. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted a 2003 launch, with estimated sales of pounds sterling 3.65 million in that year rising to pounds sterling 30.14 million in 2010. In March 2001, ABN AMRO predicted sales of $73 million in 2003 rising to $392 million in 2007.

  11. CMV in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de la Cámara, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on the outcome of stem cell transplant (SCT) and solid organ transplant patients (SOT) CMV has been called “the troll of transplantation”. One of the greatest advances in the management of SCT has been the introduction of the preemptive strategy. Since its introduction, the incidence of the viremia, as expected, remains unchanged but there has been a marked decline in the incidence of early CMV disease. However, in spite of the advances in prevention of CMV disease, CMV is still today an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Late CMV disease is still occurring in a significant proportion of patients and the so-called indirect effects of CMV are causing significant morbidity and mortality. Fortunately there have been several advances in the development of new antivirals, adoptive immunotherapy and DNA-CMV vaccines that might transform the management of CMV in the near future. PMID:27413524

  12. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Andreas; Steuer, Nina; Schmidt, Christian Andreas; Landt, Olfert; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Pauli, Georg; Siegert, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify human cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. This assay was used to demonstrate a higher CMV DNA load in plasma of bone marrow transplant patients than in that of blood donors. The CMV load was higher in CMV antigen-positive patients than in antigen-negative patients. PMID:10878073

  13. An illness in the family: Dr. Maude Abbott and her sister, Alice Abbott.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Maude Abbott's internationally significant career in medicine and her parallel commitment to caring for her sister, Alice Abbott. An examination of Abbott's life reveals the difficulties faced by an ambitious Canadian woman in medicine from the 1890s to the 1920s; difficulties compounded by caring for a sister with a mental illness. The Abbott archive suggests that it was far more difficult for a woman doctor to make the kind of sharp distinction between public and private life that might be expected of professional men.

  14. Health Update: CMV and Child Care Prgrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses appropriate steps to be taken in a day care setting to minimize the known risks associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV). Explains what CMV is; why people should worry about CMV; how it is spread; and how it can be treated and prevented. Suggests a number of hygiene practices for use in day care centers. (RWB)

  15. CMV and Immunosenescence: from basics to clinics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alone among herpesviruses, persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) markedly alters the numbers and proportions of peripheral immune cells in infected-vs-uninfected people. Because the rate of CMV infection increases with age in most countries, it has been suggested that it drives or at least exacerbates “immunosenescence”. This contention remains controversial and was the primary subject of the Third International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence which was held in Cordoba, Spain, 15-16th March, 2012. Discussions focused on several main themes including the effects of CMV on adaptive immunity and immunosenescence, characterization of CMV-specific T cells, impact of CMV infection and ageing on innate immunity, and finally, most important, the clinical implications of immunosenescence and CMV infection. Here we summarize the major findings of this workshop. PMID:23114110

  16. CMV and Immunosenescence: from basics to clinics.

    PubMed

    Solana, Rafael; Tarazona, Raquel; Aiello, Allison E; Akbar, Arne N; Appay, Victor; Beswick, Mark; Bosch, Jos A; Campos, Carmen; Cantisán, Sara; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Frasca, Daniela; Fulöp, Tamas; Govind, Sheila; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Hill, Ann; Hurme, Mikko; Kern, Florian; Larbi, Anis; López-Botet, Miguel; Maier, Andrea B; McElhaney, Janet E; Moss, Paul; Naumova, Elissaveta; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Pera, Alejandra; Rector, Jerrald L; Riddell, Natalie; Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Sansoni, Paolo; Sauce, Delphine; van Lier, Rene; Wang, George C; Wills, Mark R; Zieliński, Maciej; Pawelec, Graham

    2012-10-31

    Alone among herpesviruses, persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) markedly alters the numbers and proportions of peripheral immune cells in infected-vs-uninfected people. Because the rate of CMV infection increases with age in most countries, it has been suggested that it drives or at least exacerbates "immunosenescence". This contention remains controversial and was the primary subject of the Third International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence which was held in Cordoba, Spain, 15-16th March, 2012. Discussions focused on several main themes including the effects of CMV on adaptive immunity and immunosenescence, characterization of CMV-specific T cells, impact of CMV infection and ageing on innate immunity, and finally, most important, the clinical implications of immunosenescence and CMV infection. Here we summarize the major findings of this workshop.

  17. Implementing "Abbott v. Burke": A Guide to the 2006 K-12 Abbott Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Except for school construction, there is no legislation to guide implementation of the programs and reforms ordered by the New Jersey Supreme Court in the landmark "Abbott v. Burke" case. Instead, in its 1998 "Abbott V decision," the Supreme Court directed the Commissioner of Education to provide standards and procedures to…

  18. CMV-Specific T Cell Monitoring Offers Superior Risk Stratification of CMV-Seronegative Kidney Transplant Recipients of a CMV-Seropositive Donor.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Thomas; Stein, Maik; Reinke, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Detectable cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells in CMV-seronegative kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have been attributed to an absence of circulating antibodies despite CMV sensitization. The diagnostic value of CMV-specific T cells, however, needs to be implemented in risk stratification for CMV replication. Three hundred twenty-six KTRs were studied and classified with respect to CMV serostatus and presence of CMV-specific T cells. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, and +3 months posttransplantation. CMV-specific T cells directed to CMV-IE1 and CMV-pp65 were measured by interferon-γ Elispot assay. Nineteen (28%) of 67 D+R- KTRs showed pretransplant CMV-specific T cells. Although no differences were observed for CMV replication, KTRs with CMV-specific T cells presented with lower initial and peak CMV loads (P < 0.05). KTRs with decreasing/undetectable CMV-IE1-specific T cells pretransplantation and posttransplantation were at greatest risk of CMV replication. KTRs with stable/increasing CMV-IE1-specific T cells from pretransplantation to posttransplantation, however, showed low risk of CMV replication (P < 0.001). One hundred sixty-two (80%) of 203 R+ KTRs showed pretransplant CMV-specific T cells. Decreasing/undetectable CMV-IE1-specific T cells from pretransplantation and posttransplantation identified those R+ KTRs at increased risk of CMV replication (65/80 KTRs; 81%; P < 0.001). Despite CMV prophylaxis, D+R- KTRs are at greatest risk of CMV disease. Our data suggest that monitoring CMV-specific T cell kinetics from pretransplantation to posttransplantation, particularly directed to CMV-IE1, offers superior risk stratification compared with CMV serostatus alone.

  19. The Immunology of Posttransplant CMV Infection: Potential Effect of CMV Immunoglobulins on Distinct Components of the Immune Response to CMV.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Javier

    2016-03-01

    The immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly complex, including humoral, cellular, innate, and adaptive immune responses. Detection of CMV by the innate immune system triggers production of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines which initiate cellular and humoral responses that are critical during the early viremic phase of CMV infection. Sustained control of CMV infection is largely accounted for by cellular immunity, involving various T-cell and B-cell subsets. In solid organ transplant patients, global suppression of innate and adaptive immunities by immunosuppressive agents limits immunological defense, including inhibition of natural killer cell activity with ongoing lowering of Ig levels and CMV-specific antibody titers. This is coupled with a short-term suppression of CMV-specific T cells, the extent and duration of which can predict risk of progression to CMV viremia. CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) preparations have the potential to exert immunomodulatory effects as well as providing passive immunization. Specific CMVIG antibodies and virus neutralization might be enhanced by modulation of dendritic cell activity and by a decrease in T-cell activation, effects which are of importance during the initial phase of infection. In summary, the role of CMVIG in reconstituting specific anti-CMV antibodies may be enhanced by some degree of modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses, which could help to control some of the direct and indirect effects of CMV infection.

  20. The Immunology of Posttransplant CMV Infection: Potential Effect of CMV Immunoglobulins on Distinct Components of the Immune Response to CMV

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly complex, including humoral, cellular, innate, and adaptive immune responses. Detection of CMV by the innate immune system triggers production of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines which initiate cellular and humoral responses that are critical during the early viremic phase of CMV infection. Sustained control of CMV infection is largely accounted for by cellular immunity, involving various T-cell and B-cell subsets. In solid organ transplant patients, global suppression of innate and adaptive immunities by immunosuppressive agents limits immunological defense, including inhibition of natural killer cell activity with ongoing lowering of Ig levels and CMV-specific antibody titers. This is coupled with a short-term suppression of CMV-specific T cells, the extent and duration of which can predict risk of progression to CMV viremia. CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) preparations have the potential to exert immunomodulatory effects as well as providing passive immunization. Specific CMVIG antibodies and virus neutralization might be enhanced by modulation of dendritic cell activity and by a decrease in T-cell activation, effects which are of importance during the initial phase of infection. In summary, the role of CMVIG in reconstituting specific anti-CMV antibodies may be enhanced by some degree of modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses, which could help to control some of the direct and indirect effects of CMV infection. PMID:26900990

  1. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HIV-1 viral loads between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HIV-1 test, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 Assay.

    PubMed

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be <0.3 log 10 cp/mL for VERIS HIV-1 Assay versus COBAS HIV-1 Test and RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and <0.5 log 10 cp/mL versus VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Analysis on 174 specimens tested with the 0.175mL volume VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test showed average bias of 0.39 log 10 cp/mL. Patient monitoring results using VERIS HIV-1 Assay demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to all comparators. The VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HBV viral loads between VERIS HBV assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HBV test, Abbott RealTime HBV assay, Siemens VERSANT HBV assay, and Qiagen artus HBV RG kit.

    PubMed

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Izopet, Jacques; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, MaAngeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Hepatitis B viral load testing is essential to treatment and monitoring decisions in patients with chronic Hepatitis B. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay (Veris) for use on the fully automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. 1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Veris HBV Assay at multiple EU laboratories STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison was performed with a total of 344 plasma specimens from HBV infected patients tested with Veris and COBAS ® TaqMan ® HBV Test (Cobas), 207 specimens tested with Veris and RealTime HBV Assay (RealTime), 86 specimens tested with Veris and VERSANT ® HBV Assay (Versant), and 74 specimens tested with Veris and artus ® HBV RG PCR kit (artus). Bland-Altman analysis showed average bias of -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Cobas, -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and RealTime, -0.36 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Versant, and -0.12 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and artus. Bias was consistent across the assay range. Patient monitoring results using Veris demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to Cobas, RealTime, and artus. The VERIS HBV Assay demonstrated comparable clinical performance, with varying degrees of negative bias, compared to other currently marketed assays for HBV DNA monitoring. This negative bias should be taken into consideration if switching monitoring methods to Veris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CMV colitis in early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, P R; Glynn, M; Sheaff, M; Aitken, C

    2000-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a well recognized complication of advanced HIV disease and is only rarely diagnosed in patients with normal immune function. A case of CMV colitis occurring in early HIV infection is described. Although CMV infection is normally confined to patients with advanced HIV disease, it is possible that a number of contributing factors may have led to clinical disease in this patient. CMV colitis is an important diagnosis to consider in all patients who present with a diarrhoeal illness associated with systemic features, regardless of underlying immunosuppression.

  4. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... FDA-2012-F-0138] Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug... that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories, 3300 Stelzer Rd...

  5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of immunocompromised patients with CMV pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elena; Germer, Jeffrey J; Lahr, Brian; Yao, Joseph D C; Limper, Andrew Harold; Binnicker, Matthew J; Razonable, Raymund R

    2018-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia causes major morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis requires demonstration of viral cytopathic changes in tissue, entailing risks of lung biopsy. This study aimed to determine CMV viral load (VL) thresholds in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosis of CMV pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. CMV VL in BALF was studied in 17 patients (83% transplant recipients) and 21 control subjects with and without CMV pneumonia, respectively, using an FDA-approved PCR assay (Cobas ® AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan ® CMV Test, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.) calibrated to the WHO International Standard for CMV DNA (NIBSC: 09/162). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis produced a BALF CMV VL threshold of 34 800, IU/mL with 91.7% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity for diagnosis of possible, probable, and proven CMV pneumonia in transplant patients, while a threshold of 656 000 IU/mL yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity among biopsy-proven cases. For all immunocompromised patients, a VL threshold of 274 IU/mL was selected. VL thresholds also were normalized to BALF cell count yielding a threshold of 0.32 IU/10 6 cells with 91.7% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity for possible, probable, and proven CMV pneumonia in transplant recipients. Monitoring CMV VL in BALF may be a less invasive method for diagnosing CMV pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. CMV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mutation Mycophenolic Acid Mycoplasma Myoglobin Nicotine and Cotinine Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Opioid Testing Osmolality Ova ... and abdominal pain), lungs (causing pneumonia with a non-productive cough and shortness of breath), and brain ( ...

  7. Association of CMV-Specific T Cell-Mediated Immunity with CMV DNAemia and Development of CMV Disease in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Aichelburg, Maximilian C; Weseslindtner, Lukas; Mandorfer, Mattias; Strassl, Robert; Rieger, Armin; Reiberger, Thomas; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Among HIV-1-infected individuals, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and disease occur in the setting of advanced immunosuppression. The value of a standardized assessment of CMV-specific T-cell mediated immunity by the CMV QuantiFERON assay (CMV-QFT) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in HIV-1-infected subjects. Prospective, longitudinal study in 153 HIV-1-infected subjects with a CD4+ T cell count < 350/μL who simultaneously underwent CMV-QFT, CMV serology testing and CMV-DNA quantification. Factors associated with CMV-QFT were evaluated. Clinical screening for CMV manifestations was then performed every 3 months. Among the 141 CMV IgG-seropositive individuals the CMV-QFT assay yielded reactive results in 84% (118/141), negative results in 15% (21/141) and indeterminate (negative mitogen IFN-gamma response) results in 1% (2/141) of subjects. The mean actual CD4+ T cell count was significantly higher in CMV-QFT reactive subjects, when compared to CMV-QFT non-reactive individuals (183 ± 102 vs. 126 ± 104 cells/μL, P = 0.015). A significantly lower proportion of CMV-QFT reactive vs. non-reactive patients displayed CMV DNAemia > 100 copies/mL (23% (27/118) vs. 48% (11/23), P = 0.02). Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse association between mitogen IFN-gamma response and CMV-DNAemia > 1000 copies/mL was observed (P < 0.001). During the observational period, 5 CMV end-organ manifestations were observed. In three of the CMV cases the CMV-QFT yielded indeterminate results. While CMV-QFT reactivity indicates CMV-specific immunity, indeterminate results due to negative mitogen IFN-gamma response might reflect HIV-1-induced immunodeficiency. Thus, dependency upon CD4+ T cell count should be considered when interpreting CMV-QFT results.

  8. Role of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG Avidity Testing in Diagnosing Primary CMV Infection during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lapé-Nixon, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The risk of intrauterine transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy is much greater for women who contract primary CMV infection after conception than for women with evidence of infection (circulating CMV antibodies) before conception. Thus, laboratory tests that aid in the identification of recent primary CMV infection are important tools for managing the care of pregnant women suspected of having been exposed to CMV. CMV IgM detection is a sensitive marker of primary CMV infection, but its specificity is poor because CMV IgM is also produced during viral reactivation and persists following primary infection in some individuals. Studies conducted over the last 20 years convincingly demonstrate that measurement of CMV IgG avidity is both a sensitive and a specific method for identifying pregnant women with recent primary CMV infection and thus at increased risk for vertical CMV transmission. IgG avidity is defined as the strength with which IgG binds to antigenic epitopes expressed by a given protein; it matures gradually during the 6 months following primary infection. Low CMV IgG avidity is an accurate indicator of primary infection within the preceding 3 to 4 months, whereas high avidity excludes primary infection within the preceding 3 months. In this minireview, we summarize published data demonstrating the clinical utility of CMV IgG avidity results for estimating time since primary infection in pregnant women, describe commercially available CMV IgG avidity assays, and discuss some of the issues and controversies surrounding CMV IgG avidity testing during pregnancy. PMID:25165026

  9. The immune response to human CMV

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Corinna; Diamond, Don J

    2012-01-01

    This review will summarize and interpret recent literature regarding the human CMV immune response, which is among the strongest measured and is the focus of attention for numerous research groups. CMV is a highly prevalent, globally occurring infection that rarely elicits disease in healthy immunocompetent hosts. The human immune system is unable to clear CMV infection and latency, but mounts a spirited immune-defense targeting multiple immune-evasion genes encoded by this dsDNA β-herpes virus. Additionally, the magnitude of cellular immune response devoted to CMV may cause premature immune senescence, and the high frequencies of cytolytic T cells may aggravate vascular pathologies. However, uncontrolled CMV viremia and life-threatening symptoms, which occur readily after immunosuppression and in the immature host, clearly indicate the essential role of immunity in maintaining asymptomatic co-existence with CMV. Approaches for harnessing the host immune response to CMV are needed to reduce the burden of CMV complications in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:23308079

  10. An overview of the infection of CMV, HSV 1/2 and EBV in Mexican patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Vega, Sergio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Hernández-Santos, Hector; Salinas-Lara, Citlatepetl; Palma, Icela; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Gelista-Herrera, Noemí; Rembao-Bojorquez, Daniel; Ochoa, Sara A; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Uribe-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Arellano-Galindo, José

    2017-03-01

    Several risk factors are involved in glioblastoma, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). This research was carried out to determine the rate of CMV infection, as well as HSV 1/2 and EBV in brain tissue, in patients with glioblastomamultiforme (GBM). The tissues were tested using immunohistochemistry, PCR, in situ hybridization and real-time PCR. At least, one HHV was detected in 21/29 (72%) patients as follows: single infections with HSV-1/2 in 4/21 (19%), EBV in 6/21 (28.6%) and CMV in 1/21 (4.8%). Mixed viral infection, HSV-1/2 and EBV were detected in 4/21 patients (19%), CMV and EBV in 5/21 (23.8%), and HSV-1/2, EBV, and CMV in 1/21. The CMV viral load ranged from 3×10 2 to 4.33×10 5 genome/100ng of tissue. Genotype based on CMV gB was 3/7 where 2/3 was gB1 and 1/3 gB4. HSV, EBV and CMV were frequently found in brain tissues, more in mix in a population reported as highly seropositive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Viral colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients: Possible role of EBV and CMV.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Natalicchio, Maria Iole; Cotugno, Grazia; Zoppo, Luigi; Martinelli, Domenico; Antonetti, Raffaele; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria Pia

    2018-02-01

    Today, an increasing interest is being addressed to the viral etiology of lung tumors. As a consequence, research efforts are currently being directed to the identification of the new viruses involved in lung carcinogenesis toward which the screening programs could be directed. The aim of this study was to investigate the airways colonization by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Citomegalovirus (CMV) in patients affected by lung cancer using, as a respiratory non-invasive sample, the exhaled breath condensate (EBC). About 70 lung-cancer patients and 40 controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent bronchial brushing and EBC collection. EBV-DNA and CMV-DNA were evaluated in both samples by real-time PCR assay. They were able to detect EBV and CMV in the EBC. An increase of the EBV positivity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with controls and of the CMV in advanced stages of lung cancer were observed. The association of the positivity of the cytology and the CMV test (in EBC or brushing) slightly increased the sensitivity of malignant diagnosis. EBV and CMV resulted detectable in the EBC. In consideration of the potential involvement of these viruses in lung cancer, which was confirmed in this study, future studies in this direction were supported. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patientsmore » without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.« less

  13. Comparison of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot and CMV Quantiferon Gamma Interferon-Releasing Assays in Assessing Risk of CMV Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Saldan, Alda; Mengoli, Carlo; Fiscon, Marta; Silvestre, Cristina; Fallico, Loredana; Peracchi, Marta; Furian, Lucrezia; Cusinato, Riccardo; Bonfante, Luciana; Rossi, Barbara; Marchini, Francesco; Sgarabotto, Dino; Rigotti, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Assessing cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) represents an appealing strategy for identifying transplant recipients at risk of infection. In this study, we compared two gamma interferon-releasing assays (IGRAs), Quantiferon-CMV and CMV enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT), to determine the ability of each test to predict protective CMV-specific T-cell responses. Two hundred twenty-one Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT tests were conducted on 120 adult kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), including 100 CMV-seropositive transplant recipients (R+) and 20 CMV-seronegative transplant recipients of a CMV-positive donor (D+/R−). As a control cohort, 39 healthy adult subjects (including 33 CMV-seropositive and 6 CMV-seronegative subjects) were enrolled. CMV IgG serology was used as a reference for both tests. In the CMV-seropositive individuals, the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays provided 46% concordance with the serology, 12% discordance, 18% disagreement between ELISPOT or Quantiferon-CMV and the serology, and 24% gray areas when one or both tests resulted in weak positives. None of the CMV-seronegative subjects showed detectable responses in the ELISPOT or the Quantiferon-CMV test. In transplant recipients, both the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with CMV DNAemia in a significant way (P < 0.05). During the antiviral prophylaxis, all 20 D+/R− KTRs we examined displayed undetectable Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT results, and there was no evidence of CMV seroconversion. The receiving operator curve (ROC) statistical analysis revealed similar specificities and sensitivities in predicting detectable viremia (areas under the curve [AUC], 0.66 and 0.62 for Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT, respectively). ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV values of >150 spots/200,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and >1 to 6 IU gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were associated with protection from CMV

  14. The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and CMV disease is reduced by highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Varani, S; Spezzacatena, P; Manfredi, R; Chiodo, F; Mastroianni, A; Ballarini, P; Boschini, A; Lazzarotto, T; Landini, M P

    2000-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients, leading to blindness or life-threatening disease in about 40% of patients in the later stages of AIDS before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In a retrospective multicenter study we investigated the incidence of CMV retinitis and organ involvement in Northern Italy before (1995 and 1996) and after the introduction of HAART (1997 and 1998) as well as the data regarding CMV antigenemia. We found a sharp drop in the incidence of CMV disease in AIDS patients as well as a decline in the incidence of relapses of CMV-disease after the widespread introduction of HAART. Moreover, there was a decrease in the incidence of antigenemia-positive cases in AIDS patients in the era of HAART and the median CMV viral load was significantly higher in patients who didn't receive HAART than in patients who received HAART (p = 0.001, t test).

  15. CMV sinusitis as the initial manifestation of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jütte, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Hell, K; Salzberger, B

    2000-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a typical late-stage complication of AIDS. Only six cases of CMV sinusitis have been reported in the literature. This is the first case of CMV sinusitis leading to the diagnosis of HIV and CMV retinitis. Diseases of the sinonasal tract may represent an initial manifestation of HIV or AIDS.

  16. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune monitoring with ELISPOT and QuantiFERON-CMV assay in seropositive kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Hyeong; Choi, Ae-Ran; Yu, Ji Hyun; Lim, Jihyang; Han, Kyungja; Kim, Sang Il; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) has been suggested as a predictive marker for CMV infection, proper CMI monitoring strategy in CMV-seropositive recipients and optimal method are not defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate two interferon gamma release assays during early post-transplant period as a predictor of the development of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive patients. A total of 124 CMV-seropositive recipients who received kidney transplantation from CMV-seropositive donor were prospectively examined. At pre-transplant and post-transplant 1 and 3 months, CMV-CMIs were tested using QuantiFERON-CMV assay (QF-CMV) and CMV specific T cell ELISPOT against CMV pp65 and IE-1 antigens (pp65-ELISPOT, IE-1-ELISPOT). CMV DNAemia occurred in 16 (12.9%) patients within 3 months after transplant. Post-transplant pp65 or IE-1 ELISPOT response, but not QF-CMV, was significantly associated with CMV DNAemia. The pp65 ELISPOT (cut-off; 30 spots/200,000 cells) and IE-1 ELISPOT (10 spots/200,000 cells) at post-transplant 1 month predicted the risk of post-transplant CMV DNAemia (P = 0.019). Negative predictive values (NPV) for protection from CMV DNAemia in case of positive ELISPOT results were 94.5% (95% CI: 86.9–97.8%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 86.3–99.6%) in pp65-ELISPOT and IE-1-ELISPOT assays, respectively. These results suggest that the variability may exist between CMV ELISPOT assays and QF-CMV, and CMV ELISPOT at post-transplant 1 month can identify the risk of CMV DNAemia in seropositive kidney transplant recipients. PMID:29232714

  17. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune monitoring with ELISPOT and QuantiFERON-CMV assay in seropositive kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Ki Hyun; Ryu, Ji Hyeong; Choi, Ae-Ran; Yu, Ji Hyun; Lim, Jihyang; Han, Kyungja; Kim, Sang Il; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2017-01-01

    Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) has been suggested as a predictive marker for CMV infection, proper CMI monitoring strategy in CMV-seropositive recipients and optimal method are not defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate two interferon gamma release assays during early post-transplant period as a predictor of the development of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive patients. A total of 124 CMV-seropositive recipients who received kidney transplantation from CMV-seropositive donor were prospectively examined. At pre-transplant and post-transplant 1 and 3 months, CMV-CMIs were tested using QuantiFERON-CMV assay (QF-CMV) and CMV specific T cell ELISPOT against CMV pp65 and IE-1 antigens (pp65-ELISPOT, IE-1-ELISPOT). CMV DNAemia occurred in 16 (12.9%) patients within 3 months after transplant. Post-transplant pp65 or IE-1 ELISPOT response, but not QF-CMV, was significantly associated with CMV DNAemia. The pp65 ELISPOT (cut-off; 30 spots/200,000 cells) and IE-1 ELISPOT (10 spots/200,000 cells) at post-transplant 1 month predicted the risk of post-transplant CMV DNAemia (P = 0.019). Negative predictive values (NPV) for protection from CMV DNAemia in case of positive ELISPOT results were 94.5% (95% CI: 86.9-97.8%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 86.3-99.6%) in pp65-ELISPOT and IE-1-ELISPOT assays, respectively. These results suggest that the variability may exist between CMV ELISPOT assays and QF-CMV, and CMV ELISPOT at post-transplant 1 month can identify the risk of CMV DNAemia in seropositive kidney transplant recipients.

  18. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Recombinant-Antigen-Based Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Automated Immunoassay Using the Abbott AxSYM Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Maine, G. T.; Stricker, R.; Schuler, M.; Spesard, J.; Brojanac, S.; Iriarte, B.; Herwig, K.; Gramins, T.; Combs, B.; Wise, J.; Simmons, H.; Gram, T.; Lonze, J.; Ruzicki, D.; Byrne, B.; Clifton, J. D.; Chovan, L. E.; Wachta, D.; Holas, C.; Wang, D.; Wilson, T.; Tomazic-Allen, S.; Clements, M. A.; Wright, G. L.; Lazzarotto, T.; Ripalti, A.; Landini, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    A new microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) test, was developed on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer. This test uses recombinant CMV antigens derived from portions of four structural and nonstructural proteins of CMV: pUL32 (pp150), pUL44 (pp52), pUL83 (pp65), and pUL80a (pp38). A total of 1,608 specimens from random volunteer blood donors (n = 300), pregnant women (n = 1,118), transplant recipients (n = 6), and patients with various clinical conditions and disease states (n = 184) were tested during development and evaluation of this new assay. In a preliminary clinical evaluation we tested specimens collected prospectively from pregnant women (n = 799) and selected CMV IgM-positive archived specimens from pregnant women (n = 39). The results from the new CMV IgM immunoassay were compared to the results of a consensus interpretation of the results obtained with three commercial CMV IgM immunoassays. The results for specimens with discordant results were resolved by a CMV IgM immunoblot assay. The relative sensitivity, specificity, and agreement for the AxSYM CMV IgM assay were 94.29, 96.28, and 96.19%, respectively, and the resolved sensitivity, specificity, and agreement were 95.83, 97.47, and 97.37%, respectively. We also tested serial specimens from women who experienced seroconversion or a recent CMV infection during gestation (n = 17) and potentially cross-reactive specimens negative for CMV IgM antibody by the consensus tests (n = 184). The AxSYM CMV IgM assay was very sensitive for the detection of CMV IgM during primary CMV infection, as shown by the detection of CMV IgM at the same time as or just prior to the detection of CMV IgG. Specimens from individuals with lupus (n = 16) or parvovirus B19 infection (n = 6) or specimens containing hyper IgM (n = 9), hyper IgG (n = 8), or rheumatoid factor (n = 55) did not cross-react with the AxSYM assay. One specimen each from individuals infected with Epstein-Barr virus

  19. Detection and pharmacokinetics of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA plasmid in human plasma during a clinical trial of an intramuscular CMV vaccine in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Salimnia, H; Fairfax, M R; Chandrasekar, P H

    2014-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients. DNA vaccines can provide both humoral and cellular immunity without exposing immune-compromised persons to replication-competent CMV. We studied the kinetics of CMV vaccine DNA in plasma. The samples were obtained from vaccine recipients who were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of an intramuscular, plasmid-based, bivalent DNA vaccine for CMV in stem cell transplant recipients. Residual specimens on patients enrolled in the vaccine trial were saved until the trial was unblinded and published. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect and quantify CMV glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in plasma from 4 recipients of the vaccine. The melting temperature of the vaccine gB amplicon was 62.4°C, compared to 68.8°C, which is seen with the wild-type virus. Sequence analysis revealed that there were 3 mismatches between the fluorescent resonance energy transfer probe and the vaccine DNA sequence. Because preemptive treatment of CMV disease in stem cell transplant patients is based on quantitative PCR analysis of viral sequences in plasma, it is important that vaccine sequences not be confused with those in wild-type virus. Confusion could lead to treatment with toxic medications, potentially compromising the transplant. Effects of PCR target choice and amplicon detection techniques on patient management and vaccine trials are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Association of CMV-Specific T Cell-Mediated Immunity with CMV DNAemia and Development of CMV Disease in HIV-1–Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aichelburg, Maximilian C.; Weseslindtner, Lukas; Mandorfer, Mattias; Strassl, Robert; Rieger, Armin; Reiberger, Thomas; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Background Among HIV-1–infected individuals, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and disease occur in the setting of advanced immunosuppression. The value of a standardized assessment of CMV-specific T-cell mediated immunity by the CMV QuantiFERON assay (CMV-QFT) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in HIV-1–infected subjects. Methods Prospective, longitudinal study in 153 HIV-1–infected subjects with a CD4+ T cell count < 350/μL who simultaneously underwent CMV-QFT, CMV serology testing and CMV-DNA quantification. Factors associated with CMV-QFT were evaluated. Clinical screening for CMV manifestations was then performed every 3 months. Results Among the 141 CMV IgG-seropositive individuals the CMV-QFT assay yielded reactive results in 84% (118/141), negative results in 15% (21/141) and indeterminate (negative mitogen IFN-gamma response) results in 1% (2/141) of subjects. The mean actual CD4+ T cell count was significantly higher in CMV-QFT reactive subjects, when compared to CMV-QFT non-reactive individuals (183 ± 102 vs. 126 ± 104 cells/μL, P = 0.015). A significantly lower proportion of CMV-QFT reactive vs. non-reactive patients displayed CMV DNAemia > 100 copies/mL (23% (27/118) vs. 48% (11/23), P = 0.02). Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse association between mitogen IFN-gamma response and CMV-DNAemia > 1000 copies/mL was observed (P < 0.001). During the observational period, 5 CMV end-organ manifestations were observed. In three of the CMV cases the CMV-QFT yielded indeterminate results. Conclusions While CMV-QFT reactivity indicates CMV-specific immunity, indeterminate results due to negative mitogen IFN-gamma response might reflect HIV-1-induced immunodeficiency. Thus, dependency upon CD4+ T cell count should be considered when interpreting CMV-QFT results. PMID:26322514

  1. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts relapsing CMV infection after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sia, I G; Wilson, J A; Groettum, C M; Espy, M J; Smith, T F; Paya, C V

    2000-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load was analyzed as a marker for relapse of CMV infection in 24 solid organ transplant patients with CMV infection or disease who received a fixed 14-day course of intravenous ganciclovir. Viral load was measured in blood samples obtained before and at the completion of treatment. Eight (33%) of 24 patients developed relapsing CMV infection. Median pretreatment viral loads were higher in the relapsing group (80,150 copies/106 leukocytes) than in the nonrelapsing group (5500 copies/106 leukocytes; P=.007). The relapsing group also had persistent detectable viral DNA (median, 5810 copies/106 leukocytes) after treatment, whereas it was undetectable in the nonrelapsing group (P<. 0001). Primary CMV infection (seronegative recipients of seropositive organs, D+R-) was an independent marker for CMV relapse (P=.03), and these patients had higher pre- and posttreatment viral loads than did non-D+/R- patients (P<.0001 and P=.0014, respectively). CMV DNA load is a useful marker for individualizing antiviral treatment of CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

  2. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in…

  3. Product development: the making of the Abbott ARCHITECT.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1997-01-01

    Many laboratorians have a limited perspective on what is involved in developing an instrument and bringing it to market. This article traces the product development process used by Abbott Diagnostics Division that resulted in Abbott being named the 1996 Concurrent Engineering Company of the Year for the design of the ARCHITECT.

  4. Analysis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia using the pp65 antigenemia assay, the amplicor CMV test, and a semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction test after allogeneic marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, H; Eljed, H; Greco, A; Lakhal, A; Torjman, L; Abdelkefi, A; Ben Othmen, T; Ladeb, S; Slim, A; Zouari, B; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

    2007-03-01

    A pp65 antigenemia assay for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) (CINAkit Rapid Antigenemia), and a qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for plasma 'PCR-P qual' (Amplicor cytomegalovirus [CMV] test) were performed for 126 samples (blood and plasma) obtained from 18 bone marrow transplant patients, over a 9-month surveillance period. Among those samples, 92 were assayed with a semi-quantitative PCR test for PMNLs 'PCR-L quant.' The number of samples with a positive CMV test for antigenemia and PCR-P qual assays was 20.63% and 12.7%, respectively, whereas the PCR-L quant assay was positive in 48 of the 92 samples assayed (52.17%). The rates of concordance of the results of PCR-P qual and antigenemia, PCR-P qual and PCR-L quant, antigenemia and PCR-L quant were 92%, 65.2% and 66.8%, respectively. The analysis of the results for the 92 specimens tested by all 3 methods showed a rate of concordance of 63% among all methods. Good agreement (kappa=0.72) was found only between pp65 Ag and PCR-P qual assays. Clinical disease correlates with an antigenemia high viral load. Three patients had CMV disease despite preemptive therapy, and all of them had graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). PMNLs-based assays are more efficient in monitoring CMV reactivation, but for high-risk patients with GVHD, more sensitive assays (real-time PCR) must be done.

  5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) research in immune senescence comes of age: overview of the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; van Lier, René A W

    2017-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most complex and most ubiquitous latent persistent viruses, with a considerable ability to evade and manipulate the immune system. Following an early-life infection, most immunocompetent humans spend several decades living with CMV, and, because the virus in these hosts does not cause manifest disease, CMV can be considered part of normal aging for more than half of humanity. However, there is accumulating evidence that CMV carriage is not a null event and that both potentially harmful and potentially beneficial outcomes emanate from the interaction of CMV with its mammalian hosts. This article provides an overview of the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence, highlighting the advances in the field made in the past two years, as related to CMV epidemiology/geroscience, CMV virology with an accent on latency, and CMV immune evasion and immune recognition of the virus and its antigens.

  6. "A Prairie Childhood" by Edith Abbott: An Excerpt from "The Children's Champion," a Biography of Grace Abbott

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John

    2003-01-01

    Grace Abbott's courageous struggles--to protect the rights of immigrants, to increase the role of women in government, and to improve the lives of all children--are filled with adventurous tales of the remarkable human ability to seek out suffering and to do something about it. "A Prairie Childhood" is an excerpt from the Grace Abbott biography…

  7. Mathematical Model of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriningsih, R.; Subhan, M.; Nasution, M. L.

    2018-04-01

    The article formed the mathematical model of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpes virus. This virus is actually not dangerous, but if the body's immune weakens the virus can cause serious problems for health and even can cause death. This virus is also susceptible to infect pregnant women. In addition, the baby may also be infected through the placenta. If this is experienced early in pregnancy, it will increase the risk of miscarriage. If the baby is born, it can cause disability in the baby. The model is formed by determining its variables and parameters based on assumptions. The goal is to analyze the dynamics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease spread.

  8. Reflectionless CMV Matrices and Scattering Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sherry; Landon, Benjamin; Panangaden, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Reflectionless CMV matrices are studied using scattering theory. By changing a single Verblunsky coefficient, a full-line CMV matrix can be decoupled and written as the sum of two half-line operators. Explicit formulas for the scattering matrix associated to the coupled and decoupled operators are derived. In particular, it is shown that a CMV matrix is reflectionless iff the scattering matrix is off-diagonal which in turn provides a short proof of an important result of Breuer et al. (Commun Math Phys 295:531-550, 2010). These developments parallel those recently obtained for Jacobi matrices Jakšić et al. (Commun Math Phys 827-838, 2014).

  9. Functional impairment of CMV-reactive cellular immunity during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reuschel, Edith; Barabas, Sascha; Zeman, Florian; Bendfeldt, Hanna; Rascle, Anne; Deml, Ludwig; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit

    2017-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection. Mother-to-child transmission can cause severe child disability. Intact CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was shown to prevent uncontrolled replication in healthy individuals. This study aimed to determine whether CMV-specific CMI is impaired in pregnant women, thus potentially increasing the overall risk for active CMV replication and transmission. CMV-specific CMI in peripheral blood of 60 pregnant women was determined using T-Track® CMV for detection of IE-1 and pp65-reactive effector cells by IFN-γ ELISpot, and compared to the CMV-IgG and -IgM serostatus. CMV-specific CMI was detected in 65% of CMV-seropositive pregnant women. Five percent of CMV-IgG seronegative women showed IE-1- but not pp65-reactive cells. The overall number of CMV-reactive cells in pregnant women was significantly lower compared to a matched non-pregnant control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in CMV-specific CMI was detected in the course of the three trimesters of pregnancy of CMV-IgG seropositive women. Postpartum (median days postnatal = 123), IE-1- and pp65-specific CMI remained significantly lower than in the non-pregnant control group (P < 0.001 and 0.0032, respectively). Functional analysis of CMV-reactive immune cells using T-Track® CMV therefore suggests a systemic down-regulation of CMV-specific CMI in pregnant women. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this may be indicative of a higher susceptibility to CMV reactivation or transmission. J. Med. Virol. 89:324-331, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. CMV allograft pancreatitis: diagnosis, treatment, and histological features.

    PubMed

    Klassen, D K; Drachenberg, C B; Papadimitriou, J C; Cangro, C B; Fink, J C; Bartlett, S T; Weir, M R

    2000-05-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem in solid organ transplant recipients. CMV infection of pancreas allografts is not, however, well described. We report the clinical presentation, histologic findings, treatment, and outcome in four patients with CMV allograft pancreatitis. These patients presented 18 weeks to 44 months after transplantation with elevated serum amylase and lipase and were suspected to have acute rejection. Percutaneous pancreas allograft biopsy specimens showed evidence of tissue invasive CMV infection. One patient had simultaneous CMV infection and acute rejection. Prolonged treatment with ganciclovir resulted in clinical and histologic resolution of the CMV disease. Rejection was successfully treated. Primary CMV infection in seronegative recipients seemed to be a risk factor. Three patients maintain normal allograft function; one patient lost function due to chronic rejection. The histology of tissue-invasive CMV pancreas allograft infection and its differentiation from acute rejection is described. Prompt diagnosis and prolonged therapy with antiviral agents can result in maintenance of allograft function.

  11. Is gammaglobulin anti-CMV warranted in lung transplantation?

    PubMed

    García-Gallo, C López; Gil, P Ussetti; Laporta, R; Carreño, M C; de Pablo, A; Ferreiro, M J

    2005-11-01

    The usefulness of anti-CMV hyperimmune gammaglobulin (IgG-CMV, Cytotec) in lung transplant patients (LTx) is controversial. The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of IgG-CMV in our LTx receptors. A retrospective study of LTx recipients treated with IgG-CMV as prophylaxis or as treatment for invasive disease. We used IgG-CMV associated with IV ganciclovir (GCV) as treatment for invasive disease. High-risk patients (CMV-negative recipients from CMV-positive donors; CMV-/+) were also with IgG-CMV prophylaxis during the first year. Other prophylactic uses of IgG-CMV were as an alternative to GCV in patients with related GCV toxicity, and as preemptive therapy in cases of persistent positive viral load (antigenemia > or = 1 cell and/or a PCR > or = 400) although oral GCV administration. Between January 2000 and August 2003, 14 of the 74 lung transplant recipients (19%) received IgG-CMV as treatment for invasive disease (4 cases: 2 gastritis, 1 esophagitis, 1 hepatitis) and/or as prophylaxis (14 cases). All patients treated for invasive disease evolved favorably. No therapeutic failure were observed in CMV-/+ patients during treatment. Three of the six patients treated with IgG-CMV developed positive antigenemia despite treatment. The four patients treated for persistent antigenemia while receiving oral GCV achieved neutralization during the first month of treatment. IgG-CMV associated with Gancyclovir is effective as treatment for invasive disease and as pre-emptive therapy in patients with persistent positive viral load. In CMV-/+ recipients, IgG-CMV prevents pneumonitis and delays the development of invasive disease after the first year.

  12. The inverse resonance problem for CMV operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikard, Rudi; Zinchenko, Maxim

    2010-05-01

    We consider the class of CMV operators with super-exponentially decaying Verblunsky coefficients. For these we define the concept of a resonance. Then we prove the existence of Jost solutions and a uniqueness theorem for the inverse resonance problem: given the location of all resonances, taking multiplicities into account, the Verblunsky coefficients are uniquely determined.

  13. Purely Singular Continuous Spectrum for CMV Operators Generated by Subshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Darren C.

    2014-03-01

    We prove uniform absence of point spectrum for CMV operators corresponding to the period doubling subshift. We also prove almost sure absence of point spectrum for CMV operators corresponding to a class of Sturmian subshifts. Lastly, we prove almost sure absence of point spectrum for CMV operators corresponding to some subshifts generated by a coding of a rotation.

  14. Direct Saliva Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Shows Low Birth Prevalence of Congenital CMV Infection in Urban Western India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Rajlakshmi; Bafna, Sanjay; Mergu, Ravikanth; Deshpande, Gururajrao; Gunjikar, Rashmi; Gaikwad, Shivshankar; Mullick, Jayati

    2018-05-09

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation, developmental delay and sensorineural deafness. Non primary infection plays a major role in transmission of this infection in countries with high maternal seroprevalence. Non invasive sampling and testing is a useful alternative to traditional methods of laboratory detection of congenital CMV infection. The present study was conducted to understand birth prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection using molecular techniques, in an urban setting of a developing country with evidence of high maternal seroprevalence. Universal newborn screening for cCMV was performed for 750 infants born at a tertiary care centre in Western India. Real-time PCR was directly carried out on saliva samples. Follow up laboratory testing of saliva, urine and blood was performed for neonates identified as positive. Sequential clinical follow up was offered to the affected infants. A birth prevalence of 0.4% (95% CI 0.13-1.2) was observed with 3 of 750 babies confirmed to be positive for cCMV infection. All three babies were born to seropositive mothers (anti CMV IgG positive). One of the babies detected was symptomatic with sepsis like features. All of them survived and did not develop any sequelae upto one year of age. The use of direct real-time PCR of saliva samples can be considered as a feasible option for newborn screening of congenital CMV infection in developing countries. Relatively low birth prevalence of cCMV infection was observed in our study, which needs to be corroborated through further studies.

  15. IL-23 plasma level is strongly associated with CMV status and reactivation of CMV in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Lahdou, Imad; Opelz, Gerhard; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Zeier, Martin; Schnitzler, Paul; Daniel, Volker

    2016-10-03

    Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with ESRD. Donor CMV seropositivity is associated with higher graft loss. Dendritic cells, macrophages and Th17 lymphocytes are defined as producers of IL-23. IL-23 is thought to be involved in the promotion of Th17 cell polarization. Latent CMV-induced Th17 might be involved in the pathogenesis of CMV infection in patients with ESRD. We aimed to evaluate associations of Th17-dependent cytokines with ESRD, CMV status and post-transplant outcome in kidney transplantation. IL-21 plasma levels were similar in patients and healthy controls (p = 0.47), whereas IL-9 (p = 0.02) and IL-23 (p < 0.0001) levels were significantly higher in ESRD patients. CMV-seronegative (p = 0.002) and -seropositive (p < 0.001) patients had significantly higher IL-23 plasma levels than controls. CMV-seropositive patients showed excessively higher IL-23 (p < 0.001) plasma levels than CMV-seronegative patients. Patients with post-transplant CMV reactivation had higher IL-23 plasma levels than patients without CMV reactivation (p = 0.025). Our results indicate that latent CMV induces IL-23. IL-23 might be an inflammatory mediator of latent CMV infection in patients with ESRD and predisposes patients for post-transplant CMV reactivation.

  16. CMV induces HERV-K and HERV-W expression in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Gambarino, Stefano; Mareschi, Katia; Ferro, Francesca; Fagioli, Franca; Tovo, Pier-Angelo; Ravanini, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) constitute approximately 8% of the human genome. Induction of HERV transcription is possible under certain circumstances, and may have a possible role in some pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HERV-K and -W pol gene expression in kidney transplant recipients and to investigate the possible relationship between HERVs gene expression and CMV infection in these patients. Thirty-three samples of kidney transplant patients and twenty healthy blood donors were used to analyze, HERV-K and -W pol gene RNA expression by relative quantitative relative Real-Time PCR. We demonstrated that HERVs pol gene expression levels were higher in kidney transplant recipients than in healthy subjects. Moreover, HERV-K and -W pol gene expression was significantly higher in the group of kidney transplant recipients with high CMV viral load than in the groups with no or moderate CMV viral load. Our data suggest that CMV may facilitate in vivo HERV activation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparison of quantitative cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR in plasma and CMV antigenemia assay: clinical utility of the prototype AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, A M; St George, K; Kao, S Y; Allega, J; Tan, B H; LaFontaine, R; Bui, L; Rinaldo, C R

    2000-06-01

    The correlation between the prototype AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test (Roche Molecular Systems), a quantitative PCR assay, and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigenemia assay was evaluated in transplant recipients. Sequential blood specimens were collected on 29 patients (491 specimens), the leukocyte fraction was tested by CMV antigenemia, and quantitative PCR was performed on plasma specimens. None of the 15 patients (242 specimens) who were antigenemia negative were positive for CMV DNA by PCR, and none of these patients developed active CMV disease. There were 14 antigenemia-positive patients, 8 of whom developed active CMV disease. In all patients, there was a good association between the antigenemia and PCR assays. Ganciclovir-resistant virus was isolated from three patients with active CMV disease. These three patients had persistently elevated levels of antigenemia and CMV DNA by PCR when resistance to ganciclovir developed. This standardized, quantitative CMV PCR assay on plasma has clinical utility for the diagnosis of active disease and in monitoring the response to antiviral therapy in transplant recipients.

  18. Comparison of Quantitative Cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR in Plasma and CMV Antigenemia Assay: Clinical Utility of the Prototype AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR Test in Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Caliendo, Angela M.; St. George, Kirsten; Kao, Shaw-Yi; Allega, Jessica; Tan, Ban-Hock; LaFontaine, Robert; Bui, Larry; Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    The correlation between the prototype AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test (Roche Molecular Systems), a quantitative PCR assay, and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigenemia assay was evaluated in transplant recipients. Sequential blood specimens were collected on 29 patients (491 specimens), the leukocyte fraction was tested by CMV antigenemia, and quantitative PCR was performed on plasma specimens. None of the 15 patients (242 specimens) who were antigenemia negative were positive for CMV DNA by PCR, and none of these patients developed active CMV disease. There were 14 antigenemia-positive patients, 8 of whom developed active CMV disease. In all patients, there was a good association between the antigenemia and PCR assays. Ganciclovir-resistant virus was isolated from three patients with active CMV disease. These three patients had persistently elevated levels of antigenemia and CMV DNA by PCR when resistance to ganciclovir developed. This standardized, quantitative CMV PCR assay on plasma has clinical utility for the diagnosis of active disease and in monitoring the response to antiviral therapy in transplant recipients. PMID:10834964

  19. The outcome of HIV-positive late presenters according to detectable CMV DNA and anti-CMV treatment.

    PubMed

    Bigliano, Paolo; Calcagno, Andrea; Lucchini, Anna; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Montrucchio, Chiara; Marinaro, Letizia; Alcantarini, Chiara; Ghisetti, Valeria; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano

    2018-01-26

    HIV late presenters are at high risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and end-organ disease. CMV viraemia has been associated with poor survival but the effect of anti-CMV treatment has not been studied in this setting. HIV-positive patients were included in a retrospective study if presenting with <350 CD4 + T-cells/μl and starting an antiretroviral treatment within 3 months of the diagnosis. Primary end point was 5-year survival according to the presence of CMV viraemia, CMV end-organ disease and anti-CMV treatment. 302 patients were included. 157 patients (52%) presented CMV viraemia (CMV-V) and 44 (14.6%) CMV end-organ disease (CMV-EOD). 5-year mortality was higher in CMV-EOD and CMV-V patients than in CMV-negative patients (11.4 versus 9.6 versus 0%; P=0.002). In patients with CMV-V, 5-year mortality was numerically higher in untreated patients (12.9% versus 6.9%; P=0.257) without reaching statistical significance. At univariate analysis the diagnosis of serious opportunistic infections (cryptococcosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, lymphoma; P=0.001) and the absence of a negative CMV DNA in the follow-up (P<0.001) were associated with poor outcome. At multivariate analysis HCV coinfection (P=0.016; aOR 6.98, 95% CI 1.50, 32.59), the absence of a negative CMV DNA in the follow-up (P<0.001; aOR 19.40, 95% CI 3.70, 101.64) and marginally the absence of anti-CMV treatment (P=0.052; aOR 4.944, 95% CI 0.99, 24.73) were independent predictors of poor outcome. CMV reactivation in HIV-positive patients with poor immunity is associated with worse prognosis: the pre-emptive use of anti-CMV therapy was associated with a better outcome in patients with CMV-V.

  20. CMV antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Osarogiagbon, R U; Defor, T E; Weisdorf, M A; Erice, A; Weisdorf, D J

    2000-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major problem in blood and bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Recent efforts have been directed at prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of CMV disease following BMT. Assay for CMV early antigen pp65 on circulating leukocytes has been shown to be sensitive, and specific in detecting early CMV infection. We examined the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of a positive CMV antigen assay in 118 consecutive BMT patients. Forty-three (36%) of the 118 patients developed CMV antigenemia a median of 26 days post-BMT (range, -6 to 209 days). The incidence of antigenemia in autologous, related donor, and unrelated donor BMT recipients was 15%, 50%, and 48%, respectively (P < .01) and was lower in CMV-seronegative patients (19% versus 51% in seropositive patients; P < .01). Patients with grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) had 2.2 times the risk of antigenemia of patients with no or only limited GVHD (P = .03). Age at transplantation, underlying disease, CMV prophylaxis regimen, and GVHD prophylaxis regimen did not affect the risk of CMV antigenemia. Ten of the 43 antigenemic patients, all CMV-seropositive allogeneic BMT (alloBMT) recipients, developed CMV organ disease a median of 101 days (range, 28-283 daya) post-BMT. These data suggest that CMV-seropositive alloBMT patients are at highest risk for CMV antigenemia and for organ disease as well. CMV disease may occur before antigenemia is detectable in leukopenic patients and may also develop late post-BMT, even in patients still receiving antiviral prophylaxis. In high-risk groups, intensive surveillance continuing for more than 6 months after BMT may be indicated.

  1. Recent advances in the therapy and prevention of CMV infections.

    PubMed

    Nichols, W G; Boeckh, M

    2000-02-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV has had a major impact on the treatment of CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals. There is mounting evidence that in patients with CMV retinitis who have a sustained response to HAART, CMV maintenance treatment can be discontinued without relapse of retinitis. In HAART-naïve individuals with newly diagnosed CMV retinitis, the optimal timing for the initiation of HAART relative to the start of anti-CMV treatment is currently unknown. New local therapies for CMV retinitis (e.g. ganciclovir implant, the new antisense compound fomivirsen) provide treatment options in situations where high local drug delivery is warranted. A treatment algorithm for CMV disease in the HAART era is proposed. In the transplant setting, ganciclovir and foscarnet remain the major compounds used for treatment of CMV disease. In marrow and stem cell transplant recipients, CMV pneumonia still carries a high mortality. Ganciclovir in combination with CMV-specific immunoglobulin or regular intravenous IG remains the treatment of choice for CMV pneumonia; extended antiviral maintenance for several months is recommended in patients with continued immunosuppression. Preemptive treatment based on virologic markers (e.g. pp65 antigenemia, CMV DNA) has been very successful in reducing the incidence of early CMV disease in the transplant setting. The duration of preemptive treatment should be guided by the underlying immunosuppression and virologic markers. Late CMV disease is a challenge in marrow and stem cell transplant recipients, and occurs increasingly in highly immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients as well. Recent advances in prophylaxis strategies include oral ganciclovir for liver transplant recipients and valacyclovir for kidney transplant recipients.

  2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay but Not CMV QuantiFERON Assay Is a Novel Biomarker To Determine Risk of Congenital CMV Infection in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Forner, Gabriella; Saldan, Alda; Mengoli, Carlo; Gussetti, Nadia; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) and CMV QuantiFERON assays were examined as potential biomarkers predictive of congenital CMV (cCMV) transmission. Fifty-seven pregnant women with primary CMV infection and 23 with nonprimary CMV infection were recruited in the study. Maternal age, CMV IgG avidity, viremia, and viruria were also included among the potential predictors. Spearman's statistical correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between the CMV ELISPOT and CMV QuantiFERON assay results (P < 0.001), but only the CMV ELISPOT assay correlated with cCMV (P < 0.001). cCMV was positively correlated with maternal viremia and viruria (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with CMV IgG avidity (P < 0.01). Maternal age and CMV QuantiFERON assay results were not statistically associated with cCMV. CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity detected by the CMV ELISPOT assay plays a critical role in cCMV. PMID:27280418

  3. Modification of CMV DNA detection from dried blood spots for diagnosing congenital CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Binda, Sandro; Caroppo, Simona; Didò, Patrizia; Primache, Valeria; Veronesi, Licia; Calvario, Agata; Piana, Andrea; Barbi, Maria

    2004-07-01

    Detection of viral DNA in dried blood spots using the Guthrie card (DBS test) is a reliable and practical method of diagnosing congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The test lends itself to epidemiological studies to establish the prevalence of the infection, but also to neonatal screening for secondary prevention of sequelae. These applications would be facilitated if it were possible to use smaller samples and do the test on pools of individual cases. To ascertain whether doing the test on smaller, pooled samples still accurately identifies neonates with congenital CMV infection. We tested DBS from: (A) 39 laboratory reference cases; (B) 156 neonates suspected of having congenital CMV infection; (C) 119 children examined for the retrospective diagnosis of congenital CMV; (D) mock specimens prepared with known amounts of viral DNA. The test using only one third of the usual amount of dried blood was 100% sensitive and specific compared to the standard DBS test (A) and to viral isolation (A and B). Pools of three single cases gave the same results as viral isolation (B) and the small-sample test (B and C). All the versions of the test gave a detection limit of 400 copies/ml. The modified procedure can accurately diagnose congenital CMV infection. It achieves savings in both the patient material and the costs of testing.

  4. The Association Between CMV Viremia or Endoscopic Features and Histopathological Characteristics of CMV Colitis in Patients with Underlying Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Weixun; Lv, Hong; Wu, Dongsheng; Feng, Yunlu; Shu, Huijun; Jin, Meng; Hu, Lingling; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Dong; Chen, Jie; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been shown to be related to severe or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) flare-ups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic and pathological characteristics of CMV colitis in patients with UC and to assess the predictive value of the endoscopic and pathological features of CMV colitis. A total of 50 consecutive UC patients with CMV infection who were admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2015 were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five UC patients with CMV infection (50.0%) had concurrent CMV colitis. When the cutoff value was set at 1150 copies, the sensitivity and specificity of blood CMV DNAq polymerase chain reaction for predicting CMV colitis were 44.4% and 78.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of endoscopic punched-out ulcers, irregular ulcers, and cobblestone-like appearance were observed among the patients in the CMV colitis group than those in the non-CMV colitis group (52.0% versus 20.0%, 60.0% versus 16.0%, and 20.0% versus 0%, respectively, P < 0.05). The number of CMV inclusion bodies per high-power field was significantly higher in those with punch-out ulcerations (25.7% versus 60.0%, P < 0.05). A higher grade of pathological inflammation was observed in the CMV colitis group than in the control group (68.0% versus 44.0%). Characteristic endoscopic features with punch-out ulcers and high CMV viremia load may be useful for predicting the presence of CMV colitis in histology. Punch-out ulcers were found to be associated with a higher number of inclusion bodies on histology, suggesting a role of targeted biopsy for endoscopist.

  5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA Quantitation in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid From Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients With CMV Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Ayers, Terry; Travi, Giovanna; Huang, Meei-Li; Cheng, Guang-Shing; Xie, Hu; Leisenring, Wendy; Erard, Veronique; Seo, Sachiko; Kimball, Louise; Corey, Lawrence; Pergam, Steven A; Jerome, Keith R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Quantitative cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA–specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is widely used as a surveillance method for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. However, no CMV DNA threshold exists in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to differentiate pneumonia from pulmonary shedding. Methods. We tested archived BAL fluid samples from 132 HCT recipients with CMV pneumonia and 139 controls (100 patients with non-CMV pneumonia, 18 with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome [IPS], and 21 who were asymptomatic) by quantitative CMV and β-globin DNA–specific PCR. Results. Patients with CMV pneumonia had higher median viral loads (3.9 log10 IU/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 2.6–6.0 log10 IU/mL) than controls (0 log10 IU/mL [IQR, 0–1.6 log10 IU/mL] for patients with non-CMV pneumonia, 0 log10 IU/mL [IQR, 0–1.6 log10 IU/mL] for patients with IPS, and 1.63 log10 IU/mL [IQR, 0–2.5 log10 IU/mL] for patients who were asymptomatic; P < .001 for all comparisons to patients with CMV pneumonia). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and predictive models identified a cutoff CMV DNA level of 500 IU/mL to differentiate between CMV pneumonia and pulmonary shedding, using current CMV pneumonia prevalence figures. However, different levels may be appropriate in settings of very high or low CMV pneumonia prevalence. The presence of pulmonary copathogens, radiographic presentation, or pulmonary hemorrhage did not alter predictive values. Conclusion. CMV DNA load in BAL can be used to differentiate CMV pneumonia from pulmonary shedding. PMID:28181657

  6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA Quantitation in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid From Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients With CMV Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Boeckh, Michael; Stevens-Ayers, Terry; Travi, Giovanna; Huang, Meei-Li; Cheng, Guang-Shing; Xie, Hu; Leisenring, Wendy; Erard, Veronique; Seo, Sachiko; Kimball, Louise; Corey, Lawrence; Pergam, Steven A; Jerome, Keith R

    2017-05-15

    Quantitative cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is widely used as a surveillance method for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. However, no CMV DNA threshold exists in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to differentiate pneumonia from pulmonary shedding. We tested archived BAL fluid samples from 132 HCT recipients with CMV pneumonia and 139 controls (100 patients with non-CMV pneumonia, 18 with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome [IPS], and 21 who were asymptomatic) by quantitative CMV and β-globin DNA-specific PCR. Patients with CMV pneumonia had higher median viral loads (3.9 log10 IU/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 2.6-6.0 log10 IU/mL) than controls (0 log10 IU/mL [IQR, 0-1.6 log10 IU/mL] for patients with non-CMV pneumonia, 0 log10 IU/mL [IQR, 0-1.6 log10 IU/mL] for patients with IPS, and 1.63 log10 IU/mL [IQR, 0-2.5 log10 IU/mL] for patients who were asymptomatic; P < .001 for all comparisons to patients with CMV pneumonia). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and predictive models identified a cutoff CMV DNA level of 500 IU/mL to differentiate between CMV pneumonia and pulmonary shedding, using current CMV pneumonia prevalence figures. However, different levels may be appropriate in settings of very high or low CMV pneumonia prevalence. The presence of pulmonary copathogens, radiographic presentation, or pulmonary hemorrhage did not alter predictive values. CMV DNA load in BAL can be used to differentiate CMV pneumonia from pulmonary shedding. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Recent advances in CMV tropism, latency, and diagnosis during aging.

    PubMed

    Leng, Sean X; Kamil, Jeremy; Purdy, John G; Lemmermann, Niels A; Reddehase, Matthias J; Goodrum, Felicia D

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the largest viruses known to cause human diseases. Chronic CMV infection, as defined by anti-CMV IgG serology, increases with age and is highly prevalent in older adults. It has complex biology with significant immunologic and health consequences. This article aims to summarize research findings presented at the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence that relate to advances in the areas of CMV tropism, latency, CMV manipulation of cell metabolism, and T cell memory inflation, as well as novel diagnostic evaluation and translational research of chronic CMV infection in older adults. Information summarized here represents the current state of knowledge in these important fields. Investigators have also identified a number of areas that deserve further and more in-depth investigation, including building more precise parallels between mouse CMV (mCMV) and human CMV (HCMV) research. It is hoped that this article will also stimulate engaging discussion on strategies and direction to advance the science to the next level.

  8. The effect of different immunoprophylaxis regimens on post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Low, Chian Yong; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed Mohammadmehdi; Rotstein, Coleman; Renner, Eberhard L; Husain, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    The effects of different immunoprophylaxis regimens on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) have not been compared. In a cohort, we studied 343 CMV-seropositive recipient (R+) and 83 seronegative donor/recipient (D-/R-) consecutive LTRs from 2004 to 2007. Immunoprophylaxis regimens included steroid-only, steroids plus rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG), and steroids plus basiliximab. Logistic regression analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression model, and log-rank test were performed for multivariate analysis as appropriate. In total, 164 (39%), 69 (16%), and 193 (45%) patients received steroid-only, basiliximab, and rATG immunoprophylaxis, respectively. CMV infection rates were 15.7% (54/343) in CMV R+ LTRs and 2.4% (2/83) in CMV R- LTRs. Among CMV R+ LTRs who received rATG, the use of at least 6 weeks of CMV prophylaxis reduced the rate of CMV infection from 24.4% (19/78) to 11.7% (9/77). In multivariate analysis, CMV R+ vs D-/R- (odds ratio [OR]=13.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-97.2), rATG >3 mg/kg vs steroid-only induction (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), and CMV prophylaxis <6 weeks vs ≥6 weeks (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.4) were independently associated with CMV infection. Subgroup analysis in CMV D-/R+ group who received rATG showed that ≥6 weeks of CMV prophylaxis significantly decreased the risk of CMV infection (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P=.03). The use of rATG immunoprophylaxis increases the risk of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive LTRs, specifically in the CMV D-/R+ group. Prophylaxis with valganciclovir in this group for at least 6 weeks decreases the risk of CMV infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparison of the Commercial QuantiFERON-CMV and Overlapping Peptide-based ELISPOT Assays for Predicting CMV Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji-Soo; Kim, Taeeun; Kim, Sun-Mi; Sung, Heungsup; Shin, Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Han; Han, Duck Jong

    2017-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most important opportunistic infections in transplant recipients. Tests for CMV-specific T cell responses have been proposed to change the current risk stratification strategy using CMV assays. We evaluated the usefulness of pre-transplant CMV-specific T cell assays in kidney transplant (KT) candidates for predicting the development of CMV infection after transplantation comparing the results of the overlapping peptides (OLPs)-based enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay and the commercial QuantiFERON-CMV assay. We prospectively enrolled all cases of KT over a 5-month period, except donor CMV-seropositive and recipient seronegative transplants that are at highest risk of CMV infection. All the patients underwent QuantiFERON-CMV, CMV OLPs-based pp65, and immediate-early 1 (IE-1)-specific ELISPOT assays before transplantation. The primary outcome was the incidence of CMV infection at 6 months after transplant. The total of 47 KT recipients consisted of 45 living-donor KTs and 2 deceased-donor KTs. There was no association between positive QuantiFERON-CMV results and CMV infection. However, 10 of 34 patients with phosphoprotein 65 (pp65)- or IE-1-specific ELISPOT results higher than cut-off value developed CMV infections compared with none of 13 patients with results lower than cut-off value developed CMV. The OLPs-based ELISPOT assays are more useful than the QuantiFERON-CMV assay for predicting CMV infection. Patients with higher CMV-specific T cell immunity at baseline appear to be more likely to develop CMV infections after KT, suggesting that the abrupt decline in CMV-specific T cell responses after immunosuppression, or high CMV-specific T cell responses due to frequent CMV activation before KT, may promote CMV infection.

  10. Comparison of the Commercial QuantiFERON-CMV and Overlapping Peptide-based ELISPOT Assays for Predicting CMV Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Soo; Kim, Taeeun; Kim, Sun-Mi; Sung, Heungsup; Shin, Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Duck Jong

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most important opportunistic infections in transplant recipients. Tests for CMV-specific T cell responses have been proposed to change the current risk stratification strategy using CMV assays. We evaluated the usefulness of pre-transplant CMV-specific T cell assays in kidney transplant (KT) candidates for predicting the development of CMV infection after transplantation comparing the results of the overlapping peptides (OLPs)-based enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay and the commercial QuantiFERON-CMV assay. We prospectively enrolled all cases of KT over a 5-month period, except donor CMV-seropositive and recipient seronegative transplants that are at highest risk of CMV infection. All the patients underwent QuantiFERON-CMV, CMV OLPs-based pp65, and immediate-early 1 (IE-1)-specific ELISPOT assays before transplantation. The primary outcome was the incidence of CMV infection at 6 months after transplant. The total of 47 KT recipients consisted of 45 living-donor KTs and 2 deceased-donor KTs. There was no association between positive QuantiFERON-CMV results and CMV infection. However, 10 of 34 patients with phosphoprotein 65 (pp65)- or IE-1-specific ELISPOT results higher than cut-off value developed CMV infections compared with none of 13 patients with results lower than cut-off value developed CMV. The OLPs-based ELISPOT assays are more useful than the QuantiFERON-CMV assay for predicting CMV infection. Patients with higher CMV-specific T cell immunity at baseline appear to be more likely to develop CMV infections after KT, suggesting that the abrupt decline in CMV-specific T cell responses after immunosuppression, or high CMV-specific T cell responses due to frequent CMV activation before KT, may promote CMV infection. PMID:29093653

  11. Protective Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Specific T-Cell Immunity Is Frequent in Kidney Transplant Patients without Serum Anti-CMV Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; Huang, Ling; Dedeoglu, Burç; Meijers, Ruud W J; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Betjes, Michiel G H

    2017-01-01

    The absence of anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) is used to classify pretransplant patients as naïve for CMV infection (CMV neg patients). This study assessed whether pretransplant CMV-specific T-cell immunity exists in CMV neg patients and whether it protects against CMV infection after kidney transplantation. The results show that CMV-specific CD137 + IFNγ + CD4 + and CD137 + IFNγ + CD8 + memory T cells were present in 46 and 39% of CMV neg patients ( n  = 28) although at much lower frequencies compared to CMV pos patients (median 0.01 versus 0.58% for CD4 + and 0.05 versus 0.64% for CD8 + T cells) with a less differentiated CD28-expressing phenotype. In line with these data, CMV-specific proliferative CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were observed in CMV neg patients, which significantly correlated with the frequency of CMV-specific T cells. CMV-specific IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) could be detected at low frequency in 36% of CMV neg patients (1 versus 45 ASC/10 5 cells in CMV pos patients). CMV neg patients with pretransplant CMV-specific CD137 + IFNγ + CD4 + T cells had a lower risk to develop CMV viremia after transplantation with a CMV pos donor kidney (relative risk: 0.43, P  = 0.03). In conclusion, a solitary CMV-specific T-cell response without detectable anti-CMV antibodies is frequent and clinically relevant as it is associated with protection to CMV infection following transplantation with a kidney from a CMV pos donor.

  12. Comparison of the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot and CMV QuantiFERON Cell-Mediated Immune Assays in CMV-Seropositive and -Seronegative Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Saldan, Alda; Forner, Gabriella; Mengoli, Carlo; Tinto, Daniel; Fallico, Loredana; Peracchi, Marta; Gussetti, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of congenital infection leading to birth defects and sensorineural anomalies, including deafness. Recently, cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in pregnant women has been shown to correlate with congenital CMV transmission. In this study, two interferon gamma release assays (IGRA), the CMV enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) and CMV QuantiFERON assays, detecting CMV-specific CMI were compared. These assays were performed for 80 CMV-infected (57 primarily and 23 nonprimarily) pregnant women and 115 controls, including 89 healthy CMV-seropositive pregnant women without active CMV infection, 15 CMV-seronegative pregnant women, and 11 seropositive or seronegative nonpregnant women. Statistical tests, including frequency distribution analysis, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test for equality on unmatched data, and lowess smoothing local regression, were employed to determine statistical differences between groups and correlation between the assays. The CMV ELISPOT and CMV QuantiFERON assay data were not normally distributed and did not display equal variance. The CMV ELISPOT but not CMV QuantiFERON assay displayed significant higher values for primarily CMV-infected women than for the healthy seropositive pregnant and nonpregnant groups (P = 0.0057 and 0.0379, respectively) and those with nonprimary infections (P = 0.0104). The lowess local regression model comparing the assays on an individual basis showed a value bandwidth of 0.8. Both assays were highly accurate in discriminating CMV-seronegative pregnant women. The CMV ELISPOT assay was more effective than CMV-QuantiFERON in differentiating primary from the nonprimary infections. A substantial degree of variability exists between CMV ELISPOT and CMV QuantiFERON assay results for CMV-seropositive pregnant women. PMID:26962091

  13. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside... of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites 11-13 of FTZ 153, located in Riverside County... behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register...

  14. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  15. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  16. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  17. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  18. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report: Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite-Coney, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  19. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by…

  20. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  1. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  2. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  3. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,201] Abbott Laboratories..., applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, including on-site leased workers from... (clerical) were employed on-site at the Irving, Texas location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division...

  4. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,379] Abbott Laboratories... February 22, 2013, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including... Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology Division. The Department has...

  5. Women in History--Grace Abbott: A Leader in Social Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari Cole

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Grace Abbott, one of the earlier 20th century American women leaders in Progressivism. Abbott's heritage influenced her lifetime commitment to social improvement. She was born on November 17, 1878 in Grand Island, Nebraska into a family of activists. Her Quaker mother, Elizabeth Griffin Abbott, came from an abolitionist…

  6. Diagnostic usefulness of dynamic changes of CMV-specific T-cell responses in predicting CMV infections in HCT recipients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kang, Young-Ah; Lee, Young-Shin; Chong, Yong Pil; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Han

    2017-02-01

    CMV-specific cell mediated immune responses before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can categorize patients as at high or low risk of CMV development. We evaluated the usefulness of the CMV-specific T-cell ELISPOT assay for predicting the development of CMV infections after HCT in recipients with donor-positive and recipient-positive CMV serology (D+/R+ ). CMV pp65 and IE1-specific ELISPOT assays were performed before HCT (D0), and at 30 (D30) and 90 (D90) days after HCT. Of the 84 HCT recipients with D+/R+, 42 (50%) developed≥1 episode of CMV infection. Thirty-nine (64%) of 61 patients with Δ(D30-D0) pp65<42 developed CMV infections compared with 3 (14%) of 21 patients with Δ(D30-D0) pp65≥42 (P<0.001). Twenty-three (74%) of 31 patients with Δ(D30-D0) IE1<-4 developed CMV infections compared with 19 (37%) of 51 patients with Δ(D30-D0) IE1≥-4 (P=0.001). pp65 Δ(D30-D0) ≥42 had 93% sensitivity for ruling out subsequent CMV infection, and pp65 Δ(D30-D0)<42 followed by Δ(D30-D0) IE1<-4 had 100% specificity for ruling in the subsequent CMV infection. In addition, 10 (53%) of 19 patients with Δ(D90-D30) pp65<23 had relapsing CMV infections, compared with 3 (15%) of 20 patients with Δ(D90-D30) pp65≥23 (P=0.02). The sensitivity and specificity of Δ(D90-D30) pp65 were 77% (95% CI 50-92) and 65% (95% CI, 46-81). Dynamic change in the CMV-specific ELISPOT assay before versus after HCT appears to predict the subsequent development of CMV infection and relapsing CMV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CMV infection after transplant from cord blood compared to other alternative donors: the importance of donor-negative CMV serostatus.

    PubMed

    Mikulska, Małgorzata; Raiola, Anna Maria; Bruzzi, Paolo; Varaldo, Riccardo; Annunziata, Silvana; Lamparelli, Teresa; Frassoni, Francesco; Tedone, Elisabetta; Galano, Barbara; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Viscoli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are important complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, particularly after transplant from alternative donors. Allogeneic cord blood transplantation (CBT) is being increasingly used, but immune recovery may be delayed. The aim of this study was to compare CMV infection in CBT with transplants from unrelated or mismatched related donors, from now on defined as alternative donors. A total of 165 consecutive transplants were divided in 2 groups: (1) alternative donors transplants (n = 85) and (2) CBT recipients (n = 80). Donor and recipient (D/R) CMV serostatus were recorded. The incidence of CMV infection, its severity, timing, and outcome were compared. Median follow-up was 257 days (1-1328). CMV infection was monitored by CMV antigenemia and expressed as CMV Ag positive cell/2 × 10(5) polymorphonuclear blood cells. There was a trend toward a higher cumulative incidence of CMV infection among CBT than alternative donor transplant recipients (64% vs 51%, P = .12). The median time to CMV reactivation was 35 days, and was comparable in the 2 groups (P = .8). The maximum number of CMV-positive cells was similar in the 2 groups (11 versus 16, P = .2). The time interval between the first and the last positive CMV antigenemia was almost 4 times longer in CBT compared with alternative donor transplants (109 vs 29 days, respectively, P = .008). The incidence of late CMV infection was also higher in CBT (62% vs 24%, P < .001). The incidence of early and late CMV infection in CBT was similar to D-/R+ alternative transplants, and higher than in D+/R+ alternative transplants: early infection, 72% in CBT versus 69% in D-/R+ alternative versus 55% in D+/R+ alternative (P = .21); and late infection, 67% in CBT versus 60% in D-/R+ alternative versus 7% in D+/R+ alternative (P < .001). Transplant-related mortality and overall survival were similar between the groups: 34% versus 36% (P = .6) and 54% versus 46% (P = .3) for

  8. Treatment of CMV infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maffini, Enrico; Giaccone, Luisa; Festuccia, Moreno; Brunello, Lucia; Busca, Alessandro; Bruno, Benedetto

    2016-06-01

    Despite a remarkable reduction in the past decades, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remains a feared complication, still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Today, first line treatment of CMV infection/reactivation is still based on dated antiviral compounds Ganciclovir (GCV), Foscarnet (FOS) and Cidofovir (CDF) with their burdensome weight of side effects. Maribavir (MBV), Letermovir (LMV) and Brincidofovir (BDF) are three new promising anti-CMV drugs without myelosuppressive properties or renal toxic effects that are under investigation in randomized phase II and III trials. Adoptive T-cell therapy (ATCT) in CMV infection possesses a strong rationale, demonstrated by several proof of concept studies; its feasibility is currently under investigation by clinical trials. ATCT from third-party and naïve donors could meet the needs of HSCT recipients of seronegative donors and cord blood grafts. In selected patients such as recipients of T-cell depleted grafts, ATCT, based on CMV-specific host T-cells reconstitution kinetics, would be of value in the prophylactic and/or preemptive CMV treatment. Vaccine-immunotherapy has the difficult task to reduce the incidence of CMV reactivation/infection in highly immunocompromised HSCT patients. Newer notions on CMV biology may represent the base to flush out the Troll of transplantation.

  9. [Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants may result intractable stridor].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Y; Kawashima, H; Takekuma, K; Hoshika, A; Nozaki-Renaud, J

    2000-08-01

    We found ten cases of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who were intractable stridor. Their symptoms were not improved by the treatment with aminophyllin nor beta stimulants. They were admitted repeatedly complaining of stridor, fever and diarrhea. In two cases, the immunological findings showed a decrease of bacterial sterilizing activity of the neutrophils. Additionally, blood count showed leukocytosis more than 15,000/ul in all cases. Total serum IgE and specific IgE antibodies to many antigens were not elevated. Transaminase was elevated. Chest X-p findings of interstitial pneumonia or atelectasis continued for a long time in some cases. Virological examinations revealed high concentrations of specific IgM or CF antibodies against CMV in all cases. CMV DNA in saliva were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer sets for the immediate early (IE) region of CMV and showed positive in seven cases. CMV in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was isolated in two cases, and CMV PCR in BAL was positive in three cases. The sequence of the CMV-PCR products showed almost same sequence except one point mutation in bp 1203. We considered that CMV infections in infants may induce stridor for a long period.

  10. Relationship between cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, CMV-driven immunity, overall immune recovery and graft-versus-leukaemia effect in children.

    PubMed

    Jeljeli, Mohamed; Guérin-El Khourouj, Valérie; Porcher, Raphael; Fahd, Mony; Leveillé, Sandrine; Yakouben, Karima; Ouachée-Chardin, Marie; LeGoff, Jerome; Cordeiro, Debora Jorge; Pédron, Beatrice; Baruchel, Andre; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Sterkers, Ghislaine

    2014-07-01

    The interplay between immune recovery, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-reactivation, CMV-driven immunity and graft-versus-leukaemia effect (GVL) was analysed in 108 children (median age: 8 years) who underwent haematopoietic-stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute leukaemia. Follow-up was 2 years unless death or relapse occurred. CMV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was programmed weekly until month +3 post-HSCT. Immunomonitoring consisted of sequential lymphocyte subset enumerations and analyses of T-cell proliferative and γ-interferon responses to CMV and to adenovirus. In the 108 recipients, the 2-year relapse rate (RR) was 25% (median time to onset 4·5 months; range: 24 d-17 months). CMV reactivation occurrence was 31% (median time to onset 26 d). Donor/recipient CMV serostatus did not influence RR. Among the 89 recipients disease-free after day +120, i) early CMV-reactivation before day +30 was more frequent (P = 0·01) in the relapse recipient group opposed to the non-relapse group. ii) CD8(+) /CD28(-) and CD4(+) CD45RA(-) T-cell expansions induced by CMV did not influence RR, iii) Recovery of anti-CMV and also anti-adenovirus immunity and of naïve CD4(+) T-cells was faster in the non-relapse group (P = 0·008; 0·009 and 0·002 respectively). In contrast to adult acute myeloid leukaemia, CMV reactivation was associated with increased RR in this paediatric series. Accelerated overall immune recovery rather than CMV-driven immunity had a favourable impact on RR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. The Instructional Guide for Abbott Skills Enhancement Classes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Ronda; Gee, Mary Kay

    This guide, which integrates adult basic education (ABE) curriculum, job skills for Abbott Laboratories, and work-related foundation skills, is designed for an instructional program in the skill areas of reading, writing, oral communications, mathematics, and problem solving. In addition to creating a uniform process and product to promote…

  13. The potential association of CMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte reconstitution with the risk of CMV reactivation and persistency in post allogeneic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Shams El-Din, Ahmed Ali; El-Desoukey, Nermeen Ahmed; Amin Tawadrous, Dalia Gamil; Fouad, Neveen Mohammed Baha El-Din; Abdel-Mooti, Mohammed; Hotar, Said Fathy

    2018-01-09

    development of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cell response is crucial in preventing symptomatic CMV infection specially, in stem cell transplant (SCT) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate CMV-specific CD8+ T cell reconstitution in allogeneic SCT recipients and to study the possible association between CMV-specific CD8+ T cell recovery with protection from CMV reactivation and persistency. Human leuKocyte antigen (HLA)-tetramers were used for CMV-specific CD8+ cell quantitation by Flow cytometry in twenty post-allogeneic SCT patients. Nine patients (45%) developed rapid recovery of CMV-specific CD8+ cells, among them; 7 patients (78%) had no CMV reactivation in the first 95 days post-transplant. Five patients had developed persistent CMV viremia; all of them had not developed CMV-specific CD8+ recovery till day 95 post-transplant. Patients with persistent CMV viremia had a statistically significant lower means of CMV-specific CD8+ percent and absolute count compared to those without persistent viremia (p = .001, .015), respectively. The incidence of CMV reactivation and persistency was higher among patients with delayed CMV-specific CD8+ reconstitution in the first 95 days post-transplant. CMV-specific CD8+ cells can help in categorizing patients into risk groups: (early recovery/low risk) and (delayed recovery/increased risk), this tool may guide clinicians in the selection of patients who may profit from prophylactic antiviral therapy and frequent viral monitoring.

  14. Kinetic of the CMV-specific T-cell immune response and CMV infection in CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients receiving rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gandul, Cecilia; Pérez-Romero, Pilar; Mena-Romo, Damián; Molina-Ortega, Alejandro; González-Roncero, Francisco M; Suñer, Marta; Bernal, Gabriel; Cordero, Elisa

    2018-03-23

    Some studies have suggested that rATG treatment may be associated with an increased incidence of CMV infection and delayed CMV immune response. However, the evidences supporting this matter are scarce. This study aims to characterize the kinetic of the CMV-specific T-cell immune response before and after rATG induction therapy and the relationship with the development of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients. An observational prospective study of CMV-seropositive kidney transplant patients that received rATG induction therapy was performed. A pretransplant sample was obtained before the surgery to determine the CMV-specific immunity. CMV viral load (by PCR) and CMV-specific T-cell immune response (by flow cytometry) were determined during the follow-up at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post transplantation. A total of 23 patients were included in the study. CMV prophylaxis was administrated for a media of 90 days after transplantation. At the end of follow-up, 18 (78.3%) patients had CMV-specific immunity with a median value of 0.31% CD8 + CD69 + INF-γ + T cells at a median of 16 weeks post transplantation. Five patients never acquired CMV-specific immunity. No statistically significant association between CMV infection and CMV-specific T-cell immune response (P = .086) was observed. However, patients with positive pretransplant CMV-specific immunity developed earlier immunity and achieved higher levels of CD8 + CD69 + INF-γ+ T-cell post-transplantation than patients with negative pretransplant immunity. CMV-specific immune monitoring in addition to CMV-serology may be useful to stratify patient's risk of CMV infection before transplantation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. First experiences with an accelerated CMV antigenemia test: CMV Brite Turbo assay.

    PubMed

    Visser, C E; van Zeijl, C J; de Klerk, E P; Schillizi, B M; Beersma, M F; Kroes, A C

    2000-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus disease is still a major problem in immunocompromised patients, such as bone marrow or kidney transplantation patients. The detection of viral antigen in leukocytes (antigenemia) has proven to be a clinically relevant marker of CMV activity and has found widespread application. Because most existing assays are rather time-consuming and laborious, an accelerated version (Brite Turbo) of an existing method (Brite) has been developed. The major modification is in the direct lysis of erythrocytes instead of separation by sedimentation. In this study the Brite Turbo method has been compared with the conventional Brite method to detect CMV antigen pp65 in peripheral blood leukocytes of 107 consecutive immunocompromised patients. Both tests produced similar results. Discrepancies were limited to the lowest positive range and sensitivity and specificity were comparable for both tests. Two major advantages of the Brite Turbo method could be observed in comparison to the original method: assay-time was reduced by more than 50% and only 2 ml of blood was required. An additional advantage was the higher number of positive nuclei in the Brite Turbo method attributable to the increased number of granulocytes in the assay. Early detection of CMV infection or reactivation has become faster and easier with this modified assay.

  16. Integrating Students of Limited English Proficiency into Standards-Based Reform in the Abbott Districts. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Tamara; Villegas, Ana Maria

    2004-01-01

    In 1999-2000, over one-third of all students in the 30 Abbott districts spoke a native language other than English, and more than one-tenth were considered limited English proficient (LEP). The proportions of LEP students varied considerably across the districts, but they comprised between 5% and 29% of total enrollments in 18 of the districts.…

  17. Why CMV is a candidate for elimination and then eradication.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul D; Mahungu, Tabitha

    2016-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is well-known for the end organ diseases (EODs) it causes following viraemic dissemination in immunocompromised hosts. These are termed the direct effects of CMV, where a diagnosis can be made in an individual patient. In addition, CMV is associated with indirect effects where populations can be seen to be disadvantaged compared to those without CMV. These indirect effects have been described in solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants, advanced HIV, people admitted to intensive care units, the elderly and the general population. We summarise the evidence that associates CMV with its direct effects following congenital infection, solid organ transplantation, bone marrow transplantation and advanced HIV as well as its indirect effects in all patient populations. We propose that the greatest worldwide burden of CMV comes from its indirect effects. Control of this infection at the population level is being sought through the development of vaccines to control EODs where cost effectiveness is expected. We propose that the financial case for universal immunisation will be enhanced even further by the potential benefits vaccines may produce against the indirect effects of CMV.

  18. Changing therapeutic paradigms in CMV retinitis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Piper, H; Ciulla, T A; Danis, R P; Pratt, L M

    2000-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a common ocular complication of immunosuppression. The management of CMV retinitis has been continuously evolving over the last decade. The mainstay of therapy remains ganciclovir and foscarnet. However, increasing resistance and ongoing toxicities to these agents remain a challenge. Additional frequently utilised agents include cidofovir and fomivirsen. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed the restoration of immunocompetency to many patients previously challenged by CMV infection. In some circumstances, HAART has even eliminated the need for ongoing antiviral therapy. This paper reviews the current treatment modalities, including their toxicities and dosing recommendations.

  19. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests for drivers with military CMV experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with military CMV experience. 383.77 Section 383.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CMV experience. At the discretion of a State, the driving skills test as specified in § 383.113 may be waived for a CMV driver with military CMV experience who is currently licensed at the time of his/her...

  20. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests for drivers with military CMV experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with military CMV experience. 383.77 Section 383.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CMV experience. At the discretion of a State, the driving skills test as specified in § 383.113 may be waived for a CMV driver with military CMV experience who is currently licensed at the time of his/her...

  1. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests for drivers with military CMV experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with military CMV experience. 383.77 Section 383.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CMV experience. At the discretion of a State, the driving skills test as specified in § 383.113 may be waived for a CMV driver with military CMV experience who is currently licensed at the time of his/her...

  2. Transfusion-transmitted CMV infection - current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, M; Thiele, T

    2017-08-01

    Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV. Based on this knowledge, rational strategies to reduce the residual risk of TT-CMV using leucoreduced blood products could be designed. However, there is a lack of evidence that CMV is still transmitted by transfusion of leucoreduced units. In low birthweight infants, most (if not all) CMV infections are caused by breast milk feeding or congenital transmission rather than by transfusion of leucoreduced blood products. For other patients at risk, no definitive data exist about the relative importance of alternative transmission routes of CMV compared to blood transfusion. As a result, only the conduction of well-designed studies addressing strategies to prevent TT-CMV and the thorough examination of presumed cases of TT-CMV will achieve guidance for the best transfusion regimen in patients at risk. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. A multisite trial comparing two cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigenemia test kits, biotest CMV brite and Bartels/Argene CMV antigenemia.

    PubMed

    St George, K; Boyd, M J; Lipson, S M; Ferguson, D; Cartmell, G F; Falk, L H; Rinaldo, C R; Landry, M L

    2000-04-01

    A total of 513 blood specimens, predominantly from organ transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, and bone marrow transplant recipients, were tested for cytomegalovirus (CMV) by culture and pp65 antigenemia across four test sites. Peripheral blood leukocytes were examined by using both the Biotest CMV Brite and the Bartels/Argene CMV Antigenemia kits. A total of 109 specimens were positive for CMV, 106 (97%) were positive by antigenemia, and 34 (31%) were positive by culture. According to the manufacturers' instructions, 150,000 cells were applied per slide for the Biotest kit and 200,000 cells per slide for the Bartels kit. A total of 93 specimens (88%) were positive by the Biotest kit, and 86 (81%) were positive by the Bartels kit. In specimens found to be positive by only one kit, the positive cell counts were low (median, 1; range, 1 to 7). When the data from all four sites were combined and analyzed, there was no statistical difference between the performance of the two kits; the Biotest and Bartels kits were found to be equivalent in sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of CMV pp65 antigenemia.

  4. Targeting the unmet medical need: the Abbott Laboratories oncology approach.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn M; Steinberg, Joyce L; Gordon, Gary

    2005-09-01

    While significant advances in the treatment of cancer occured during the last half of the twentieth century, parallel decreases in overall cancer death rates were not observed. Cancer therapy remains an area of significant unmet medical need. Abbott's oncology research programs are focused on pioneering trageted, less toxic therapies, aimed at different aspects of tumor growth and development. Oncology drugs in development at Abbott target several mechanisms of cancer progression by interfering with multiple processes necessary for tumor growth: recruitment of a blood supply, cell proliferation, and the development of metastases. They include a selective endothelin A-receptor antagonist (atrasentan/Xinlay), 3 angiogenesis inhibitors (ABT 510, a thrombospondin mimetic: ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; and ABT 828, recombinant human plasminogen kringle 5), a cell proliferation inhibitor (ABT-751, an antimitotic agent), an apoptosis inducer (ABT 737, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor), and a poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor.

  5. CMV-specific immune reconstitution following allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Emily; Withers, Barbara; Clancy, Leighton; Gottlieb, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality following allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) despite widespread use of viraemia monitoring and pre-emptive antiviral therapy. Uncontrolled viral replication occurs primarily in the first 100 d post transplant but this high risk period can extend to many months if immune recovery is delayed. The re-establishment of a functional population of cellular effectors is essential for control of virus replication and depends on recipient and donor serostatus, the stem cell source, degree of HLA matching and post-transplant factors such as CMV antigen exposure, presence of GVHD and ongoing use of immune suppression. A number of immune monitoring assays exist but have not yet become widely accessible for routine clinical use. Vaccination, adoptive transfer of CMV specific T cells and a number of graft engineering processes are being evaluated to enhance of CMV specific immune recovery post HSCT. PMID:27580355

  6. Immunological Prediction of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Replication Risk in Solid Organ Transplantation Recipients: Approaches for Regulating the Targeted Anti-CMV Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The current cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention strategies in solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients have contributed towards overcoming the detrimental effects caused by CMV lytic infection, and improving the long-term success rate of graft survival. Although the quantification of CMV in peripheral blood is the standard method, and an excellent end-point for diagnosing CMV replication and modulating the anti-CMV prevention strategies in SOT recipients, a novel biomarker mimicking the CMV control mechanism is required. CMV-specific immune monitoring can be employed as a basic tool predicting CMV infection or disease after SOT, since uncontrolled CMV replication mostly originates from the impairment of immune responses against CMV under immunosuppressive conditions in SOT recipients. Several studies conducted during the past few decades have indicated the possibility of measuring the CMV-specific cell-mediated immune response in clinical situations. Among several analytical assays, the most advancing standardized tool is the QuantiFERON®-CMV assay. The T-Track® CMV kit that uses the standardized enzyme-linked immunospot assay is also widely employed. In addition to these assays, immunophenotyping and intracellular cytokine analysis using flow cytometry (with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies or peptide-major histocompatibility complex multimers) needs to be adequately standardized and validated for potential clinical applications. PMID:29027383

  7. Immunological Prediction of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Replication Risk in Solid Organ Transplantation Recipients: Approaches for Regulating the Targeted Anti-CMV Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Hoon

    2017-09-01

    The current cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention strategies in solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients have contributed towards overcoming the detrimental effects caused by CMV lytic infection, and improving the long-term success rate of graft survival. Although the quantification of CMV in peripheral blood is the standard method, and an excellent end-point for diagnosing CMV replication and modulating the anti-CMV prevention strategies in SOT recipients, a novel biomarker mimicking the CMV control mechanism is required. CMV-specific immune monitoring can be employed as a basic tool predicting CMV infection or disease after SOT, since uncontrolled CMV replication mostly originates from the impairment of immune responses against CMV under immunosuppressive conditions in SOT recipients. Several studies conducted during the past few decades have indicated the possibility of measuring the CMV-specific cell-mediated immune response in clinical situations. Among several analytical assays, the most advancing standardized tool is the QuantiFERON®-CMV assay. The T-Track® CMV kit that uses the standardized enzyme-linked immunospot assay is also widely employed. In addition to these assays, immunophenotyping and intracellular cytokine analysis using flow cytometry (with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies or peptide-major histocompatibility complex multimers) needs to be adequately standardized and validated for potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 by The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy.

  8. Problems related to CMV infection and biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel W; Zabiegaj-Zwick, Caroline; Nel, Etienne

    2012-09-11

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is related to biliary disease, being cholestatic in its own right. It has also been associated with intrahepatic bile duct destruction and duct paucity, indicating a possible role in extrahepatic biliary atresia pathogenesis and progression. When related to biliary atresia CMV IGM positive patients appear to have more liver damage thus affecting outcome. Methods We carried out a retrospective chart review on 74 patients diagnosed with hepatobiliary disease (2000-2011). included clinical and outcome review as well as evaluation of potential risk factors. Patients were divided into 2 groups those with biliary atresia and those without Biliary atresia (BA). The 2 groups were compared in terms of CMV infection. Of the 74 patients with hepatobiliary disease investigated, 39 (52%) were shown to have Biliary atresia and 35 other cases. 12 of the BA group and 4 of the non-BA were excluded due to lack of data Twenty-seven (69%) of the biliary atresia group had sufficient available data for review. Of these, 21 (78% of the 27) had CMV positivity (IgM/IgG) on testing, with 20 of these being IgM positive versus 8 in the non-biliary atresia group. (p<0.01) Two (7.5%) of 27 BA infants were HIV exposed being born to HIV positive mothers whereas HIV positivity was observed in 7 (35%) of the non-biliary atresia group (p<0.01). Both of these biliary atresia infants were CMV IgM positive. Long- term outcome of the 21 with CMV positivity showed 3 deaths (non-HIV exposed) and a higher rate of severe early liver damage suggesting a poorer outcome in CMV affected patients. This study suggests a correlation between CMV exposure, infection and surgical hepatobiliary disease including biliary atresia affecting outcome.HIV positivity does not preclude Biliary atresia and should be further investigated.

  9. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    PubMed

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products.

  10. Evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay.

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Eva; Braun, Hans-Bertram; Praast, Gerald; Stieler, Myriam; Gundlach, Cordelia; Birkenbach, Claudia; Prostko, John; Palafox, Mary Ann; Frias, Edwin; Hsu, Stephen; Matias, Matthew; Pucci, Dominick; Hausmann, Michael; Sagel, Ulrich; Smith, Darwin

    2009-07-01

    Development of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay has been done to assist the clinician in acute Toxoplasma gondii infection detection, especially in pregnant women. Its use, in conjunction with ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and Toxo Avidity assays, will provide an array of assays particularly useful in the monitoring of pregnant females to determine the risk of maternal transmission of the parasite. Specificity results from 2 testing sites, using populations of pregnant females, hospital patients, and blood donors, demonstrated that the assay has an overall resolved relative specificity of 99.89% (confidence interval, 99.68-99.98%). Relative specificity for pregnant female specimens was 99.95% (n = 2031). Excellent seroconversion sensitivity was observed for the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay, which was similar to the Abbott AxSYM Toxo IgM assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). In more than 90% of the panels tested, the 1st bleed detected in the serial bleeds was the same for both assays.

  11. Cytomegalovirus Hyper Immunoglobulin for CMV Prophylaxis in Thoracic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Federico; Potena, Luciano; Yonan, Nizar; Wagner, Florian; Calabrese, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection negatively influences both short- and long-term outcomes after cardiothoracic transplantation. In heart transplantation, registry analyses have shown that CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) with or without virostatic prophylaxis is associated with a significant reduction in mortality and graft loss versus no prophylaxis, particularly in high-risk donor (D)+/recipient (R)− transplants. Randomized comparative trials are lacking but retrospective data suggest that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis may reduce rates of CMV-related events after heart transplantation, including the incidence of acute rejection or chronic allograft vasculopathy. However, available data consistently indicate that when CMVIG is used, it should be administered with concomitant antiviral therapy, and that evidence concerning preemptive management with CMVIG is limited, but promising. In lung transplantation, CMVIG should again only be used with concomitant antiviral therapy. Retrospective studies have shown convincing evidence that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis lowers CMV endpoints and mortality. The current balance of evidence suggests that CMVIG prophylaxis reduces the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, but a controlled trial is awaited. Overall, the relatively limited current data set suggests that prophylaxis with CMVIG in combination with antiviral therapy appears effective in D+/R− heart transplant patients, whereas in lung transplantation, addition of CMVIG in recipients of a CMV-positive graft may offer an advantage in terms of CMV infection and disease. PMID:26900991

  12. [Clinical profile of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enterocolitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    De Lima, D B; Fernandes, O; Gomes, V R; Da Silva, E J; De Pinho, P R; De Paiva, D D

    2000-01-01

    To determine the clinical profile of CMV colitis in AIDS patients, comparing clinical, endoscopic parameters and survival time between 2 groups of AIDS patients having chronic diarrhea. Group A being CMV colitis and group B without CMV colitis. 48 patients with diarrhea that lasted more than 30 days, being 27 in Group A and 21 in Group B, were studied. Age, risk factors, interval time between the diagnosis of HIV infection and the beginning of diarrhea, hematochesia, the endoscopic findings and life table in both groups, were analysed. All of them were diagnosed by stool culture and stools for ovum and parasites, along colonoscopy with biopsies. The unpaired t test was used to assess statistical significance of differences observed in the means of continuous and the chi-square with Yates correction for non-parametric variables. The survival curves were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier and the Mantel-Haenszel's tests. A P value of less than 0,05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The mucosal lesions associated with the CMV infection are typically ulcerative on a background of hemorrhagic erythema 14 (51,8%) p < 0,01. The life table analysis disclosed shorter survival time in the CMV colitis group 0,005> P>0,001. The others studied data did not achieve statistical significance. AIDS patients with CMV colitis have a poorer long-term survival. Among the colonoscopic findings, ulcerations with hemorrhagic background were the most common lesions.

  13. Assigning Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Status in Children Awaiting Organ Transplant: Viral Shedding, CMV-Specific T-cells and CD27-CD28-CD4+ T-cells.

    PubMed

    Burton, Catherine E; Sester, Martina; Robinson, Joan L; Eurich, Dean T; Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Urschel, Simon

    2018-05-24

    Passive antibodies, maternal or transfusion-acquired, make serologic determination of pre-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) status unreliable. We evaluated 3 assays un-affected by passive antibodies, in assignment of CMV infection status in children awaiting solid organ transplant and in controls: i) CMV Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT), quantification of ii) CMV-specific CD4+T-cells, and iii) CD27-CD28-CD4+T-cells. Our results highlight that CMV NAAT, from urine and oropharynx, is useful in confirming positive CMV status. Detection of CMV-specific CD4+T-cells was sensitive and specific in children >18 months but was less sensitive in children <12 months. CD27-CD28- CD4+T-cells are not likely useful in CMV risk-stratification in children.

  14. MVA vaccine encoding CMV antigens safely induces durable expansion of CMV-specific T cells in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Corinna; Longmate, Jeff; Martinez, Joy; Zhou, Qiao; Kaltcheva, Teodora I.; Tsai, Weimin; Drake, Jennifer; Carroll, Mary; Wussow, Felix; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Hardwick, Nicola; Dadwal, Sanjeet; Aldoss, Ibrahim; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Zaia, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding 3 immunodominant cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens, which stimulates a host antiviral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination). Three escalating dose levels (DL) were administered IM in 8 subjects/DL, with an identical booster injection 28 days later and 1-year follow-up. Vaccinations at all DL were safe with no dose-limiting toxicities. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were documented. Local and systemic reactogenicity was transient and self-limiting. Robust, functional, and durable Triplex-driven expansions of CMV-specific T cells were detected by measuring T-cell surface levels of 4-1BB (CD137), binding to CMV-specific HLA multimers, and interferon-γ production. Marked and durable CMV-specific T-cell responses were also detected in Triplex-vaccinated CMV-seronegatives, and in DryVax-vaccinated subjects. Long-lived memory effector phenotype, associated with viral control during CMV primary infection, was predominantly found on the membrane of CMV-specific and functional T cells, whereas off-target vaccine responses activating memory T cells from the related herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus remained undetectable. Combined safety and immunogenicity results of MVA in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients and Triplex in healthy adults motivated the initiation of a placebo-controlled multicenter trial of Triplex in HCT patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02506933. PMID:27760761

  15. Preformed Frequencies of Cytomegalovirus (CMV)–Specific Memory T and B Cells Identify Protected CMV-Sensitized Individuals Among Seronegative Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lúcia, Marc; Crespo, Elena; Melilli, Edoardo; Cruzado, Josep M.; Luque, Sergi; Llaudó, Inés; Niubó, Jordi; Torras, Joan; Fernandez, Núria; Grinyó, Josep M.; Bestard, Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major complication after kidney transplantation. Baseline CMV risk is typically determined by the serological presence of preformed CMV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies, even though T-cell responses to major viral antigens are crucial when controlling viral replication. Some IgG-seronegative patients who receive an IgG-seropositive allograft do not develop CMV infection despite not receiving prophylaxis. We hypothesized that a more precise evaluation of pretransplant CMV-specific immune-sensitization using the B and T-cell enzyme-linked immunospot assays may identify CMV-sensitized individuals more accurately, regardless of serological evidence of CMV-specific IgG titers. Methods. We compared the presence of preformed CMV-specific memory B and T cells in kidney transplant recipients between 43 CMV IgG–seronegative (sR−) and 86 CMV IgG–seropositive (sR+) patients. Clinical outcome was evaluated in both groups. Results. All sR+ patients showed a wide range of CMV-specific memory T- and B-cell responses. High memory T- and B-cell frequencies were also clearly detected in 30% of sR− patients, and those with high CMV-specific T-cell frequencies had a significantly lower incidence of late CMV infection after prophylactic therapy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for predicting CMV viremia and disease showed a high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (>0.8), which translated into a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the test. Conclusions. Assessment of CMV-specific memory T- and B-cell responses before kidney transplantation among sR− recipients may help identify immunized individuals more precisely, being ultimately at lower risk for CMV infection. PMID:25048845

  16. Whole CMV Proteome Pattern Recognition Analysis after HSCT Identifies Unique Epitope Targets Associated with the CMV Status

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bercoff, Lena; Valentini, Davide; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Mahdavifar, Shahnaz; Schutkowski, Mike; Poiret, Thomas; Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; Ljungman, Per; Maeurer, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represents a vital complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). We screened the entire CMV proteome to visualize the humoral target epitope-focus profile in serum after HSCT. IgG profiling from four patient groups (donor and/or recipient +/− for CMV) was performed at 6, 12 and 24 months after HSCT using microarray slides containing 17174 of 15mer-peptides overlapping by 4 aa covering 214 proteins from CMV. Data were analyzed using maSigPro, PAM and the ‘exclusive recognition analysis (ERA)’ to identify unique CMV epitope responses for each patient group. The ‘exclusive recognition analysis’ of serum epitope patterns segregated best 12 months after HSCT for the D+/R+ group (versus D−/R−). Epitopes were derived from UL123 (IE1), UL99 (pp28), UL32 (pp150), this changed at 24 months to 2 strongly recognized peptides provided from UL123 and UL100. Strongly (IgG) recognized CMV targets elicited also robust cytokine production in T-cells from patients after HSCT defined by intracellular cytokine staining (IL-2, TNF, IFN and IL-17). High-content peptide microarrays allow epitope profiling of entire viral proteomes; this approach can be useful to map relevant targets for diagnostics and therapy in patients with well defined clinical endpoints. Peptide microarray analysis visualizes the breadth of B-cell immune reconstitution after HSCT and provides a useful tool to gauge immune reconstitution. PMID:24740411

  17. Poor CMV-specific CD8+ T central memory subset recovery at early stage post-HSCT associates with refractory and recurrent CMV reactivation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chang, Ying-Jun; Yan, Chen-Hua; Xu, Lan-Ping; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Refractory and recurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation were independent risk factors of CMV disease and transplant-related mortality post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aims were to identify the recovery of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells with a central memory phenotype (TCM) associated with refractory and recurrent CMV reactivation. We analyzed findings in a prospective study comprising (n = 107) post allo-HSCT. CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were determined using HLA class I pentamers together with extended phenotypic analyses. The patients with lower level of CMV-specific CD8+ TCM at day 30 post-HSCT had an increased risk of refractory and recurrent CMV (68.5%) comparing with the higher one (13.2%) (p < 0.001) and poorer long term CMV-specific CD8+ T cell reconstitution post-HSCT (p = 0.026). Multivariate analysis revealed that CMV-specific CD8+ TCM at day 30 was an independent prognostic factor for refractory and recurrent reactivation (p = 0.002). The CMV-specific CD8+ TCM subset at day 30 post-HSCT is associated with CMV-specific T cell immunity recovery as well as the refractory and recurrent CMV reactivation post-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying Cytomegalovirus Complications Using the Quantiferon-CMV Assay After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yong, Michelle K; Cameron, Paul U; Slavin, Monica; Morrissey, C Orla; Bergin, Krystal; Spencer, Andrew; Ritchie, David; Cheng, Allen C; Samri, Assia; Carcelain, Guislaine; Autran, Brigitte; Lewin, Sharon R

    2017-06-01

    A simple test to identify recovery of CMV-specific T-cell immunity following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) could assist clinicians in managing CMV-related complications. In an observational, multicenter, prospective study of 94 HSCT recipients we evaluated CMV-specific T-cell immunity at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transplant using the Quantiferon-CMV, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot), and intracellular cytokine staining. At 3 months after HSCT, participants who developed CMV disease (n = 8) compared with CMV reactivation (n = 26) or spontaneous viral control (n = 25) had significantly lower CD8+ T-cell production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to CMV antigens measured by Quantiferon-CMV (P = .0008). An indeterminate Quantiferon-CMV result had a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 98% for identifying participants at risk of further CMV reactivation. Participants experiencing CMV reactivation compared with patients without CMV reactivation had a reduced proportion of polyfunctional (IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor α-positive) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of interleukin 2-secreting cells (P = .01 and P = .002, respectively). Quantifying CMV-specific T-cell immunity after HSCT can identify participants at increased risk of clinically relevant CMV-related outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cytomegalovirus Viral Load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Diagnose Lung Transplant Associated CMV Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lodding, Isabelle Paula; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Perch, Michael; Andersen, Claus; Lundgren, Jens D; Iversen, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The diagnostic yield for cytomegalovirus (CMV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) viral load in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or in plasma to diagnose CMV pneumonia in lung transplant recipients remains uncertain and was investigated in a large cohort of consecutive lung transplant recipients. Bronchoscopies within the first year of lung transplantation with CMV detectable in BAL by PCR (ie, viral load, ≥273 IU/mL) were included (66 recipients; 145 bronchoscopies); at each bronchoscopy episode, 2 independent experts reviewed clinical and laboratory information to determine whether the patient at that time fulfilled the criteria for CMV pneumonia per current international recommendations. Corresponding plasma CMV PCR viral load determined at time of the bronchoscopy (n = 126) was also studied. Optimal CMV PCR viral load cutoff for CMV pneumonia diagnosis was determined using receiver operating characteristics. CMV was detected in BAL with CMV PCR in 145 episodes, and 34 (23%) of these episodes fulfilled the criteria for CMV pneumonia. The area under the curve-receiver operating characteristics for CMV in BAL was 90% at the optimum cutoff (4545 IU/mL) with a corresponding sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 77% (in plasma the corresponding values were 274 IU/mL, 63% and 76%, respectively). CMV PCR viral load in BAL had a high performance to diagnose CMV pneumonia in lung transplant recipients; plasma CMV viral load did not reliably aid as a diagnostic tool.

  20. Retrospective study of CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pauriah, M; Ong, E L

    2000-01-01

    To study the characteristics of clinical presentations and treatment outcome of patients with HIV infection who developed cytomegalovirus(CMV) retinitis. A retrospective study for the period 1986-97 at the regional Unit of Infectious Diseases, Newcastle General Hospital; a teaching hospital in the north-east of England. Twenty-seven patients with advanced HIV disease and clinically confirmed CMV retinitis were studied. The mean age was 40.8 years, standard deviation +/-6.3 years. The male : female ratio was 25 : 2. Twenty-six of the patients were white Caucasians and one was of Afro-Caribbean origin. The median time between the first AIDS-defining diagnosis and development of CMV retinitis was 1.5 years and the CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of CMV retinitis was 7/mm3. After 14 months of treatment. 80% of patients on mono antiretroviral therapy had impairment of sight (visual acuity 3/60) versus 30% for those on triple antiretroviral therapy. In the same period, the survival rate was 18 versus 70% for mono versus triple antiretroviral therapy, respectively. The outcome for patients with CMV retinitis was significantly better for those who were on triple than for those on mono antiretroviral therapy.

  1. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Epitope-Specific CD4+ T Cells Are Inflated in HIV+ CMV+ Subjects.

    PubMed

    Abana, Chike O; Pilkinton, Mark A; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chopra, Abha; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Wanjalla, Celestine; Barnett, Louise; Gangula, Rama; Hager, Cindy; Jung, Dae K; Engelhardt, Brian G; Jagasia, Madan H; Klenerman, Paul; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Koelle, David M; Kalams, Spyros A; Mallal, Simon A

    2017-11-01

    Select CMV epitopes drive life-long CD8 + T cell memory inflation, but the extent of CD4 memory inflation is poorly studied. CD4 + T cells specific for human CMV (HCMV) are elevated in HIV + HCMV + subjects. To determine whether HCMV epitope-specific CD4 + T cell memory inflation occurs during HIV infection, we used HLA-DR7 (DRB1*07:01) tetramers loaded with the glycoprotein B DYSNTHSTRYV (DYS) epitope to characterize circulating CD4 + T cells in coinfected HLA-DR7 + long-term nonprogressor HIV subjects with undetectable HCMV plasma viremia. DYS-specific CD4 + T cells were inflated among these HIV + subjects compared with those from an HIV - HCMV + HLA-DR7 + cohort or with HLA-DR7-restricted CD4 + T cells from the HIV-coinfected cohort that were specific for epitopes of HCMV phosphoprotein-65, tetanus toxoid precursor, EBV nuclear Ag 2, or HIV gag protein. Inflated DYS-specific CD4 + T cells consisted of effector memory or effector memory-RA + subsets with restricted TCRβ usage and nearly monoclonal CDR3 containing novel conserved amino acids. Expression of this near-monoclonal TCR in a Jurkat cell-transfection system validated fine DYS specificity. Inflated cells were polyfunctional, not senescent, and displayed high ex vivo levels of granzyme B, CX 3 CR1, CD38, or HLA-DR but less often coexpressed CD38 + and HLA-DR + The inflation mechanism did not involve apoptosis suppression, increased proliferation, or HIV gag cross-reactivity. Instead, the findings suggest that intermittent or chronic expression of epitopes, such as DYS, drive inflation of activated CD4 + T cells that home to endothelial cells and have the potential to mediate cytotoxicity and vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Repeated CMV Infection in a Heart Transplantation Patient

    PubMed Central

    Melero-Ferrer, Josep; Sanchez-Lazaro, Ignacio J.; Navea-Tejerina, Amparo; Almenar-Bonet, Luis; Blanes-Julia, Marino; Martinez-Dolz, Luis; Salvador-Sanz, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in heart transplantation (HTx). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection during the first year after HTx, but it is more unusual after this time. We present the case of a patient who underwent an HTx due to a severe ischemic heart disease. Although the patient did not have a high risk for CMV, infection, he suffered a reactivation during the first year and then up to six more episodes, especially in his eyes. The patient received different treatments against CMV and the immunosuppression was changed several times. Finally, everolimus was introduced instead of cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil was withdrawn. The presented case provides an example of how the immunosupresion plays a key role in some infections in spite of being a suitable antiviral treatment. PMID:23213610

  3. Assessing the risk of CMV reactivation and reconstitution of antiviral immune response post bone marrow transplantation by the QuantiFERON-CMV-assay and real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Ackermann, Jessica; Goitowski, Birgit; Trenschel, Rudolf; Ditschkowski, Markus; Timm, Jörg; Ottinger, Hellmut; Beelen, Dietrich W; Grüner, Nico; Fiedler, Melanie

    CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease. We monitored CMV-specific cellular immune responses in 9 high-risk (D-/R+), 14 intermediate risk (D+/R+) and 3 low risk individuals (D+/R-), and 8 CMV negative controls (D-/R-). Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) levels as a marker for the CD8+ T-cell response were determined by the QuantiFERON-CMV-assay and compared to viral loads determined by PCR. Early CMV reactivation was detected in all high-risk and 13/14 intermediate risk individuals. High-level viremia was detected in 5/7 high and 7/14 intermediate risk patients. Reconstitution of the CMV-specific cellular immune response started from 3 months after transplantation and resulted in protection against CMV reactivation. Re-establishing of CMV-specific T-cell immune responses with IFN- γ levels >8.9 IU/ml is crucial for protection from high-level CMV viremia. Monitoring of HSCT-recipients with the QuantiFERON-CMV-assay might be of great benefit to optimize antiviral treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study: Fifth Grade Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Youn, Min-Jong; Frede, Ellen C.

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey's Abbott Preschool program is of broad national and international interest because the Abbott program provides a model for building a high-quality system of universal pre-K through public-private partnerships that transform the existing system. The program offers high-quality pre-K to all children in 31 New Jersey communities with high…

  5. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1654] Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area... manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Molecular, Inc., within FTZ 22F in Des Plaines and Elk Grove Village...

  6. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-91-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc...

  7. The Abbott Preschool Program: Fifth Year Report on Enrollment and Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Supreme Court's 1998 ruling in Abbott v. Burke represents the first judicial directive in the nation that public education must include a high-quality, well-planned preschool program starting at age three. This decision applies to 30 urban school districts, known as the Abbott districts, that serve approximately 25 percent of the…

  8. Screening for seemingly healthy newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using newborn urine: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Oh-Ishi, Tsutomu; Arai, Takashi; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Asanuma, Satoshi; Oguma, Eiji; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Jiro; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Tadashi; Fujita, Jutaro; Shirato, Ken; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2017-01-20

    Approximately 8-10% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection develop sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the relationship between CMV load, SNHL and central nervous system (CNS) damage in cCMV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between urinary CMV load, SNHL and CNS damage in newborns with cCMV infection. The study included 23 368 newborns from two maternity hospitals in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Urine screening for cCMV infection (quantitative real-time PCR) and newborn hearing screening (automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) testing) were conducted within 5 days of birth to examine the incidence of cCMV infection and SNHL, respectively. CNS damage was assessed by MRI of cCMV-infected newborns. The incidence of cCMV infection was 60/23 368 (0.257%; 95% CI 0.192% to 0.322%). The geometric mean urinary CMV DNA copy number in newborns with cCMV was 1.79×10 6 copies/mL (95% CI 7.97×10 5 to 4.02×10 6 ). AABR testing revealed abnormalities in 171 of the 22 229 (0.769%) newborns whose parents approved hearing screening. Of these 171 newborns, 22 had SNHL (12.9%), and 5 of these 22 were infected with cCMV (22.7%). Newborns with both cCMV and SNHL had a higher urinary CMV DNA copy number than newborns with cCMV without SNHL (p=0.036). MRI revealed CNS damage, including white matter abnormalities, in 83.0% of newborns with cCMV. Moreover, newborns with CNS damage had a significantly greater urinary CMV load than newborns without CNS damage (p=0.013). We determined the incidence of cCMV infection and urinary CMV DNA copy number in seemingly healthy newborns from two hospitals in Saitama Prefecture. SNHL and CNS damage were associated with urinary CMV DNA copy number. Quantification of urinary CMV load may effectively predict the incidence of late-onset SNHL and neurodevelopmental disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  9. Screening for seemingly healthy newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using newborn urine: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Oh-ishi, Tsutomu; Arai, Takashi; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Asanuma, Satoshi; Oguma, Eiji; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Jiro; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Tadashi; Fujita, Jutaro; Shirato, Ken; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2017-01-01

    Objective Approximately 8–10% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection develop sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the relationship between CMV load, SNHL and central nervous system (CNS) damage in cCMV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between urinary CMV load, SNHL and CNS damage in newborns with cCMV infection. Study design The study included 23 368 newborns from two maternity hospitals in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Urine screening for cCMV infection (quantitative real-time PCR) and newborn hearing screening (automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) testing) were conducted within 5 days of birth to examine the incidence of cCMV infection and SNHL, respectively. CNS damage was assessed by MRI of cCMV-infected newborns. Results The incidence of cCMV infection was 60/23 368 (0.257%; 95% CI 0.192% to 0.322%). The geometric mean urinary CMV DNA copy number in newborns with cCMV was 1.79×106 copies/mL (95% CI 7.97×105 to 4.02×106). AABR testing revealed abnormalities in 171 of the 22 229 (0.769%) newborns whose parents approved hearing screening. Of these 171 newborns, 22 had SNHL (12.9%), and 5 of these 22 were infected with cCMV (22.7%). Newborns with both cCMV and SNHL had a higher urinary CMV DNA copy number than newborns with cCMV without SNHL (p=0.036). MRI revealed CNS damage, including white matter abnormalities, in 83.0% of newborns with cCMV. Moreover, newborns with CNS damage had a significantly greater urinary CMV load than newborns without CNS damage (p=0.013). Conclusions We determined the incidence of cCMV infection and urinary CMV DNA copy number in seemingly healthy newborns from two hospitals in Saitama Prefecture. SNHL and CNS damage were associated with urinary CMV DNA copy number. Quantification of urinary CMV load may effectively predict the incidence of late-onset SNHL and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28110288

  10. Clinical Usefulness of Monitoring Cytomegalovirus-Specific Immunity by Quantiferon-CMV in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae Mi; Kim, Yae Jean; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kang, Eun Suk

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-established cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). CD8⁺ T-cells are important for controlling CMV infection. We conducted a prospective pilot study to investigate the clinical utility of measuring the CMV-specific T-cell immune response using the QuantiFERON-CMV assay (QF-CMV) in pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. Overall, 16 of 25 (64%) patients developed CMV infection. QF-CMV was evaluated in these 16 patients during the early and late phases of the first CMV infection post allo-HSCT. Whereas the initial QF-CMV results during the early phase of CMV infection did not correlate with the course of the corresponding infection, the QF-CMV results post resolution of the first CMV infection correlated with the recurrence of CMV infection until 12 months post allo-HSCT; no recurrent infections occurred in the four QF-CMV-positive patients, while recurrent infections manifested in five of eight QF-CMV-negative (62.5%) and all three QF-CMV-indeterminate patients (P=0.019). In spite of the small number of patients examined, this study supports the potential application of monitoring CMV-specific T-cell immunity using the QF-CMV assay to predict the recurrence of CMV infection in pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  11. Automated quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus in whole blood of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients using the Abbott m2000 system.

    PubMed

    Salmona, Maud; Fourati, Slim; Feghoul, Linda; Scieux, Catherine; Thiriez, Aline; Simon, François; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; LeGoff, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    Accurate quantification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in blood is essential for the management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. The automation of DNA extraction and amplification may improve accuracy and reproducibility. We evaluated the EBV PCR Kit V1 with fully automated DNA extraction and amplification on the m2000 system (Abbott assay). Conversion factor between copies and international units (IU), lower limit of quantification, imprecision and linearity were determined in a whole blood (WB) matrix. Results from 339 clinical WB specimens were compared with a home-brew real-time PCR assay used in our laboratory (in-house assay). The conversion factor between copies and IU was 3.22 copies/IU. The lower limit of quantification (LLQ) was 1000 copies/mL. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 3.1% and 7.9% respectively for samples with EBV load higher than the LLQ. The comparison between Abbott assay and in-house assay showed a good concordance (kappa = 0.77). Loads were higher with the Abbott assay (mean difference = 0.62 log10 copies/mL). The EBV PCR Kit V1 assay on the m2000 system provides a reliable and easy-to-use method for quantification of EBV DNA in WB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Right Limits and Reflectionless Measures for CMV Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Jonathan; Ryckman, Eric; Zinchenko, Maxim

    2009-11-01

    We study CMV matrices by focusing on their right-limit sets. We prove a CMV version of a recent result of Remling dealing with the implications of the existence of absolutely continuous spectrum, and we study some of its consequences. We further demonstrate the usefulness of right limits in the study of weak asymptotic convergence of spectral measures and ratio asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials by extending and refining earlier results of Khrushchev. To demonstrate the analogy with the Jacobi case, we recover corresponding previous results of Simon using the same approach.

  13. Transcriptome profiling using Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq of hot pepper for in-depth understanding of genes involved in CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunhui; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Jingyuan

    2018-05-03

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), which is a member of the Solanaceae family, is becoming an increasingly important vegetable crop worldwide. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive virus that can cause leaf distortion and fruit lesions, affecting pepper production. However, studies on the responses to CMV infection in pepper at the transcriptional level are limited. In this study, the transcript profiles of pepper leaves after CMV infection were investigated using Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 2143 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at five different stages. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEGs were involved in the response to stress, defense response and plant-pathogen interaction pathways. Among these DEGs, several key genes that consistently appeared in studies of plant-pathogen interactions had increased transcript abundance after inoculation, including chitinase, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein, TMV resistance protein, WRKY transcription factor and jasmonate ZIM-domain protein. Nine of these DEGs were further validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, a total of 73, 597 alternate splicing (AS) events were identified in the pepper leaves after CMV infection, distributed in 12, 615 genes. The intron retention of WRKY33 (Capana09g001251) might be involved in the regulation of CMV infection. Taken together, our study provides a transcriptome-wide insight into the molecular basis of resistance to CMV infection in pepper leaves and potential candidate genes for improving resistance cultivars. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection: A Guide for Patients and Families After Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection: A Guide for Patients and Families after Stem Cell Transplant What is cytomegalovirus (CMV)? Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ... weakened by medicines that you must take after stem cell transplant and by the transplant itself. Your body ...

  15. Brief Report: Soluble CD163 in CMV-Infected and CMV-Uninfected Subjects on Virologically Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy in the ICONA Cohort.

    PubMed

    Vita, Serena; Lichtner, Miriam; Marchetti, Giulia; Mascia, Claudia; Merlini, Esther; Cicconi, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo; Viale, Pierluigi; Costantini, Andrea; DʼArminio Monforte, Antonella

    2017-03-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the role played by cytomegalovirus (CMV) in sustaining monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation in antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-infected subjects. We selected 23 CMV-uninfected and 46 CMV-infected HIV+ subjects, matched for age, CD4 nadir, HIV infection duration, and viral hepatitis serostatus. All subjects were on successful antiretroviral therapy since at least 1 year. A group of 16 healthy donors with similar age and sex was also included. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, sCD163, sCD14, and CMV immunoglobulin G levels were measured in duplicate with human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. We found significantly higher sCD163 plasma levels in HIV+CMV+ compared with HIV+CMV- subjects and healthy donors. This augmentation was confirmed also when subjects positive for hepatitis C virus-Ab were excluded from analysis. Interestingly, a correlation between anti-CMV immunoglobulin G levels and sCD163, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and sCD14 in HIV+CMV+ subjects was found. CMV coinfection could be a major driver of monocyte/macrophage activation in virally suppressed HIV+ individuals and might explain the increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity/mortality in HIV/CMV-coinfected subjects.

  16. Protective Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Specific T-Cell Immunity Is Frequent in Kidney Transplant Patients without Serum Anti-CMV Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Litjens, Nicolle H. R.; Huang, Ling; Dedeoglu, Burç; Meijers, Ruud W. J.; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Betjes, Michiel G. H.

    2017-01-01

    The absence of anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) is used to classify pretransplant patients as naïve for CMV infection (CMVneg patients). This study assessed whether pretransplant CMV-specific T-cell immunity exists in CMVneg patients and whether it protects against CMV infection after kidney transplantation. The results show that CMV-specific CD137+IFNγ+CD4+ and CD137+IFNγ+CD8+ memory T cells were present in 46 and 39% of CMVneg patients (n = 28) although at much lower frequencies compared to CMVpos patients (median 0.01 versus 0.58% for CD4+ and 0.05 versus 0.64% for CD8+ T cells) with a less differentiated CD28-expressing phenotype. In line with these data, CMV-specific proliferative CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed in CMVneg patients, which significantly correlated with the frequency of CMV-specific T cells. CMV-specific IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) could be detected at low frequency in 36% of CMVneg patients (1 versus 45 ASC/105 cells in CMVpos patients). CMVneg patients with pretransplant CMV-specific CD137+IFNγ+CD4+ T cells had a lower risk to develop CMV viremia after transplantation with a CMVpos donor kidney (relative risk: 0.43, P = 0.03). In conclusion, a solitary CMV-specific T-cell response without detectable anti-CMV antibodies is frequent and clinically relevant as it is associated with protection to CMV infection following transplantation with a kidney from a CMVpos donor. PMID:28955345

  17. Comparison of Standardized Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Viral Load Thresholds in Whole Blood and Plasma of Solid Organ and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients with CMV Infection and Disease.

    PubMed

    Dioverti, M Veronica; Lahr, Brian D; Germer, Jeffrey J; Yao, Joseph D; Gartner, Michelle L; Razonable, Raymund R

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in the management of transplant recipients. We aimed to assess a viral load in plasma and whole blood that distinguishes CMV disease from asymptomatic infection in a cohort of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We prospectively measured and compared CMV viral load in paired plasma and whole blood samples collected from transplant recipients with CMV infection and disease. Cytomegalovirus viral loads were determined by a commercially available US Food and Drug Administration-approved quantitative assay (COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan CMV Test [CAP/CTM CMV]) calibrated to the first World Health Organization International Standard for CMV DNA quantification. Moderate agreement of CMV viral load was observed between plasma and whole blood, with 31% of samples having discordant findings, particularly among samples with low DNA levels. Among the subset of samples where both paired samples had quantifiable levels, we observed a systematic bias that reflected higher viral load in whole blood compared with plasma. Based on receiver operating curve analysis, an initial plasma CMV viral load threshold of 1700 IU/mL in solid organ transplant recipients (sensitivity 80%, specificity 74%) and 1350 IU/mL in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (sensitivity 87%, specificity 87%) distinguished CMV disease and asymptomatic infection. This study identifies standardized viral load thresholds that distinguish CMV disease from asymptomatic infection using CAP/CTM CMV assay. We propose these thresholds as potential triggers to be evaluated in prospective studies of preemptive therapy. Plasma was better than whole blood for measuring viral load using the CAP/CTM CMV assay.

  18. Replication of CMV in the gut of HIV-infected individuals and epithelial barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Somsouk, Ma; Hunt, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function. Using a combination of state-of-the-art in situ hybridization technology (RNAscope) and immunohistochemistry, we detected CMV DNA and proteins and evidence of intestinal damage in rectosigmoid samples from CMV-positive individuals with both untreated and ART-suppressed HIV infection. Two different model systems, primary human intestinal cells differentiated in vitro to form polarized monolayers and a humanized mouse model of human gut, together demonstrated that intestinal epithelial cells are fully permissive to CMV replication. Independent of HIV, CMV disrupted tight junctions of polarized intestinal cells, significantly reducing transepithelial electrical resistance, a measure of monolayer integrity, and enhancing transepithelial permeability. The effect of CMV infection on the intestinal epithelium is mediated, at least in part, by the CMV-induced proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Furthermore, letermovir, a novel anti-CMV drug, dampened the effects of CMV on the epithelium. Together, our data strongly suggest that CMV can disrupt epithelial junctions, leading to bacterial translocation and chronic inflammation in the gut and that CMV could serve as a target for therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat gut epithelial barrier dysfunction during HIV infection. PMID:28241080

  19. Detection of CMV pneumonitis after lung transplantation using PCR of DNA from bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed

    Bewig, B; Haacke, T C; Tiroke, A; Bastian, A; Böttcher, H; Hirt, S W; Rautenberg, P; Haverich, A

    2000-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known as a common pathogen causing infections after lung transplantation. Rapid diagnosis of CMV infection is important for the initiation of a specific treatment. Evaluation of methods for the rapid diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis. The detection rates of CMV DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial brushes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of viral antigens (p52 and IE1) in BAL and of pp65 antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes were compared to the clinical status after lung transplantation. In 28 patients, 105 BAL, 96 blood samples and 14 brushes were analyzed. In 6 patients, a total of eight episodes of CMV pneumonitis occurred. Five of the 6 with positive CMV antigens in BAL (p52 or IE1) showed signs of CMV pneumonitis. All episodes of CMV pneumonitis were detected by the PCR of BAL cells. Fourteen samples positive for CMV pp65 antigen in blood were negative in BAL PCR. In these cases, no clinical signs of pulmonary CMV infection occurred. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of CMV pneumonitis by PCR of BAL cells were 100, 98.9, 88.9 and 100%, respectively. In brush samples, PCR did not provide additional information to the results of the PCR of BAL cells. PCR of DNA from BAL cells is suitable for reliable and rapid detection of CMV pneumonitis. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, Soraya E; Yepes, Jayr A; Anzola, Irina; Aponte, Hernán; Llerena-Polo, Claudia R

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert ® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-infection of two beta-herpesviruses (CMV and HHV-7) as an increased risk factor for 'CMV disease' in patients undergoing renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chapenko, S; Folkmane, I; Tomsone, V; Amerika, D; Rozentals, R; Murovska, M

    2000-10-01

    The ubiquity of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7), as well as activation of these viruses during immunosuppression, allows the suggestion that both viruses could participate in the development of 'CMV disease' in patients after renal transplantation (RT). The aim of our research was to study the prevalence of latent CMV and HHV-7 infections in patients before RT, to determine interaction between these viruses in dual infection and possible association of their reactivation with the progression of 'CMV disease' after RT. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 49 patients before and up to 10-12 wk after RT. The methods used for diagnostics of viral infections were: serology, nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and plasma, and virus isolation in cell cultures (morphological changes, nPCR analysis of cellular and cell-free samples, indirect immunofluorescence analysis). Before RT, CMV and HHV-7 DNAs were detected in PBL but not in the plasma samples, which indicates the presence of latent viral infection in patients. Latent dual (CMV + HHV-7) infection was prevalent (51.0%) in 49 patients, while CMV and HHV-7 infections alone were detected in 26.5 and 12.2% of patients, respectively. Risk of viral disease after RT, for recipients with latent dual infection before RT, was 12- and 2.2-fold higher in comparison with CMV and HHV-7 infections alone, respectively. Frequency of dual infection in 18 recipients with 'viral syndrome' or 'CMV disease' after RT was reliably higher (13/18, 81.3%) than CMV (1/18, 6.2%) (p < 0.025) and HHV-7 (2/18, 12.5%) (p < 0.025) infections alone. HHV-7 reactivation preceded CMV reactivation in 77.0% of the cases of dual infection in the recipients with viral disease and reactivation of both viruses preceded the development of viral disease. Severe 'CMV disease' developed in 2 out of 2 recipients with CMV primary infection and 'viral syndrome' in 1 recipient with

  2. CMV pneumonia in allogeneic BMT recipients undergoing early treatment of pre-emptive ganciclovir therapy.

    PubMed

    Machado, C M; Dulley, F L; Boas, L S; Castelli, J B; Macedo, M C; Silva, R L; Pallota, R; Saboya, R S; Pannuti, C S

    2000-08-01

    The incidence, treatment and outcome of CMV interstitial pneumonia (CMV-IP) were reviewed in 139 consecutive allogeneic BMT patients undergoing extended CMV antigenemia surveillance and two different ganciclovir (GCV) strategies to control CMV infection. Nineteen cases of CMV-IP were reviewed, 16 of 63 patients (25.4%) who received early GCV treatment (ET) and three of 76 patients (3.9%) who received preemptive (PE) GCV therapy. In the ET group, the median time for occurrence of CMV-IP was 55 (range 36 to 311) days. Two patients had three episodes of CMV-IP recurrences after day +100. CMV-IP-related death occurred in two patients (15.4%). In the PE group, 41 patients received pre-emptive GCV therapy prompted by the appearance of positive antigenemia > or =2 cells. The median time for the occurrence of CMV-IP was 92 (range 48 to 197) days. Response to therapy was observed when GCV was introduced within 6 days of antigenemia positivity. The use of IVIg in association with GCV did not play a major role in response to therapy. The median time for occurrence of CMV-IP was delayed during PE strategy and the cost-effectiveness of CMV surveillance after day +100 should be investigated in this population.

  3. CMV mismatch does not affect patient and graft survival in UK renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachel J; Clatworthy, Menna R; Birch, Rhiannon; Hammad, Abdul; Bradley, J Andrew

    2009-07-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the major infections encountered posttransplantation. UK Guidelines (2003) recommend CMV prophylaxis or screening with preemptive treatment for all high risk recipients. Studies predating the widespread use of CMV prophylaxis have shown that CMV seronegative recipients (R-) receiving a renal allograft from a CMV seropositive donor (D+) have worse outcomes than those avoiding primary CMV infection. Therefore, it has been suggested that CMV matching should be a part of the UK national deceased donor kidney allocation scheme. We examined patient and allograft survival according to donor and recipient CMV serostatus in 10,190 UK adult and pediatric deceased donor renal transplant recipients transplanted between 2000 and 2007. We also ascertained CMV prophylaxis strategies in all UK renal transplant units. Twenty-one of the 22 UK renal transplant centers used prophylactic oral valganciclovir for 3 months posttransplant in the D+R- transplants, having done so for a median of 4 years. Unadjusted data showed that D+R+ rather than D+R- transplants had the lowest patient and allograft survivals at 3 years posttransplant. However, after adjustment for donor age, there was no significant effect of donor and recipient CMV serostatus on allograft or patient survival. These findings suggest that in an era where CMV prophylaxis is used routinely in D+R- transplants, the previously noted adverse effects of primary CMV infection on allograft and patient survival can be avoided (perhaps through a reduction in the incidence and/or severity of primary CMV infection), without using a CMV-matching allocation scheme.

  4. Lower incidence of CMV infection and acute rejections with valganciclovir prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. CMV replication in the lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Finding a strategy to prevent CMV infection is an important issue. Methods We performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 114 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) who underwent lung transplantation from January 2001 to December 2006. In a smaller cohort of 88 CMV seropositive (R+) LTRs, three months of valganciclovir prophylaxis (2004-2006) was compared to three months of oral ganciclovir (2001-2003) with respect to the incidence of CMV infection/disease, the severity of CMV disease, acute rejection, BOS-free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. In the whole group of 114 LTRs the impact of CMV infection on long-term survival (BOS free 4 year survival and 6 year survival) was assessed. Results For the cohort of 88 CMV seropositive LTRs, the incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was lower in the valganciclovir group compared to the ganciclovir group (24% vs. 54%, p = 0.003). There was a tendency towards reduced CMV disease, from 33% to 20% and a significant lower incidence of asymptomatic CMV infection (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.005). A lower incidence of acute rejection was observed in the valganciclovir group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BOS free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. For the entire group of 114 LTRs, BOS-free 4 year survival for recipients with CMV disease was (32%, p = 0.005) and among those with asymptomatic CMV infection (36%, p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). Conclusions A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute rejections was

  5. Transitioning cytomegalovirus viral load testing from a laboratory developed test to the cobas® CMV quantitative nucleic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael; Merrick, Linda; Lawson, Tanya; Ritchie, Gordon; Lowe, Christopher

    2018-04-16

    Commutability between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load assays (VLA) is poor, despite the development of a WHO CMV International Standard (CMV IS). We evaluated a new CMV VLA, cobas ® CMV, as compared to our current laboratory developed CMV VLA (LDT), for clinical use. Both the LDT and cobas ® CMV were run in parallel for 109 patient samples. In addition, 104 replicates, over 8 dilutions, of the CMV IS were tested. Conversion factors and correlation between the two assays were calculated. The correlation coefficient between the LDT and cobas ® CMV was 0.91 for patient samples. The Bland-Altman graph displayed a systematic bias of +0.31 log 10 for the cobas ® CMV as compared to the LDT. The bias was greater for lower CMV viral loads. This increase in CMV viral loads was not seen with testing of the CMV IS dilutions by both the LDT and cobas ® CMV. CMV VLA inter-assay commutability continues to be an issue when switching CMV testing platforms and requires communication between the laboratory and clinicians during the transition period to prevent misinterpretation of results. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of CMV coinfection among HIV infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Grønborg, Helene L; Jespersen, Sanne; Egedal, Johanne H; Correia, Faustino G; Medina, Candida; Krarup, Henrik; Hønge, Bo L; Wejse, Christian

    2018-05-31

    To describe the prevalence of CMV in a cohort of HIV infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa and to evaluate differences in patients' clinical characteristics associated with their CMV status. Newly diagnosed HIV infected adults were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study, from May until December 2015. Enrolled patients were interviewed and underwent a full physical examination focusing on CMV disease manifestations. Blood samples were analyzed for CMV serology, QuantiFERON-CMV response and CMV DNA. Mortality follow-up were registered for one year after inclusion. In total, 180 patients were enrolled. Anti-CMV IgG positivity was found in 138/138 (100%) and 4/138 (2.8%) were anti-CMV IgM positive. A positive QuantiFERON-CMV response was found in 60/70 (85.7%) of the patients and 83/137 (60.6%) had CMV viremia. QuantiFERON-CMV response and detectable CMV DNA were associated with lower CD4 cell count, older age, and upper gastrointestinal complaints. During one year of follow-up, the IRR for death among CMV DNA positive patients was 1.5 (p=0.5). CMV coinfection was detected among all enrolled patients and CMV viremia was highly prevalent. Only age and upper gastrointestinal complaints were associated with the patients' CMV status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of minimally manipulated CMV-specific T cells from stem cell or third-party donors to treat CMV infection after allo-HSCT.

    PubMed

    Neuenhahn, M; Albrecht, J; Odendahl, M; Schlott, F; Dössinger, G; Schiemann, M; Lakshmipathi, S; Martin, K; Bunjes, D; Harsdorf, S; Weissinger, E M; Menzel, H; Verbeek, M; Uharek, L; Kröger, N; Wagner, E; Kobbe, G; Schroeder, T; Schmitt, M; Held, G; Herr, W; Germeroth, L; Bonig, H; Tonn, T; Einsele, H; Busch, D H; Grigoleit, G U

    2017-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common, potentially life-threatening complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We assessed prospectively the safety and efficacy of stem cell-donor- or third-party-donor-derived CMV-specific T cells for the treatment of persistent CMV infections after allo-HSCT in a phase I/IIa trial. Allo-HSCT patients with drug-refractory CMV infection and lacking virus-specific T cells were treated with a single dose of ex vivo major histocompatibility complex-Streptamer-isolated CMV epitope-specific donor T cells. Forty-four allo-HSCT patients receiving a T-cell-replete (D + repl; n=28) or T-cell-depleted (D + depl; n=16) graft from a CMV-seropositive donor were screened for CMV-specific T-cell immunity. Eight D + depl recipients received adoptive T-cell therapy from their stem cell donor. CMV epitope-specific T cells were well supported and became detectable in all treated patients. Complete and partial virological response rates were 62.5% and 25%, respectively. Owing to longsome third-party donor (TPD) identification, only 8 of the 57 CMV patients transplanted from CMV-seronegative donors (D - ) received antigen-specific T cells from partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched TPDs. In all but one, TPD-derived CMV-specific T cells remained undetectable. In summary, adoptive transfer correlated with functional virus-specific T-cell reconstitution in D + depl patients. Suboptimal HLA match may counteract expansion of TPD-derived virus-specific T cells in D - patients.

  8. Preemptive treatment approach to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant patients: relationship between compliance with the guidelines and prevention of CMV morbidity.

    PubMed

    Künzle, N; Petignat, C; Francioli, P; Vogel, G; Seydoux, C; Corpataux, J M; Sahli, R; Meylan, P R

    2000-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a major cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant patients. In order to reduce CMV morbidity, we designed a program of routine virological monitoring that included throat and urine CMV shell vial culture, along with peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) shell vial quantitative culture for 12 weeks post-transplantation, as well as 8 weeks after treatment for acute rejection. The program also included preemptive ganciclovir treatment for those patients with the highest risk of developing CMV disease, i.e., with either high-level viremia (>10 infectious units [IU]/106 PBL) or low-level viremia (<10 IU/106 PBL) and either D+/R- CMV serostatus or treatment for graft rejection. During 1995-96, 90 solid organ transplant recipients (39 kidneys, 28 livers, and 23 hearts) were followed up. A total of 60 CMV infection episodes occurred in 45 patients. Seventeen episodes were symptomatic. Of 26 episodes managed according to the program, only 4 presented with CMV disease and none died. No patient treated preemptively for asymptomatic infection developed disease. In contrast, among 21 episodes managed in non-compliance with the program (i.e., the monitoring was not performed or preemptive treatment was not initiated despite a high risk of developing CMV disease), 12 episodes turned into symptomatic infection (P=0.0048 compared to patients treated preemptively), and 2 deaths possibly related to CMV were recorded. This difference could not be explained by an increased proportion of D+/R- patients or an increased incidence of rejection among patients with episodes treated in non-compliance with the program. Our data identify compliance with guidelines as an important factor in effectively reducing CMV morbidity through preemptive treatment, and suggest that the complexity of the preemptive approach may represent an important obstacle to the successful prevention of CMV morbidity by this approach in the regular healthcare setting.

  9. A checklist of the vascular plants in Abbott Creek Research Natural Area, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Rod Mitchell

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a checklist of 277 vascular plant taxa that have been collected or encountered in Abbott Creek Research Natural Area, Oregon; a brief description of five forested and two nonforested vegetation types is included.

  10. Fever of unknown origin (FUO): CMV infectious mononucleosis or lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Chawla, Karishma

    2018-07-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to fevers of > 101 °F that persist for > 3 weeks and remain undiagnosed after a focused inpatient or outpatient workup. FUO may be due to infectious, malignant/neoplastic, rheumatic/inflammatory, or miscellaneous disorders. The FUO category determines the focus of the diagnostic workup. In the case presented of an FUO in a young woman, there were clinical findings of both CMV infectious mononucleosis or a lymphoma, e.g., highly elevated ESR, elevated ferritin levels, and elevated ACE level, β-2 microglobulins. The indium scan showed intense splenic uptake. Lymph node biopsy, PET scan, and flow cytometry were negative for lymphoma. CMV infectious mononucleosis was the diagnosis, and she made a slow recovery.

  11. Murine model for congenital CMV infection and hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and SNHL is the most frequent sequela of congenital CMV infection. But the pathogenic mechanism remains unknown, and there is no ideal CMV intrauterine infection animal model to study the mechanisms by which SNHL develops. Methods We established the congenital murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection model by directly injecting the virus into the placenta on day 12.5 of gestation. Then, we observed the development and the MCMV congenital infection rate of the fetuses on the day they were born. Furthermore, we detected the auditory functions, the conditions of the MCMV infection, and the histological change of the inner ears of 28-day-old and 70-day-old offspring. Results Both the fetal loss rate and the teratism rate of offspring whose placentas were inoculated with MCMV increased, and their body length, head circumference, and weight decreased. The hearing level of offspring both decreased at both 28- and 70-days post birth; the 70-day-old mice developed lower hearing levels than did the 28-day old mice. No significant inflammatory changes in the cochleae of the mice were observed. MCMV DNA signals were mainly detected in the spiral ganglion neurons and the endolymph area, but not in the perilymph area. The number of neurons decreased, and their ultrastructures changed. Moreover, with age, the number of neurons dramatically decreased, and the ultrastructural lesions of neurons became much more severe. Conclusions The results suggest that the direct injection of MCMV into the placenta may efficiently cause fetal infection and disturb the intrauterine development of the fetus, and placental inoculation itself has no obvious adverse effects on offspring. The reduction in the number of spiral ganglion neurons and the ultrastructural lesions of the neurons may be the major cause of congenital CMV infection-induced progressive SNHL. PMID:21320351

  12. Murine model for congenital CMV infection and hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Juanjuan, Chen; Yan, Feng; Li, Chen; Haizhi, Liu; Ling, Wang; Xinrong, Wang; Juan, Xiao; Tao, Liu; Zongzhi, Yin; Suhua, Chen

    2011-02-15

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and SNHL is the most frequent sequela of congenital CMV infection. But the pathogenic mechanism remains unknown, and there is no ideal CMV intrauterine infection animal model to study the mechanisms by which SNHL develops. We established the congenital murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection model by directly injecting the virus into the placenta on day 12.5 of gestation. Then, we observed the development and the MCMV congenital infection rate of the fetuses on the day they were born. Furthermore, we detected the auditory functions, the conditions of the MCMV infection, and the histological change of the inner ears of 28-day-old and 70-day-old offspring. Both the fetal loss rate and the teratism rate of offspring whose placentas were inoculated with MCMV increased, and their body length, head circumference, and weight decreased. The hearing level of offspring both decreased at both 28- and 70-days post birth; the 70-day-old mice developed lower hearing levels than did the 28-day old mice. No significant inflammatory changes in the cochleae of the mice were observed. MCMV DNA signals were mainly detected in the spiral ganglion neurons and the endolymph area, but not in the perilymph area. The number of neurons decreased, and their ultrastructures changed. Moreover, with age, the number of neurons dramatically decreased, and the ultrastructural lesions of neurons became much more severe. The results suggest that the direct injection of MCMV into the placenta may efficiently cause fetal infection and disturb the intrauterine development of the fetus, and placental inoculation itself has no obvious adverse effects on offspring. The reduction in the number of spiral ganglion neurons and the ultrastructural lesions of the neurons may be the major cause of congenital CMV infection-induced progressive SNHL.

  13. Maude Abbott and the Origin and Mysterious Disappearance of the Canadian Medical War Museum.

    PubMed

    Wright, James R; Alberti, Samuel J M M; Lyons, Christopher; Fraser, Richard S

    2018-05-07

    - In the early 1900s, it was common practice to retain, prepare, and display instructive pathologic specimens to teach pathology to medical trainees and practitioners; these collections were called medical museums. Maude Abbott established her reputation by developing expertise in all aspects of medical museum work. She was a founder of the International Association of Medical Museums (later renamed the International Academy of Pathology) and became an internationally renowned expert on congenital heart disease. Her involvement in the Canadian Medical War Museum (CMWM) is less well known. - To explore Abbott's role in the development of the CMWM during and after World War I and to trace its history. - Available primary and secondary historical sources were reviewed. - Instructive pathologic specimens derived from Canadian soldiers dying during World War I were shipped to the Royal College of Surgeons in London, which served as a clearinghouse for museum specimens from Dominion forces. The Canadian specimens were repatriated to Canada, prepared by Abbott, and displayed at several medical meetings. Abbott, because she was a woman, could not enlist and so she reported to a series of enlisted physicians with no expertise in museology. Plans for a permanent CMWM building in Ottawa eventually failed and Abbott maintained the collection at McGill (Montreal, Quebec, Canada) until her death in 1940. We trace the CMWM after her death. - Sadly, after Abbott had meticulously prepared these precious teaching specimens so that their previous owners' ultimate sacrifice would continue to help their military brethren, the relics were bureaucratically lost.

  14. How Do Donor-Recipient CMV Serostatus and Post-Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation CMV Reactivation Affect Outcomes in Acute Leukemia Patients?

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Mohammad; Kasaeian, Amir; Souri, Maryam; Soufiyan, Faeze; Shokri Boosjin, Amir; Setarehdan, Seyed Amin; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2017-07-01

    Background : This study evaluated CMV serostatus in donors and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and its effects on CMV reactivation of patients and all aspects of CMV on HSCT outcomes. Materials and Methods : Seven hundred and five adult acute leukemia patients (AML=408 and AML=297) who had undergone HSCT were included in this retrospective study. We categorized donor-recipient pairs in three risk groups: positive donors (D+) were studied as high-risk group, including either R+ or R-(n=485), R-D- as low-risk group (n=32) and R+D- as intermediate group (n=15). Results: There was no statistically difference in CMV reactivation among these risk groups (P=0.14).CMV infection rate was lower in R+D+ than R+D-(p=0.050). Multivariate analysis showed that patients developing CMV infection had lower overall survival (p=0.04, HR: 1.43, CI=1.00- 2.05) and higher non- relapse mortality (P=0.01, HR: 1.62, CI=1.11-2.38). Relapse rate did not change in CMV reactivated patients (P=0.94). Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that asCMV reactivation occurred more in R+D- patients compared to R+D+ ones, and was associated with inferior OS and higher NRM it could be suggested that in contrast to general belief, if the recipient is seropositive , seropositive donor is preferred to a seronegative one.

  15. Tissue reservoirs of antiviral T cell immunity in persistent human CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Claire L; Miron, Michelle; Thome, Joseph J C; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Weiner, Joshua; Rak, Michael A; Igarashi, Suzu; Granot, Tomer; Lerner, Harvey; Goodrum, Felicia; Farber, Donna L

    2017-03-06

    T cell responses to viruses are initiated and maintained in tissue sites; however, knowledge of human antiviral T cells is largely derived from blood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) persists in most humans, requires T cell immunity to control, yet tissue immune responses remain undefined. Here, we investigated human CMV-specific T cells, virus persistence and CMV-associated T cell homeostasis in blood, lymphoid, mucosal and secretory tissues of 44 CMV seropositive and 28 seronegative donors. CMV-specific T cells were maintained in distinct distribution patterns, highest in blood, bone marrow (BM), or lymph nodes (LN), with the frequency and function in blood distinct from tissues. CMV genomes were detected predominantly in lung and also in spleen, BM, blood and LN. High frequencies of activated CMV-specific T cells were found in blood and BM samples with low virus detection, whereas in lung, CMV-specific T cells were present along with detectable virus. In LNs, CMV-specific T cells exhibited quiescent phenotypes independent of virus. Overall, T cell differentiation was enhanced in sites of viral persistence with age. Together, our results suggest tissue T cell reservoirs for CMV control shaped by both viral and tissue-intrinsic factors, with global effects on homeostasis of tissue T cells over the lifespan. @Gordon et al.

  16. Quantitative analysis of CMV DNA in children the first year after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kullberg-Lindh, Carola; Ascher, Henry; Krantz, Marie; Lindh, Magnus

    2003-08-01

    CMV infection is a major problem after solid organ transplantation especially in children where primary infection is more common than in adults. Early diagnosis is critical and might be facilitated by quantitative analysis of CMV DNA in blood. In this retrospective study of 18 children who had a liver transplantation 1995-2000, serum samples were analysed by Cobas Amplicor Monitor (Roche). Four patients developed symptomatic CMV infection at a mean time of 4 wk after transplantation. They showed maximum CMV DNA levels in serum of 26 400, 1900, 1300 and 970 copies/mL, respectively. In comparison, CA Monitor was positive, at a low level (415 copies/mL), in one of 11 patients with asymptomatic (4) or latent (7) infection. CMV IgM was detected at significant levels (> or =1/80) in all four patients with symptomatic, and in one with asymptomatic CMV infection. Eight patients were given one or several courses of ganciclovir. Five of these lacked symptoms of CMV disease, and had low (415 copies/mL) or undetectable CMV DNA in serum. The data suggest that quantitative analysis of CMV DNA may be of value in early identification of CMV disease and for avoiding unnecessary antiviral treatment.

  17. Tissue reservoirs of antiviral T cell immunity in persistent human CMV infection

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Claire L.; Thome, Joseph J.C.; Igarashi, Suzu

    2017-01-01

    T cell responses to viruses are initiated and maintained in tissue sites; however, knowledge of human antiviral T cells is largely derived from blood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) persists in most humans, requires T cell immunity to control, yet tissue immune responses remain undefined. Here, we investigated human CMV-specific T cells, virus persistence and CMV-associated T cell homeostasis in blood, lymphoid, mucosal and secretory tissues of 44 CMV seropositive and 28 seronegative donors. CMV-specific T cells were maintained in distinct distribution patterns, highest in blood, bone marrow (BM), or lymph nodes (LN), with the frequency and function in blood distinct from tissues. CMV genomes were detected predominantly in lung and also in spleen, BM, blood and LN. High frequencies of activated CMV-specific T cells were found in blood and BM samples with low virus detection, whereas in lung, CMV-specific T cells were present along with detectable virus. In LNs, CMV-specific T cells exhibited quiescent phenotypes independent of virus. Overall, T cell differentiation was enhanced in sites of viral persistence with age. Together, our results suggest tissue T cell reservoirs for CMV control shaped by both viral and tissue-intrinsic factors, with global effects on homeostasis of tissue T cells over the lifespan. PMID:28130404

  18. [Cytomegalovirus infection after heart transplantation. Retrospective analysis of an antiviral CMV prevention].

    PubMed

    Antretter, H; Höfer, D; Klaus, A; Larcher, C; Margreiter, J; Margreiter, R

    2000-04-14

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common viral infection in the early period after heart transplantation (HTX) and causes a significant morbidity and mortality. Although controversial, CMV is related to acute and chronic allograft rejection and to the development of graft vascular disease. It therefore plays an important role in the long-time outcome after solid organ transplantation. 45 patients received a new heart between 1.1.97 and 31.12.1998. All of them were enrolled postoperatively in three-month antiviral prophylaxis (Cymevene). Only those patients were excluded from prophylaxis who were seronegative for CMV and received hearts from seronegative donors (n = 6). The pp65 antigenaemia assay and the murex hybrid capture CMV DNA assay on peripheral blood as well as the early antigen detection in the urine were used for CMV detection and also for monitoring. A total number of 580 assays were analysed (12.9 assays/patient). 561 tests (96.7%) were negative, 19 (3.3%) were positive. For CMV testing the pp65 antigenemia assay was used in 64.1%, the murex hybrid capture CMV DNA assay in 18.4% and the urine early antigen detection in 17.4%. Three patients (6.7%) developed viraemia during the first 3 postoperative months. Two patients (4.4%) suffered from CMV infection 8 and 9 months after heart transplantation and had to be treated with antiviral agents. Three patients (6.7%) died early after transplantation, but none had a CMV infection. Prevention of CMV disease was successful with three months of antiviral CMV prophylaxis after HTX. Asymptomatic viraemia during the prophylaxis period did not lead to tissue invasive disease. It is possible to carry out rapid CMV detection and CMV monitoring with the commercially available antigenaemia assays.

  19. Knowledge of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) among physical and occupational therapists in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong-Heimsoth, Amy; Thomas, Jodi

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva. Pediatric therapists have regular close contact with young children, and are thus likely at elevated occupational risk of acquiring CMV. Our objective was to evaluate therapist knowledge of cCMV and its transmission. We recruited American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) and American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) members via electronic newsletters and printed flyers from April to September 2015. Participants completed an online, anonymous 24-question survey using Survey Monkey. We compared responses between groups and previously published CMV awareness data using binomial tests of difference of proportions and multiple logistic regression. Our study identified both a low level of therapist awareness and poor demonstrated understanding of cCMV. Self-reported cCMV awareness amongst therapists was greater than awareness in the general population, and equivalent to awareness amongst health care professionals. Whereas 52% of participants self-reported awareness of cCMV, only 18% demonstrated understanding of the behavioral modes of CMV transmission. Fewer therapists reported awareness of cCMV than other, less prevalent conditions. Higher levels of health risk knowledge were associated with greater contact with children. Most participants reported learning about cCMV from the workplace. The knowledge gaps between self-reported awareness of cCMV and demonstrated understanding of modes of transmission described by our results emphasize the

  20. Knowledge of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) among physical and occupational therapists in the United States.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Kathleen M; Armstrong-Heimsoth, Amy; Thomas, Jodi

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva. Pediatric therapists have regular close contact with young children, and are thus likely at elevated occupational risk of acquiring CMV. Our objective was to evaluate therapist knowledge of cCMV and its transmission. We recruited American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) and American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) members via electronic newsletters and printed flyers from April to September 2015. Participants completed an online, anonymous 24-question survey using Survey Monkey. We compared responses between groups and previously published CMV awareness data using binomial tests of difference of proportions and multiple logistic regression. Our study identified both a low level of therapist awareness and poor demonstrated understanding of cCMV. Self-reported cCMV awareness amongst therapists was greater than awareness in the general population, and equivalent to awareness amongst health care professionals. Whereas 52% of participants self-reported awareness of cCMV, only 18% demonstrated understanding of the behavioral modes of CMV transmission. Fewer therapists reported awareness of cCMV than other, less prevalent conditions. Higher levels of health risk knowledge were associated with greater contact with children. Most participants reported learning about cCMV from the workplace. The knowledge gaps between self-reported awareness of cCMV and demonstrated understanding of modes of transmission described by our results emphasize the

  1. Immunostimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV): helper T cell-dependent activation of immunoglobulin production in vitro by lymphocytes from CMV-immune donors

    SciTech Connect

    Yachie, A.; Tosato, G.; Straus, S.E.

    1985-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the cause of a number of different diseases ranging from self-limited benign infections in healthy adults to life threatening illnesses among immunocompromised hosts and newborns. Suppression of cell-mediated immunity is often found in cases of acute CMV infection, and in addition, the virus may also be a potent stimulant of lymphoid cells in vivo. The authors studied cellular proliferation and immunoglobulin (Ig) production induced by CMV to determine its effect on human lymphocytes in vitro. The CMV that was added to cultures of lymphocytes from CMV-seronegative donors failed to induce either significant cellular proliferation or Ig production.more » By contrast, CMV-stimulated cultures from CMV-seropositive donors induced both prominent cellular proliferation and Ig production. B cell differentiation into Ig-secreting cells required the presence of T cells, and this T cell help was sensitive to irradiation with 2000 rad and to treatment with cyclosporin A. When T cells were depleted of OKT4+ cells with monoclonal antibody and complement, the co-cultured B cells failed to produce Ig, whereas the depletion of OKT8+ cells had no effect on the Ig-secreting cell response. Inactivation of CMV before culture did not result in a reduction of either cellular proliferation or Ig production. Thus, infection of target cells is not required for in vitro lymphocyte activation by CMV. These results demonstrate that CMV is a potent activator of B cells inducing Ig production in vitro, and that this process requires the presence of virus-specific memory T cells.« less

  2. CMV-specific T-cell immunity in solid organ transplant recipients at low risk of CMV infection. Chronology and applicability in preemptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Mena-Romo, Juan Damián; Pérez Romero, Pilar; Martín-Gandul, Cecilia; Gentil, Miguel Ángel; Suárez-Artacho, Gonzalo; Lage, Ernesto; Sánchez, Magdalena; Cordero, Elisa

    2017-10-01

    To characterize whether the CMV-specific cellular immune response can be used as a predictor of the control of CMV infection and disease and determine thresholds in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients seropositive for CMV (R+). The CMV-specific T-cell response was characterized using intracellular cytokine staining and the evolution of clinical and virological parameters were recorded during the first year after transplantation. Besides having positive CMV serology, only 28.4% patients had positive immunity (CD8 + CD69 + IFN-γ + ≥0.25%) at 2 weeks after transplantation. These patients had less indication of preemptive treatment (p = 0.025) and developed less high grade (≥2000 IU/ml) CMV replication episodes (p = 0.006) than patients with no immunity. Of the 49 patients with a pretransplant sample, only 22.4% had positive immunity, and had a detectable immune response early after transplantation (median of 3.7 weeks). However, only 50% of patients with negative pretransplant immunity acquired a positive immune response and it was significantly later, at a median of 11 weeks (p < 0.001). Patients that developed CMV disease had no CMV-specific immunity. Having CMV-specific CD8 + IFN-γ + cells ≥0.25% before transplant; 0.15% at two weeks or 0.25% at four weeks after transplantation, identifies patients that may spontaneously control CMV infection and may require less monitoring. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased transplant-related morbidity and mortality in CMV-seropositive patients despite highly effective prevention of CMV disease after allogeneic T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Broers, A E; van Der Holt, R; van Esser, J W; Gratama, J W; Henzen-Logmans, S; Kuenen-Boumeester, V; Löwenberg, B; Cornelissen, J J

    2000-04-01

    We evaluated the efficacy, toxicity, and outcome of preemptive ganciclovir (GCV) therapy in 80 cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients allografted between 1991 and 1996 and compared their outcome to 35 seronegative patients allografted during the same period. Both cohorts were comparable with respect to diagnosis and distribution of high- versus standard-risk patients. All patients received a stem cell graft from an HLA-identical sibling donor, and grafts were partially depleted of T cells in 109 patients. Patients were monitored for CMV antigenemia by leukocyte expression of the CMV-pp65 antigen. Fifty-two periods of CMV reactivation occurring in 30 patients were treated preemptively with GCV. A favorable response was observed in 48 of 50 periods, and only 2 patients developed CMV disease: 1 with esophagitis and 1 with pneumonia. Ten of 30 treated patients developed GCV-related neutropenia (less than 0.5 x 10(9)/L), which was associated with a high bilirubin at the start of GCV therapy. Overall survival at 5 years was 64% in the CMV-seronegative cohort and 40% in the CMV-seropositive cohort (P =.01). Increased treatment-related mortality accounted for inferior survival. CMV seropositivity proved an independent risk factor for developing acute graft-versus-host disease, and acute graft-versus-host disease predicted for higher treatment-related mortality and worse overall survival in a time-dependent analysis. We conclude that, although CMV disease can effectively be prevented by preemptive GCV therapy, CMV seropositivity remains a strong adverse risk factor for survival following partial T-cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  4. Quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load by the hybrid capture assay allows for early detection of CMV disease in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bhorade, S M; Sandesara, C; Garrity, E R; Vigneswaran, W T; Norwick, L; Alkan, S; Husain, A N; McCabe, M A; Yeldandi, V

    2001-09-01

    We prospectively compared the hybrid capture system (HCS) assay with conventional cell culture and shell vial assay for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in the lung transplant population. Between January 1999 and February 2000, 34 lung transplant patients at Loyola University Medical Center, who were considered to be at risk for CMV disease, underwent surveillance testing for CMV cell culture, shell vial assay and HCS assay according to a pre-determined schedule. In addition, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy were performed at regular intervals and for clinical indications. All BAL samples were sent for CMV cultures and biopsy specimens were analyzed for histopathologic evidence of CMV by immunoperoxidase staining using antibody to early immediate nuclear antigen. Ten patients developed CMV disease/syndrome during the course of the study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were >90% for the HCS assay. The sensitivity of the HCS assay (90%) was statistically significantly higher than the sensitivity of either the SV assay (40%) or the cell culture (50%). In addition, the HCS assay was able to detect CMV 50 +/- 67 days prior to clinical evidence of CMV disease and an average of 36 days prior to the other detection techniques. The HCS assay is a sensitive diagnostic technique able to reliably detect CMV disease earlier than other diagnostic methods in the lung transplant population. Future studies may be able to evaluate whether pre-emptive anti-viral therapy targeted to specific viral loads using the HCS assay will be beneficial in preventing morbidity associated with CMV disease.

  5. [Evaluation of the Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer].

    PubMed

    Park, Younhee; Song, Jaewoo; Song, Sungwook; Song, Kyung Soon; Ahn, Mee Suk; Yang, Mi-Sook; Kim, Il; Choi, Jong Rak

    2007-06-01

    The performance of Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostic, USA) was compared to the Bayer Advia 2120 (Bayer Diagnostics, USA), Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex Corporation, Japan), and reference microscopy. Three hundred samples for routine CBC and WBC differentials were randomly chosen for a comparison analysis. The Cell-Dyn Sapphire system was evaluated according to the linearity, imprecision, inter-instrument correlations, and white blood cell differential. The CBC parameters (WBC, RBC, hemoglobin and platelet) showed a significant linearity with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 (P<0.0001). Coefficients of variation (CV) for within-run and differential count of WBC were less than 5% except for Total CV for monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and within-run CV for low valued eosinophils. The correlation coefficients with manual count were lower in monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils than in neutrophils and lymphocytes. The correlation with other hematology anlayzers was significant exclusive of basophils. These results demonstrate that the Cell-Dyn Sapphire has a good linearity, an acceptable reproducibility, a minimal carryover, and a comparable performance with the sysmex XE-2100 and Advia 2120.

  6. Intravitreal foscarnet for recurring CMV retinitis in a congenitally infected premature infant.

    PubMed

    Tawse, Kirstin L; Baumal, Caroline R

    2014-02-01

    A girl born at 32 weeks' gestational age was diagnosed at birth with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection without ocular involvement. On day 19 of life, retinal examination requested for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) identified bilateral CMV retinitis and stage 1 ROP. Treatment of macular threatening CMV infection with intravitreal foscarnet injections and intravenous ganciclovir for 6 weeks led to quiescence of retinitis. Bilateral recurrence of CMV retinitis occurred on day 89 of life, requiring a second course of intravitreal foscarnet injections and intravenous ganciclovir. Both the initial presentation and reactivation of CMV retinitis were identified on examination for ROP and would have gone unrecognized had the infant not met ROP screening criteria. This case demonstrates delayed presentation of CMV retinitis after initial negative retinal examination in a premature infant with congenital infection and concurrent ROP. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CMV Infection in Bone Marrow and Solid Organ Transplant Patients in the Era of Antiviral Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Hebart, Holger; Jahn, Gerhard; Sinzger, Christian; Kanz, Lothar; Einsele, Hermann

    2000-02-01

    Recent developments in the diagnosis and therapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have helped to reduce CMV-associated morbidity and mortality following allogeneic bone marrow and solid organ transplantation. The clinical symptoms of active CMV infection and the prevalence of life-threatening CMV disease vary widely between different patient populations according to the type of transplant and the intensity of immunosuppression employed. Antiviral prophylaxis with aciclovir, valaciclovir and ganciclovir has been shown to reduce CMV infection and disease following organ transplantation. Antiviral drugs, in particular ganciclovir and foscarnet, have varying sideeffects, however, and antiviral resistance due to prolonged administration of ganciclovir and foscarnet has been reported recently. Short courses of pre-emptive antiviral therapy for documented CMV infection help to reduce the duration and sideeffects of therapy, offering an alternative strategy to antiviral prophylaxis. Studies are required to compare the efficacy and costs of antiviral prophylaxis with pre-emptive therapy.

  8. [Monitoring AIDS patients for the development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease using multiplex PCR].

    PubMed

    Terra, A P; Silva-Vergara, M L; Gomes, R A; Pereira, C L; Simpson, A J; Caballero, O L

    2000-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus is an important pathogen in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The CMV viral load seems to be predictor of the development of the CMV disease in these patients. We used a multiplex PCR protocol that also provides quantitative information in those samples from which a single band is amplified and contains fewer viral genomes than those from which both targets are amplified. Monthly blood samples were collected from 270 AIDS patients. From twenty patients, two CMV targets were amplified three or more consecutive times and these patients developed CMV related disease during the study. In contrast, patients who did not result positive for both viral targets, for three or more consecutive times, or who had alternating positive and negative samples during the follow up did not present CMV related disease. The results suggest that the PCR multiplex can be used for the identification of HIV positive patients with higher risk of development of CMV disease.

  9. “Targeted” Screening for Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Related Hearing Loss: It’s Time for Universal CMV Screening in the NICU!

    PubMed Central

    Medoro, Alexandra; Malhotra, Prashant; Shimamura, Masako; Hounam, Gina; Findlen, Ursula; Wozniak, Phillip; Foor, Nicholas; Adunka, Oliver; Sanchez, Pablo J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Congenital CMV infection is the leading cause of non-genetic sensorineural hearing loss in infancy. Antiviral therapy has been shown to improve hearing outcomes, and thus “targeted” CMV screening for newborns who do not pass the hearing screen has been recommended. Diagnosis of congenital CMV infection requires that the infant be tested for CMV in the first 3 weeks of age. Our objective was to determine when infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have their first hearing screen performed and thus inform the practice of targeted screening for determination of CMV-related hearing loss. Methods Retrospective review of the electronic health records of all infants admitted to the Level 4 outborn NICU at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH from August 2016 to May 2017. Demographic and clinical data were obtained, and the age that the first hearing screen was performed was assessed. Results During the 10 month study period, 362 infants were admitted to the NICU and had a first hearing screen performed. The majority of neonates (204, 56%) had a first hearing screen performed in the first 3 weeks of age. However, 158 (44%; median birth weight [IQR], 1072 g [747–1766]; median gestational age [IQR], 28 weeks [25–32]) infants received the first hearing screen at >3 weeks of age when a positive CMV PCR or culture cannot distinguish congenital infection from intrapartum/postnatal acquisition of CMV. Of the 158 infants, 20 (13%) did not pass the first hearing screen (13, unilateral; 7, bilateral), and subsequently, 9 of them did pass a second hearing screen. However, 11 of the 20 infants did not pass a second hearing screen and had urine CMV PCR testing, and 1 (9%) was positive. This latter infant’s newborn dried blood spot CMV DNA PCR was negative so a diagnosis of congenital CMV infection was not possible. Conclusion Targeted screening in the NICU for CMV-related hearing loss is problematic as a substantial number of

  10. Detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in feces has limited value in predicting CMV enteritis in patients with intestinal graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-Q; Xu, L-P; Han, T-T; Zhang, X-H; Wang, Y; Han, W; Wang, F-R; Wang, J-Z; Chen, H; Chen, Y-H; Yan, C-H; Chen, Y; Liu, K-Y; Huang, X-J

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is difficult to diagnose. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of CMV DNA in feces for predicting CMV enteritis. HSCT patients with intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were enrolled if they met the following criteria: (i) underwent a colonoscopy and (ii) peripheral blood and feces specimens were available for CMV DNA detection within 24 h of colonoscopy. The colonoscopy histology was used as the gold standard for diagnosing CMV enteritis. Fifty-six patients underwent 58 colonoscopy examinations, and 7 were diagnosed as having CMV enteritis. Within 24 h of colonoscopy, 9 patients had detectable CMV in the feces and 19 patients had detectable CMV in the plasma, respectively. In the 7 patients with CMV enteritis, only 2 had detectable CMV in the stool, resulting in a sensitivity of 28.6%. In the 51 patients without CMV enteritis, 44 had no detectable CMV in the stool, with a specificity of 86.3%. We concluded that CMV detection in the feces was not a good predictor of CMV enteritis in patients with intestinal GVHD after allo-HSCT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. CMV Disease in IBD: Comparison of Diagnostic Tests and Correlation with Disease Outcome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jessica; Affolter, Kajsa; Boynton, Kathleen; Chen, Xinjian; Valentine, John; Peterson, Kathryn

    2018-04-30

    Significance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear due to pathobiology, numerous CMV tests, and disparate treatment outcomes. Retrospective chart review was done on patients with positive qualitative CMV tissue polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from 2005-2013 at a tertiary referral hospital. Frequency of PCR+, hematoxylin and eosin staining(HE)+, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC)+ was assessed. IHC was assessed on a sample of PCR- tissues. Surgery rates were correlated with CMV testing and treatment. PCR was done on 310 samples from 180 patients. Thirty-seven samples were PCR+ (51.4% PCR+ only, 35.1% IHC/PCR+, 13.5% HE/IHC/PCR+). The H&E frequently failed to detect CMV identified on extensive IHC. Of 13 PCR- samples tested with IHC, 100% were negative. Twenty-five patients were CMV+ (40% PCR+, 40% IHC/PCR+, 20% HE/IHC/PCR+). Surgery rates increased with number of positive tests: 60% in IHC/PCR+ and 80% in HE/IHC/PCR+, compared to 26.8% in PCR- or PCR+ (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, respectively). There were 20/25 PCR+ patients who received CMV treatment. Surgery occurred in 80% of HE+ patients despite treatment and 100% of IHC+ patients without treatment. Rates of CMV+ testing and surgical risk varied by test modality. PCR+ results were most frequent but alone did not detect clinically significant CMV. HE+ testing was least frequent and associated with highest surgical rate, despite treatment. CMV treatment may benefit IHC+ patients most, supporting immunostaining as optimal diagnostic test for clinically significant CMV in IBD. In PCR+ samples, HE frequently did not detect CMV identified on extensive IHC. In PCR- samples, data suggest IHC is likely negative. Consider using qualitative PCR to guide extensive immunostaining.

  12. Significant IFNγ responses of CD8+ T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals with autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Giovanni; Schmalzing, Marc; Trippen, Raimund; Höfner, Kerstin; Weißbrich, Benedikt; Geissinger, Eva; Meyer, Thomas; Liese, Johannes; Tony, Hans-Peter; Prelog, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Latent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection accelerates immunosenescence in elderly with reactivations reported in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and abnormal responses towards CMV in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Considering the signs of premature T-cell immunosenescence in arthritis patients, the known effect of CMV latency on speeding up many of these signs in an age-dependent manner and the role of CMV on IFNγ-mediated inflammation in healthy elderly and RA, we hypothesized that latent CMV infection accelerates TCR repertoire restriction, loss of CD28, peripheral T-cell proliferation and aberrant IFNγ responses in arthritis patients. Unspecific and CMVpp65-specific IFNγ responses were investigated in peripheral CD8+ T-cells in RA or JIA patients and healthy, age-matched controls. Despite higher prevalence and concentrations of IgG-anti-CMV, arthritis patients showed lower unspecific IFNγ production, lower CD69-mediated activation and lower CD8+ T-cell proliferation. CMV-seropositive RA patients showed higher intracellular IFNγ production and increased proportions of CD28-CD8+ T-cells after specific CMVpp65 long-term stimulation which was not altered by in vitro blockade of TNFα or IL-6. A skewed TCR repertoire towards oligoclonality and less polyclonality was found in JIA. CMVpp65-specific IFNγ production with expansion of CD28-CD8+ T-cells suggests an efficient control of latent CMV regardless of immunosuppressive therapy or in vitro blockade of TNFα or IL-6 in CMV-seropositive arthritis patients. Increased IgG-anti-CMV antibody concentrations and increased proportions of intracellular IFNγ-producing CMVpp65-specific CD8+ T-cells in long-term cultures propose a possibly role of endogenous CMV reactivations boosting antibody levels and a higher possibly CMV-driven IFNγ-mediated inflammatory potential of CD8+ T-cells in arthritis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent wheezy infants: the diagnostic value of CMV PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Cinel, G; Pekcan, S; Ozçelik, U; Alp, A; Yalçın, E; Doğru Ersöz, D; Kiper, N

    2014-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis in immunocompetent hosts is uncommon but is being recognized more frequently, particularly when presenting as severe viral pneumonia. The objective of this study was to examine lower respiratory tract CMV infection in immunocompetent wheezy infants, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, to compare CMV PCR results in BAL and in blood samples and to evaluate the benefits of antiviral ganciclovir therapy in these patients. Retrospective review of the records of patients referred to our tertiary care hospital between January 2000 and July 2010 who had unexplained persistent wheezing and underwent fibreoptic flexible bronchoscopy (FFB). Fibreoptic flexible bronchoscopy was applied to 102 infants with persistent wheezing and diffuse interstitial infiltration on radiological investigations; so CMV PCR in BAL fluid was performed. CMV PCR in BAL fluid was positive in 51 patients. Retrospectively, we had access to the files of 25 of these patients. The mean CMV PCR in BAL fluid was 334 840 copies/mL. Only eight patients had CMV PCR positivity in their blood samples (mean: 2026·3 copies/mL). There was not a relationship between BAL and blood CMV PCR values based on Spearman's correlation analysis (r = -0·008). Fourteen patients had severe respiratory symptoms and received ganciclovir therapy. Twelve of them fully recovered. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CMV PCR was superior to blood CMV PCR in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infections caused by CMV in immunocompetent infants. Ganciclovir therapy may be effective in selected immunocompetent wheezy infants with CMV PCR positivity in BAL fluid. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Prevalence of anti-CMV antibodies in blood donors in the Sfax region (value in blood transfusion)].

    PubMed

    Gargouri, J; Elleuch, H; Karray, H; Rekik, H; Hammami, A

    2000-01-01

    Detection of anti-CMV antibodies was carried out in sera of healthy blood donors, divided into groups of 20 according to age and sex. Sera were tested for anti-CMV by an ELISA test (Enzygnost anti-CMV/IgG-Behring). Among 280 sera, 272 were positive for IgG to CMV (97.14%). The prevalence of those antibodies was high in all age stratum (95-100%) but was higher in women than in men (98.57% versus 95.71%). The titre of IgG to CMV was superior to 12 Ul/ml in 56.43% of CMV positive donors. So, the leucocyte removal is the only alternative for the prevention of post-transfusional CMV infection. The high percentage of donors with anti-CMV antibodies level more than to 12 Ul/ml allow to consider the use of plasmapheresis for preparing specific immunoglobulins to CMV.

  15. Comparison of the CMV brite turbo assay and the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA (Version 2.0) assay for quantitation of cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ho, S K; Li, F K; Lai, K N; Chan, T M

    2000-10-01

    We compared the CMV Brite Turbo Kit (BT) and the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA (version 2.0) assay (HC2) in the quantitation of pp65 antigenemia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA levels in immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. Of 123 blood specimens collected from 24 renal transplant recipients, BT and HC2 assays detected 35 and 39 positive samples, respectively. The overall concordance rate between the two assays was 90%. Discordant results were observed at low levels of viremia, so that 8 samples were HC2 positive but BT negative and another 4 were BT positive but HC2 negative. There was good correlation (R(2) = 0.766; P<0.01) between the levels of CMV DNA and pp65 antigenemia in the 31 concordant positive samples. Correlation between results obtained with the two assays was confirmed by longitudinal studies for a patient who developed clinical CMV disease. HC2 may be more sensitive at low viremia levels and allow earlier detection of impending CMV disease. The BT assay offered the advantage of a rapid (2-h) turnaround time. We conclude that BT and HC2 assays have similar sensitivity and efficacy in the diagnosis and monitoring of CMV infection and disease in renal transplant recipients. While the HC2 assay would be appropriate for centers that handle a large number of samples, the BT test may be more suitable for small sample numbers or when results are needed urgently.

  16. Risk factors for treatment failures in patients receiving PCR-based preemptive therapy for CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Einsele, H; Hebart, H; Kauffmann-Schneider, C; Sinzger, C; Jahn, G; Bader, P; Klingebiel, T; Dietz, K; Löffler, J; Bokemeyer, C; Müller, C A; Kanz, L

    2000-04-01

    PCR-based preemptive therapy with ganciclovir has been shown to reduce the incidence of CMV disease after BMT. Failures of this treatment strategy are CMV disease and secondary non-viral infections. Eighty-six consecutive patients at high risk for CMV disease who received PCR-based preemptive therapy with ganciclovir were assessed for treatment failures and possible risk factors. Ganciclovir was initiated in 57 of 86 patients (66%). Only 28 of 86 (32%) patients received 4 or more weeks of ganciclovir. Recurrence of CMV infection after successful treatment was more frequent among recipients of a BMT from an unrelated compared to a sibling donor (P = 0.004). Three (3.5%) patients developed non-fatal early onset CMV disease and seven of 68 (10.3 %) late onset CMV disease (>100 days post transplant). Risk factors for late onset CMV disease were cGVHD (P = 0.0017) and duration of prior antiviral therapy >4 weeks (P = 0. 0073). The incidence of secondary non-viral infections was 28% with the duration of antiviral treatment being a significant risk factor for secondary bacterial (P = 0.0045) and invasive fungal infections (P = 0.006). Thus, PCR-based preemptive treatment with ganciclovir reduces early onset CMV disease, but the duration of antiviral therapy prior to day +100 is a significant risk factor for late onset CMV disease as well as secondary non-viral infections.

  17. Comparison of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific neutralization capacity of hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) versus standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations: Impact of CMV IgG normalization.

    PubMed

    Schampera, Matthias Stefan; Schweinzer, Katrin; Abele, Harald; Kagan, Karl Oliver; Klein, Reinhild; Rettig, Ingo; Jahn, Gerhard; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Based on a non-randomized study of Nigro et al. (2005) the intravenous administration of hyperimmunoglobulins (HIGs) is applied frequently to women with primary CMV-infection as "off-label use" in Germany. In order to describe their CMV-specific neutralization-capacity in vitro, we analyzed the HIG preparations Cytotect ® , and Cytogam ® as well as the standard intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) Octagam ® , Gamunex ® , Kiovig ® . We performed short-term cell-free CMV neutralization assays (CFNT) and long-term cell-adapted neutralization-plaque-reduction assays (PRANT). Human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were used as target cells. A clinical CMV primary-isolate from amnion fluid propagated in epithelial cells without any initial fibroblast adaption was used. For calibration we previously generated serum-pools (N=100) from two cohorts of mothers at birth: seronegative and latently CMV-infected mothers. Biochemical analysis included total protein, albumin, Ig-class, and IgG-subclasses. Additionally, CMV antibody-reactivity was checked using recombinant immunoblotting. HIG and IVIG preparations showed differences in levels and patterns of protein, Ig-class and CMV-specific antibody concentrations. All IgG-preparations showed high in vitro NT-capacity and high IgG-avidity. The NT 90 -values for HIGs and IVIGs and our seropositive reference-pool showed similar NT-capacity at a dilution of (1:100) which corresponded well to 4.1 PEI-Units/ml. All HIG- and IVIG-preparations showed similar NT-capacity following CMV IgG-normalization. Our in vitro results are in strong contrast to former findings suggesting higher functional CMV NT titers in IVIG-preparations compared to HIGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multisite analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT cyclosporine assay.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Maine, Gregory T; Berg, Keith; Rosiere, Thomas; Marquet, Pierre; Aimo, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Young, Julianna; Wonigeit, Kurt; Kretschmer, Robert; Wermuth, Bendicht; Schmid, Rainer W

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Cyclosporine (CsA) immunoassay in 7 clinical laboratories in comparison to liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), Abbott TDx, Cobas Integra 800, and the Dade Dimension Xpand immunoassay. The ARCHITECT assay uses a whole blood specimen, a pretreatment step with organic reagents to precipitate proteins and extract the drug, followed by a 2-step automated immunoassay with magnetic microparticles coated with anti-CsA antibody and an acridinium-CsA tracer. Imprecision testing at the 7 evaluation sites gave a range of total % coefficient of variations of 7.5%-12.2% at 87.5 ng/mL, 6.6%-14.3% at 411 ng/mL, and 5.2%-10.7% at 916 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification ranged from 12 to 20 ng/mL. Purified CsA metabolites AM1, AM1c, AM4N, AM9, and AM19 were tested in whole blood by the ARCHITECT assay and showed minimal cross-reactivity at all 7 sites. In particular, AM1 and AM9 cross-reactivity in the ARCHITECT assay, ranged from -2.5% to 0.2% and -0.8% to 2.2%, respectively, and was significantly lower than for the TDx assay, in which the values were 3.2% and 16.1%, respectively. Comparable testing of metabolites in the Dade Dimension Xpand assay at 2 evaluation sites showed cross-reactivity to AM4N (6.4% and 6.8%) and AM9 (2.6% and 3.6%) and testing on the Roche Integra 800 showed cross-reactivity to AM1c (2.4%), AM9 (10.7%), and AM19 (2.8%). Cyclosporine International Proficiency Testing Scheme samples, consisting of both pooled specimens from patients receiving CsA therapy as well as whole-blood specimens supplemented with CsA, were tested by the ARCHITECT assay at 6 sites and showed an average bias of -24 to -58 ng/mL versus LC/MSMS CsA and -2 to -37 ng/mL versus AxSYM CsA. Studies were performed with the ARCHITECT CsA assay on patient specimens with the following results: ARCHITECT CsA assay versus LC/MSMS, average bias of 31 ng/mL; ARCHITECT versus the

  19. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used

  20. Valganciclovir (VGCV) followed by cytomegalovirus (CMV) hyperimmune globulin compared to VGCV for 200 days in abdominal organ transplant recipients at high risk for CMV infection: A prospective, randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, James N; Taber, David J; Weimert, Nicole A; Nadig, Satish; McGillicuddy, John W; Bratton, Charles F; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2017-12-01

    With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin (HIG) has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV HIG may allow patients to achieve immunity and decrease late CMV infections. This was a prospective randomized, open-label, pilot study comparing valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis for 200 days vs VGCV for 100 days followed by CMV HIG in abdominal transplant recipients at high risk for CMV. The primary outcome was a comparison of late CMV disease. Forty patients were randomized to VGCV for 200 days (n = 20) or VGCV for 100 days followed by 3 doses of monthly CMV HIG (n = 20). Numerically, more overall CMV infections occurred in the CMV HIG group (45 vs 20%, P = .09). No differences in overall CMV infections or late CMV disease were seen between groups (20% vs 15%, P = 1.00 and 0 vs 0, P = 1.00). All CMV disease occurred within 200 days, with 63% occurring while patients were on VGCV. No differences were found in toxicities, graft function, or rejection between groups. Patients with CMV infection at any time had a higher body weight than those who did not have an infection (82 vs 95 kg, P = .049). Use of CMV HIG sequentially with prophylaxis may be an effective and affordable prophylactic regimen in abdominal transplant recipients at high risk for CMV, and warrants larger prospective study. Increased monitoring for patients with obesity may be warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Long-term control of CMV retinitis in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Shigeko; Fujino, Yujiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Inamochi, Kazuya; Oka, Shinichi

    2013-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is rare and difficult to control. We report a first case for long-term control of CMV retinitis with ICL using interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy and succeeded in discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy. A 49-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with ICL based on low CD4(+) count (72/μl), negative for HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, and absence of any defined immunodeficiency diseases or immunosuppressive therapy. PCR test of the aqueous humor in the right eye was suggestive of CMV retinitis. She was treated with systemic ganciclovir, but after several relapses of CMV retinitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment appeared in the right eye and she became blind in that eye. Three years later, she developed CMV retinitis in the left eye. Although she received systemic and focal anti-CMV treatments, the retinitis showed no improvement. Finally, retinal detachment occurred, and she underwent vitrectomy. IL-2 was injected to increase CD4(+) counts. Because of hyperpyrexia, blepharedema, central scotoma, and color anomaly, we changed to low-dose IL-2 therapy with no side effects. Finally, we succeeded in increasing the CD4(+) count to more than 200/μl after discontinuation of low-dose IL-2 therapy. CMV retinitis never recurred after discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy, with good visual acuity of 20/20 in the left eye. She developed blindness of the first affected right eye, whereas the visual acuity of the left eye remains excellent more than 12 years after the onset of CMV retinitis through the combined use of anti-CMV therapy, IL-2 therapy, and vitrectomy.

  2. Survey of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) knowledge among medical students.

    PubMed

    Baer, H R; McBride, H E; Caviness, A C; Demmler-Harrison, G J

    2014-07-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is a leading cause of congenital infection worldwide and the most common congenital infection in the United States, affecting 30,000-40,000 US newborns each year and causing permanent disabilities in 8000-10,000. In contrast to how commonly it occurs, physicians and medical students have little knowledge of cCMV. To test the hypothesis medical students have little awareness about cCMV infection, and to collect data on medical students' knowledge about cCMV. The long-term goal of this project is to establish medical student awareness of cCMV infection and educate students about available treatments and strategies for prevention in at-risk populations. Medical students at one institution were surveyed by questionnaire to assess their knowledge of cCMV. Responses were described, quantified, and compared between groups. 751 surveys were sent and 422 completed responses were received. Respondents were well distributed over all 4 medical school (MS) class years. Only 34% MS1 had heard of cCMV compared to 100% MS2-4 (P<0.0001). All MS2-4 who reported being "very familiar" with CMV learned about it in medical school, 80% in one lecture. MS1 respondents were significantly less knowledgeable about cCMV than MS2-MS4 respondents. A baseline lack of knowledge about cCMV was documented in first year medical students. A sharp increase in knowledge of cCMV occurred between MS1 and MS2 years, likely due to preclinical medical student curriculum. However, significant knowledge gaps regarding transmission and treatment were observed in all MS years, representing opportunities for medical education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and impact of CMV infection in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kristen M; Lee, Henry C; Boppana, Suresh B; Carlo, Waldemar A; Randolph, David A

    2014-03-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of nongenetic deafness in children in the United States and can cause neurodevelopmental impairment in term infants. Limited data exist regarding congenital CMV infections in preterm infants. We aimed to determine the incidence and association with outcomes of congenital CMV in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. VLBW infants born in 1993 to 2008 and admitted to the University of Alabama in Birmingham Regional Neonatal ICU were screened on admission for congenital CMV. CMV status and clinical outcomes were identified by using internal patient databases and hospital-based medical records. The primary outcome was death. Secondary outcomes included evidence of neurologic injury in the form of abnormal cranial ultrasound findings, sensorineural hearing loss, or abnormal motor development. Multivariate analysis was performed. Eighteen of 4594 VLBW infants had congenital CMV (0.39%; 95% confidence interval, 0.25%-0.62%). An additional 16 infants (0.35%; 95% confidence interval, 0.21%-0.57%) were identified who acquired CMV postnatally. Congenital CMV was not associated with death. Compared with controls, congenitally infected VLBW infants were more likely to have hearing loss at initial screening (67% vs. 9%, P < .0001) and confirmed at follow-up (83% vs. 2.1%, P < .0001). Congenital CMV was also associated with abnormal neuroimaging (72% vs. 25%, P < .0001) and adverse developmental motor outcomes (43% vs. 9%, P = .02). Acquired CMV was not associated with any adverse outcomes. Congenital CMV in VLBW infants is associated with high rates of neurologic injury and hearing loss but not death.

  4. The effect of induction therapy on established CMV specific T cell immunity in living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stranavova, L; Hruba, P; Girmanova, E; Tycova, I; Slavcev, A; Fronek, J; Slatinska, J; Reinke, P; Volk, H-D; Viklicky, O

    2018-05-04

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection influences both short and long term outcomes in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different induction immunosuppression regimens on CMV specific T cell response in patients with already established CMV immunity. In 24 seropositive living donor kidney recipients, the frequency of CMV specific T cells was determined by ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot) assay prior and 6 months after transplantation. Recipients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with immediate-early (IE1) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) CMV-derived peptide pools and the number of cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was assessed. Patients received quadruple immunosuppression based either on depletive rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) or non-depletive basiliximab induction and tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/steroids. Patients with rATG induction received valgancyclovir prophylaxis. No effects of different induction agents on CMV specific T cell immunity were found at sixth month after kidney transplantation. There were no associations among dialysis vintage, pretransplant CMV specific T cell immunity, and later CMV DNAemia. Similarly, no effect of CMV prophylaxis on CMV specific T cell immunity was revealed. This study shows no effect of posttransplant immunosuppression on CMV specific T cell immunity in living donor kidney transplant recipients with CMV immunity already established, regardless of lymphocyte depletion and CMV prophylaxis.

  5. Control of Cytomegalovirus Viremia after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Review on CMV-Specific T Cell Reconstitution.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, Pim; Marijt, Erik; Falkenburg, Fred; Jedema, Inge

    2018-04-04

    Recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) are at risk for reactivation of endogenous herpesviruses due to profound and prolonged T cell deficiency following conditions such as graft-versus-host disease, immunosuppression, and/or T cell depletion. Reactivation of endogenous cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequently occurring herpesvirus reactivation following alloSCT. Antiviral medication is often used in pre-emptive treatment strategies initiated when increases in CMV viral loads are detected as a result of active reactivation of the virus. Despite pre-emptive antiviral treatment, the incidence of CMV disease in CMV-seropositive alloSCT patients is still 10% at 1 year following alloSCT. This illustrates the necessity for adequate CMV-specific T cell immunity for long-term control of CMV and prevention of CMV disease. In this review, we analyzed the available studies on the influence of donor CMV status on CMV-specific T cell reconstitution and CMV disease. Furthermore, we reviewed the available studies on the safety and efficacy of adoptive transfer of donor CMV-specific T cells for the prevention and treatment of CMV disease following alloSCT, including studies on adoptive transfer of third-party CMV-specific T cells as a possible alternative when donor T cells are not available. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Partnering for Preschool: A Study of Center Directors in New Jersey's Mixed-Delivery Abbott Program. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Ryan, Sharon; Kipnis, Fran; Sakai, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In a series of New Jersey Supreme Court decisions known as Abbott v. Burke, the 28 (now 31) urban school districts serving the state's poorest students were ordered to create systems of high-quality preschool for all three- and four-year-old children, beginning in the 1999-2000 school year. The Abbott Preschool Program now serves approximately…

  7. Fulfilling the Promise of Abbott: The Lighthouse Assessment Process--Improving Programs through Measured Outcomes. Policy Progress, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to better prepare young children for the challenges of kindergarten and first grade, the Supreme Court of New Jersey, in its 1998 landmark decision of "Abbott v. Burke" (Abbott V), required the State's poorest school districts to implement high quality, intensive preschool for all 3-and 4-year old children. To take…

  8. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required.

  9. Quantitative analysis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia using the pp65 antigenemia assay and the COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR PCR test after blood and marrow allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Boivin, G; Bélanger, R; Delage, R; Béliveau, C; Demers, C; Goyette, N; Roy, J

    2000-12-01

    The performance of a commercially available qualitative PCR test for plasma (AMPLICOR CMV Test; Roche Diagnostics) and a quantitative PCR test for plasma and leukocytes (COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR Test; Roche Diagnostics) was evaluated with samples from 50 blood or marrow allogeneic transplant recipients who received short courses of sequential ganciclovir therapy (2 weeks intravenously followed by 2 weeks orally) based on a positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigenemia (AG) assay. The number of persons with a positive CMV test was significantly higher for leukocyte-based assays (AG, 67.5%; PCR, 62.5%) compared to both quantitative and qualitative PCR tests of plasma (42.5 and 35%, respectively). One person developed CMV disease during the study despite a negative AG assay; in this particular case, all PCR assays were found to be positive 10 days before his death. There was a trend for earlier positivity after transplantation and more rapid negativity after initiation of ganciclovir for the tests performed on leukocytes. The mean number of CMV copies as assessed by PCR was significantly higher in leukocytes than in plasma (P = 0.02). Overall, excellent agreement (kappa coefficient, >0.75) was found only between the two PCR assays (qualitative and quantitative) based on plasma. These results suggest that either the pp65 AG assay or the COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR Test using leukocytes could be used to safely monitor CMV viremia in related allogeneic blood or marrow transplant recipients. Such a strategy will result in preemptive treatment for about two-thirds of the persons with a relatively low rate (<33%) of secondary viremic episodes following short courses of ganciclovir therapy.

  10. Evaluation of the United States Public Health Service guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Janet T.; Colvin, Ryan; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Bardsley, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate US Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines for discontinuing anti-CMV therapy in patients with AIDS who have immune recovery and quiescent retinitis after initiating highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Design Cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS). Methods Participants had CMV retinitis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 50 cells/uL or fewer enrolled from 1998 to 2009 who demonstrated sustained immune recovery (two consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts of 100 cells/uL or more at least 6 months apart) and inactive retinitis. Participants were classified into 2 groups according to anti-CMV treatment after immune recover: (1) continued anti-CMV therapy and (2) discontinued therapy. We evaluated survival, visual acuity, and CMV retinitis activity; we employed propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors for these analyses. Results Of 152 participants reviewed, 71 demonstrated immune recovery; 37 of whom discontinued therapy and 34 who continued therapy. At immune recovery, participants continuing therapy tended to be older (44 vs 40 years, P=0.09), have bilateral retinitis (53% vs 32%, P=0.10), and have lower CD4+ T-cell counts (148 vs 207 cells/μL, P<0.001). There were no statistical differences in any of the clinical outcomes (death, retinitis progress, visual acuity or incidence of bilateral retinitis). Both groups lost visual acuity during follow-up, on average 1.2 letters per year (P<0.01). Conclusion Discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery did not increase the risk of poor outcomes. These results support the current guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after achievement of sustained immune recovery. PMID:21742304

  11. HHV-6 reactivation is often associated with CMV infection in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, I; Linnavuori, K; Lappalainen, M; Suni, J; Höckerstedt, K

    2000-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection has been recently reported in liver transplant patients. HHV-6 is closely related to cytomegalo-virus (CMV), and some interaction between the viruses has been suggested. In this study, the post-transplant HHV-6 antigenemia was investigated in relation to symptomatic CMV infections in adult liver transplant patients. CMV infections were diagnosed by the pp65 antigenemia test and by viral cultures. HHV-6 infections were demonstrated by the HHV-6 antigenemia test and by serology. Significant symptomatic CMV infection was diagnosed in 42 of 75 patients during the first 6 months after transplantation. All CMV infections were successfully treated with ganciclovir. Concurrent HHV-6 antigenemia was detected in 21 (50%) of 42 patients with CMV infection. All HHV-6 infections were reactivations. HHV-6 also responded to the antiviral treatment, but with less clear effect. In conclusion, HHV-6 reactivation is often associated with CMV infection in liver transplant patients. The results support the suggestion that CMV and HHV-6 may have interactions.

  12. Prevalence of CMV infection among staff in a metropolitan children's hospital - occupational health screening findings.

    PubMed

    Stranzinger, Johanna; Kindel, Jutta; Henning, Melanie; Wendeler, Dana; Nienhaus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Staff in children's hospitals may run an increased risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) contact infection leading to a congenital CMV fetopathy during pregnancy. The main risk factor is close contact with inapparent carriers of CMV among infants (<3 years). We therefore examined CMV seroprevalence (SP) and possible risk factors for CMV infection among staff at a children's hospital. Method: In 2014, staff at a metropolitan children's hospital were offered a CMV antibody test in the context of occupational health screening. Besides of anti-CMV immunoglobulin G (anti-CMV IgG) gender, age, profession, number of children and migration background were assessed and used as independent variables in multiple logistic regression. Women without a migration background (MIG) were considered as a separate group. Results: The study included 219 employees. Women showed a significant higher risk than men of being CMV-positive (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0; 95% CI 1.1-7.8). The risk among age groups of 30 and over was double that of the under-30s (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-3.9); among those aged 40-plus it was aOR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1-4.7). Staff with an MIG tested more often positive than those without an MIG (95.5% versus 45.7%). CMV SP was 47.7% among women without an MIG. In this subgroup the probability of CMV infection increased with age (p=0.08) as well. Conclusion: In the staff group as a whole there was a significant correlation between CMV SP, country of origin and age. We found no significant differences between occupational groups; perhaps our random sample was too small. Given the low CMV SP particularly in those without MIG, women who want to have children in particular must be protected from CMV infection. Follow-up studies should be undertaken to test whether good workplace hygiene offers sufficient protection for pregnant women and could be an alternative to prohibiting certain activities.

  13. Active CMV infection before lung transplantation: risk factors and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Milstone, A P; Brumble, L M; Loyd, J E; Ely, E W; Roberts, J R; Pierson, R N; Dummer, J S

    2000-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity following lung transplantation, but active CMV infection has not been described before transplantation. Since 1990, we have screened all lung-transplant recipients for CMV infection with viral urine cultures on the day of transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 102 lung-allograft recipients transplanted between March 1990 and September 1998. Patients with positive urine cultures for CMV were compared to culture negative patients for age, gender, pretransplant diagnosis, time from diagnosis to transplantation, CMV serostatus, use of pretransplant immunosuppression, T-lymphocyte subsets, and presence of fever. Posttransplant outcomes assessed were duration of intubation and hospitalization, acute rejection, frequency of CMV disease, duration of Nashville rabbit antithymocyte serum or globulin (N-RATS/G) and ganciclovir, and survival. Five (5%) of 102 patients had positive urine cultures for CMV; none had symptoms of CMV infection. All 5 had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (5/5 vs 27/97; p = 0.002). The age, gender, and CMV serostatus of these patients did not differ from the 97 patients in the culture negative group. Four (80%) of the 5 patients with positive cultures were receiving treatment with azathioprine or cyclophosphamide vs only 18 (19%) of the 97 patients with negative cultures (p = 0.007), and all 5 (100%) were receiving steroids compared to 50 (52%) of 97 patients with negative cultures (p = 0.06). Culture-positive IPF patients, when compared with the 27 culture-negative IPF patients, did not differ in any demographic variable or in the use of immunosuppression, but culture-positive patients were more likely to have a CD4/CD8 T-cell subset ratio <1.0 (p = 0.02). Following transplantation, 3 (60%) of 5 IPF patients with positive CMV cultures developed CMV disease compared to 3 (11%) of 27 IPF patients with negative cultures (p = 0.03). Patients with positive

  14. A randomized, phase 2 study of ASP0113, a DNA-based vaccine, for the prevention of CMV in CMV-seronegative kidney transplant recipients receiving a kidney from a CMV-seropositive donor.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Flavio; Budde, Klemens; Merville, Pierre; Shihab, Fuad; Peddi, V Ram; Shah, Malay; Wyburn, Kate; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Weidemann, Alexander; Lee, Misun; Flegel, Teresa; Erdman, Jay; Wang, Xuegong; Lademacher, Christopher

    2018-05-09

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a latent infection in most infected individuals, but can be pathogenic in immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients. ASP0113 is a DNA-based vaccine for the prevention of CMV-related mortality and end-organ disease in transplant recipients. The efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of ASP0113 was assessed in a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in CMV-seronegative kidney transplant recipients receiving a kidney from a CMV-seropositive donor. Transplant recipients were randomized (1:1) to receive five doses of ASP0113 (5 mg; n=75) or placebo (n=74) on Days 30/60/90/120/180 post transplant, and received prophylactic valganciclovir/ganciclovir 10-100 days post transplant. The primary endpoint was the proportion of transplant recipients with CMV viremia ≥1000 IU/mL from Day 100 through to 1 year after first study vaccine injection. There was no statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint between the ASP0113 and placebo groups (odds ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.47; p=0.307). There were similar numbers of transplant recipients with treatment-emergent adverse events between groups; however, more transplant recipients reported injection site pain in the ASP0113 group compared with placebo. ASP0113 did not demonstrate efficacy in the prevention of CMV viremia in this CMV-seronegative kidney transplant population, but demonstrated a safety profile similar to placebo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in immune responses between CMV-seronegative and -seropositive patients with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Shmeleva, Evgeniya V; Boag, Stephen E; Murali, Santosh; Bennaceur, Karim; Das, Rajiv; Egred, Mohaned; Purcell, Ian; Edwards, Richard; Todryk, Stephen; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2015-01-01

    CMV infection is responsible for acceleration of immune senescence and linked to systemic pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated differences in the immune response between CMV-seropositive and seronegative patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute myocardial infarction (MI). Peripheral blood samples were taken at six different time points: pre-, 15, 30, 90 min, 24 h after PPCI and at 3 months after MI. Absolute counts of lymphocyte subpopulations, immune response to specific and nonspecific stimulation, serum cytokines and levels of CMV-IgG, cardiolipin-IgG, and anti-endothelial cell antibodies were assessed. CMV-seropositive patients with MI showed a twofold higher IFN-γ production to PHA-stimulation, up to 2.5-fold higher levels of IP-10 in serum and up to 30% lower serum levels of IL-16 compared to CMV-seronegative individuals. CMV-seropositive patients could be divided into two subgroups with high (IL-10Hi) and low (IL-10Lo) IL-10 serum levels during the acute stage of MI. The IL-10Hi CMV-seropositive subgroup showed an increased exit of late-differentiated T lymphocytes, NK and NKT-like cells from the circulation, which may potentially enhance cytotoxic damage in the ischemic myocardium. Finally, we did not observe an acceleration of autoimmunity by MI in CMV-seropositive individuals. The immune response during acute MI showed characteristic differences between CMV seronegative and seropositive patients, with a stronger pro-inflammatory response in seropositive patients. The effects of IP-10, IL-16, and IL-10 on characteristics of acute immune responses and formation of different immune profiles in CMV-seropositive individuals require further investigation. PMID:26029366

  16. Recurrence of CMV Infection and the Effect of Prolonged Antivirals in Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yoichiro; Humar, Atul; Husain, Shahid; Rotstein, Coleman; Renner, Eberhard; Singer, Lianne; Kim, S Joseph; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-06-01

    Although initial therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) is usually successful, a significant subset of patients may have recurrent viremia. However, the epidemiology and risk factors for recurrence have not been fully defined, as well as the utility of prolonged antivirals after initial clearance. Solid organ transplant patients with first episode of CMV disease or asymptomatic viremia (≥1000 IU/mL) requiring treatment were identified by chart review. Clinical and virologic data were collected. The primary outcome was recurrence of CMV viremia or disease within 6 months of treatment discontinuation. The first episode of CMV viremia requiring antiviral therapy was assessed in 282 patients (147 CMV disease and 135 asymptomatic viremia). Cytomegalovirus occurred at 5.6 (0.63-27.7) months posttransplant. Recurrent CMV occurred in 30.5% patients at a median of 51 (0-160) days after discontinuation of therapy. Factors predictive of recurrence were treatment phase viral kinetics (P = 0.005), lung transplant (P = 0.002), CMV donor (D)+/recipient (R)- serostatus(P = 0.04) and recent acute rejection(P = 0.02). Prolonged antiviral therapy was given to 226 (80.1%) of 282 patients. Recurrence occurred in 73 (32.3%) of 226 patients that received prolonged antivirals versus 13 (23.2%) of 56 in those with no prolonged antivirals (P = 0.19). Recurrent CMV occurs in a significant percentage of patients after treatment of the first episode of CMV viremia/disease. CMV D+/R- serostatus, lung transplant, and treatment phase viral kinetics were significant predictors of recurrence. Continuation of prolonged antivirals beyond initial clearance was not associated with a reduced risk of recurrence.

  17. Rapid reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cells after stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Thomas; Sester, Urban; Schmidt, Tina; Gärtner, Barbara C; Schubert, Jörg; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Sester, Martina

    2018-04-13

    As reconstitution of virus-specific T-cells is critical to control cytomegalovirus (CMV)-viremia following stem-cell transplantation (SCT), we characterized the dynamics in CMV-specific T-cell reconstitution after SCT. Cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells from 51 SCT-recipients were prospectively quantified and phenotypically characterised by intracellular cytokine-staining after specific stimulation and HLA class-I-specific pentamers using flow cytometry. Cytomegalovirus-specific CD4 T-cells reconstituted after a median of 2.3 (IQR, 2.0-3.0) weeks following autografting, and 4.0 (IQR, 3.0-5.6) weeks after allografting, with CMV-specific T-cells originating from donors and/or recipients. The time for reconstitution of CMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells did not differ (P = .58). Factors delaying the time to initial reconstitution of CMV-specific CD4 T-cells included a negative recipient serostatus (P = .016) and CMV-viremia (P = .026). Percentages of CMV-specific CD4 T-cells significantly increased over time and reached a plateau after 90 days (P = .043). Relative CMV-specific CD4 T-cell levels remained higher in long-term transplant recipients compared with those in controls (P < .0001). However, due to persisting lymphopenia, absolute numbers of CMV-specific T-cells were similar as in controls. Cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells rapidly reconstitute after SCT and their percentages remain high in the long term. In the face of persistent lymphopenia, this results in similar absolute numbers of CMV-specific T-cells as in controls to ensure sufficient pathogen control. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Role of antigenemia assay in the early diagnosis and treatment of CMV infection in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Chiaramonte, S; Pellizzer, G; Rassu, M; Dissegna, D; Bragantiini, L; Zuccarotto, D; La Greca, G

    2000-04-01

    CMV antigenemia by direct pp65 antigen detection and quantification was monitored on a weekly basis during the first 3 months after kidney transplantation. Preemptive therapy with ganciclovir was started according to the following criteria: any positive antigemia in CMV-NEG subjects, a single determination > or = 30 cell or a two fold increase of positive cells in two consecutive specimens in CMV-POS and continued until pp65 was cleared. Overall, 109 patients were monitored. Among the 24 CMV-NEG patients, 13 (54%) developed a pp65 positive assay without symptoms and were treated. Ten patients remained CMV-infection free and one patient developed late onset (7 months) CMV disease (hepatitis). Among the 85 POS patients 15 (17%) developed a pp65 positive assay and were treated. Two of them developed CMV disease within 7 days of the onset of positive antigenemia and 13 were asymptomatic. The other 70 patients remained CMV-infection free. The interval between transplant and the onset of CMV infection was 39 +/- 13 days in the CMV-NEG group and 64 +/- 20 days in the CMV-POS group (p < 0.001). The peak antigenemia level was 193 +/- 175 cells in the CMV-NEG group and 55+/- 78 cells in the CMV-POS group (p < 0.001). The duration of treatment did not differ in the two groups (22 +/- 7days). A second course of therapy, due to a relapse of asymptomatic infection was performed in 11/13 (85%) treated CMV-NEG patients and in 2/15 (13%) treated CMV-POS patients. Among the total 28 treated patients, we observed only 6 episodes of mild creatinine increase and 9 episodes of mild neutropenia. In the overall population, we observed 8 systemic infections not related to CMV.

  19. Impact of Pharmacist Involvement in Early Identification and Enrollment in Patient Assistance Programs on CMV Outcomes in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Byrns, Jennifer S; Pilch, Nicole W; Taber, David J

    2016-04-01

    No data exist evaluating the utilization of patient assistance programs (PAPs) on cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related outcomes. To determine whether early identification and enrollment in PAPs can prevent CMV-related events. Retrospective analysis of patients at risk of CMV reactivation who received kidney and/or pancreas transplants. Two groups were evaluated with patients receiving oral valganciclovir for CMV prophylaxis through enrollment in PAPs or oral acyclovir with preemptive CMV monitoring. Primary outcomes include the incidence of CMV infection. Secondary outcomes include a cost benefit analysis, incidence of rejection, patient/graft survival, and time to CMV infection. There were 97 patients identified; valganciclovir through PAPs (n = 39) and preemptive CMV quantitative nucleic acid testing monitoring (n = 58). The incidence of CMV viremia was lower in the PAP group (12.8% vs 36.2%, respectively; P = .021). There were no significant differences in CMV syndrome/disease, acute rejection, graft loss, or death between the groups. The time to CMV infection was shorter in the preemptive group. Cost benefit analysis found that hiring a full time pharmacy employee for enrolling patients in PAPs was cost beneficial for the institution/health care system. Early identification and enrollment of patients in PAPs reduces the incidence of CMV viremia. Pharmacists play a crucial role in this process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Adaptive NK cell and KIR-expressing T cell responses are induced by CMV and are associated with protection against CMV reactivation after allogeneic donor hematopoietic cell transplantation1

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Zachary B.; Cooley, Sarah A.; Cichocki, Frank; Felices, Martin; Wangen, Rose; Luo, Xianghua; DeFor, Todd E.; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Diamond, Don J.; Brunstein, Claudio; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wagner, John E.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Horowitz, Amir; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Parham, Peter; Verneris, Michael R.; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivates in >30% of CMV seropositive patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Previously, we reported an increase of NK cells expressing NKG2C, CD57 and inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in response to CMV reactivation post-HCT. These NK cells persist after the resolution of infection and display ‘adaptive’ or memory properties. Despite these findings, the differential impact of persistent/inactive vs. reactivated CMV on NK vs. T cell maturation following HCT from different graft sources has not been defined. We compared the phenotype of NK and T cells from 292 recipients of allogeneic sibling (n = 118) or umbilical cord blood (UCB; n = 174) grafts based on recipient pre-transplant CMV serostatus and post-HCT CMV reactivation. This cohort was utilized to evaluate CMV-dependent increases in KIR-expressing NK cells exhibiting an ‘adaptive’ phenotype (NKG2C+CD57+). Compared to CMV seronegative recipients, those who reactivated CMV (React+) had the highest adaptive cell frequencies, while intermediate frequencies were observed in CMV seropositive recipients harboring persistent/non-replicating CMV. The same effect was observed in T cells and CD56+ T cells. These adaptive lymphocyte subsets were increased in CMV seropositive recipients of sibling, but not UCB grafts, and correlated with lower rates of CMV reactivation (sibling 33% vs. UCB 51%; p<0.01). These data suggest that persistent/non-replicating recipient CMV induces rapid production of adaptive NK and T cells from mature cells from sibling, but not UCB grafts. These adaptive lymphocytes are associated with protection from CMV reactivation. PMID:26055301

  1. High-resolution linkage map in the proximity of the host resistance locus Cmv1

    SciTech Connect

    Depatie, C.; Muise, E.; Gros, P.

    1997-01-15

    The mouse chromosome 6 locus Cmv1 controls replication of mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) in the spleen of the infected host. In our effort to clone Cmv1, we have constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in the proximity of the gene. For this, a total of 45 DNA markers corresponding to either cloned genes or microsatellites were mapped within a 7.9-cM interval overlapping the Cmv1 region. We have followed the cosegregation of these markers with respect to Cmv1 in a total of 2248 backcross mice from a preexisting interspecific backcross panel of 281 (Mus spretus X C57BL/6J)F1 X C57BL/6J and 2 novelmore » panels of 989 (A/J X C57BL6)F1 X A/J and 978 (BALB/c X C57BL/6J)F1 X BALB/c segregating Cmv1. Combined pedigree analysis allowed us to determine the following gene order and intergene distances (in cM) on the distal region of mouse chromosome 6: D6Mit216-(1.9)-D6Mit336-(2.2)-D6Mit218-(1.0)-D6Mit52-(0.5)-D6Mit194-(0.2)-Nkrp1/D6Mit61/135/257/289/338-(0.4)-Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370-(0.3)-Prp/Kap/D6Mit13/111/219-(0.3)-Tel/D6Mit374/290/220/196/195/110-(1.1)-D6Mit25. Therefore, the minimal genetic interval for Cmv1 of 0.7 cM is defined by 13 tightly linked markers including 2 markers, Ly49A and D6Mit370, that did not show recombination with Cmv1 in 1967 meioses analyzed; the proximal limit of the Cmv1 domain was defined by 8 crossovers between Nkrp1/D6Mit61/135/257/289/338 and Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370, and the distal limit was defined by 5 crossovers between Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370 and Prp/Kap/D6Mit13/111/219. This work demonstrates tight linkage between Cmv1 and genes from the natural killer complex (NKC), such as Nkrp1 and Ly49A suggesting that Cmv1 may represent an NK cell recognition structure encoded in the NKC region. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  2. Frequent occurrence of therapeutically reversible CMV-associated encephalopathy during radiotherapy of the brain.

    PubMed

    Goerig, Nicole L; Frey, Benjamin; Korn, Klaus; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Überla, Klaus; Schmidt, Manuel A; Dörfler, Arnd; Engelhorn, Tobias; Eyüpoglu, Ilker; Rühle, Paul F; Putz, Florian; Semrau, Sabine; Gaipl, Udo S; Fietkau, Rainer

    2016-12-01

    Neurological decline during radio(chemo)therapy of the brain is often attributed to disease progression or side effects of radiotherapy. Diagnosis of opportunistic neurotropic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections is uncommon, even though high-grade gliomas and some brain metastases are known to contain CMV particles. We prospectively examined the frequency of CMV encephalopathy during radiotherapy of the brain. Fifty patients requiring whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (n = 27) or local radio(chemo)therapy of the brain for high-grade gliomas (n = 23) were observed in the prospective observational GLIO-CMV-01 study. MRIs and blood samples were obtained before, halfway through, and at the end of radiotherapy. MRIs were screened for disease progression or increased intracranial pressure. Blood was tested for anti-CMV immunoglobulin (Ig)M, anti-CMV IgG, and CMV DNA. Thirty-two of 50 (64%) patients were positive for anti-CMV IgG before radio(chemo)therapy. Fifteen of those 32 (48%) developed viremia during or up to 28 days after treatment. Thirteen of those 15 (87%) required treatment for CMV-associated encephalopathy. MRIs were negative for disease progression, edema, or bleeding. None of the patients negative for anti-CMV IgG developed viremia, suggesting a reactivation rather than a primary infection.In the group at risk consisting of anti-CMV IgG+ patients, age >65 (P = .004) and the amount of dexamethasone taken during radio(chemo)therapy (P = .004) were associated with an increased risk for CMV-associated encephalopathy. One hundred and fifty days after the start of radio(chemo)therapy, survival was 74% (14/19) (no encephalopathy) versus 54% (7/13) (encephalopathy) (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.03-1.86; P = .25). CMV reactivation frequently causes encephalopathy during radio(chemo)therapy of the brain. The unexpected high incidence of this infection makes it highly clinically relevant for every treating physician. © The Author(s) 2016

  3. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  4. Breaking Ground: Rebuilding New Jersey's Urban Schools. The Abbott School Construction Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponessa, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a brief history of the Abbott School Construction Program, describes the implementation to date, lays out some current challenges, and outlines lessons learned from the process so far--what is known now about how such an initiative should be planned and carried out. The report is intended to illuminate the complex process of…

  5. Engaging Parents, Families and the Community to Improve Student Achievement. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, a statewide committee of representative educational stakeholders on "cooperative rulemaking" was convened jointly by the Department of Education and the Education Law Center. The Supreme Court in "Abbott X" had directed the establishment of this committee to develop new regulations more consistent…

  6. Early Childhood Education: The Sustainability of the Benefits of Preschool Participation in Abbott Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The landmark New Jersey Supreme Court school funding case, "Abbott v. Burke", established the availability of preschool for all three- and four-year-olds living within the state's thirty-one poorest districts as a means of eradicating the effects of poverty. Longitudinal studies have shown the value of high quality preschool programs for…

  7. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral... requested that Abbott voluntarily withdraw MERIDIA (sibutramine HCl) oral capsules from the market, based on FDA's recent analysis of clinical trial data from the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (SCOUT...

  8. Decentralization and Participatory Decision-Making: Implementing School-Based Management in the Abbott Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine M.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined issues faced during implementation of school-based management (SBM) in New Jersey's special needs or Abbott districts, using a literature review, surveys of K-12 schools, and focus groups with central office administrators. The study examined forms of SBM, team operations, local autonomy versus state power, skills required to…

  9. AUTOMATED BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL FISH PATHOGENS USING THE ABBOTT QUANTUM II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quantum II, originally designed by Abbott Diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of Enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. he instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. ample cartri...

  10. [Contribution of HCV core antigen testing in HCV diagnosis by test from the company Abbott Laboratories].

    PubMed

    Trbusek, J

    2009-11-01

    Detection of HCV core antigen as direct marker of hepatitis C infection clearly improves diagnosis of this disease (especially reduction of window period) and brings broad clinical utilization. The company Abbott Laboratories offers fully automated laboratory test for measurement of HCV core antigen on ARCHITECT analyzers.

  11. CMV Infection in Pediatric Severe Ulcerative Colitis - A Multicenter Study from the Pediatric IBD Porto Group of ESPGHAN.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomi; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Aloi, Marina; Turner, Dan; Assa, Amit; de Ridder, Lissy; Wolters, Victorien M; de Meij, Tim; Alvisi, Patrizia; Bronsky, Jiri; Kopylov, Uri

    2017-07-31

    Data on the clinical course and outcomes of pediatric patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection complicating acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASC) are very limited. The aim of our study was to compare outcomes of children with ASC who were CMV-positive or CMV-negative. This was a multicenter retrospective case-controlled study, from centers affiliated with the Pediatric IBD Porto Group of ESPGHAN. We included CMV -positive children hospitalized for ASC and compared their colectomy rate during hospitalization and up to 1 year thereafter, matched with CMV-negative controls. A total of 56 children were included; 15 CMV-positive and 41 CMV-negative. More CMV-positive patients were resistant to intravenous corticosteroids as compare to CMV negative (93% and 56% respectively, p=0.009). Fourteen of the CMV-positive children (93%) were treated with ganciclovir (5/14 (36%) with 5mg/kg and 9/14 (64%) with 10mg/kg). During hospitalization, 3 (20%) CMV-positive and 3 (7.8%) CMV-negative patients required colectomy (p=0.17). By 12 months, 5 (33%) and 5 (13%) CMV-positive and negative patients required colectomy, respectively (p=0.049); the significance was not retained on multivariate analysis. A higher prevalence of CMV-positivity was found in pediatric UC patients who required colectomy within 12 months of hospitalization for ASC. Further studies are needed to clarify the impact of CMV infection on the outcome of acute severe colitis in pediatric patients.

  12. Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Systems for Detecting Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Using Real-Time PCR: A Comparison Study Between the QIAsymphony RGQ and QIAcube Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanah; Hur, Mina; Kim, Ji Young; Moon, Hee Won; Yun, Yeo Min; Cho, Hyun Chan

    2017-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are increasingly important in immunocompromised patients. Nucleic acid extraction methods could affect the results of viral nucleic acid amplification tests. We compared two automated nucleic acid extraction systems for detecting CMV and EBV using real-time PCR assays. One hundred and fifty-three whole blood (WB) samples were tested for CMV detection, and 117 WB samples were tested for EBV detection. Viral nucleic acid was extracted in parallel by using QIAsymphony RGQ and QIAcube (Qiagen GmbH, Germany), and real-time PCR assays for CMV and EBV were performed with a Rotor-Gene Q real-time PCR cycler (Qiagen). Detection rates for CMV and EBV were compared, and agreements between the two systems were analyzed. The detection rate of CMV and EBV differed significantly between the QIAsymphony RGQ and QIAcube systems (CMV, 59.5% [91/153] vs 43.8% [67/153], P=0.0005; EBV, 59.0% [69/117] vs 42.7% [50/117], P=0.0008). The two systems showed moderate agreement for CMV and EBV detection (kappa=0.43 and 0.52, respectively). QIAsymphony RGQ showed a negligible correlation with QIAcube for quantitative EBV detection. QIAcube exhibited EBV PCR inhibition in 23.9% (28/117) of samples. Automated nucleic acid extraction systems have different performances and significantly affect the detection of viral pathogens. The QIAsymphony RGQ system appears to be superior to the QIAcube system for detecting CMV and EBV. A suitable sample preparation system should be considered for optimized nucleic acid amplification in clinical laboratories.

  13. Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens in kidney biopsies and transplant nephrectomies as a marker for renal graft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gerstenkorn, C; Robertson, H; Mohamed, M A; O'Donnell, M; Ali, S; Talbot, D

    2000-11-01

    Chronic rejection accounts for the greatest loss of renal allografts. HLA mismatching has been minimised by organ allocation and new immunosuppressive drugs have been employed, but the average cadaveric graft survival still does not exceed 12 years. Though the aetiology is multifactorial, one contributory factor for this condition is cytomegalovirus (CMV). Detection of CMV in kidney biopsies and sera can diagnose and monitor this inflammatory event and define its role in chronic nephropathy. Twenty five biopsies taken at the time of transplantation, 10 biopsies for graft dysfunction and tissue blocks from 20 explanted kidney grafts were collected and investigated for CMV antigens by immunohistochemistry. Tissue samples were snap frozen and cryostat sections were incubated with monoclonal antibodies for CMV antigens followed by immunoperoxidase staining. In 12 out of 20 transplant nephrectomies CMV antigens were found. Only two of these patients had clinical CMV disease. Time 0 biopsies from CMV seronegative donors (n = 11) and CMV seropositive donors (n = 14) were negative for CMV antigens. The prevalence of CMV antigens in grafts lost due to chronic rejection was 60%. These antigens were not found within the time 0 biopsies, but were detected in 30% of biopsies taken at the time of clinical graft dysfunction. CMV appears to contribute to chronic rejection even without clinical disease.

  14. Levels of anti-CMV antibodies are modulated by the frequency and intensity of virus reactivations in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Escudero, María; Moro-García, Marco Antonio; Marcos-Fernández, Raquel; García-Torre, Alejandra; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Suárez-Fernández, María Luisa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Rodríguez, Minerva; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    Anti-CMV (cytomegalovirus) antibody titers are related to immune alterations and increased risk of mortality. To test whether they represent a marker of infection history, we analyzed the effect of viral reactivations on the production of specific antibodies in kidney transplant patients. We quantified CMV-DNAemia and antibody titers in 58 kidney transplant patients before transplantation and during a follow-up of 315 days (standard deviation, SD: 134.5 days). In order to calculate the intensity of the infection, we plotted the follow-up time of the infection on the x-axis and the number of DNA-CMV copies on the y-axis and calculated the area under the curve (CMV-AUC). The degree of T-lymphocyte differentiation was analyzed with flow cytometry, the cells were labelled with different monoclonal antibodies in order to distinguish their differentiation state, from naive T-cells to senescent T-cells. Peak viremia was significantly higher in patients experiencing a primary infection (VI) compared to patients experiencing viral reactivation (VR). Our data indicate that the overall CMV viral load over the course of a primary infection is significantly higher than in a reactivation of a previously established infection. Whereas patients who experienced an episode of CMV reactivation during the course of our observation showed increased levels of CMV-specific antibodies, patients who did not experience CMV reactivation (WVR) showed a drop in CMV antibody levels that corresponds to an overall drop in antibody levels, probably due to the continuing immunosuppression after the renal transplant. We found a positive correlation between the CMV viremia over the course of the infection or reactivation and the CMV-specific antibody titers in the examined patients. We also observed a positive correlation between anti-CMV titers and T-cell differentiation. In conclusion, our data show that anti-CMV antibody titers are related to the course of CMV infection in kidney transplant

  15. Levels of anti-CMV antibodies are modulated by the frequency and intensity of virus reactivations in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Fernández, Raquel; García-Torre, Alejandra; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Suárez-Fernández, María Luisa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Rodríguez, Minerva; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    Anti-CMV (cytomegalovirus) antibody titers are related to immune alterations and increased risk of mortality. To test whether they represent a marker of infection history, we analyzed the effect of viral reactivations on the production of specific antibodies in kidney transplant patients. We quantified CMV-DNAemia and antibody titers in 58 kidney transplant patients before transplantation and during a follow-up of 315 days (standard deviation, SD: 134.5 days). In order to calculate the intensity of the infection, we plotted the follow-up time of the infection on the x-axis and the number of DNA-CMV copies on the y-axis and calculated the area under the curve (CMV-AUC). The degree of T-lymphocyte differentiation was analyzed with flow cytometry, the cells were labelled with different monoclonal antibodies in order to distinguish their differentiation state, from naive T-cells to senescent T-cells. Peak viremia was significantly higher in patients experiencing a primary infection (VI) compared to patients experiencing viral reactivation (VR). Our data indicate that the overall CMV viral load over the course of a primary infection is significantly higher than in a reactivation of a previously established infection. Whereas patients who experienced an episode of CMV reactivation during the course of our observation showed increased levels of CMV-specific antibodies, patients who did not experience CMV reactivation (WVR) showed a drop in CMV antibody levels that corresponds to an overall drop in antibody levels, probably due to the continuing immunosuppression after the renal transplant. We found a positive correlation between the CMV viremia over the course of the infection or reactivation and the CMV-specific antibody titers in the examined patients. We also observed a positive correlation between anti-CMV titers and T-cell differentiation. In conclusion, our data show that anti-CMV antibody titers are related to the course of CMV infection in kidney transplant

  16. Increased risk of complicated CMV infection with the use of mycophenolate mofetil in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hambach, L; Stadler, M; Dammann, E; Ganser, A; Hertenstein, B

    2002-06-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is increasingly used for prophylaxis and therapy of GVHD in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In some recent reports of use of MMF in solid organ transplantation a high incidence of CMV disease has been described. We evaluated the frequency and course of active CMV infection in patients who received MMF compared to those who did not receive MMF after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed 48 adult patients who consecutively underwent unmanipulated allogeneic bone marrow (n = 15) or peripheral stem cell transplantation (n = 33) from HLA-compatible family donors (n = 30) or unrelated donors (n = 18) from February 1997 to September 2000 at our institution. Only patients who were evaluable for the first 100 days were included in this analysis. Sixteen patients received MMF post transplant (MMF+). CMV-antigenemia was monitored by CMV-pp65 antigen. CMV-antigenemia occurred in 14 patients and was virtually only observed in CMV-IgG+ recipients (13/23, 56%). CMV-IgG+/MMF+ patients developed a higher incidence of CMV-antigenemia (8/9, 89%) compared to the CMV-IgG+/MMF- patients (5/14, 35%; P < 0.05). Moreover, five of six patients with persistent or recurrent CMV-antigenemia received MMF. No patient in either group developed CMV disease or died of CMV-related complications. In multivariate analysis including MMF treatment, unrelated vs related donor, GVHD, CMV-serostatus of the donor and stem cell graft type, only MMF treatment was found to be a significant risk factor for both overall and complicated CMV infection.

  17. Pre-emptive therapy against cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease guided by CMV antigenemia assay after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Y; Mineishi, S; Saito, T; Seo, S; Saito, A; Suenaga, K; Ohnishi, M; Niiya, H; Nakai, K; Takeuchi, T; Kawahigashi, N; Shoji, N; Ogasawara, T; Tanosaki, R; Kobayashi, Y; Tobinai, K; Kami, M; Mori, S; Suzuki, R; Kunitoh, H; Takaue, Y

    2001-02-01

    From April 1998 to March 2000, a cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia-guided pre-emptive approach for CMV disease was evaluated in 77 adult patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the National Cancer Center Hospital. A CMV antigenemia assay was performed at least once a week after engraftment. High-level antigenemia was defined as a positive result with 10 or more positive cells per 50 000 cells and low-level antigenemia was defined as less than 10 positive cells. Among the 74 patients with initial engraftment, 51 developed positive antigenemia. Transplantation from alternative donors and the development of grade II-IV GVHD were independent risk factors for positive antigenemia. Ganciclovir was administered as pre-emptive therapy in 39 patients in a risk-adapted manner. None of the nine low-risk patients with low-level antigenemia as their initial positive result developed high-level antigenemia even though ganciclovir was withheld. Only one patient developed early CMV disease (hepatitis) during the study period. CMV antigenemia resolved in all but two cases, in whom ganciclovir was replaced with foscarnet. In eight patients, however, the neutrophil count decreased to 0.5 x 10(9)/l or less after starting ganciclovir, including three with documented infections and two with subsequent secondary graft failure. The total amount of ganciclovir and possibly the duration of high-dose ganciclovir might affect the incidence of neutropenia. We concluded that antigenemia-guided pre-emptive therapy with a decreased dose of ganciclovir and response-oriented dose adjustment might be appropriate to decrease the toxicity of ganciclovir without increasing the risk of CMV disease.

  18. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in EDTA Whole-Blood Samples: Evaluation of the Quantitative artus CMV LightCycler PCR Kit in Conjunction with Automated Sample Preparation▿

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Birgit D. A.; Hadžisejdić, Ita; Bozic, Michael; Grahovac, Maja; Hess, Markus; Grahovac, Blaženka; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H.

    2008-01-01

    Whole blood has been found to be a reliable matrix for the detection and quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. In this study, the performance of the artus CMV LightCycler (LC) PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on a BioRobot EZ1 workstation was evaluated. The accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, and inter- and intra-assay variations were determined. A total of 102 clinical EDTA whole-blood samples were investigated, and results were compared with those obtained with the in vitro diagnostics (IVD)/Conformité Européene (CE)-labeled CMV HHV6,7,8 R-gene quantification kit. When the accuracy of the new kit was tested, seven of eight results were found to be within ±0.5 log10 unit of the expected panel results. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve over more than 5 log units. The lower limit of detection of the assay was determined to be 139 copies/ml in EDTA whole blood. The interassay variation ranged from 15 to 58%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 7 to 35%. When clinical samples were tested and the results were compared with those of the routinely used IVD/CE-labeled assay, 53 samples tested positive and 13 samples tested negative by both of the assays. One sample was found to be positive with the artus CMV LC PCR kit only, and 35 samples tested positive with the routinely used assay only. The majority of discrepant results were found with low-titer samples. In conclusion, use of the artus CMV LC PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on the BioRobot EZ1 workstation may be suitable for the detection and quantitation of CMV DNA in EDTA whole blood in the routine low-throughput laboratory; however, low-positive results may be missed by this assay. PMID:18272703

  19. Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in EDTA whole-blood samples: evaluation of the quantitative artus CMV LightCycler PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Birgit D A; Hadzisejdic, Ita; Bozic, Michael; Grahovac, Maja; Hess, Markus; Grahovac, Blazenka; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H

    2008-04-01

    Whole blood has been found to be a reliable matrix for the detection and quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. In this study, the performance of the artus CMV LightCycler (LC) PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on a BioRobot EZ1 workstation was evaluated. The accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, and inter- and intra-assay variations were determined. A total of 102 clinical EDTA whole-blood samples were investigated, and results were compared with those obtained with the in vitro diagnostics (IVD)/Conformité Européene (CE)-labeled CMV HHV6,7,8 R-gene quantification kit. When the accuracy of the new kit was tested, seven of eight results were found to be within +/-0.5 log(10) unit of the expected panel results. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve over more than 5 log units. The lower limit of detection of the assay was determined to be 139 copies/ml in EDTA whole blood. The interassay variation ranged from 15 to 58%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 7 to 35%. When clinical samples were tested and the results were compared with those of the routinely used IVD/CE-labeled assay, 53 samples tested positive and 13 samples tested negative by both of the assays. One sample was found to be positive with the artus CMV LC PCR kit only, and 35 samples tested positive with the routinely used assay only. The majority of discrepant results were found with low-titer samples. In conclusion, use of the artus CMV LC PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on the BioRobot EZ1 workstation may be suitable for the detection and quantitation of CMV DNA in EDTA whole blood in the routine low-throughput laboratory; however, low-positive results may be missed by this assay.

  20. Atherosclerosis of the carotid artery: absence of evidence for CMV involvement in atheroma formation.

    PubMed

    Saetta, A; Fanourakis, G; Agapitos, E; Davaris, P S

    2000-01-01

    Several studies suggest that certain viral and bacterial pathogens may contribute to the process of atherogenesis. However, this relation between infectious agents and atherosclerosis has not yet been established with certainty. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CMV in carotid endarterectomies from 40 patients suffering from atherosclerosis using immunohistochemistry and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). None of the specimens examined gave a positive result, indicating absence of CMV particles or CMV DNA sequences in the walls of carotid arteries. This finding suggests it is possible that CMV infection may not play a major role in the formation of atheroma. Therefore, further investigation is required in order to clarify the etiology of atherosclerosis.

  1. Validation of T-Track® CMV to assess the functionality of cytomegalovirus-reactive cell-mediated immunity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Banas, Bernhard; Böger, Carsten A; Lückhoff, Gerhard; Krüger, Bernd; Barabas, Sascha; Batzilla, Julia; Schemmerer, Mathias; Köstler, Josef; Bendfeldt, Hanna; Rascle, Anne; Wagner, Ralf; Deml, Ludwig; Leicht, Joachim; Krämer, Bernhard K

    2017-03-07

    Uncontrolled cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in immunocompromised solid-organ transplant recipients is a clinically relevant issue and an indication of impaired CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Primary aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the immune monitoring tool T-Track® CMV to determine CMV-reactive CMI in a cohort of hemodialysis patients representative of patients eligible for renal transplantation. Positive and negative agreement of T-Track® CMV with CMV serology was examined in 124 hemodialysis patients, of whom 67 (54%) revealed a positive CMV serostatus. Secondary aim of the study was to evaluate T-Track® CMV performance against two unrelated CMV-specific CMI monitoring assays, QuantiFERON®-CMV and a cocktail of six class I iTAg™ MHC Tetramers. Positive T-Track® CMV results were obtained in 90% (60/67) of CMV-seropositive hemodialysis patients. In comparison, 73% (45/62) and 77% (40/52) positive agreement with CMV serology was achieved using QuantiFERON®-CMV and iTAg™ MHC Tetramer. Positive T-Track® CMV responses in CMV-seropositive patients were dominated by pp65-reactive cells (58/67 [87%]), while IE-1-responsive cells contributed to an improved (87% to 90%) positive agreement of T-Track® CMV with CMV serology. Interestingly, T-Track® CMV, QuantiFERON®-CMV and iTAg™ MHC Tetramers showed 79% (45/57), 87% (48/55) and 93% (42/45) negative agreement with serology, respectively, and a strong inter-assay variability. Notably, T-Track® CMV was able to detect IE-1-reactive cells in blood samples of patients with a negative CMV serology, suggesting either a previous exposure to CMV that yielded a cellular but no humoral immune response, or TCR cross-reactivity with foreign antigens, both suggesting a possible protective immunity against CMV in these patients. T-Track® CMV is a highly sensitive assay, enabling the functional assessment of CMV-responsive cells in hemodialysis patients prior to renal transplantation. T

  2. The Performance of the Abbott i2000 for Measuring Serum Markers of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linchuan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To date, there is a trend that the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays (CMIA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECIA) technology gradually replacing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). But the performance such as the limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, linear range of CMIA, or ECIA for serum markers of infectious diseases has rarely been reported. Using proficiency testing samples and standard materials, we confirmed the LOQ of the ELISA and the precision, linear range, LOQ, and instrument biases of the Abbott i2000 for eight serum markers. We used the Abbott i2000 and ELISAs to assess five HIV samples; the researchers were blinded to the true status of the samples. For the Abbott i2000, the coefficients of variation (CV) for the low, medium, and high concentration samples ranged from 1.06 to 12.74%, which were less than the allowable error; the linear ranges of HBsAg and HBsAb were 0.66-304.11 IU/ml and 8.16-1205.9 mIU/ml, respectively. For the Abbott i2000, the LOQs of HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb, anti-HCV, anti-TP, and anti-HIV were 0.026 IU/ml, 4 mIU/ml, 0.14 NCU/ml, 0.56 NCU/ml, 0.99 NCU/ml, 0.5 NCU/ml, 8.8 mIU/ml, and 1.92 NCU/ml, respectively, and these values were 0.16 IU/ml, 6.97 mIU/ml, 1.16 NCU/ml, 1.63 NCU/ml, 1.79 NCU/ml, 1.03 NCU/ml, 8.33 mIU/ml, and 1.3 NCU/ml, respectively, for the ELISA. When five HIV samples were blindly assessed, two cases were missed by the Abbott i2000 and the ELISA results were consistent with the expected results. The Abbott i2000 performed significantly better than the ELISA on HBV and HCV screening; however, for anti-TP and anti-HIV, the ELISA remained the preferred method. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?†

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Michael J.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760655

  4. Treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with intravitreous ganciclovir in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Surachatkumtonekul, Thammanoon; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Vanprapar, Nirun; Pamonvaechavan, Pittaya

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, visual outcomes, and complications of intravitreous ganciclovir treatment in cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in HIV-infected children. The medical records of HIV-infected children who were screened for CMV retinitis from February 2002 to February 2005 were reviewed. The children with CD4+ < 15%, or with clinical category C would have complete ophthalmic examination every 3 months. Ganciclovir (4 mg/0.04 ml) was administered intravitreously to the eye with CMV retinitis every 2 weeks under general anaesthesia. After injection, fundi were examined immediately, 1 day, 14 days and every 2 weeks until the lesions were stable. Six (9 eyes) out of 45 children (13%) aged 2-12 years were found to have CMV retinitis. All CMV retinitis lesions were "cheese and ketchup like" (retinal hemorrhage and exudate) lesions and presented in the posterior pole. Bilateral CMV retinitis were found in 3 children. Intravitreous ganciclovir was injected in 4 children (5 eyes). The average number of intravitreous injections for each patient was 5.6 (3-7) times. All of the children received antiretroviral therapy and 3 children also received intravenous ganciclovir CMV retinitis lesions were improved in every eye. The visual acuity (VA) remained stable in 4 eyes, but endophthalmitis developed in one eye a few days after injection. The average duration of follow-up was 13.5 months (3-23 months). CMV retinitis was not uncommon. The authors found that intravitreous ganciclovir was effective but may cause complications. This treatment should be considered in a resource-limited setting.

  5. CMV retinitis recurs after stopping treatment in virological and immunological failures of potent antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Torriani, F J; Freeman, W R; Macdonald, J C; Karavellas, M P; Durand, D M; Jeffrey, D D; Meylan, P R; Schrier, R D

    2000-01-28

    To determine predictors of clinical relapse of cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease in a cohort of 17 HIV-infected patients with healed and treated CMV retinitis (CMVR) who responded to HAART with an increase in CD4 cell counts to above 70 cells/mm3 and discontinued CMV maintenance therapy (MT). Seventeen patients were monitored for reactivation of retinitis. The CD4 cell counts, HIV RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) lymphoproliferative assays to CMV at 3 month intervals were compared between patients with and without reactivation of CMVR. Positive lymphoproliferative responses were defined as a stimulation index of 3 or greater. Five out of 17 (29%) patients experienced a recurrence of CMVR a mean of 14.5 months after stopping CMV MT and between 8 days and 10 months after CD4 cell counts fell below 50 cells/mm3. Median CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV RNA at reactivation were 37 cells/mm3 and 5.3 log10 copies/ml. Three patients recurred at a previously active site of the retina, one had contralateral CMVR, and one a recurrence of retinitis and pancreatitis simultaneously. Mean lymphoproliferative responses to CMV were 2.4 in patients with reactivation versus 21.0 stimulation index (SI) in patients without reactivation (P= 0.01). A model incorporating four variables (CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA at maintenance discontinuation, highest CD4 cell count, nadir HIV RNA and median lymphoproliferative responses) identified correctly 88% of patients with and without reactivation. CMV disease recurs after virological and immunological failure of HAART if CD4 cell counts drop below 50. In this situation, anti-CMV agents should be resumed before clinical reactivation ensues, because of the risk of contralateral retinal involvement and systemic disease.

  6. The non-nucleoside antiviral, BAY 38-4766, protects against cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and mortality in immunocompromised guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schleiss, Mark R.; Bernstein, David I.; McVoy, Michael A.; Stroup, Greg; Bravo, Fernando; Creasy, Blaine; McGregor, Alistair; Henninger, Kristin; Hallenberger, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    New antiviral drugs are needed for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. These studies evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of the non-nucleosidic CMV inhibitor, BAY 38-4766, against guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). Plaque reduction assays indicated that BAY 38-4766 was active against GPCMV, with an IC50 of 0.5 μM. Yield reduction assays demonstrated an ED90 and ED99 of 0.4 and 0.6 μM, respectively, of BAY 38-4766 against GPCMV. Guinea pigs tolerated oral administration of 50 mg/kg/day of BAY 38-4766 without evidence of biochemical or hematologic toxicity. Plasma concentrations of BAY 38-4766 were high following oral dosing, with a mean peak level at 1-h post-dose of 26.7 mg/ml (n = 6; range, 17.8-35.4). Treatment with BAY 38-4766 reduced both viremia and DNAemia, as determined by a real-time PCR assay, following GPCMV infection of cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed strain 2 guinea pigs (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test). BAY 38-4766 also reduced mortality following lethal GPCMV challenge in immunosuppressed Hartley guinea pigs, from 83% (20/24) in placebo-treated guinea pigs, to 17% (4/24) in BAY 38-4766-treated animals (p < 0.0001, Fisher’s exact test). Mortality differences were accompanied by reduction in DNAemia in Hartley guinea pigs. Based upon its favorable safety, pharmacokinetic, and therapeutic profiles, BAY 38-4766 warrants further investigation in the GPCMV model. PMID:15652969

  7. Current and Emerging Antivirals for the Treatment of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis: an Update on Recent Patents

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common ocular opportunistic complication and a serious cause of vision loss in immunocompromised patients. Even though, a rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals seems to be a major factor responsible for the prevalence of CMV retinitis, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CMV retinitis. Thorough evaluation of the patient’s immune status and an exact classification of the retinal lesions may provide better understanding of the disease etiology, which would be necessary for optimizing the treatment conditions. Current drugs such as ganciclovir, valganciclovir, cidofovir and foscarnet have been highly active against CMV, but prolonged therapy with these approved drugs is associated with dose-limiting toxicities thus limiting their utility. Moreover development of drug-resistant mutants has been observed particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Continuous efforts by researchers in the industry and academia have led to the development of newer candidates with enhanced antiviral efficacy and apparently minimal side effects. These novel compounds can suppress viral replication and prevent reactivation in the target population. Though some of the novel therapeutics possess potent viral inhibitory activity, these compounds are still in stages of clinical development and yet to be approved. This review provides an overview of disease etiology, existing anti-CMV drugs, advances in emerging therapeutics in clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of CMV retinitis. PMID:22044356

  8. Development of CMV retinitis in an antigenemia-negative infant after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akane; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Kawaguchi, Koji; Kawada, Koji; Maeda, Sayaka; Kinehara, Takako; Saida, Satoshi; Kato, Itaru; Hiramatsu, Hidefumi; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Yasumi, Takahiro; Heike, Toshio; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Uji, Akito; Usami, Ikuya; Ito, Kiminari; Adachi, Souichi

    2015-05-01

    A five-month-old male infant with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis underwent cord blood transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning. Methylprednisolone (mPSL) pulse administration was performed for marked pulmonary edema during the early phase of transplantation, followed by GVHD treatment with mPSL until day 100. CMV antigenemia was detected on days 27 and 55, but serum became negative with 2- to 3-week ganciclovir (GCV) treatment on both occasions. On day 120, ophthalmological findings included multiple bilateral white spots and a positive PCR study using anterior chamber fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CMV retinitis affecting both eyes, although CMV antigenemia was negative. Re-treatment with GCV had a minimal effect on the ophthalmological findings, while foscarnet administration markedly improved the retinitis and decreased the CMV-DNA level. Considering that a substantial proportion of patients develop CMV retinitis even when CMV antigenemia is not present, routine monitoring involving ophthalmological examinations should be conducted for hematopoietic transplant patients, especially infants, who cannot complain of ocular symptoms.

  9. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection Causes Degeneration of Cochlear Vasculature and Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Mattia; Almishaal, Ali; Hillas, Elaine; Firpo, Matthew; Park, Albert; Harrison, Robert V

    2017-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common causes of congenital hearing loss in children. We have used a murine model of CMV infection to reveal functional and structural cochlear pathogenesis. The cerebral cortex of Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) was inoculated with 2000 pfu (plaque forming units) of murine CMV on postnatal day 3. At 6 weeks of age, cochlear function was monitored using auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measures. Histological assessment of cochlear vasculature using a corrosion cast technique was made at 8 weeks. Vascular casts of mCMV-damaged cochleas, and those of untreated control animals, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. We find very large variations in the degree of vascular damage in animals given identical viral injections (2000 pfu). The primary lesion caused by CMV infection is to the stria vascularis and to the adjacent spiral limbus capillary network. Capillary beds of the spiral ligament are generally less affected. The initial vascular damage is found in the mid-apical turn and appears to progress to more basal cochlear regions. After viral migration to the inner ear, the stria vascularis is the primary affected structure. We suggest that initial auditory threshold losses may relate to the poor development or maintenance of the endocochlear potential caused by strial dysfunction. Our increased understanding of the pathogenesis of CMV-related hearing loss is important for defining methods for early detection and treatment.

  10. Does CMV infection increase the incidence of infective endocarditis following kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Einollahi, Behzad; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahboob; Pourfarziani, Vahid; Nemati, Eghlim; Nafar, Mohsen; Pour-Reza-Gholi, Fatemeh; Ghadyani, Mohammad Hassan; Farahani, Maryam Moshkani

    2009-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but life threatening infection after renal transplantation. In addition, coinfection of CMV and IE has not been reported. Therefore, the current study was initiated to determine whether CMV infection is a risk factor for developing of IE after kidney transplantation. In a retrospectively study, we analyzed the medical records of 3700 kidney recipients at two transplant centers in Iran, between January 2000 and June 2008 for infective endocarditis. During the study, 15 patients with IE hospitalized in our centers were included. The predominant causative microorganisms (60%) were group D non-enterococcal streptococci and enterococci. Patient survival rate in all recipients was 66% at 6 months. Data analysis showed no significant differences in 6 months patient survival from hospitalization between both groups with and without CMV infection (P=0.2). The presentation time of infective endocarditis in recipients with CMV coinfection was more likely to be early when compared to CMV negative coinfection patients (P=0.03). The present study indicates that CMV infection may lead to predispose to infective endocarditis after kidney transplantation. Rapid diagnosis, effective treatment, and prompt recognition of complications in kidney transplant recipients are essential to good patient outcome.

  11. The postoperative course of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase--a marker of cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication risk?

    PubMed

    Schenk, M; Zipfel, A; Kratt, T; Petersen, P; Becker, H D; Viebahn, R

    2000-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication in the postoperative course of liver transplantation. In order to start early prophylactic therapy, but to avoid unnecessary treatment, or expensive screening, a desirable goal in post-transplant monitoring is to find appropriate markers in standard laboratory diagnostics. In the present study, the results of a 6-week CMV replication monitoring schedule by the pp65 antigenemia assay in 100 liver graft recipients were included. The activities of transaminases, glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) were measured by routine laboratory methods. In contrast to the transaminases, the serum activity of gamma-GT increased during the first postoperative week. The maximum levels were 246 +/- 211 U/l in patients without (n = 46) and 140 +/- 89 U/l in patients with early CMV replication (n = 54; p = 0.02). Patients with gamma-GT levels below 200 U/l on the 5th postoperative day (n = 72) had a CMV replication risk of 65%, whereas those patients with gamma-GT levels above this threshold had a risk of 30% (n = 28; p = 0.0007; relative risk = 2.9). These findings provide a routinely usable marker for the identification of patients at an increased risk of CMV replication. It can be considered that these phenomena may be caused by an additional immunosuppressive effect of the CMV virus.

  12. CMV infection in a cohort of HIV-exposed infants born to mothers receiving antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pirillo, Maria Franca; Liotta, Giuseppe; Andreotti, Mauro; Jere, Haswel; Sagno, Jean-Baptiste; Scarcella, Paola; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Amici, Roberta; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Vella, Stefano; Palombi, Leonardo; Giuliano, Marina

    2017-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce rates of congenital CMV infection. Little information is available on the possible impact of antiretroviral therapy on postnatal breastfeeding-associated CMV infection acquisition. A cohort of 89 HIV-infected mothers and their children was studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from week 25 of gestation until 6 months postpartum or indefinitely if meeting the criteria for treatment. All women were evaluated for CMV IgG presence and CMV DNA in breast milk. Children were tested for CMV infection by either the presence of IgM or the presence of CMV DNA in plasma at 1, 6 and 12 months and by the presence of IgG at 24 months. All mothers had high titers of CMV DNA in breast milk (5.7 log at Month 1 and 5.1 log at Month 6). Cumulative CMV infection rates were 60.3 % at Month 6, 69 % at Month 12 and 96.4 % at Month 24. There was a significant negative correlation between the duration of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and levels of CMV DNA in breast milk at Month 1 (P = 0.033). There was a trend for a correlation between high titers of CMV DNA in breast milk at 6 months and CMV infection at 6 months (P = 0.069). In this cohort, more than 95 % of the children had acquired CMV infection by 2 years of age. Besides breastfeeding, which played a major role, also horizontal transmission between 1 and 2 years was certainly relevant in determining CMV infection acquisition.

  13. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in seropositive renal transplant recipients receiving thymoglobulin induction therapy: outcome and risk factors for late CMV disease.

    PubMed

    Reusing, Jose O; Feitosa, Emanoela B; Agena, Fabiana; Pierroti, Lígia C; Azevedo, Luiz S F; Kotton, Camille N; David-Neto, Elias

    2018-05-29

    Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) therapy is a risk factor for CMV disease in renal transplant (RTx) recipients and therefore antiviral prophylaxis is commonly used. We evaluated the outcome of our current policy of 90 days of CMV prophylaxis in seropositive recipients given ATG and the risk factors for the occurrence of CMV disease after prophylaxis. We studied a retrospective cohort of 423 RTx (2010-2014) CMV-seropositive adults given ATG induction therapy. 54 (13%) patients developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease at a median of 163 days after transplant, of which 29 (54%) had viral syndrome and 25 (46%) had invasive disease. Median prophylaxis time (94 days) and immunosuppressive drugs were similar between groups (CMV vs no-CMV). Those with CMV disease had more deceased donors and higher donor age, lower lymphocyte count, and lower median eGFR at day 90. Multivariable logistic regression analysis at day 90 and 180 found that eGFR ≤ 40 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (but not acute rejection) was associated with late CMV disease. In a separate validation cohort of 124 patients with 8% late CMV disease, eGFR ≤ 45 and lymphocyte count ≤ 800 cells/mm 3 at the end of prophylaxis remained predictive of late CMV disease occurrence. These data indicate that antiviral prophylaxis adequately prevented CMV in seropositive recipients given ATG, but late disease still occurred. Low eGFR and low lymphocyte count at the end of prophylaxis may help identify patients at higher risk of CMV disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic burden of preemptive treatment of CMV infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective study of 208 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Robin, Christine; Hémery, François; Dindorf, Christel; Thillard, Julien; Cabanne, Ludovic; Redjoul, Rabah; Beckerich, Florence; Rodriguez, Christophe; Pautas, Cécile; Toma, Andrea; Maury, Sébastien; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2017-12-05

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease (CMV episodes) are global concerns after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). They affect survival, both by direct and indirect effects. Due to safety issues of current anti-CMV antivirals, long-term CMV prophylaxis is poorly tolerated and the most common strategy to decrease the incidence of CMV disease is preemptive. New, less toxic, molecules are currently being assessed for CMV prophylaxis which should replace or considerably decrease the preemptive approach. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of CMV episodes after HSCT with a preemptive approach. We analyzed data from 208 consecutive adults transplanted in our institution, between 2008 and 2013. Hospital resource utilization was retrieved via the linked hospital admissions and Diagnostic Related Groups for the period of conditioning to 12 months after transplant. CMV episodes occurred in 70 patients (34%) over the first 12 months following HSCT, after a mean of 75 days (median: 46 (7-334)). The mean total length of stay was significantly associated with the occurrence of a CMV episode (113.9 vs. 87.5 days, p = 0.0002) but was associated neither with the pre-transplant CMV serology of donors/recipients nor with survival. The mean cost of transplant was €104,016 (SD = €37,281) after 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that the occurrence of >1 CMV episode increased the costs of allogeneic HSCT by 25-30% (p < 0.0001). Our study, which is the largest, single-institution cost study of allogeneic HSCT in Europe, shows that two or more CMV episodes significantly increased the transplant cost. New prophylactic strategies to prevent CMV infection and disease should decrease transplant costs.

  15. CMV induces expansion of highly polyfunctional CD4+ T cell subset coexpressing CD57 and CD154.

    PubMed

    Pera, Alejandra; Vasudev, Anusha; Tan, Crystal; Kared, Hassen; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis

    2017-02-01

    CD4 + T cells are essential for human CMV infection control. CMV-specific CD4 + T cells possess antiviral functions and participate in anti-CMV humoral/cellular responses. In the elderly, CMV infection impairs immunity to other viruses and has been traditionally associated with T cell senescence; however, recent results suggest that, in younger people, CMV confers immune protection against other pathogens (heterologous immunity). To shed light on this controversy, we analyzed latent CMV infection effects on the quality of young individuals' immune response, specifically, the presence of polyfunctional T cells through an extensive phenotypic and functional characterization of the CD4 + T cell subset. CD154 expression, degranulation (CD107a), and cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) as well as T cell phenotype markers (CD57, CD28, and CD27) were analyzed. We demonstrate that CD4 + T cells that coexpress CD57 and CD154, which are exclusively present in CMV-positive individuals, are the most polyfunctional CD4 + subset, whereas CD4 + CD27 + CD28 - T cells associate with lower polyfunctionality. Conversely, the frequency of CD4 + CD28 + T cells correlates with higher polyfunctionality of CD4 + CD57 - T cells from CMV-seronegative individuals and CD4 + CD57 + CD154 + T cells from CMV-seropositive individuals. Thus, polyfunctionality is a property of central memory CD4 + T cells in CMV-seronegative individuals, whereas after CMV infection, polyfunctional T cells become highly differentiated, which allows efficient eradication of infections. We extend previous observations of the impact of CMV on CD8 + T cell functionality to the CD4 + T cell compartment, revealing CD57 as a polyfunctionality marker of T cells which expands after CMV infection. CD57 + T cells have been associated with inflammatory conditions, but their potential role in the response against infectious disease and vaccination should now be investigated. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. Cytomegalovirus urinary excretion and long term outcome in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Congenital CMV Longitudinal Study Group.

    PubMed

    Noyola, D E; Demmler, G J; Williamson, W D; Griesser, C; Sellers, S; Llorente, A; Littman, T; Williams, S; Jarrett, L; Yow, M D

    2000-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection, and both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants may have long term sequelae. Children with congenital CMV infection are chronically infected and excrete CMV in the urine for prolonged periods. However, the effect of prolonged viral replication on the long term outcome of these children is unknown. To determine whether duration of CMV excretion is associated with outcome at 6 years of life in symptomatic and asymptomatic congenitally infected children. Longitudinal cohort study. Children congenitally infected with CMV were identified at birth and followed prospectively in a study of long term effects of congenital CMV infection. The relationship between duration of CMV urinary excretion and growth, neurodevelopment and presence and progression of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) at 6 years of age was determined. There was no significant difference in the duration of viral urinary excretion between children born with asymptomatic (median, 4.55 years) and symptomatic (median, 2.97 years) congenital CMV infection (P = 0.11). Furthermore there was no association between long term growth or cognitive outcome and duration of viral excretion. However, a significantly greater proportion of children who excreted CMV for <4 years had SNHL and progressive SNHL compared with children with CMV excretion >4 years (P = 0.019, P = 0.009, respectively). Children congenitally infected with CMV are chronically infected for years, but the duration of CMV urinary excretion is not associated with abnormalities of growth, or neurodevelopmental deficits. However, SNHL and progressive SNHL were associated with a shorter duration of CMV excretion.

  17. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application: Hemken - Abbott (2015) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The aim for this testing is to find a small panel of biomarkers (n=2-5) that can be tested on the Abbott ARCHITECT automated immunoassay platform for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This panel of biomarkers should perform significantly better than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) alone based on multivariate statistical analysis. This testing of the EDRN reference set will help expedite the selection of a small panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. The panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers Abbott plans to test include: AFP, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), golgi protein 73 (GP73), hepatocellular growth factor (HGF), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4/seprase (surface expressed protease) heterodimer hybrid. PIVKA-II is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin (DCP) present in vitamin K deficiency.

  18. BRSCW Reference Set Application: Karen Abbott -University of Arkansas (2014) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our earlier glycoproteomic studies have identified bisecting glycoslyation and core fucosylation changes on particular glycoproteins in endometrioid ovarian cancer tissues and plasma (Abbott et al, 2010, Proteomics). We have validated that these glycan changes occur on the same glycoproteins in serous ovarian cancer plasma using a lectin-pull down western blot assays. We would like to used pooled reference samples to develop a sensitive magnetic bead-based assay to detect these glycoproteins with bisecting and core fucosylation changes.

  19. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing. PMID:19000975

  20. Verification of Abbott 25-OH-vitamin D assay on the architect system.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Katrina; Healy, Martin; Crowley, Vivion; Louw, Michael; Rochev, Yury

    2017-04-01

    Analytical and clinical verification of both old and new generations of the Abbott total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) assays, and an examination of reference Intervals. Determination of between-run precision, and Deming comparison between patient sample results for 25OHD on the Abbott Architect, DiaSorin Liaison and AB SCIEX API 4000 (LC-MS/MS). Establishment of uncertainty of measurement for 25OHD Architect methods using old and new generations of the reagents, and estimation of reference interval in healthy Irish population. For between-run precision the manufacturer claims 2.8% coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.8% and 4.6% for their high and low controls, respectively. Our instrument showed CVs between 4% and 6.2% for all levels of the controls on both generations of the Abbott reagents. The between-run uncertainties were 0.28 and 0.36, with expanded uncertainties 0.87 and 0.98 for the old and the new generations of reagent, respectively. The difference between all methods used for patients' samples was within total allowable error, and the instruments produced clinically equivalent results. The results covered the medical decision points of 30, 40, 50 and 125 nmol/L. The reference interval for total 25OHD in our healthy Irish subjects was lower than recommended levels (24-111 nmol/L). In a clinical laboratory Abbott 25OHD immunoassays are a useful, rapid and accurate method for measuring total 25OHD. The new generation of the assay was confirmed to be reliable, accurate, and a good indicator for 25OHD measurement. More study is needed to establish reference intervals that correctly represent the healthy population in Ireland.

  1. Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT)--a unified approach to HTS triage.

    PubMed

    Cox, Philip B; Gregg, Robert J; Vasudevan, Anil

    2012-07-15

    The selection of the highest quality chemical matter from high throughput screening (HTS) is the ultimate aim of any triage process. Typically there are many hundreds or thousands of hits capable of modulating a given biological target in HTS with a wide range of physicochemical properties that should be taken into consideration during triage. Given the multitude of physicochemical properties that define drug-like space, a system needs to be in place that allows for a rapid selection of chemical matter based on a prioritized range of these properties. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, coined Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT) that enables hit prioritization based on ranges of these important physicochemical properties. This tool is now used routinely at Abbott to help prioritize hits out of HTS during the triage process. Herein we describe how this tool was developed and validated using Abbott internal high throughput ADME data (HT-ADME). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CMV-infected kidney grafts drive the expansion of blood-borne CMV-specific T cells restricted by shared class I HLA molecules via presentation on donor cells.

    PubMed

    Gatault, Philippe; Al-Hajj, Sally; Noble, Johan; Chevallier, Eloi; Piollet, Marie; Forconi, Catherine; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Thibault, Gilles; Miquelestorena-Standley, Elodie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Büchler, Matthias; Lemoine, Roxane; Baron, Christophe

    2018-01-27

    We aimed to determine the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected donor cells in the development of a CMV-specific immune response in kidney transplant recipients. We assessed the CMV pp65-specific immune response by using interferon-ɣ ELISPOT and dextramers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 115 recipients (D+R- 31, D+R + 44, D-R + 40) late after transplantation (mean 59 ± 42 months). Receiving a kidney from a D+ donor resulted in a higher number of IFN-ɣ-producing anti-CMV T cells (P = .004). This effect disappeared with the absence of shared HLA class I specificities between donors and recipients (P = .430). To confirm the role of donor cells in stimulating the expansion of newly developed CMV-specific CD8 + T cells after transplantation, we compared the number of HLA-A2-restricted CMV-specific CD8 + T cells in primo-infected recipients who received an HLA-A2 or non-HLA-A2 graft. The median of anti-CMV pp65 T cells restricted by HLA-A2 was very low for patients who received a non-HLA-A2 graft vs an HLA-A2 graft (300 [0-14638] vs. 17972 [222-85594] anti-CMV pp65 CD8 + T cells/million CD8 + T cells, P = .001). This adds new evidence that CMV-infected kidney donor cells present CMV peptides and drive an inflation of memory CMV-specific CD8 + T cells, likely because of frequent CMV replications within the graft. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Active CMV and EBV infections in renal transplant recipients with unexplained fever and elevated serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Hasannia, Tahereh; Moosavi Movahed, Seyed Majid; Vakili, Rosita; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hekmat, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-10-01

    Proper identification of active cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are helpful for monitoring antiviral treatment in transplant recipients. Qualitative and quantitative CMV, EBV DNA PCR techniques in the context of serological tests are performed for early detection and differentiation of active and latent CMV and EBV infections in renal transplantation. Basically, 129 renal transplanted recipients monitored carefully and hospitalized for unexplained elevated creatinine levels or high fever and 21 of their donors were studied. CMV DNA was detected in 63.5% of the febrile episodes following transplantation and in 46.42% of readmitted patients using qualitative PCR method. In the first group, 15% of the patients and in the second group 42.85% of the patients had copy numbers more than cutoff point (900 copies/mL). Cutoff point had 100% sensitivity and 82.5% specificity for active and symptomatic CMV infection. Only 15.5% of the subjects were positive for EBV infection by qualitative PCR method. Among them 5% had >2000 copies/mL and were symptomatic. One subject with a history of three times hospitalization had higher EBV viral load and developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. CMV load was significantly correlated with elevated creatinine levels (OR = 3.1, p = 0.006), abnormal heart sounds (OR = 4.7; p = 0.02) and hypertension (OR = 3.6; p = 0.03). Only qRT-PCR could differentiate between latent and active infections and might be clinically useful for monitoring symptomatic CMV and EBV infections and initiation of the antiviral therapy. Elevated creatinine levels, hypertension, and abnormal heart sounds could be considered as main manifestations of HCMV infection in kidney recipients.

  4. CMV infection is usually associated with concurrent HHV-6 and HHV-7 antigenemia in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, I; Lappalainen, M; Linnavuori, K; Suni, J; Höckerstedt, K

    2002-08-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 (HHV-6, HHV-7) have been recently reported in liver transplant patients. HHV-6 may cause fever, neurological disorders and hepatitis. The clinical significance of HHV-7 is less clear. HHV-6 and -7 are closely related to cytomegalovirus (CMV), and interactions between the viruses have also been suggested. In this study, we investigated the post transplant HHV-6 and -7 antigenemia was in relation to symptomatic CMV disease after liver transplantation. Consecutive 34 adult liver allograft recipients transplanted during 1999-2000 were included in the study. CMV infections were diagnosed by the frequent monitoring of pp65-antigenemia and by viral cultures. HHV-6 and -7 were demonstrated, by using immunoperoxidase staining and monoclonal antibodies against the virus specific antigens, in the mononuclear cells from the same blood specimens which were obtained for CMV pp65 monitoring. Altogether 322 blood specimens were analyzed. CMV disease was diagnosed in 12 (35%) patients during the first 3 months (first pp65 positive specimen mean 25 days, range 8-61 days) after transplantation. Concurrent HHV-6 antigenemia was detected in 10/12 (mean 14 days, range 6-22 days) and HHV-7 antigenemia in 9/12 patients (mean 25 days, range 10-89 days) after transplantation. HHV-6 usually appeared slightly before CMV. All CMV infections were successfully treated with ganciclovir and the CMV-antigenemia subsided. HHV-6 and -7 antigenemia also responded to the antiviral treatment, but more slowly than CMV. In conclusion, CMV infection was usually associated with HHV-6 and -7 antigenemia in liver transplant patients. The results support the suggestion that CMV, HHV-6 and -7 may have interactions. The clinical symptoms of CMV infection, may also be linked with HHV-6 or -7.

  5. Maternal cell-mediated cytolysis of CMV-infected fetal cells and the outcome of pregnancy in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C J; Myers, M G

    1989-01-01

    Cytolytic recognition of CMV-infected syngeneic fetal guinea pig cells by maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was suppressed late in pregnancies of uninfected guinea pig breeders with less than 25% conceptus loss. A small subset of less successful uninfected pregnancies with greater than or equal to 50% fetal wastage exhibited only partial suppression of cytolytic activity against CMV-infected fetal cells. Primary CMV infection of dams extending into early pregnancy induced augmented cytolysis of CMV-infected fetal cells, but not MA104 NK cell targets, throughout gestation and resulted in 70% loss of conceptus. Decreased suppression of cytolytic activity against CMV-infected fetal cells in uninfected pregnancy was also associated with runting of newborn pups, which was not as severe as that observed in congenitally CMV-exposed or CMV-infected pups. Congenitally infected pups were affected more than their exposed but uninfected litter mates. Lack of suppression of cytolysis of CMV-infected syngeneic fetal cells, whether spontaneous or CMV-infection-induced, appears to be associated with poor pregnancy outcome.

  6. Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fecal samples as a method for CMV enterocolitis diagnosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zavrelova, Alzbeta; Radocha, Jakub; Pliskova, Lenka; Paterova, Pavla; Vejrazkova, Eva; Cyrany, Jiri; Gabalec, Filip; Podhola, Miroslav; Zak, Pavel

    2018-05-16

    Cytomegalovirus enterocolitis is a rare but potentially life threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Its early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful outcome. To determine the potential benefit of fecal CMV DNA detection in the diagnosis of CMV colitis among stem cell transplant recipients. Biopsies from the lower gastrointestinal tract, taken during 69 episodes of diarrhea, were compared with fecal samples previously examined for CMV DNA in 45 patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Six confirmed cases of CMV colitis were observed, with 16 out of 69 (23%) fecal samples proving positive for CMV DNA. Only one positive sample correlated with histologically confirmed CMV colitis, and 15 samples were evaluated as false positive. These results provide a 16.7% sensitivity and 76.2% specificity in the diagnosis of CMV enterocolitis. The examination of fecal samples for the presence of CMV DNA has very low potential in the diagnosis of CMV enterocolitis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation; therefore, a biopsy of the gastrointestinal mucosa is still warranted for correct diagnosis.

  7. Refractory acute respiratory failure due to Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kairav; Cherabuddi, Kartikeya; Beal, Stacy G; Kalyatanda, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Opportunistic infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) are common in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and are encountered once the CD4 count decreases below 200 cells/mm3. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) tends to cause disease once the CD4 count drops below 50 cells/mm3. CMV pneumonitis is not common in this population. However, detecting its presence in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of antiviral therapy against CMV remains unclear. We report a newly diagnosed HIV patient with a CD4 count of 44 cells/mm3 presenting with acute respiratory failure secondary to PCP that failed to respond to 3 weeks of standard therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and corticosteroids. He was later diagnosed to have a CMV co-infection causing pneumonitis with BAL cytology findings showing CMV cytopathic effects and PCP. Plasma CMV DNA PCR was 17,424 copies/mL. He responded well after introduction of intravenous ganciclovir. The presence of histopathologic changes demonstrating viral cytopathic effects on BAL cytology along with a high plasma CMV DNA PCR should raise the specificity for diagnosing CMV pneumonitis. True PCP and CMV pneumonitis can occur, and the addition of antiviral therapy with ganciclovir may benefit such patients in the right clinical scenario.

  8. Cytomegalovirus-Responsive CD8+ T Cells Expand After Solid Organ Transplantation in the Absence of CMV Disease.

    PubMed

    Higdon, L E; Trofe-Clark, J; Liu, S; Margulies, K B; Sahoo, M K; Blumberg, E; Pinsky, B A; Maltzman, J S

    2017-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Approximately 60% of adults are CMV seropositive, indicating previous exposure. Following resolution of the primary infection, CMV remains in a latent state. Reactivation is controlled by memory T cells in healthy individuals; transplant recipients have reduced memory T cell function due to chronic immunosuppressive therapies. In this study, CD8 + T cell responses to CMV polypeptides immediate-early-1 and pp65 were analyzed in 16 CMV-seropositive kidney and heart transplant recipients longitudinally pretransplantation and posttransplantation. All patients received standard of care maintenance immunosuppression, antiviral prophylaxis, and CMV viral load monitoring, with approximately half receiving T cell-depleting induction therapy. The frequency of CMV-responsive CD8 + T cells, defined by the production of effector molecules in response to CMV peptides, increased during the course of 1 year posttransplantation. The increase commenced after the completion of antiviral prophylaxis, and these T cells tended to be terminally differentiated effector cells. Based on this small cohort, these data suggest that even in the absence of disease, antigenic exposure may continually shape the CMV-responsive T cell population posttransplantation. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Evaluation of COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan CMV Test for use in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Poornima; Razonable, Raymund R

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection that contributes to poor outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Prevention of CMV end-organ disease in allogeneic HSCT recipients is commonly achieved by preemptive antiviral therapy of asymptomatic CMV reactivation that is detected by serial nucleic acid testing (NAT). However, there was no standardized CMV NAT until the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard. Areas covered: This article provides a comprehensive review on COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan (CAP/CTM) CMV assay (Roche) and emphasizes the limitations in the clinical use of CMV NAT in HSCT recipients. Expert commentary: The CAP/CTM CMV Test is the first US FDA approved commercial quantitative NAT for CMV viral load monitoring of plasma samples in solid organ transplant and HSCT recipients. The CAP/CTM assay has wide linear range of DNA quantification and demonstrates colinearity to the WHO International Standard. Studies of CAP/CTM CMV assay in HSCT recipients are still limited, but are now being reported to define viral thresholds for diagnosis, surveillance and monitoring. Results from these early studies in HSCT recipients suggest that, while the WHO IS has improved the inter-laboratory result variances, there are still important factors that continue to contribute to assay variability. This lack of harmony among NAT highlights the need for further standardization.

  10. Hyperimmunoglobulin prophylaxis, monitoring and preemptive ganciclovir treatment eliminate the risk of CMV infection to improve patient and renal allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, H; Aydemir, S; Müller, R; Illner, W D; Pfeiffer, M; Theodorakis, J; Zanker, B; Land, W

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the introduction of ganciclovir to clinical use for anti-CMV treatment changes the risk of CMV infection in renal transplant patients. A total of 1545 cases who had received cadaveric renal transplants were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 721) was made up of patients who received their transplants within 6 years before the introduction (1991) of ganciclovir and group 2 (n = 824), of individuals transplanted thereafter. Patient and graft survival of CMV D+/R- patients was uni- and multivariately compared with non-CMV D+/R- patients. In CMV D+/R- patients in group 1, survival was significantly lower, and their relative risk for graft loss was 1.32-fold (P = 0.0483) that of non-CMV D+/R- patients. In group 2 patient and graft survival was identical regardless of whether the patients were at risk for CMV infection or not. The risk of CMV infection can be eliminated by hyperimmunoglobulin prophylaxis, CMV monitoring and preemptive ganciclovir treatment in renal transplant patients.

  11. Performance of a completely automated system for monitoring CMV DNA in plasma.

    PubMed

    Mengelle, C; Sandres-Sauné, K; Mansuy, J-M; Haslé, C; Boineau, J; Izopet, J

    2016-06-01

    Completely automated systems for monitoring CMV-DNA in plasma samples are now available. Evaluate analytical and clinical performances of the VERIS™/MDx System CMV Assay(®). Analytical performance was assessed using quantified quality controls. Clinical performance was assessed by comparison with the COBAS(®) Ampliprep™/COBAS(®) Taqman CMV test using 169 plasma samples that had tested positive with the in-house technique in whole blood. The specificity of the VERIS™/MDx System CMV Assay(®) was 99% [CI 95%: 97.7-100]. Intra-assay reproducibilities were 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.04 log10IU/ml (means 2.78, 3.70, 4.64 and 5.60 log10IU/ml) for expected values of 2.70, 3.70, 4.70 and 5.70 log10IU/ml. The inter-assay reproducibilities were 0.12 and 0.08 (means 6.30 and 2.85 log10IU/ml) for expected values of 6.28 and 2.80 log10IU/ml. The lower limit of detection was 14.6IU/ml, and the assay was linear from 2.34 to 5.58 log10IU/ml. The results for the positive samples were concordant (r=0.71, p<0.0001; slope of Deming regression 0.79 [CI 95%: 0.56-1.57] and y-intercept 0.79 [CI 95%: 0.63-0.95]). The VERIS™/MDx System CMV Assay(®) detected 18 more positive samples than did the COBAS(®) Ampliprep™/COBAS(®) Taqman CMV test and the mean virus load were higher (0.41 log10IU/ml). Patient monitoring on 68 samples collected from 17 immunosuppressed patients showed similar trends between the two assays. As secondary question, virus loads detected by the VERIS™/MDx System CMV Assay(®) were compared to those of the in-house procedure on whole blood. The results were similar between the two assays (-0.09 log10IU/ml) as were the patient monitoring trends. The performances of the VERIS™/MDx System CMV Assay(®) facilitated its routine use in monitoring CMV-DNA loads in plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of immunoglobulins and natural killer cells in the context of CMV and EBV infection.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, K; Lehmann, J; Krüger, D H; Martin-Parras, L; Uharek, L; Hofmann, J

    2014-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific hyperimmunoglobulin (CMV-HIG) is used to treat and prevent CMV infection in immunocompromised patients, and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody is successfully used in the treatment for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Two immunological approaches have been suggested to further improve the control of viral reproduction in patients with active disease: first, the use of monoclonal antibodies with specificity against viral epitopes and second, coadministration of cells with the capacity to promote antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here, we have evaluated the effectiveness of these strategies in vitro (alone and in combination) with neutralization and cytotoxicity assays. Our results indicate that monoclonal antibodies (in particular SM5-1) can be as effective as CMV-HIG in neutralizing-cell-free CMV. Moreover, our data indicate that antibody-mediated elimination (either by moAb or by HIG) of EBV-infected cells can be significantly enhanced by NK cells. Using human NK cells that have been purified, cultured and expanded under GMP conditions, we were able to demonstrate that the combination of NK cells and antibodies could represent a feasible and highly effective clinical approach to achieve control of EBV infections. Especially in leukopenic patients with low numbers of ADCC-promoting cells, the combination of adoptively transferred NK cells and antiviral antibodies offers a promising strategy that should be tested in clinical trials.

  13. Sarcoidosis with fever and a splenic infarct due to CMV or lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Sivarajah, Thulashie; Jimada, Ismail

    We present a case of an adult female with a past history of pulmonary sarcoidosis who presented with fever, night sweats, profound fatigue, and LUQ abdominal pain. Sarcoidosis is an afebrile disorder (excluding Lofgren's syndrome, Heerfordt's syndrome or neurosarcoidosis). Therefore, the presence of fever with sarcoidosis should suggest infection, usually viral, or lymphoma. Sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome describes the evolution of a lymphoma in long standing sarcoidosis. Fever aside, possible lymphoma is suggested by otherwise unexplained fever, pleural unilateral effusion, highly elevated ESR or ferritin levels. In this case, a viral etiology was suggested because of atypical lymphocytosis and mildly elevated transaminases. In this patient, CMV IgM titers and elevated CMV PCR viral load confirmed the diagnosis of CMV infectious mononucleosis with lung and liver involvement. In this case CMV infectious mononucleosis was accompanied by procoagulant activity which resulted a DVT, pulmonary emboli and splenic infarct. We believe this to be the first reported case of CMV infectious mononucleosis splenic infarct in a patient with a history of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Generalized intestinal CMV infection with protein-losing syndrome in ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Kraus, M; Meyenberger, C; Suter, W

    2000-10-28

    Infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) in immunocompetent patients is rare, and if it occurs it is most often associated with ulcerative colitis. This case illustrates a CMV infection in a patient with an ulcerative colitis combined with CMV-induced protein losing enteropathy, a condition reported in immunocompetent individuals in only a very few cases worldwide. It demonstrates the importance of differentiating between a flare-up of ulcerative colitis and CMV colitis. The indication for antiviral therapy is discussed. A 76-years-old patient with a 23-year history of leftsided ulcerative colitis presented with acute pancolitis sparing the rectum. He showed no evidence of impaired host defence, nor has he ever had taken immunosuppressive drugs. Disseminated primary CMV infection involving of the colon, the oesophagus and the small intestine with protein losing enteropathy was diagnosed on the basis of histology, culture and serology. In view of the long duration of the illness and the highly active infection, antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was given and led to a dramatical improvement of all disease manifestations. The patient subsequently remained in remission from ulcerative colitis for three years.

  15. CMV driven CD8(+) T-cell activation is associated with acute rejection in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Mourin, Gisèle; Fastenackels, Solène; Almeida, Jorge R; Iglesias, Maria Candela; Boyd, Anders; Gostick, Emma; Larsen, Martin; Price, David A; Sacre, Karim; Douek, Daniel C; Autran, Brigitte; Picard, Clément; Miranda, Sandra de; Sauce, Delphine; Stern, Marc; Appay, Victor

    2013-07-01

    Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for terminal respiratory disease, but the associated mortality rate is high. Acute rejection of the transplanted lung is a key determinant of adverse prognosis. Furthermore, an epidemiological relationship has been established between the occurrence of acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection. However, the reasons for this association remain unclear. Here, we performed a longitudinal characterization of CMV-specific T-cell responses and immune activation status in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of forty-four lung transplant patients. Acute rejection was associated with high levels of cellular activation in the periphery, reflecting strong CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell activity post-transplant. Peripheral and lung CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were very similar, and related to the presence of CMV in the transplanted organ. These findings support that activated CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cells in the lung may play a role in promoting acute rejection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher Anti-CMV IgG Concentrations are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Performance During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Letendre, Scott; Bharti, Ajay; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Hanson, Barbara; Franklin, Donald; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara; de Oliveira, Michelli Faria; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Landay, Alan L; Lurain, Nell

    2018-03-01

    To determine the association of CMV infection with neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults. Cross-sectional, observational, exploratory study. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations in blood and CMV DNA copies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in stored specimens of 80 HIV+ adults who were previously assessed with a standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive test battery. Thirty-eight were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and 42 were not taking ART. A panel of 7 soluble biomarkers were also measured by immunoassay in CSF. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations ranged from 5.2 to 46.1 U/mL. CMV DNA was detected in 7 (8.8%) blood plasma but in none of the CSF specimens. Higher anti-CMV IgG levels were associated with older age (p=0.0017), lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count (p<0.001), AIDS (p<0.001), and higher soluble CD163 (p=0.009). Higher anti-CMV IgG levels trended toward an association with worse neurocognitive performance overall (p=0.059). This correlation was present in those taking suppressive ART (p=0.0049) but not in those who were not taking ART (p=0.92). Worse neurocognitive performance remained associated with higher anti-CMV IgG levels after accounting for other covariates in multivariate models (Model p=0.0038). Detectable plasma CMV DNA was associated with AIDS (p=0.05) but not with neurocognitive performance. CMV may influence neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults taking suppressive ART. Future clinical trials of anti-CMV therapy should help determine whether the observed relationships are causal.

  17. CMV drives the expansion of highly functional memory T cells expressing NK-cell receptors in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Nandini; Foley, Bree; Fernandez, Sonia; Lee, Silvia; Irish, Ashley; Pircher, Hanspeter; Price, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection encountered in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and may be reactivated without symptoms at any time post-transplant. We describe how active and latent CMV affect T-cell subsets in RTRs who are stable on maintenance therapy. T-cell responses to CMV were assessed in RTRs (n = 54) >2 years post-transplant, and healthy controls (n = 38). Seven RTRs had CMV DNA detectable in plasma. CMV antibody and DNA aligned with increased proportions of CD8 + T cells and reduced CD4/CD8 ratios. This paralleled an expansion of effector memory T-cell (T EM ), terminally differentiated T-cell (T EMRA ) and CD57 + T EMRA cell populations. Expression of NK-cell receptors, LIR-1 and KLRG1 on CD4 + and CD8 + CD57 + T EM and T EMRA cells correlated with elevated interferon-γ and cytotoxic responses to anti-CD3 and increased cytotoxic responses to CMV phosphoprotein (pp) 65 in RTRs who carried CMV DNA. CD8 + T cells from all CMV seropositive RTRs responded efficiently to CMV immediate early (IE) -1 peptides. The data show that latent and active CMV infection can alter T-cell subsets in RTRs many years after transplantation, and up-regulate T-cell expression of NK-cell receptors. This may enhance effector responses of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells against CMV. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis of spontaneous resolution of cytomegalovirus replication after transplantation in CMV-seropositive patients with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response.

    PubMed

    Páez-Vega, Aurora; Poyato, Antonio; Rodriguez-Benot, Alberto; Guirado, Lluis; Fortún, Jesús; Len, Oscar; Abdala, Edson; Fariñas, María C; Cordero, Elisa; de Gracia, Carmen; Hernández, Domingo; González, Rafael; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Cantisán, Sara

    2018-05-18

    This prospective study evaluates whether CMV-seropositive (R+) transplant patients with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ T-cell response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CD8+IFNG+ response) can spontaneously clear the CMV viral load without requiring treatment. A total of 104 transplant patients (kidney/liver) with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response were evaluable. This response was determined using QuantiFERON-CMV assay. The incidence of CMV replication and disease was 45.2% (47/104) and 6.7% (7/104), respectively. Of the total patients, 77.9% (81/104) did not require antiviral treatment, either because they did not have CMV replication (n = 57) or because they had asymptomatic CMV replication that could be spontaneously cleared (n = 24). Both situations are likely related to the presence of CD8+IFNG+ response to CMV, which has a key role in controlling CMV infection. However, 22.1% of the patients (23/104) received antiviral treatment, although only 7 of them did so because they had symptomatic CMV replication. These patients developed symptoms in spite of having pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response, thus suggesting that other immunological parameters might be involved, such as a dysfunctional CD4 + response or that they might have become QFNon-reactive due to the immunosuppression. In conclusion, around 80% of R+ patients with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response to CMV did not require antiviral treatment, although this percentage might be underestimated. Nevertheless, other strategies such as performing an additional CD8+IFNG+ response determination at posttransplant time might provide more reliable information regarding the patients who will be able to spontaneously clear the viremia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Valganciclovir Use Among Commercially and Medicaid-insured Infants With Congenital CMV Infection in the United States, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jessica; Dollard, Sheila C; Grosse, Scott D; Chung, Winnie; Do, ThuyQuynh; Patel, Manisha; Lanzieri, Tatiana M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and trends in valganciclovir use among infants diagnosed with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in the United States. We analyzed data from medical claims dated 2009-2015 from the Truven Health MarketScan ® Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid databases. We identified infants with a live birth code in the first claim who were continuously enrolled for at least 45 days. Among infants diagnosed with congenital CMV disease, identified by an ICD-9-CM or ICD-10-CM code for congenital CMV infection or CMV disease within 45 days of birth, we assessed data from claims containing codes for any CMV-associated clinical condition within the same period, and data from claims for hearing loss and/or valganciclovir within the first 180 days of life. In the commercial and Medicaid databases, we identified 257 (2.5/10,000) and 445 (3.3/10,000) infants, respectively, diagnosed with congenital CMV disease, among whom 135 (53%) and 282 (63%) had ≥1 CMV-associated condition, 30 (12%) and 32 (7%) had hearing loss, and 41 (16%) and 78 (18%) had a claim for valganciclovir. Among infants with congenital CMV disease who had a claim for valganciclovir, 37 (90%) among commercially insured infants and 68 (87%) among Medicaid-insured infants had ≥1 CMV-associated condition and/or hearing loss. From 2009 to 2015, the percentages with a claim for valganciclovir increased from 0% to 29% among commercially insured infants and from 4% to 37% among Medicaid-insured infants (P < 0.0001). During 2009-2015, there was a strong upward trend in valganciclovir claims among insured infants who were diagnosed with congenital CMV disease, the majority of whom had CMV-associated conditions and/or hearing loss. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. CD8 T-Cell Expansion and Inflammation Linked to CMV Coinfection in ART-treated HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael L.; Mudd, Joseph C.; Shive, Carey L.; Younes, Souheil-Antoine; Panigrahi, Soumya; Sieg, Scott F.; Lee, Sulggi A.; Hunt, Peter W.; Calabrese, Leonard H.; Gianella, Sara; Rodriguez, Benigno; Lederman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent CD8 T-cell expansion, low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios, and heightened inflammation persist in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and are associated with increased risk of morbid outcomes. We explored the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in CD8 lymphocytosis and inflammation in ART-treated HIV infection. Methods. Absolute CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts were abstracted from clinical records and compared among 32 HIV-infected CMV-seronegative subjects, 126 age, CD4 and gender-matched HIV-infected CMV-seropositive subjects, and among 21 HIV-uninfected controls (9 CMV-negative, 12 CMV-positive). Plasma inflammatory indices were measured in a subset by ELISA. Results. Median CD8 counts/µL were higher in HIV-positive/CMV-positive patients (795) than in HIV-positive/CMV-negative subjects (522, P = .006) or in healthy controls (451, P = .0007), whereas CD8 T-cell counts were similar to controls' levels in HIV-positive/CMV-negative subjects. Higher plasma levels of IP-10 (P = .0011), TNF-RII (P = .0002), and D-dimer (P = .0444) were also found in coinfected patients than in HIV-positive/CMV-negative subjects. Conclusions. CMV infection is associated with higher CD8 T-cell counts, resultant lower CD4/CD8 ratios, and increased systemic inflammation in ART-treated HIV infection. CMV infection may contribute to risk for morbid outcomes in treated HIV infection. PMID:26400999

  1. Risk factors of CMV infection in patients after umbilical cord blood transplantation: a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Huilan; Geng, Liangquan; Zheng, Changcheng; Tang, Baolin; Song, Kaidi; Yao, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study examined risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) and the impact of CMV infection on patient survival. Methods In all 176 patients, plasma CMV DNA was negative prior to the transplantation, and examined twice a week for 100 d, and then once weekly for additional 300 d. Preemptive antiviral therapy (ganciclovir or foscarnet) was started in patients with >1,000/mL copies of CMV DNA but no full-blown CMV disease, and was discontinued upon two consecutive negative reports of blood CMV DNA test. The survival and risk factors for CMV infection or disease were examined using logistic regression. Results CMV infection developed in 71% (125/176) of the patients, with a median onset of 32 d. Four patients (2.3%) developed CMV disease. Neither the 5-year overall survival (OS) nor event-free survival (EFS) differed significantly in infected patients vs. those with no infection (59.4% vs. 64.8%, P=0.194; 53.4% vs. 59.1%, P=0.226). A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated an association of CMV infection with age, high-dose glucocorticoids, the number of transplanted CD34+ cells, and the number of platelet transfusion, but not with gender, the conditioning regimen, and the day of neutrophil recovery and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Conclusions CMV infection is very common after UCBT, but does not seem to affect long-term survival with preemptive antiviral treatment. PMID:24385697

  2. The prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes in eyes with inactive extramacular CMV retinitis.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Igor; Vaidya, Vijay; Van Natta, Mark L; Pak, Jeong W; May, K Patrick; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2014-06-12

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A case-control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study by the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group. A total of 357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence, and incidence odds ratios. The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 1.8% (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for prevalence was 9.8 (5.5-17.5) (P < 0.01). The crude OR (95% CI) for incidence was 9.4 (3.2-27.9) (P < 0.01). A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to what is seen in eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. The Prevalence and Incidence of Epiretinal Membranes in Eyes With Inactive Extramacular CMV Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Igor; Vaidya, Vijay; Van Natta, Mark L.; Pak, Jeong W.; May, K. Patrick; Thorne, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods. A case–control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study by the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group. A total of 357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence, and incidence odds ratios. Results. The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 1.8% (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for prevalence was 9.8 (5.5–17.5) (P < 0.01). The crude OR (95% CI) for incidence was 9.4 (3.2–27.9) (P < 0.01). Conclusions. A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to what is seen in eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. PMID:24925880

  4. Long-term stability of CMV DNA in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sam, Soya S; Ingersoll, Jessica; Racsa, Lori D; Caliendo, Angela M; Racsa, Patrick N; Igwe, Doris; Abdul-Ali, Deborah; Josephson, Cassandra; Kraft, Colleen S

    2018-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of intrauterine and perinatal viral infection. The most common route of CMV transmission in newborns is through breastmilk and this can lead to infant morbidity and mortality. Breast milk that has been frozen for an extended period may need to be tested for CMV DNA to determine the source of infection. It has been a challenge for clinical laboratories to ensure the stability of CMV DNA in frozen breast milk for accurate viral load measurement. To evaluate the stability of CMV DNA in breast milk by testing quantitative viral loads over a 28-day period for breast milk stored at 4 °C and a 90-day period for breast milk stored at -20 °C. Baseline viral loads were determined on day 0 and the samples stored at 4 °C underwent extraction and amplification at four time points, up to 28 days. The samples stored at -20 °C underwent extraction and amplification at five time points up to 90 days. Log 10 values were calculated and t-test, Pearson's coefficient, and concordance correlation coefficient were calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the time points by t-test, and correlation coefficients showed greater than 90% concordance for days 0 and 28 as well as days 0 and 90 at both storage temperatures tested. The concentration of CMV DNA in breast milk was stable for 28 days at 4 °C and 90 days at -20 °C as the concentrations did not differ significantly from the baseline viral loads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early increase of peripheral B cell levels in kidney transplant recipients with CMV infection or reactivation.

    PubMed

    Besançon-Watelet, C; De March, A K; Renoult, E; Kessler, M; Béné, M C; Faure, G C; Sarda, M N

    2000-02-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or reactivation is a frequent complication of renal transplantation. Diagnosis of these conditions relies on the detection of circulating antigen, or of specific IgM and/or IgG, which develop over several weeks. Evocative clinical features may be detected earlier, but lack specificity. Rapid and early changes in the partition of lymphocyte subsets could be an additional indication of pending CMV infection. A systematic follow-up of peripheral B lymphocytes identified immunophenotypically by the determination of surface immunoglobulins (sIg), performed in 97 kidney transplant recipients, allowed to identify transient increases apparently predictive of CMV primo-infection or reactivation over the next 3 months. To better define the nature of these B cells, an extended investigation was performed for 14 prospective patients. In addition to surface Ig, membrane CD19, HLA-DR, and CD80 expression were explored. The cytoplasmic presence of mu, kappa, and lambda chains was also examined. B cell function was investigated using the ELISPOT technique, which allows an enumeration of the populations of IgG, IgA, and IgM secreting B cells. Retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of the cohort of 97 patients evidenced that early transient increases in B cell levels were significantly (P<0.0001) associated with CMV infection. The same trend was noted in the smaller series of patients who benefited from a more extensive investigation of B cells, 10 of whom presented clinical or biological signs of CMV infection. Mature B cells, expressing surface Ig, CD19, DR, and CD80 are those presenting transient increases. No significant variation of preB (cmu+/kappalambda-) or activated (spot-forming) cells was evidenced in these patients. Individual examination of each patient's immune reconstitution profile allows to detect transient peaks of mature B cell during the initial immunosuppressive therapy, that appear to be predictive of oncoming CMV

  6. CMV-Specific CD8 T Cell Differentiation and Localization: Implications for Adoptive Therapies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Corinne J; Quinn, Michael; Snyder, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that causes chronic infection and, thus, is one of the most common infectious complications of immune suppression. Adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells has emerged as an effective method to reduce the risk for HCMV infection and/or reactivation by restoring immunity in transplant recipients. However, the CMV-specific CD8 + T cell response is comprised of a heterogenous mixture of subsets with distinct functions and localization, and it is not clear if current adoptive immunotherapy protocols can reconstitute the full spectrum of CD8 + T cell immunity. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the role of these T cell subsets in CMV immunity and to describe how current adoptive immunotherapy practices might affect their reconstitution in patients. The bulk of the CMV-specific CD8 + T cell population is made up of terminally differentiated effector T cells with immediate effector function and a short life span. Self-renewing memory T cells within the CMV-specific population retain the capacity to expand and differentiate upon challenge and are important for the long-term persistence of the CD8 + T cell response. Finally, mucosal organs, which are frequent sites of CMV reactivation, are primarily inhabited by tissue-resident memory T cells, which do not recirculate. Future work on adoptive transfer strategies may need to focus on striking a balance between the formation of these subsets to ensure the development of long lasting and protective immune responses that can access the organs affected by CMV disease.

  7. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to

  8. Assessment of the T-SPOT.CMV interferon-γ release assay in renal transplant recipients: A single center cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chanouzas, Dimitrios; Small, Alexander; Borrows, Richard; Ball, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR's) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR's were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors. RTR's were monitored for CMV viremia and disease. Cellular responses to peptides derived from CMV IE1 and pp65 were measured, using the T-SPOT.CMV assay. At recruitment, no CMV specific cellular immunity was detected by T-SPOT.CMV in CMV seronegative recipients (IE1 ≤ 1spot / 2.5x105 PBMC's; pp65 ≤ 3 spots / 2.5x105 PBMC's). At recruitment, CMV sero-positive recipients who made a robust response to both IE1 (>25 spots / 2.5x105 PBMC's) and pp65 (>50 spots / 2.5x105 PBMC's), were less likely to develop high level viremia than those who responded to one or neither antigen (0/28 vs 5/25; p<0.02). In CMV seronegative RTR's, CMV specific cellular immunity measured by T-SPOT.CMV was not detected prior to cessation of anti-viral prophylaxis. This differs from recent reports of CMV specific cellular immunity in a proportion of CMV seronegative RTR's, associated with protection from CMV infection. In seropositive RTR's, a dual response to IE1 and pp65 at recruitment, was associated with protection from subsequent viremia. This suggests that assessing the diversity of response to CMV antigens, may enhance risk stratification in this group.

  9. Assessment of the T-SPOT.CMV interferon-γ release assay in renal transplant recipients: A single center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Borrows, Richard; Ball, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Background The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. Methods A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR’s) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR’s were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors. RTR’s were monitored for CMV viremia and disease. Cellular responses to peptides derived from CMV IE1 and pp65 were measured, using the T-SPOT.CMV assay. Results At recruitment, no CMV specific cellular immunity was detected by T-SPOT.CMV in CMV seronegative recipients (IE1 ≤ 1spot / 2.5x105 PBMC’s; pp65 ≤ 3 spots / 2.5x105 PBMC’s). At recruitment, CMV sero-positive recipients who made a robust response to both IE1 (>25 spots / 2.5x105 PBMC’s) and pp65 (>50 spots / 2.5x105 PBMC’s), were less likely to develop high level viremia than those who responded to one or neither antigen (0/28 vs 5/25; p<0.02). Conclusions In CMV seronegative RTR’s, CMV specific cellular immunity measured by T-SPOT.CMV was not detected prior to cessation of anti-viral prophylaxis. This differs from recent reports of CMV specific cellular immunity in a proportion of CMV seronegative RTR’s, associated with protection from CMV infection. In seropositive RTR’s, a dual response to IE1 and pp65 at recruitment, was associated with protection from subsequent viremia. This suggests that assessing the diversity of response to CMV antigens, may enhance risk stratification in this group. PMID:29558479

  10. Clinical utility of Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® ketone meter in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie; Agus, Michael; Kellogg, Mark D

    2011-11-01

    Diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often rely on the measurement of urine ketones along with blood glucose, anion gap, and pH. These values, however, do not reliably reflect the severity of ketoacidosis. The Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® meter is an FDA-approved device that quantitatively measures β-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) in whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ketone meter meets the analytical criteria to aid DKA diagnosis and management in the hospital. 54 heparinized venous whole blood BOH concentrations from 27 diabetic patients were measured by the Abbott meter, and compared with the plasma BOH concentrations measured with Stanbio reagent (reference method). Measurements were done in the hospital central laboratory. Of the 54 pairs of specimens analyzed, 17 pairs displayed a difference of >15% between the two methods. Nearly all discrepant points occurred when BOH >5 mmol/L (reference method). Linearity evaluation revealed that the meter is not linear from 0.0 to 8.0 mmol/L, contrary to the claim by the manufacturer. Further, we identified acetoacetate, a metabolite commonly present in DKA patients, as a potential interfering substance for the meter BOH measurement. BOH measurements by the Abbott meter up to 3 mmol/L correlate well with the reference method, but become discrepant above that point. While this characteristic may be useful in the diagnosis of DKA, it may not allow clinicians to serially follow the response to therapy in hospitalized DKA patients with BOH values greater than 5 mmol/L (reference method). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Gastrointestinal Histoplasmosis and CMV Co-Infection in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Mukesh; Patel, Nisharg; Lipi, Lipika; Sud, Randhir

    2017-02-01

    A middle aged male with no known comorbidities presented with history of colicky abdominal pain, low grade fever and weight loss. Laboratory parameters were normal except low albumin. Imaging showed multiple areas of mural thickening with enhancement in jejunum & ileum. On Colonoscopy there was a thickened and deformed ileum with multiple ulcers. The biopsy showed co-infection of CMV and histoplasma, urine antigen for histoplasma was positive and CMV DNA detected in blood. He was successfully treated with combination of Valgancyclovir and Amphotericin-B followed by itraconazole. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  12. Rev-binding aptamer and CMV promoter act as decoys to inhibit HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Konopka, K; Lee, N S; Rossi, J; Düzgüneş, N

    2000-09-19

    We examined whether the antiviral effect of an HIV-1 Rev-binding aptamer [RBE(apt)] could be enhanced by a ribozyme directed against the HIV-1 env gene, and whether the antiviral activity was affected by different promoters. The efficacy of the aptamer and ribozyme DNAs was tested in HeLa cells co-transfected with the HIV-1 proviral clones, HXBDeltaBgl or pNL4-3, using transferrin-lipoplexes. The RBE(apt) and anti-env ribozyme genes were inserted into the pTZU6+27 plasmid, or constructed under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) promoters. The parental vector plasmids were used as controls. Co-transfection of the pTZU6+27 RBE(apt) plasmid with HXBDeltaBgl, or pNL4-3, at a weight ratio of 5:1, inhibited p24 production by 70 and 45%, respectively. The RSV RBE(apt) plasmid co-transfected with either HIV clone, at the same weight ratio, reduced viral production by 88%. The addition of the anti-env ribozyme to the RSV RBE(apt) did not enhance its antiviral activity. When the constructs were under the control of the CMV promoter, the expression of the HIV plasmids was very low and was independent of the presence of the RBE(apt). Thus, the effect of the RBE(apt) was strongly dependent on the promoter of the tested construct. The anti-HIV activity of the CMV RBE(apt) construct was non-specific, because co-transfection with either pCMV. SPORT-betagal or pCMVlacZ significantly suppressed HIV production from the HIV proviral clones. The reduction in p24 could not be attributed to the non-specific toxicity of the transfection procedure. Transfection of acutely HIV-infected HeLa-CD4 cells with pCMV.SPORT-betagal reduced the p24 level by 35%, while the expression of the U6 RBE(apt) did not affect p24 production. The suppression of HIV production from the HIV proviral clones by the CMV promoter constructs in the co-transfection assays may be explained by competition for transcription factors (TFs) between HIV and CMV promoters. This

  13. Portland Retail Druggists Association vs Abbott Laboratories et al, part 1.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R B

    1976-06-01

    The findings of the U.S. Supreme Court, in its March 24, 1976, decision in the case of Portland Retail Druggists vs Abbott Laboratories et al, are presented. The case deals with price differentials offered to nonprofit hospitals by pharmaceutical manufacturers. Historical background leading to the case, and early rulings of a federal district court and a court of appeals, are discussed. The Supreme Court decision appears to reflect favorably on current hospital policies and procedures for drug purchasing and ambulatory care. Issues that require further clarification will be discussed in Part 2.

  14. Resolution of Mild Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Disease with Reduced-Dose Cidofovir and CMV-Hyperimmune Globulin.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir J; Kuten, Samantha A; Knight, Richard J; Hong, Dana M; Gaber, A Osama

    2014-01-01

    Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Management of ganciclovir-resistant CMV may be complicated by nephrotoxicity which is commonly observed with recommended therapies and/or rejection induced by "indirect" viral effects or reduction of immunosuppression. Herein, we report a series of four high serologic risk (donor CMV positive/recipient CMV negative) kidney transplant patients diagnosed with ganciclovir-resistant CMV disease. All patients initially developed "breakthrough" viremia while still receiving valganciclovir prophylaxis after transplant and were later confirmed to exhibit UL97 mutations after failing to eradicate virus on adequate dosages of valganciclovir. The patients were subsequently and successfully treated with reduced-dose (1-2 mg/kg) cidofovir and CMV-hyperimmune globulin, given in 2-week intervals. In addition, all patients exhibited stable renal function after completion of therapy, and none experienced acute rejection. The combination of reduced-dose cidofovir and CMV-hyperimmune globulin appeared to be a safe and effective regimen in patients with mild disease due to ganciclovir-resistant CMV.

  15. Cross-reactive antibodies against GM2 and CMV-infected fibroblasts in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ang, C W; Jacobs, B C; Brandenburg, A H; Laman, J D; van der Meché, F G; Osterhaus, A D; van Doorn, P A

    2000-04-11

    To investigate whether anti-GM2 antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are induced by molecular mimicry with cytomegalovirus (CMV). Antibodies against ganglioside GM2 are frequently present in the serum from GBS patients with an antecedent infection with CMV. The authors detected inhibition of anti-GM2 reactivity after incubation of GM2-reactive serum samples with fibroblasts infected with a GBS-associated CMV strain. Control sera consisted of GQ1b-reactive samples, and control antigens included uninfected fibroblasts and fibroblasts that were infected with other herpes viruses. Serum immunoglobulin M reactivity with GM2 was decreased in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with CMV-infected fibroblasts. Incubation of anti-GM2-positive serum samples with uninfected fibroblasts and fibroblasts infected with varicella zoster virus did not inhibit anti-GM2 reactivity, whereas this reactivity was slightly decreased after incubation with herpes simplex virus type 1 in one patient. Antibodies against ganglioside GQ1b did not react with CMV-infected fibroblasts. CMV-infected fibroblasts express gangliosidelike epitopes that recognize specifically anti-GM2 antibodies. These results support the hypothesis that antiganglioside antibodies in CMV-infected GBS patients are induced by molecular mimicry between GM2 and antigens that are induced by a CMV infection.

  16. Progressive reduction of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells in HIV-1 infected individuals during antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Grosse, V; Schulte, A; Weber, K; Mendila, M; Jacobs, R; Schmidt, R E; Heiken, H

    2000-08-01

    Visualization of antigen-specific T cells has become an important tool in studying immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyze CMV-specific CD4+ T cells in healthy and HIV-infected individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were examined for antigen-induced intracellular cytokine responses. We found significant numbers of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells detectable in most CMV-IgG+ HIV-1 infected individuals, whereas CMV-specific CD4+ T cells could not be demonstrated in CMV-IgG- patients. Median frequency of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells were lower in HIV-infected subjects who had been treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for more than 1 year than in untreated HIV-infected individuals. In patients under therapy for less than 1 year median CMV-specific CD4+ T cell responder frequency was higher than in subjects treated for more than 1 year but lower than in untreated subjects. HIV suppression with HAART might lead to a progressive reduction of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells indicating an efficient elimination of an opportunistic pathogen.

  17. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  18. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  19. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  20. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  1. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  2. Prevalence of CMV infection among staff in a metropolitan children’s hospital – occupational health screening findings

    PubMed Central

    Stranzinger, Johanna; Kindel, Jutta; Henning, Melanie; Wendeler, Dana; Nienhaus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Staff in children’s hospitals may run an increased risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) contact infection leading to a congenital CMV fetopathy during pregnancy. The main risk factor is close contact with inapparent carriers of CMV among infants (<3 years). We therefore examined CMV seroprevalence (SP) and possible risk factors for CMV infection among staff at a children’s hospital. Method: In 2014, staff at a metropolitan children’s hospital were offered a CMV antibody test in the context of occupational health screening. Besides of anti-CMV immunoglobulin G (anti-CMV IgG) gender, age, profession, number of children and migration background were assessed and used as independent variables in multiple logistic regression. Women without a migration background (MIG) were considered as a separate group. Results: The study included 219 employees. Women showed a significant higher risk than men of being CMV-positive (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0; 95% CI 1.1–7.8). The risk among age groups of 30 and over was double that of the under-30s (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–3.9); among those aged 40-plus it was aOR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1–4.7). Staff with an MIG tested more often positive than those without an MIG (95.5% versus 45.7%). CMV SP was 47.7% among women without an MIG. In this subgroup the probability of CMV infection increased with age (p=0.08) as well. Conclusion: In the staff group as a whole there was a significant correlation between CMV SP, country of origin and age. We found no significant differences between occupational groups; perhaps our random sample was too small. Given the low CMV SP particularly in those without MIG, women who want to have children in particular must be protected from CMV infection. Follow-up studies should be undertaken to test whether good workplace hygiene offers sufficient protection for pregnant women and could be an alternative to prohibiting certain activities. PMID:27730028

  3. Abbott ARCHITECT iPhenytoin assay versus similar assays for measuring free phenytoin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tacker, Danyel Hermes; Robinson, Randy; Perrotta, Peter L

    2014-01-01

    To measure free phenytoin (FP) concentrations in filtered specimens using the Abbott ARCHITECT iPhenytoin assay and to compare results from this method with results from the Abbott TDx/FLx assays. We verified accuracy, analytic measurement range, and precision for FP measurements. For correlation and therapeutic interval studies, we used filtered calibrators, controls, proficiency-testing materials, and surplus clinical samples. After implementation, we determined proficiency testing results. The analytic measurement range was 2.0 to 25.0 micromol/L. Quality control materials (6.1, 12.6, and 20.1 micromol/L) provided mean (SD) recoveries of 96.1 (5.0%), 99.2 (5.0%), and 99.3 (5.7%), respectively, and coefficients of variation of 5.2%, 5.0%, and 5.8%, respectively. Clinical specimens produced mean (SD) FP recovery levels of 103.7 (10.6%) (bias, 0.1 [0.3] micromol/L). Altering the FP therapeutic range (4.0-8.0 micromol/L) was unnecessary. Proficiency testing yielded consistently acceptable results. Our accuracy, precision, and correlation results were similar for the TDx/FLx and ARCHITECT assays, which demonstrates that the ARCHITECT iPhenytoin assay is acceptable for clinical FP measurements.

  4. Acute and regressive scleroderma concomitant to an acute CMV primary infection.

    PubMed

    Goulabchand, Radjiv; Khellaf, Lakhdar; Forestier, Amandine; Costes, Valerie; Foulongne, Vincent; le Quellec, Alain; Guilpain, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    To describe the pathophysiological mechanisms involving cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection and natural killer (NK) cell expansion in the development of localized scleroderma. A 43-year-old woman presented acute erythematous discoloration and skin thickening concerning face, neck, trunk, abdomen, and the four limbs, predominantly in proximal areas. Our case did not respond to systemic sclerosis criteria diagnosis. However, skin and muscle biopsy revealed early scleroderma associated with capillary thrombi, and tissue infiltration with NK cells (CD56+/Granzyme B). Scleroderma was attributed to CMV primary infection responsible for cytolytic hepatitis (7-fold over the limit) and circulating NK cell excess. After 6 months of prednisone and a 2-year follow-up, a complete resolution of symptoms was observed. Our observation suggests a potential triggering role of CMV primary infection in the development of scleroderma. Histological features from our observation addresses the role of CMV and NK cells in the development of endothelial damage and fibrotic process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Local spectral properties of reflectionless Jacobi, CMV, and Schrödinger operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Zinchenko, Maxim

    We prove that Jacobi, CMV, and Schrödinger operators, which are reflectionless on a homogeneous set E (in the sense of Carleson), under the assumption of a Blaschke-type condition on their discrete spectra accumulating at E, have purely absolutely continuous spectrum on E.

  6. CMV matrices in random matrix theory and integrable systems: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenciu, Irina

    2006-07-01

    We present a survey of recent results concerning a remarkable class of unitary matrices, the CMV matrices. We are particularly interested in the role they play in the theory of random matrices and integrable systems. Throughout the paper we also emphasize the analogies and connections to Jacobi matrices.

  7. CMV viral load measurements in whole blood and plasma--which is best following renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Barrett-Muir, W; Breuer, J; Millar, C; Thomas, J; Jeffries, D; Yaqoob, M; Aitken, C

    2000-07-15

    Quantitative commercial assays for cytomegalovirus (CMV) detection have recently been developed. Their role in the management of patients after transplantation needs to be evaluated. Widespread use of these assays will allow for comparison of results between centers and meaningful interpretation of the significance of viral load measurements. Sequential samples from 52 patients after renal transplantation were tested in the murex hybrid capture assay (HCA) and the Roche Amplicor CMV DNA assay (QPCR) and correlated with the development of CMV disease. A comparison of viral loads in plasma and whole blood was also made. Both assays were sensitive and detected all cases of CMV disease. The specificity and positive predictive value increased from 0.34 and 0.36 to 0.85 and 0.96 for the HCA and 0.37, 0.37 to 0.72 and 0.63 for the QPCR following a receiver operator curve analysis. Higher viral loads were measured using the HCA compared to the QPCR. Response to ganciclovir was associated with a greater than 80% reduction in viral load by HCA or greater than 70% using the QPCR. Both assays were highly sensitive. By using a receiver operator curve analysis a cutoff viral load can be determined which maximizes the clinical utility of these assays.

  8. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests for drivers with military CMV experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substitute for driving skills tests for drivers... Testing and Licensing Procedures § 383.77 Substitute for driving skills tests for drivers with military CMV experience. At the discretion of a State, the driving skills test as specified in § 383.113 may be...

  9. Prevalence and clinical aspects of CMV congenital Infection in a low-income population.

    PubMed

    Marin, Lauro Juliano; Santos de Carvalho Cardoso, Emanuelle; Bispo Sousa, Sandra Mara; Debortoli de Carvalho, Luciana; Marques Filho, Marcílio F; Raiol, Mônica Regina; Gadelha, Sandra Rocha

    2016-08-31

    CMV is the most common cause of congenital infection in the whole world (0.2 to 2.2 %). That infection may be symptomatic or asymptomatic at birth and, although asymptomatic cases at birth are more common, some children may develop late sequelae, and require medical intervention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CMV congenital infections in children who were born in a public hospital in Ilhéus, Brazil, and to evaluate the clinical progression in infected newborns. CMV congenital infection was determined by detecting viral DNA through nested PCR. The viral DNA was detected in 25 newborns, showing a prevalence of 1.19 % (25/2100) of CMV congenital infection. In regards to the risk factors from mothers, only the variables: age of mothers (p = 0.003), number of children (p = 0.011), and use of medications (p < 0.001) were associated with the congenital infection. Approximately 12 % of children presented symptoms. One death and two auditory alterations were detected during the monitored period. Only 50 % of children diagnosed attended their medical follow. The prevalence found confirms the findings from other studies which involved other poor populations. Two children presented impaired hearing during the monitored period; that was one of the main sequelae from the infection. It is noteworthy that there was low adherence to medical follow-up which may underestimate data on complications of the infection CMV. Late symptoms can be mistaken for other diseases or even go unnoticed.

  10. Comparison of the Abbott Architect i2000 assay, the Roche Modular Analytics E170 assay, and an immunoradiometric assay for serum hepatitis B virus markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kang, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2007-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers are the most important data for epidemiological screening and clinical diagnosis of HBV infection, especially in endemic areas. We compared the results of the Roche Modular Analytics E170 assay, the Abbott Architect i2000 assay, and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and anti-HBV e antigen (anti-HBe). A number of serum samples (264, 263, 224, and 202 for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe, respectively) were studied. For samples giving discrepant results for HBeAg between methods, real-time PCR assays were performed. The concordance rates among the three methods were high for HBsAg (100%) and HBeAg (94.6), but low for anti-HBs (91.6%) and anti-HBe (82.2%). For anti-HBs, which could be measured quantitatively by the Modular E170 and Architect i2000 procedures, discrepant results were observed at low levels of anti-HBs. For anti-HBe, the positive rate was highest with Modular E170 (60.9%) followed by the IRMA kit (54.1%) and Architect i2000 (51.0%). This study shows substantial differences between the assay results by the three methods, which should be taken into account in determinations of serum HBV markers.

  11. Aging and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection differentially and jointly affect distinct circulating T cell subsets in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Wertheimer, Anne M.; Bennett, Michael S.; Park, Byung; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Carmine; Pulko, Vesna; Currier, Noreen L.; Nikolich-Zugich, Dragana; Kaye, Jeffrey; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2014-01-01

    The impact of intrinsic aging upon human peripheral blood T-cell subsets remains incompletely quantified and understood. This impact must be distinguished from the influence of latent persistent microorganisms, particularly cytomegalovirus (CMV), which has been associated with age-related changes in the T cell pool. In a cross-sectional cohort of 152 CMV-negative individuals, aged 21–101 years, we found that aging correlated strictly to an absolute loss of naïve CD8, but not CD4, T cells, but, contrary to many reports, did not lead to an increase in memory T cell numbers. The loss of naïve CD8 T cells was not altered by CMV in 239 subjects (range 21–96 years) but the decline in CD4+ naïve cells showed significance in CMV+ individuals. These individuals also exhibited an absolute increase in the effector/effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ cells with age. That increase was seen mainly, if not exclusively, in older subjects with elevated anti-CMV Ab titers, suggesting that efficacy of viral control over time may determine the magnitude of CMV impact upon T cell memory, and perhaps upon immune defense. These findings provide important new insights into the age-related changes in the peripheral blood pool of older adults, demonstrating that aging and CMV exert both distinct and joint influence upon blood T cell homeostasis in humans. PMID:24501199

  12. Abundant cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactive clonotypes in the CD8(+) T cell receptor alpha repertoire following allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Link, C S; Eugster, A; Heidenreich, F; Rücker-Braun, E; Schmiedgen, M; Oelschlägel, U; Kühn, D; Dietz, S; Fuchs, Y; Dahl, A; Domingues, A M J; Klesse, C; Schmitz, M; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M; Schetelig, J; Bonifacio, E

    2016-06-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is potentially curative, but associated with post-transplantation complications, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. An effective immune response requires T cells recognizing CMV epitopes via their T cell receptors (TCRs). Little is known about the TCR repertoire, in particular the TCR-α repertoire and its clinical relevance in patients following stem cell transplantation. Using next-generation sequencing we examined the TCR-α repertoire of CD8(+) T cells and CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells in four patients. Additionally, we performed single-cell TCR-αβ sequencing of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells. The TCR-α composition of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 CMVpp65- and CMVIE -specific T cells was oligoclonal and defined by few dominant clonotypes. Frequencies of single clonotypes reached up to 11% of all CD8(+) T cells and half of the total CD8(+) T cell repertoire was dominated by few CMV-reactive clonotypes. Some TCR-α clonotypes were shared between patients. Gene expression of the circulating CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells was consistent with chronically activated effector memory T cells. The CD8(+) T cell response to CMV reactivation resulted in an expansion of a few TCR-α clonotypes to dominate the CD8(+) repertoires. These results warrant further larger studies to define the ability of oligoclonally expanded T cell clones to achieve an effective anti-viral T cell response in this setting. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. CMV reactivation drives posttransplant T-cell reconstitution and results in defects in the underlying TCRβ repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Suessmuth, Yvonne; Mukherjee, Rithun; Watkins, Benjamin; Koura, Divya T.; Finstermeier, Knut; Desmarais, Cindy; Stempora, Linda; Horan, John T.; Langston, Amelia; Qayed, Muna; Khoury, Hanna J.; Grizzle, Audrey; Cheeseman, Jennifer A.; Conger, Jason A.; Robertson, Jennifer; Garrett, Aneesah; Kirk, Allan D.; Waller, Edmund K.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Robins, Harlan S.

    2015-01-01

    Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation has long been implicated in posttransplant immune dysfunction, the molecular mechanisms that drive this phenomenon remain undetermined. To address this, we combined multiparameter flow cytometric analysis and T-cell subpopulation sorting with high-throughput sequencing of the T-cell repertoire, to produce a thorough evaluation of the impact of CMV reactivation on T-cell reconstitution after unrelated-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We observed that CMV reactivation drove a >50-fold specific expansion of Granzyme Bhigh/CD28low/CD57high/CD8+ effector memory T cells (Tem) and resulted in a linked contraction of all naive T cells, including CD31+/CD4+ putative thymic emigrants. T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) deep sequencing revealed a striking contraction of CD8+ Tem diversity due to CMV-specific clonal expansions in reactivating patients. In addition to querying the topography of the expanding CMV-specific T-cell clones, deep sequencing allowed us, for the first time, to exhaustively evaluate the underlying TCR repertoire. Our results reveal new evidence for significant defects in the underlying CD8 Tem TCR repertoire in patients who reactivate CMV, providing the first molecular evidence that, in addition to driving expansion of virus-specific cells, CMV reactivation has a detrimental impact on the integrity and heterogeneity of the rest of the T-cell repertoire. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01012492. PMID:25852054

  14. More intensive CMV-infection in chronic heart failure patients contributes to higher T-lymphocyte differentiation degree.

    PubMed

    Moro-García, Marco Antonio; López-Iglesias, Fernando; Marcos-Fernández, Raquel; Bueno-García, Eva; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz; Lambert, José Luis; Suárez-García, Francisco Manuel; Morís de la Tassa, Cesar; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca

    2018-03-30

    Immunosenescence in chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by a high frequency of differentiated T-lymphocytes, contributing to an inflammatory status and a deficient ability to generate immunocompetent responses. CMV is the best known inducer of T-lymphocyte differentiation, and is associated with the phenomenon of immunosenescence. In this study, we included 58 elderly chronic heart failure patients (ECHF), 60 healthy elderly controls (HEC), 40 young chronic heart failure patients (YCHF) and 40 healthy young controls (HYC). High differentiation of CD8+ T-lymphocytes was found in CMV-seropositive patients; however, the differentiation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes was increased in CMV-seropositive but also in CHF patients. Anti-CMV antibody titers showed positive correlation with more differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ subsets and inverse correlation with CD4/CD8 ratio. Immunosenescence found in CHF patients is mainly due to the dynamics of CMV-infection, since the differentiation of T-lymphocyte subsets is related not only to CMV-infection, but also to anti-CMV antibody titers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cervical cancer screening tests: A series of 8 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elgert, Paul A; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Simsir, Aylin

    2018-04-26

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous infection typically affecting over 50% of the US population by age 40. We report 8 cases of CMV infections detected in cervical cancer screening tests, the largest series of cases thus far reported in gynecologic cytology specimens. A retrospective review of our pathology archival computer database was performed from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2016 for CMV infections reported in cervical cytology specimens. The slides were retrieved for review if available. The eight patients ranged in age from 21-46 years, with a median age of 27 years and average age of 29.5 years. Two patients were significantly immunocompromised with one patient having AIDS and one patient diagnosed with autoimmune disease. The remaining six patients are considered immunocompetent. Cases were identified most often in the fall and winter months (6 of 8 cases). Seven cases were found using Surepath Pap (SP) liquid-based processing and one case was reported in a classic Papanicolaou smear (CPS). There was no correlation of cytologic presentation of CMV with a distinct cytohormonal pattern or inflammatory constituents. Rare diagnostic cells with changes of CMV infection were seen in 75% of the cases. The presence of CMV did not usually result in adverse patient outcome, except where CMV was one of the multiple opportunistic infections detected in the patient with AIDS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Stopping secondary prevention in AIDS patients with inactive CMV retinitis treated with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy)].

    PubMed

    Best, J; Althaus, C; Kersten, A; Theisen, A; Gantke, B

    2000-08-01

    Immune recovery of AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis treated and healed by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is reflected by increased CD4 cell count and decreased virus load. Due to partial reconstitution of the immune status the risk of opportunistic infections decreases, as well as the risk of reactivating inactive CMV retinitis. It may therefore be possible to stop anti-CMV maintenance therapy may after HAART-induced immune recovery. We present six patients (nine eyes) with a follow-up of 9.5 months (range 7-12 months) after cessation of the CMV-specific maintenance therapy (five orally, one intravenously). There was no reactivation of retinal CMV infection during the follow-up period. The virus load (< 50 Eq/ml; a single value of one patient was 2047 Eq/ml) and CD4 cell counts (range 207-454/microliter; mean: 313/microliter) remained stable during the follow-up period, reflecting immune recovery. Our findings confirm the expected low risk of retinal CMV reactivation after immune recovery in AIDS patients receiving HAART without secondary prophylaxis with an anti-CMV maintenance therapy. Regular ophthalmic and medical follow-up is mandatory in these patients. Cessation of maintenance therapy represents a major improvement in quality of live in AIDS patients.

  17. KIR and HLA interactions are associated with control of primary CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    van Duin, D; Avery, R K; Hemachandra, S; Yen-Lieberman, B; Zhang, A; Jain, A; Butler, R S; Barnard, J; Schold, J D; Fung, J; Askar, M

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors(KIR) are genetically polymorphic natural killer(NK) cell receptors important in antiviral responses. A retrospective, single-center cohort study was performed to study the interaction of KIR genotype and primary control of CMV infection after transplantation.Time to first CMV viremia was determined for a cohort of 531 CMV serology donor positive/recipient negative solid organ transplant recipients. Of the KIR genes,KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 were most strongly associated with time to CMV viremia in random survival forest analysis. As KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 both interact with HLA-C1, these interactions were evaluated. Seventy six recipients were found to be positive for both KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 and expressed only HLA-C1 antigens in both recipient and donor. These patients had a substantially reduced hazard of CMV viremia in the first year after solid organ transplantation (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.27–0.72, p=0.0012). In KIR2DL3+/KIR2DS2+/HLA-C1/1 recipients who received an organ from a non-C1/1 donor, this protective effect was not observed. These results improve our understanding of human NK cell function in primary CMV infection after transplant.

  18. Cytomegalovirus cultured from different major leukocyte subpopulations: association with clinical features in CMV immunoglobulin G-positive renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, P; Tenschert, W; Cremaschi, L; Schröter, M; Gutensohn, K; Laufs, R

    2000-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was shown to be associated more closely with clinical manifestations than infectious CMV in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) of renal allograft recipients with secondary CMV infection. Shell vial culture was carried out with ficoll-purified PBMCs and PMNLs of 71 CMV IgG-positive patients after kidney transplantation. Thirty-six patients experienced active CMV infections. Of these, 17 developed clinical symptoms. The diagnostic value of PMNLs and PBMCs viremia was determined in comparison to pp65 antigenemia, leukoDNAemia, plasma DNAemia, and detection of cytomegalic endothelial cells. In both PMNLs and PBMCs (with or without detectable endothelial cells), frequencies and levels of viremia were significantly higher among symptomatic patients. Regarding the occurrence of clinical CMV manifestations, the sensitivity of culture from PMNLs and from PBMCs fractions was 100%. Viremia in PBMCs, however, was far more specific (94%) than in PMNLs (74%). Cutoff values established previously for pp65 antigenemia and leukoDNAemia, standard markers in the laboratory, had similar specificity (96% each) to PBMCs viremia, but were less sensitive (88% each). Plasma DNA-emia was both less sensitive (82%) and less specific (69%) than PBMCs viremia. Detection of endothelemia showed maximal specificity (100%), but inferior sensitivity (47%). All patients had PBMCs viremia before the onset of symptoms. In conclusion, infectious CMV present in PBMCs may prove to be a determinant of clinical CMV manifestations in seropositive immunocompromised individuals. Factors involved in PBMCs tropism may help to understand the pathogenetic mechanisms of CMV dissemination in this group of patients. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Provision of cellular blood components to CMV-seronegative patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the UK: survey of UK transplant centres.

    PubMed

    Morton, S; Peniket, A; Malladi, R; Murphy, M F

    2017-12-01

    To identify current UK practice with regards to provision of blood components for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative, potential, allogeneic stem cell recipients of seronegative grafts. Infection with CMV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). CMV transmission has been a risk associated with the transfusion of blood components from previously exposed donors, but leucocyte reduction has been demonstrated to minimise this risk. In 2012, the UK Advisory Committee for the Safety of Tissues and Organs (SaBTO) recommended that CMV-unselected components could be safely transfused without increased risk of CMV transmission. We surveyed UK aSCT centres to establish current practice. Fifteen adult and seven paediatric centres (75%) responded; 22·7% continue to provide components from CMV-seronegative donors. Reasons cited include the continued perceived risk of CMV transmission by blood transfusion, its associated morbidity and concerns regarding potential for ambiguous CMV serostatus in seronegative potential transplant recipients due to passive antibody transfer from CMV-seropositive blood donors, leading to erroneous donor/recipient CMV matching at transplant. The survey demonstrated a surprisingly high rate (22.7%) of centres continuing to provide blood components from CMV-seronegative donors despite SaBTO guidance. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Asymptomatic CMV infections in long-term renal transplant recipients are associated with the loss of FcRγ from LIR-1+ NK cells.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Nandini B; Foley, Bree; Lee, Silvia; Fernandez, Sonia; Irish, Ashley B; Price, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    While it is established that cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease affects NK-cell profiles, the functional consequences of asymptomatic CMV replication are unclear. Here, we characterize NK cells in clinically stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs; n = 48) >2 years after transplantation. RTRs and age-matched controls (n = 32) were stratified by their CMV serostatus and the presence of measurable CMV DNA. CMV antibody or CMV DNA influenced expression of NKG2C, LIR-1, NKp30, NKp46, and FcRγ, a signaling adaptor molecule, on CD56 dim NK cells. Phenotypic changes ascribed to CMV were clearer in RTRs than in control subjects and affected NK-cell function as assessed by TNF-α and CD107a expression. The most active NK cells were FcRγ - LIR-1 + NKG2C - and displayed high antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in the presence of immobilized CMV glycoprotein B reactive antibody. However, perforin levels in supernatants from RTRs with active CMV replication were low. Overall we demonstrate that CMV can be reactivated in symptom-free renal transplant recipients, affecting the phenotypic, and functional profiles of NK cells. Continuous exposure to CMV may maintain and expand NK cells that lack FcRγ but express LIR-1. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Evaluation of the COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test for detection of viral DNA in specimens taken from patients after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sia, I G; Wilson, J A; Espy, M J; Paya, C V; Smith, T F

    2000-02-01

    Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood by PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of infection in patients posttransplantation. The test, however, has low specificity for the identification of overt CMV disease. Quantitative CMV PCR has been shown to overcome this shortcoming. The COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test was evaluated by using consecutive serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMN) samples from liver transplant patients. Twenty-five patients had CMV viremia (by shell vial cell culture assay) and/or tissue-invasive disease (by biopsy); 20 had no active infection. A total of 262 serum and 62 PBMN specimens were tested. Of 159 serum specimens from patients with overt CMV infection, the COBAS assay detected CMV DNA in 21 patients (sensitivity, 84%). Only 1 of 103 samples from patients with no evidence of active infection had detectable CMV DNA (341 copies/ml). By comparison of 62 matching serum and PBMN samples by the same assay, 12 PBMN samples were exclusively positive, whereas only 2 serum samples were exclusively positive (P < 0.05). At the time of clinical CMV infection, viral copy numbers were higher in PBMNs than serum from four of five patients. The COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test is a sensitive and specific test for the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood. Clinical applications of the assay will require further validation with samples from a larger population of transplant patients.

  2. [Prognosis value of the pp65 antigenemia and semi-quantitative PCR in the detection of the CMV reactivation in bone marrow grafted patients].

    PubMed

    Ksouri, H; Lakhal, A; Ben Amor, R; Torjman, L; Achour, W; Ben Othmen, T; Ladeb, S; Abdelkefi, A; Slim, A; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

    2006-07-01

    In this article a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and semiquantitative PCR retrospective evaluation of 26 bone marrow allo-grafted patients for different haematological disease is reported. Eighteen patients had a CMV reactivation despite a prophylactic treatment, seven of those patients had both positive antigenemia pp65 and positive semi-quantitative CMV PCR. During CMV reactivation, 3 patients developed a CMV disease despite a pre-emptive therapy. The follow up of the antigenemia was performed since D21 until D100 post transplantation, the antigenemia positivity occurred at D53 and was preceded about 7 days by CMV PCR positivity The CMV disease wasn't associated with a high viral load. All patients that had CMV reactivation had a positive CMV serology before the graft, whereas only 37.5% of the patients who did not reactivate had a positive CMV serology. Respectively half patients who reactivated and only 12.5% of those who didn't had a Graft versus host disease (GVHD), witch preceded the reactivation about 21 days in six of the formers. Clinical and biological signs presented by our patients in this cases report, seems to be associated more with the GVHD than with CMV reactivation.

  3. Evaluation of the COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR Test for Detection of Viral DNA in Specimens Taken from Patients after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Irene G.; Wilson, Jennie A.; Espy, Mark J.; Paya, Carlos V.; Smith, Thomas F.

    2000-01-01

    Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood by PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of infection in patients posttransplantation. The test, however, has low specificity for the identification of overt CMV disease. Quantitative CMV PCR has been shown to overcome this shortcoming. The COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test was evaluated by using consecutive serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMN) samples from liver transplant patients. Twenty-five patients had CMV viremia (by shell vial cell culture assay) and/or tissue-invasive disease (by biopsy); 20 had no active infection. A total of 262 serum and 62 PBMN specimens were tested. Of 159 serum specimens from patients with overt CMV infection, the COBAS assay detected CMV DNA in 21 patients (sensitivity, 84%). Only 1 of 103 samples from patients with no evidence of active infection had detectable CMV DNA (341 copies/ml). By comparison of 62 matching serum and PBMN samples by the same assay, 12 PBMN samples were exclusively positive, whereas only 2 serum samples were exclusively positive (P < 0.05). At the time of clinical CMV infection, viral copy numbers were higher in PBMNs than serum from four of five patients. The COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test is a sensitive and specific test for the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood. Clinical applications of the assay will require further validation with samples from a larger population of transplant patients. PMID:10655353

  4. A prospective study of a quantitative PCR ELISA assay for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonia in lung and heart-transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Barber, L; Egan, J J; Lomax, J; Haider, Y; Yonan, N; Woodcock, A A; Turner, A J; Fox, A J

    2000-08-01

    Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a low predictive value for the identification of CMV pneumonia. This study prospectively evaluated the application of a quantitative PCR Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) assay in 9 lung- and 18 heart-transplant recipients who did not receive ganciclovir prophylaxis. DNA was collected from peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) posttransplantation. Oligonucleotide primers for the glycoprotein B gene (149 bp) were used in a PCR ELISA assay using an internal standard for quantitation. CMV disease was defined as histological evidence of end organ damage. The median level CMV genome equivalents in patients with CMV disease was 2665/2 x 10(5) PMNL (range 1,200 to 61,606) compared to 100 x 10(5) PMNL (range 20 to 855) with infection but no CMV disease (p = 0.036). All patients with CMV disease had genome equivalents levels of >1200/2 x 10(5) PMNL. A cut-off level of 1,200 PMNL had a positive predictive value for CMV disease of 100% and a negative predictive value of 100%. The first detection of levels of CMV genome equivalents above a level of 1200/2 x 10(5) PMNL was at a median of 58 days (range 47 to 147) posttransplant. Quantitative PCR assays for the diagnosis of CMV infection may predict patients at risk of CMV disease and thereby direct preemptive treatment to high-risk patients.

  5. Traceability Assessment and Performance Evaluation of Results for Measurement of Abbott Clinical Chemistry Assays on 4 Chemistry Analyzers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinsook; Song, Kyung Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kwon, Gye Choel

    2016-05-01

    -The traceability of clinical results to internationally recognized and accepted reference materials and reference measurement procedures has become increasingly important. Therefore, the establishment of traceability has become a mandatory requirement for all in vitro diagnostics devices. -To evaluate the traceability of the Abbott Architect c8000 system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois), consisting of calibrators and reagents, across 4 different chemistry analyzers, and to evaluate its general performance on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara-shi, Tochigi-ken, Japan). -For assessment of traceability, secondary reference materials were evaluated 5 times, and then bias was calculated. Precision, linearity, and carryover were determined according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, Pennsylvania). -The biases from 4 different analyzers ranged from -2.33% to 2.70% on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO, -2.33% to 5.12% on the Roche Hitachi 7600 (Roche Diagnostics International, Basel, Switzerland), -0.93% to 2.87% on the Roche Modular, and -2.16% to 2.86% on the Abbott Architect c16000. The total coefficients of variance of all analytes were less than 5%. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were more than 0.9900. The carryover rate ranged from -0.54% to 0.17%. -Abbott clinical chemistry assays met the performance criteria based on desirable biological variation for precision, bias, and total error. They also showed excellent linearity and carryover. Therefore, these clinical chemistry assays were found to be accurate and reliable and are readily applicable on the various platforms used in this study.

  6. Fully automated assay of glycohemoglobin with the Abbott IMx analyzer: novel approaches for separation and detection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D H; Bogacz, J P; Forsythe, C M; Turk, P J; Lane, T L; Gates, R C; Brandt, D R

    1993-10-01

    We describe a novel assay for measuring glycohemoglobin directly from anticoagulated whole blood with the Abbott IMx analyzer. The glycohemoglobin is labeled with a soluble polyanionic affinity reagent and the anionic complex is then captured with a cationic solid-phase matrix. Glycohemoglobin is quantified by measuring the quenching by heme of the static fluorescence from an added fluorophore. The assay is standardized to report both percent total glycohemoglobin (%GHb) and percent hemoglobin A1c (%HbA1c). Glucose, bilirubin, triglycerides, labile fraction, and hemoglobin variants do not interfere in the assay. Within- and between-run CVs are approximately 4-5%, with total CVs of approximately 6.5%. Highly significant linear correlations (r > 0.97) were obtained in comparison studies with two major assay methodologies. The time to obtain one result is approximately 10 min (including assay of a control), 56 min for 22 results. We describe the development, standardization, and validation of this new method.

  7. The evolution of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor drug discovery program at abbott laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wada, Carol K

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in several pathologies. At Abbott Laboratories, the matrix metalloproteinases inhibitor drug discovery program has focused on the discovery of a potent, selective, orally bioavailable MMP inhibitor for the treatment of cancer. The program evolved from early succinate-based inhibitors to utilizing in-house technology such as SAR by NMR to develop a novel class of biaryl hydroxamate MMP inhibitors. The metabolic instability of the biaryl hydroxamates led to the discovery of a new class of N-formylhydroxylamine (retrohydroxamate) biaryl ethers, exemplified by ABT-770 (16). Toxicity issues with this pre-clinical candidate led to the discovery of another novel class of retrohydroxamate MMP inhibitors, the phenoxyphenyl sulfones such as ABT-518 (19j). ABT-518 is a potent, orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of MMP-2 and 9 over MMP-1 that has been evaluated in Phase I clinical trials in cancer patients.

  8. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity.

  9. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  10. Reference ranges for serum total and monomeric prolactin for the current generation Abbott Architect assay.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, S J; Cornes, M P; Ford, C; Gama, R

    2015-01-01

    Exclusion of macroprolactinaemia, a well-recognised interference, as the cause of hyperprolactinaemia is essential to avoid potential misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients. We have derived gender-specific serum total and post-polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation monomeric reference ranges for the recently re-standardised Abbott Architect prolactin assay. Prolactin was measured in serum samples obtained from males (n=49) and females (n=52) using the current Abbott Architect immunoassay pre- and post-PEG precipitation. Gender-specific reference ranges were derived for total and monomeric (post-PEG) prolactin. Routine patients' samples (n=175) with a serum total prolactin >700 mIU/L were screened for macroprolactinaemia to assess classification compared with our previous post-PEG precipitation percentage recovery-based approach. Reference ranges for serum total prolactin were 58-419 mIU/L (male) and 63-561 mIU/L (female). Male and female monomeric prolactin reference ranges were 32-309 mIU/L and 39-422 mIU/L, respectively. Mean (SD) post-PEG percentage recovery of the IS 84/500 prolactin standard was 80 (2.3)%. Of 175 patients' samples screened for macroprolactinaemia, 149 had monomeric prolactin concentrations (median monomeric prolactin=1035 mIU/L; median recovery=83%) above the gender-specific reference range. Monomeric prolactin concentrations (median monomeric prolactin=162 mIU/L; median recovery=20%) in the remaining 26 were within the reference ranges. One patient classified as macroprolactin positive and another classified as macroprolactin negative would not have been identified as such using the previous recovery-based approach. The use of post-PEG monomeric reference ranges not only identifies hyperprolactinaemia due solely to macroprolactinaemia but has the added advantage of identifying patients who have simultaneous true monomeric hyperprolactinaemia and elevated concentrations of macroprolactin. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions

  11. Analytical evaluation of the automated galectin-3 assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT immunoassay instruments.

    PubMed

    Gaze, David C; Prante, Christian; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Collet, Corinne; Launay, Jean-Marie; Franekova, Janka; Jabor, Antonin; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Shih, Jessie; del Rey, Jose Manuel; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario; Collinson, Paul O

    2014-06-01

    Galectin-3 is secreted from macrophages and binds and activates fibroblasts forming collagen. Tissue fibrosis is central to the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). We performed a European multicentered evaluation of the analytical performance of the two-step routine and Short Turn-Around-Time (STAT) galectin-3 immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i1000SR, i2000SR, and i4000SR (Abbott Laboratories). We evaluated the assay precision and dilution linearity for both routine and STAT assays and compared serum and plasma, and fresh vs. frozen samples. The reference interval and biological variability were also assessed. Measurable samples were compared between ARCHITECT instruments and between the routine and STAT assays and also to a galectin-3 ELISA (BG Medicine). The total assay coefficient of variation (CV%) was 2.3%-6.2% and 1.7%-7.4% for the routine and STAT assays, respectively. Both assays demonstrated linearity up to 120 ng/mL. Galectin-3 concentrations were higher in plasma samples than in serum samples and correlated well between fresh and frozen samples (R=0.997), between the routine and STAT assays, between the ARCHITECT i1000 and i2000 instruments and with the galectin-3 ELISA. The reference interval on 627 apparently healthy individuals (53% male) yielded upper 95th and 97.5th percentiles of 25.2 and 28.4 ng/mL, respectively. Values were significantly lower in subjects younger than 50 years. The galectin-3 routine and STAT assays on the Abbott ARCHITECT instruments demonstrated good analytical performance. Further clinical studies are required to demonstrate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of this novel marker in patients with CHF.

  12. Use of the Abbott Architect HIV antigen/antibody assay in a low incidence population.

    PubMed

    Dubravac, Terry; Gahan, Thomas F; Pentella, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    With the availability of 4th generation HIV diagnostic tests which are capable of detecting acute infection, Iowa evaluated the 3rd and 4th generation HIV test and compared the performance of these products in a low incidence population. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody combination (4th generation) assay compared to an EIA 3rd generation assay. Over a 4 month period, 2037 specimens submitted for HIV screening were tested by Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA and the Abbott Architect i1000SR HIV Ag/Ab Combo. The performance characteristics of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined. Of the 2037 specimens tested, there were 13 (0.64%) true positives detected. None of the positive specimens were from patients in the acute phase of infection. The Abbott antigen/antibody combo assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 99.85%, 81.25%, and 100% respectively. The Bio-Rad EIA assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 99.80%, 76.47% and 100%, respectively. The EIA had four false positive results which tested negative by the antigen/antibody assay and western blot. In a low-incidence state where early infections are less commonly encountered, the EIA assay and the antigen/antibody assay performed with near equivalency. The antigen/antibody assay had one less false positive result. While no patients were detected in the acute stage of infection, the use of the antigen/antibody assay presents the opportunity to detect an infected patient sooner and prevent transmission to others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of VIP signaling enhances immunosuppressive effect of MDSCs on CMV-induced adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Parvin; Petersen, Christopher T; Waller, Edmund K

    2017-10-10

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory factor which affects both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. These effects include, but are not limited to, inhibition of T cell proliferation and disruption of immune homeostasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are an immune regulatory cell type that has been described in settings of cancer and infectious disease._Here we demonstrate a reduced circulating monocytic MDSCs in the VIP -/- vs. wild type MCMV. VIP-/- MDSCs secretes less NO upon stimulation with LPS and interferon that relatively lose the ability to suppress T cells activation in vitro compared to wild type MDSCs._Considering the importance of VIP in immunomodulation, the possible effect of VIP in the suppressive function of MDSC populations following CMV infection remains unknown. We describe the possible role of VIP in the regulation of anti-CMV activity of T cells through the activation of MDSCs.

  14. Attitudes of U.S. Hispanic and non-Hispanic women toward congenital CMV prevention behaviors: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M; Bennion, Erica; Nielsen, Natalia N; Bailey, Ryan J

    2018-05-24

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection. The only way to protect against congenital CMV infection is to practice CMV prevention behaviors. CMV seroprevalence rates are high in Hispanic women. It is unknown whether communication strategies should differ by ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to understand differences between U.S. Hispanic and non-Hispanic women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors and examine the relationship between perceived subjective norms and these attitudes. This was a cross-sectional study using an online panel. Participants were U.S. women of childbearing age. The dependent variable was attitude toward practicing CMV prevention behaviors, specifically avoiding sharing cups, food, and utensils with a child and not kissing a child on the lips. Among 818 women (50% Hispanic), 16.8% of Hispanic women and 9.7% of non-Hispanic women (p = 0.002) reported familiarity with CMV. Attitudes toward CMV prevention through avoiding sharing behaviors (M Hispanic  = 5.55 vs. M non-Hispanic  = 5.20; p = 0.002) and not kissing a child on the lips (M Hispanic  = 4.80 vs. M non-Hispanic  = 4.21; p = 0.001) were positive for both ethnicities, but higher for Hispanic women. Hispanic women (M = 5.11) reported higher perceived behavioral control for avoiding kissing a child on the lips than non-Hispanic women (M = 4.63; p = 0.001). Hispanic women who were U.S. born or spoke English primarily more frequently kissed a child on the lips or engaged in sharing behaviors. Additionally, those who spoke Spanish mostly held more positive attitudes toward not kissing on the lips. Significant predictors for more positive attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors were associated with perceived subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and pre-survey participation in risk behaviors. Hispanic women have more positive attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors than non-Hispanic women

  15. The Hölder continuity of spectral measures of an extended CMV matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Paul E.; Ong, Darren C.

    2014-09-01

    We prove results about the Hölder continuity of the spectral measures of the extended CMV matrix, given power law bounds of the solution of the eigenvalue equation. We thus arrive at a unitary analogue of the results of Damanik, Killip, and Lenz ["Uniform spectral properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals, III. α-continuity," Commun. Math. Phys. 212, 191-204 (2000)] about the spectral measure of the discrete Schrödinger operator.

  16. The Hölder continuity of spectral measures of an extended CMV matrix.

    PubMed

    Munger, Paul E; Ong, Darren C

    2014-09-01

    We prove results about the Hölder continuity of the spectral measures of the extended CMV matrix, given power law bounds of the solution of the eigenvalue equation. We thus arrive at a unitary analogue of the results of Damanik, Killip, and Lenz ["Uniform spectral properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals, III. α-continuity," Commun. Math. Phys.55, 191-204 (2000)] about the spectral measure of the discrete Schrödinger operator.

  17. A Monte Carlo simulation of advanced HIV disease: application to prevention of CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Paltiel, A D; Scharfstein, J A; Seage, G R; Losina, E; Goldie, S J; Weinstein, M C; Craven, D E; Freedberg, K A

    1998-01-01

    Disagreement exists among decision makers regarding the allocation of limited HIV patient care resources and, specifically, the comparative value of preventing opportunistic infections in late-stage disease. A Monte Carlo simulation framework was used to evaluate a state-transition model of the natural history of HIV illness in patients with CD4 counts below 300/mm3 and to project the costs and consequences of alternative strategies for preventing AIDS-related complications. The authors describe the model and demonstrate how it may be employed to assess the cost-effectiveness of oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Ganciclovir prophylaxis confers an estimated additional 0.7 quality-adjusted month of life at a net cost of $10,700, implying an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of roughly $173,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Sensitivity analysis reveals that this baseline result is stable over a wide range of input data estimates, including quality of life and drug efficacy, but it is sensitive to CMV incidence and drug price assumptions. The Monte Carlo simulation framework offers decision makers a powerful and flexible tool for evaluating choices in the realm of chronic disease patient care. The authors have used it to assess HIV-related treatment options and continue to refine it to reflect advances in defining the pathogenesis and treatment of AIDS. Compared with alternative interventions, CMV prophylaxis does not appear to be a cost-effective use of scarce HIV clinical care funds. However, targeted prevention in patients identified to be at higher risk for CMV-related disease may warrant consideration.

  18. Efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir eye drops in CMV anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Keorochana, Narumon; Choontanom, Raveewan

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir topical eye drops in cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis because many studies have confirmed the benefits of topical ganciclovir in varying concentrations. Design The study employed a retrospective cohort design. Methods This study enrolled 11 eyes (11 patients) with CMV anterior uveitis. All cases were proved by positive PCR for CMV DNA from aqueous tapping and received topical 2% ganciclovir, applied every 2 hours daily as induction therapy then tapered off and stopped based on clinical response. Outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber cell, coin-shaped and other keratic precipitates, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma drugs used, the frequency of steroid eye drops used daily and side effects over a 12-month follow-up period. Side effects after applying topical 2% ganciclovir were recorded using questionnaires and eye examination. Results Mean age was 49.0±17.8 years. IOP, number of antiglaucoma drugs used and keratic precipitates decreased significantly at first week (p<0.013, p<0.024 and p<0.031, respectively) followed by decreased anterior chamber cells and significantly reduced frequency of applying steroid eye drops at 4 weeks (p<0.034 and p<0.017, respectively). Visual acuity significantly improved at 5 months continuously. All clinical improvement was maintained to 12 months, and keratic precipitates were eliminated in 90% of all cases. However, in 27% of discontinued medicine cases, inflammation was recurrent. No significance was observed in all factors between recurrent and non-recurrent groups. The most common side effect was eye irritation (27.27%). No severe complications from the medicine was detected. Conclusion Extemporaneous preparation topical 2% ganciclovir was effective and safely controlled CMV anterior uveitis. The medication is non-invasive, economical and convenient for hospitals where

  19. Efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir eye drops in CMV anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Keorochana, Narumon; Choontanom, Raveewan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir topical eye drops in cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis because many studies have confirmed the benefits of topical ganciclovir in varying concentrations. The study employed a retrospective cohort design. This study enrolled 11 eyes (11 patients) with CMV anterior uveitis. All cases were proved by positive PCR for CMV DNA from aqueous tapping and received topical 2% ganciclovir, applied every 2 hours daily as induction therapy then tapered off and stopped based on clinical response. Outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber cell, coin-shaped and other keratic precipitates, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma drugs used, the frequency of steroid eye drops used daily and side effects over a 12-month follow-up period. Side effects after applying topical 2% ganciclovir were recorded using questionnaires and eye examination. Mean age was 49.0±17.8 years. IOP, number of antiglaucoma drugs used and keratic precipitates decreased significantly at first week (p<0.013, p<0.024 and p<0.031, respectively) followed by decreased anterior chamber cells and significantly reduced frequency of applying steroid eye drops at 4 weeks (p<0.034 and p<0.017, respectively). Visual acuity significantly improved at 5 months continuously. All clinical improvement was maintained to 12 months, and keratic precipitates were eliminated in 90% of all cases. However, in 27% of discontinued medicine cases, inflammation was recurrent. No significance was observed in all factors between recurrent and non-recurrent groups. The most common side effect was eye irritation (27.27%). No severe complications from the medicine was detected. Extemporaneous preparation topical 2% ganciclovir was effective and safely controlled CMV anterior uveitis. The medication is non-invasive, economical and convenient for hospitals where commercial topical ganciclovir is unavailable.

  20. A rare complication of CMV infection in Crohn's disease - hemophagocytic syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pop, Corina Silvia; Becheanu, Gabriel; Calagiu, Dorina; Jantea, Petruţa-Violeta; Rădulescu, Dragoş Mihai; Pariza, George; Mavrodin, Carmen-Iuliana; Bold, Adriana; Costache, Adrian; Nemeş, Roxana Maria

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of CMV (cytomegalovirus) infection in a Crohn's disease patient, resulting in severe hemophagocytic syndrome and death. A 63-year-old man with a 10-year history of ileal and colonic Crohn's disease presented with general malaise, loss of appetite and weight loss over the last month. He was in clinical remission for two years, with maintenance therapy 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)-derived Mesalamine. The patient had no prior immunomodulators or suppressive treatment. A colonoscopy was performed and we found appearance suggestive of active Crohn's disease, confirmed by histopathological examination. A diagnosis of an exacerbation of Crohn's disease was established. Although the specific treatment was initiated, patient's general condition degraded progressively and diarrheal stools appeared, followed by an episode of massive gastrointestinal bleeding - hematochezia. We performed a new colonoscopy and the pathological examination revealed Crohn's ileocolitis with superimposed CMV infection. Despite the initiation of Ganciclovir alongside with other intensive care measures, he increasingly deteriorated and chest X-ray confirmed multilobar pneumonia. The occurrence of rapidly progressing pancytopenia and evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulopathy as well as hyperferritinemia, raised the suspicion of hemophagocytic syndrome confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. Hence, CMV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the context of recent corticotherapy for Crohn's disease was established. There is enough evidence that supports the gravity of the CMV infection in the case of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially the ones on immunomodulator treatment. The hemophagocytic syndrome reactively occurs in patients with infections in cases of immunodeficiency, displaying a hematological aspect of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

  1. Incidence of Ganciclovir Resistance in CMV-positive Renal Transplant Recipients and its Association with UL97 Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Hamid Reza; Ziaie, Shadi; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Zaheri, Sara; Samadian, Fariba; Mastoor-Tehrani, Shayan

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains the most common infection affecting organ transplant recipients. Despite advances in the prophylaxis and acute treatment of CMV, it remains an important pathogen affecting the short- and long-term clinical outcome of solid organ transplant recipient. The emergence of CMV resistance in a patient reduces the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy, complicates therapeutic and clinical management decisions, and in some cases results in loss of the allograft and/or death of the patient. Common mechanisms of CMV resistance to ganciclovir have been described chiefly with the UL97 mutations. Here we evaluate Incidence of ganciclovir resistance in 144 CMV-positive renal transplant recipients and its association with UL97 gene mutations. Active CMV infection was monitored by viral DNA quantification in whole blood, and CMV resistance was assessed by UL97 gene sequencing. Six mutations in six patients were detected. Three patients (2.6%) of 112 patients with history of ganciclovir (GCV) treatment had clinical resistance with single UL97 mutations at loci known to be related to resistance (including mutations at codon 594, codon 460, and codon 520). three patients who were anti-CMV drug naïve had single UL97 mutations (D605E) without clinical resistance. Our results confirm and extend our earlier findings on the specific mutations in the UL97 phosphotransferase gene in loci that have established role in ganciclovir resistance and also indicate that clinical ganciclovir resistance due to UL97 gene mutations is an issue in subjects with history of with ganciclovir treatment. D605E mutations remains a controversial issue that needs further investigations.

  2. Association of anti-gangliosides antibodies and anti-CMV antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Shao, Chunqing; Yang, Chunjiao; Kang, Xixiong; Zhang, Guojun

    2017-05-01

    Numerous types of infection were closely related to GBS, mainly including Campylobacter jejuni , Cytomegalovirus, which may lead to the production of anti-gangliosides antibodies (AGA) . Currently, although there are increased studies on the AGA and a few studies of anti-CMV antibodies in GBS, the association between them remains poorly documented. Therefore, our research aims to analyze the correlation of anti-CMV antibodies and AGA in GBS. A total of 29 patients with GBS were enrolled in this study. The CMV antibodies were tested by the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay "ECLIA" (Roche Diagnostics GmbH). The serum gangliosides were determined by The EUROLINE test kit. Of the 29 patients with GBS, 9 (31%) were AGA-seropositive, in which 22 were CMV-IgG positive in CSF at the same time, but all 29 samples were CMV-IgM negative in both serum and CSF. In the AGA-positive group, the rate of both serum and CSF positive was 87.5% (7/8), higher than 50% (7/14) of the negative group, although no statistical significance was found. In addition, we found that there was a trend of higher ratio of men, a younger age onset, less frequent preceding infection, a higher level of CSF proteins, and less frequent cranial nerve deficits, although the data did not reach a statistical significance. In spite of no statistical significance association was found between serum AGA and CMV-IgG in serum and CSF. However, we found that there was a trend of high positive rate of both serum and CSF-CMV-IgG in AGA-positive than the negative group. So we should further expand the sample size to analyze the association between AGA and CMV or other neurotropic virus antibodies in various diseases, to observe whether they could be serological marker of these diseases (especially GBS) or the underlying pathogenesis.

  3. Recipient/donor HLA and CMV matching in recipients of T-cell-depleted unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplants.

    PubMed

    Shaw, B E; Mayor, N P; Szydlo, R M; Bultitude, W P; Anthias, C; Kirkland, K; Perry, J; Clark, A; Mackinnon, S; Marks, D I; Pagliuca, A; Potter, M N; Russell, N H; Thomson, K; Madrigal, J A; Marsh, S G E

    2017-05-01

    Improving haematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes by selection of an HLA-matched unrelated donor is best practice; however, donor selection by secondary characteristics is controversial. We studied 1271 recipients with haematological malignancies who underwent T-cell-depleted allografts and had complete data on HLA-matching status for six loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, -DPB1) and clinical outcome data. Five-year overall survival was 40.6%. HLA mismatching (at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1) relative risk (RR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.5, P=0.033 for 1 mismatch and RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.1-1.9, P=0.009 for >1 mismatch) and CMV mismatching (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.2-1.6, P<0.001) were significantly associated with inferior survival. Donors aged <30 years showed a trend towards better survival. The multivariate model for mortality, combining CMV and HLA-match status, found an RR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.1-1.7, P=0.003) for HLA matched/CMV mismatched, an RR of 1.22 (95% CI 0.99-1.5, P=0.062) for HLA mismatched/CMV matched and an RR of 1.81 (95% CI 1.4-2.3, P=<0.001) for HLA/ CMV mismatched, compared with the HLA/CMV-matched recipients. These data suggest that HLA and CMV matching status should be considered when selecting unrelated donors and that CMV matching may abrogate the effect of an HLA mismatch.

  4. Failure of ganciclovir prophylaxis to completely eradicate CMV disease in renal transplant recipients treated with intense anti-rejection immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, A L; Shen, G K; Singh, T P; Hahn, A; Conti, D J

    2000-06-01

    Ganciclovir prophylactic regimens have been shown to be effective in renal transplant recipients at risk for primary (donor seropositive/recipient seronegative) and secondary (recipient seropositive) cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. However, in addition to serologic factors, the type and intensity of the administered immunosuppression is a strong risk factor for CMV disease. Since January 1995, we have utilized a potent immunosuppressive protocol selectively in recipients at high risk for immunologic graft loss, defined as retransplant recipients, recipients with delayed graft function, non-Caucasian recipients, and recipients suffering from acute rejection. Between January 1995 and December 1996, 110 consecutive renal transplants were performed in recipients who were either CMV seropositive or received an allograft from a CMV-seropositive donor. All recipients received ganciclovir prophylactic therapy for 3 months post-transplant. Group I (N = 43) consisted of recipients at high-immunologic risk for graft loss as defined above. These recipients were treated with an intense anti-rejection immunotherapeutic regimen consisting of Cellcept, Neoral, and prednisone, with the frequent addition of antilymphocyte antibody therapies and intravenous methylprednisolone. The remaining 67 recipients (group II) were treated with a less intense immunotherapeutic regimen consisting of azathioprine, Neoral, and prednisone. The incidence and severity of CMV disease and the patient and allograft survival were compared. The incidence of CMV syndrome was greater in group I (28%) compared with group II (7%), and was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The 1-yr patient and graft survival were similar, 95 and 91%, respectively, for group I compared with 97 and 97%, respectively, for group II. These data suggest that 3 months of ganciclovir prophylactic therapy is significantly less effective for the prevention of CMV disease in renal transplant recipients at high risk for acute rejection

  5. CMV monitoring after peripheral blood stem cell and bone marrow transplantation by pp65 antigen and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, A; Watkins-Riedel, T; Greinix, H T; Rabitsch, W; Loidolt, H; Keil, F; Mitterbauer, M; Kalhs, P

    2001-10-01

    We prospectively monitored 74 consecutive allogeneic and 50 autologous patients after bone marrow/stem cell transplantation from May 1999 to October 2000 at our institution with quantitative CMV PCR and pp65 antigen assay once weekly from conditioning therapy to days 120 and 80 after transplantation, respectively. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. CMV prophylaxis consisted of acyclovir during transplant. Additionally all patients received only platelet products from CMV-negative donors. In the case of CMV infection preemptive therapy with gancyclovir was applied. In the case of CMV disease high-dose immunoglobulin was given as well. In the allogeneic setting 16 out of 74 (22%) patients developed a positive PCR. Seven episodes of a positive pp65 antigen assay occurred in six allograft recipients. In the autologous setting no positive assay was found during the whole observation period. Additionally, in 6/16 patients a lymphoproliferative assay was performed during CMV infection. Two patients showed a positive (15 and 5.4) and four a negative (2,1.6,1,1.8) stimulation index.

  6. Rapid generation of combined CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lines for adoptive transfer into recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants.

    PubMed

    Rauser, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Sinzger, Christian; Wernet, Dorothee; Kuntz, Gabriele; Assenmacher, Mario; Campbell, John D M; Topp, Max S

    2004-05-01

    Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells can restore long-lasting, virus-specific immunity and clear CMV viremia in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants if CD4(+) and CD8(+) CMV-specific T cells are detected in the recipient after transfer. Current protocols for generating virus-specific T cells use live virus, require leukapheresis of the donor, and are time consuming. To circumvent these limitations, a clinical-scale protocol was developed to generate CMV-specific T cells by using autologous cellular and serum components derived from a single 500-mL blood draw. CMV-specific T cells were stimulated simultaneously with CMV-specific major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)- restricted peptides and CMV antigen. Activated T cells were isolated with the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion assay and expanded for 10 days. In 8 randomly selected, CMV-seropositive donors, 1.34 x 10(8) combined CD4(+) and CD8(+) CMV-specific T cells, on average, were generated, as determined by antigen-triggered IFN-gamma production. CMV-infected fibroblasts were efficiently lysed by the generated T cells, and CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expanded if they were stimulated with natural processed antigen. On the other hand, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell-mediated alloreactivity of generated CMV-specific T-cell lines was reduced compared with that of the starting population. In conclusion, the culture system developed allowed the rapid generation of allodepleted, highly enriched, combined CD4(+) and CD8(+) CMV-specific T cells under conditions mimicking good manufacturing practice.

  7. Single tube multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sankuntaw, Nipaporn; Sukprasert, Saovaluk; Engchanil, Chulapan; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Chantratita, Wasun; Pairoj, Vantanit; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus infection of immunocompromised hosts may lead to central nervous system (CNS) infection and diseases. In this study, a single tube multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the detection of five herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV and CMV) in clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Two primer pairs specific for the herpesvirus polymerase gene and five hybridization probe pairs for the specific identification of the herpesvirus types were used in a LightCycler multiplex real-time PCR. A singleplex real-time PCR was first optimized and then applied to the multiplex real-time PCR. The singleplex and multiplex real-time PCRs showed no cross-reactivity. The sensitivity of the singleplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for each herpesvirus, while that of the multiplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for HSV-1 and VZV and 10 copies per reaction for HSV-2, EBV and CMV. Intra and inter-assay variations of the single tube multiplex assay were in the range of 0.02%-3.67% and 0.79%-4.35%, respectively. The assay was evaluated by testing 62 clinical CSF samples and was found to have equivalent sensitivity, specificity and agreement as the routine real-time PCR, but reducing time, cost and amount of used sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Population-based pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry analytes on the Abbott Architect ci8200 instrument.

    PubMed

    Ridefelt, Peter; Aldrimer, Mattias; Rödöö, Per-Olof; Niklasson, Frank; Jansson, Leif; Gustafsson, Jan; Hellberg, Dan

    2012-02-29

    Reference intervals are crucial decision-making tools aiding clinicians in differentiating between healthy and diseased populations. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. Blood samples were obtained from 692 healthy children, aged 6 months to 18 years, recruited in daycare centers and schools. Twelve common general clinical chemistry analytes were measured on the Abbott Architect ci8200 platform; sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, albumin-adjusted calcium, phosphate, magnesium, creatinine (Jaffe and enzymatic), cystatin C, urea and uric acid. Age- and gender specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The data generated is primarily applicable to a Caucasian population when using the Abbott Architect platform, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  9. Performance evaluation of a particle-enhanced turbidimetric cystatin C assay on the Abbott ci8200 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Flodin, Mats; Larsson, Anders

    2009-06-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best overall measure of kidney function. Cystatin C is a novel endogenous GFR marker that has been shown to be superior to creatinine for estimation of GFR in several studies. There is a need for cystatin C assays adapted to routine chemistry instrument to minimize turnaround times and allowing 24 h/day availability. We have evaluated a new cystatin C assay developed for Architect cSystem (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). The cystatin C assay showed good agreement with the corresponding assay from Dade Behring (Deerfield, IL, USA). The assay has a very low total imprecision and a good linearity. The new cystatin C assay is an interesting alternative to current cystatin C assays. On an Architect cSystem the assay can be performed with the same turnaround times and availability as creatinine.

  10. Glucose meters: evaluation of the new formulation measuring strips from Roche (Accu-Chek) and Abbott (MediSense).

    PubMed

    Dimeski, G; Jones, B W; Tilley, V; Greenslade, M N; Russell, A W

    2010-07-01

    Both Roche and Abbott have released new glucose meter strips. They supply the entire Australian hospital market. The present study compared the performance of the new strips utilizing various specimen types (capillary, venous lithium heparin whole blood, venous lithium heparin plasma and serum) and evaluated how well they comply with the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15197 criteria. The study included imprecision, patient comparison and interference studies. Participants with and without diabetes were recruited to evaluate the performance of various specimen types against the Beckman DxC800 glucose method. The strips were tested for different interferences: galactose, maltose, lactose, Icodextrin, Intragam, paracetamol, sodium, ascorbic acid, variable strip storage temperature, haematocrit, haemolysis and lipaemia. The imprecision of the two strips was approximately 5% or less, except for the Abbott strip at very low values (1.4 mmol/L), approximately 7%. In total, 78% and 84%, respectively, of the results from the finger prick capillary specimens with the Roche (Accu-Chek Performa meter) and Abbott (Optium Xceed meter) strips, not 95% or greater as recommended by the ISO guideline, were within the recommended limits compared with reference plasma estimation on laboratory analysers. Galactose, ascorbic acid, haematocrit and sodium on the Roche and ascorbic acid and haematocrit on the Abbott strip continue to interfere to a variable degree with the glucose measurement. Analytically small differences exist between the glucose meter strips. The most significant analytical difference with the strips was at low glucose levels when compared with laboratory analyses and this may be of clinical importance. The impact of some of the interferences is variable between the two strips. Individuals, health-care professionals and health-care institutions should consider these data when selecting glucose meters for the management of people with diabetes mellitus.

  11. Performance characteristics of the new Abbott Real Time MTB assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Navarro, David; Poujois, Sandrine; Zaragoza, Susana; Borrás, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The performance of the Abbott Real Time MTB assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens was evaluated using a standard culture as the reference. The overall concordance between both methods was 0.95. The assay displayed an excellent sensitivity (100% for smear-positive/92.3% for smear-negative specimens) and specificity (100%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The distribution of Abbott high-sensitivity troponin I levels in Korean patients with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Lee, Soo-Youn; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Park, Hyung-Doo

    2015-01-01

    Troponin is considered a primary biomarker for coronary heart disease. We investigated the clinical utility of the Abbott high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TnI) assay in patients with various cardiac problems. Precision was investigated by ten levels of pooled sera and three levels of control materials. We determined Abbott hs-TnI levels in a total of 3314 Korean patients with chest pain, including acute myocardial infarction (n=381), unstable angina (n=327), stable angina (n=1361), variant angina (n=189), non-coronary artery diseases (n=236), and nonspecific chest pain (n=820). The 99(th) percentile cutoff was established by the plasma from the cardio-healthy subgroup and validated by 118 healthy individuals. The total coefficient of variation in patient pooled sera and controls ranged from 3.93-6.35% and 4.81-9.73%, respectively. There was a significant difference in hs-TnI among various cardiac problems: subjects with non-cardiac chest pain (median 1.7 pg/mL, 25%/75% quartile 1.1/2.8 pg/mL), variant angina (2.4 pg/mL,1.4/5.6 pg/mL), stable angina (3.7 pg/mL, 2.1/8.9 pg/mL), unstable angina (10.7 pg/mL, 3.7/61.7 pg/mL), and non-coronary artery diseases (9.3 pg/mL, 4.3/37.4 pg/mL). However, the median levels of hs-TnI were not statistically different (p=0.921) between unstable angina and non-coronary artery diseases. The overall 99(th) percentile cutoff was 19.3 pg/mL (range 0.2-30.6 pg/mL). This new hs-TnI assay may be helpful in determining a differential diagnosis in patients with chest pain. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Recipient-donor KIR ligand matching prevents CMV reactivation post-haploidentical T cell-replete transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Luo, Xue-Yi; Yu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Han, Ting-Ting; Chang, Ying-Jun; Huo, Ming-Rui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Kai-Yan; Li, Dan; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-06-01

    Licensed natural killer (NK) cells have been demonstrated to have anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity. We prospectively analysed the human leucocyte antigen typing of donor-recipient pairs and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) typing of donors for 180 leukaemia patients to assess the predictive roles of licensed NK cells on CMV reactivation post-T-cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Multivariate analysis showed that donor-recipient KIR ligand graft-versus-host or host-versus-graft direction mismatch was associated with increased refractory CMV infection (Hazard ratio = 2·556, 95% confidence interval, 1·377-4·744, P = 0·003) post-transplantation. Donor-recipient KIR ligand matching decreased CMV reactivation [51·65% (46·67, 56·62%) vs. 75·28% (70·87, 79·69%), P = 0·012], refractory CMV infection [17·58% (13·77, 21·40%) vs. 35·96% (31·09, 40·82%), P = 0·004] and CMV disease [3·30% (1·51, 5·08%) vs. 11·24% (8·04, 14·43%), P = 0·024] by day 100 post-transplantation. In addition, the percentage of γ-interferon expression on donor-derived NK cells was significantly higher in the recipients among the recipient-donor pairs with a KIR ligand match compared with that in the recipients among the pairs with a KIR ligand graft-versus-host or host-versus-graft direction mismatch on days 30 and 100 post-transplantation (P = 0·036 and 0·047, respectively). These findings have suggested that donor-recipient KIR ligand matching might promote the NK cell licensing process, thereby increasing NK cell-mediated protection against CMV reactivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Enhanced analytical sensitivity of a quantitative PCR for CMV using a modified nucleic-acid extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Gonzalez, A; Yanovich, S; Langley, M R; Weymouth, L A; Wilkinson, D S; Garrett, C T

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of CMV disease in immunocompromised individuals remains a challenge. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) methods for detection of CMV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have improved the positive and negative predictive value of PCR for diagnosis of CMV disease. However, detection of CMV in plasma has demonstrated a lower negative predictive value for plasma as compared with PBMC. To enhance the sensitivity of the QPCR assay for plasma specimens, plasma samples were centrifuged before nucleic-acid extraction and the extracted DNA resolubilized in reduced volume. Optimization of the nucleic-acid extraction focused on decreasing or eliminating the presence of inhibitors in the pelleted plasma. Quantitation was achieved by co-amplifying an internal quantitative standard (IS) with the same primer sequences as CMV. PCR products were detected by hybridization in a 96-well microtiter plate coated with a CMV or IS specific probe. The precision of the QPCR assay for samples prepared from untreated and from pelleted plasma was then assessed. The coefficient of variation for both types of samples was almost identical and the magnitude of the coefficient of variations was reduced by a factor of ten if the data were log transformed. Linearity of the QPCR assay extended over a 3.3-log range for both types of samples but the range of linearity for pelleted plasma was 20 to 40,000 viral copies/ml (vc/ml) in contrast to 300 to 400,000 vc/ml for plasma. Thus, centrifugation of plasma before nucleic-acid extraction and resuspension of extracted CMV DNA in reduced volume enhanced the analytical sensitivity approximately tenfold over the dynamic range of the assay. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Wheezing Infants by Urine DNA and Serum IgG Testing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhao-Cheng; Chang, Qing; Sun, Zhi-Wei; Song, Ming-Mei; Jin, Xin-Ling; Jiang, Shu-Ya; Yang, Xia

    2017-03-11

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CMV infection in wheezing infants and the association between CMV-DNA and immunoglobulins (Igs). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 243 wheezing infants and 3,000 parturients were enrolled in this study. The infants were randomly grouped to receive blood HCMV-DNA tests (n=46) or urine HCMV-DNA tests (n=197). Furthermore, all participants had serum CMV-specific IgM and IgG testing. Afterwards, 10 HCMV-IgG positive infants were randomly selected for simultaneous blood and urine HCMV-DNA tests, and 25 HCMV-IgG positive puerperants were randomly selected for urine HCMV-DNA tests. RESULTS The detection rate of urine HCMV-DNA was significantly higher than that of blood HCMV-DNA (67.5% vs. 13.0%, p<0.001). Fifteen (6.2%) and 190 (80.0%) infants showed positive CMV-specific IgM and IgG results (p<0.001), respectively. Among the 10 HCMV-IgG positive infants tested further, only two infants had positive HCMV-DNA blood tests, while all of the 10 infants had positive HCMV-DNA urine tests. However, HCMV-DNA was not detected in the urine of the 25 randomly selected parturients positive for HCMV-IgG. CONCLUSIONS CMV infection may be one of the causes of wheezing in infants; CMV infection can be detected by urine-HCMV-DNA and serum HCMV-IgG testing. Infants were more susceptible to CMV infection than parturients.

  16. 49 CFR 385.331 - What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after having been issued an order placing its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.331 What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... a CMV in violation of an out-of-service order is subject to the penalty provisions in 49 U.S.C. 521...

  17. 49 CFR 385.331 - What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after having been issued an order placing its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.331 What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... a CMV in violation of an out-of-service order is subject to the penalty provisions in 49 U.S.C. 521...

  18. 49 CFR 385.331 - What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after having been issued an order placing its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.331 What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... a CMV in violation of an out-of-service order is subject to the penalty provisions in 49 U.S.C. 521...

  19. 49 CFR 385.331 - What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after having been issued an order placing its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.331 What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... a CMV in violation of an out-of-service order is subject to the penalty provisions in 49 U.S.C. 521...

  20. Who Is the Patient at Risk of CMV Recurrence: A Review of the Current Scientific Evidence with a Focus on Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data. The median rate of CMV recurrence in HSCT recipients was estimated as 37% after allogeneic transplant and 12% after autologous transplant, 5% in patients with nontransplant hematological malignancies, 14% in recipients of anti-CD52 therapy, 30% in solid organ transplant recipients, 21% in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, 20% during active replication in HIV-positive patients and 3.3% during antiretroviral therapy, 7% in patients with chronic kidney disease, 0.6% in patients with congenital infection, and 0.6% in neonates with primary infection. The highest risk of CMV recurrence and CMV disease is reported for HSCT CMV-seropositive recipients, regardless of donor serostatus. The odds ratio (OR) for CMV recurrence is higher for recipient-positive versus recipient-negative CMV serostatus transplants (OR 8.0), donor-negative/recipient-positive versus donor-positive/recipient-positive CMV serostatus transplants (OR 1.2), unrelated/mismatched versus matched-family donor transplants (OR 1.6), and acute graft-versus-host-disease versus other diseases (OR 3.2). Other risk factors have minor significance.

  1. 49 CFR 385.331 - What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after having been issued an order placing its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.331 What happens if a new entrant operates a CMV after... a CMV in violation of an out-of-service order is subject to the penalty provisions in 49 U.S.C. 521...

  2. Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real - time operating system , real-time programming language, real-time system, soft real-time system.

  3. Evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by Abbott m2000 system on samples collected by FTA Elute™ Card in a Chinese HIV-1 positive population.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Zhang, Hongyun; Marlowe, Natalia; Fei, Mandong; Yu, Judy; Lei, Xiaoqin; Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Di; Ma, Li; Chen, Wen

    2016-12-01

    HIV+/AIDS women have an increased risk of developing into CIN and cervical cancer compared to the general population. Limited medical resource and the lack of AIDS relevant knowledge impair the coverage and efficiency of cervical cancer screening. To compare the clinical performance of self-collected dry storage medium (FTA Elute card) and physician-collected PreservCyt medium in detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) among HIV-1 positive population. Three hundred HIV-1 positive women (aged 25-65) were recruited from Yunnan infectious hospital. Two cervicovaginal samples were collected from each participant: one was collected by the women themselves and applied on a FTA Elute card; the other one was collected by a physician and stored in PreservCyt solution. All the samples were tested for 14 HR HPV using Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay. Biopsies were taken for histological diagnosis if any abnormal impression was noticed under colposcopy. 291 (97.0%) of participants were eligible for this study. 101 (34.70%) participants were found HR HPV positive in both FTA card and PreservCyt samples, and 19 (6.53%) women were diagnosed as CIN2+. The HR HPV positive rate on samples collected by FTA Elute card and PreservCyt solution was 42.61% and 39.86%, respectively. The overall agreement was 87% (kappa=0.731) between FTA card and PreservCyt. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of FTA card and PreservCyt were 100%, 61.39% and 100%, 64.33%, respectively. In this study, FTA Elute card demonstrated a good performance on self-collected sample for HR HPV detection in HIV-1 positive population. For the women from low-resource area with HIV-1 infection, FTA Elute card could be an attractive sample collection method for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical and Clinical Performance Evaluation of the Abbott Architect PIVKA Assay.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Ji-Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyoun Chan

    2018-01-01

    Protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA) is measured using various assays and is used to help diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the recently released Abbott Architect PIVKA assay. Precision, linearity, and correlation tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standardization Institute guidelines. Sample type suitability was assessed using serum and plasma samples from the same patients, and the reference interval was established using sera from 204 healthy individuals. The assay had coefficients of variation of 3.2-3.5% and intra-laboratory variation of 3.6-5.5%. Linearity was confirmed across the entire measurable range. The Architect PIVKA assay was comparable to the Lumipulse PIVKA assay, and the plasma and serum samples provided similar results. The lower reference limit was 13.0 mAU/mL and the upper reference limit was 37.4 mAU/mL. The ability of the Architect PIVKA assay to detect hepatocellular carcinoma was comparable to that of the alpha-fetoprotein test and the Lumipulse PIVKA assay. The Architect PIVKA assay provides excellent analytical and clinical performance, is simple for clinical laboratories to adopt, and has improved sample type suitability that could broaden the assay's utility. © 2018 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  5. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  6. Serum TSH reference interval in healthy Finnish adults using the Abbott Architect 2000i Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Tanner, Pirjo; Välimäki, Matti J; Hämäläinen, Esa

    2011-07-01

    Current serum TSH reference intervals have been criticized as they were established from unselected background populations. A special concern is that the upper limit, which defines subclinical hypothyroidism, is too high. The objective was to redefine the TSH reference interval in the adult Finnish population. The current reference interval for the widely used Abbott Architect method in Finland is 0.4-4.0 mU/L. Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations were derived from 606 healthy, non-pregnant, 18-91-year-old Finns from the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP) and the possible effects of age, sex and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status were evaluated. After excluding TPOAb-positive subjects and outliers, a reference population of 511 subjects was obtained. In the reference population, no statistically significant gender- or age-specific differences in mean TSH (1.55 ± 3.30 mU/L) or TSH reference intervals were observed. The new reference interval was 0.5-3.6 mU/L (2.5th-97.5th percentiles). The current upper TSH reference limit is 10% too high. A TSH > 3.6 mU/L, confirmed with a repeat TSH sampling, may indicate subclinical hypothyroidism. Differences in ethnicity, regional iodine-intake and analytical methods underline the need for redefining the TSH reference interval in central laboratories in different countries.

  7. Comparison of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of pre-emptive therapy as directed by CMV antigenemia and prophylaxis with ganciclovir in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J; Hurley, D; Raghu, G

    2000-04-01

    CMV disease remains a major complication of lung transplantation and attempts to prevent it have met with marginal success. In a previous study we documented that universal prophylaxis did not prevent CMV disease but merely delayed it, and was very costly. We compared the efficacy and cost of pre-emptive therapy with ganciclovir, guided by CMV antigenemia, to that of historic controls that received universal prophylaxis with ganciclovir. CMV antigenemia assay was done routinely and pre-emptive therapy was initiated if greater than 25 CMV positive cells per 100,000 polymorphonuclear cells were found. Nineteen patients were enrolled; 6 of of whom received 12 courses of pre-emptive therapy. The incidence of CMV disease was 26% compared to 38% for the historical controls (p = 0.51). None of the patients that received pre-emptive therapy developed CMV disease following that therapy. Antigenemia failed to predict disease in 5 patients that developed it, and thus it is unknown if pre-emptive therapy could have prevented it. There was no mortality in either the study patients or historic controls directly related to CMV. The net savings with pre-emptive therapy was $2569 per patient. We conclude that pre-emptive therapy with ganciclovir is as safe and effective as universal prophylaxis in preventing CMV disease in lung transplant recipients, and is less expensive. The appropriate surveillance technique and timing remain to be determine to optimize the efficacy of pre-emptive therapy.

  8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence in pregnant women, bone marrow donors and adolescents in Germany, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Enders, Gisela; Daiminger, Anja; Lindemann, Lisa; Knotek, Frank; Bäder, Ursula; Exler, Simone; Enders, Martin

    2012-08-01

    In Germany, studies on the IgG seroprevalence in pregnancy and in women of childbearing age are rare. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the CMV IgG seropositive rate in 40,324 pregnant women as well as in 31,093 female and male bone marrow donors over 15 consecutive years (1996-2010). Furthermore, the result of a study conducted in 1999 investigating 1,305 healthy adolescents with known ethnicity was included. The overall CMV IgG seroprevalence in pregnant women (15-50 years) was 42.3%. Age-dependent analysis revealed a significantly higher seropositive rate (55.6%) in young women (15-25 years) than in those aged 26-40 years (37-42%) and in women older than 40 years (48.3%). Over the study period of 15 years, the rate of seroprevalence in pregnant women declined significantly (χ(2) test < 0.01) from 44.3% in the first interval period (1996-2000), to 42.8% (2001-2005) and to 40.9% (2006-2010). The most influencing factor on CMV seropositivity appeared to be the socioeconomic status (SES), which we characterized by type of health insurance: Seroprevalence in women with low, middle and upper SES was 91.8, 46.9 and 33.7%, respectively. Female bone marrow donors of childbearing age (15-45 years) showed a significantly higher seropositive rate of 36.5% than age-matched male donors (28.6%). In adolescents aged 13-16 years, no gender-specific differences were recognized. Concerning ethnicity, youngsters with German descent had a significantly lower seroprevalence (29.9%) than those with non-German descent (67.4%).

  9. Effect of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Ageing on T-Bet and Eomes Expression on T-Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Hassouneh, Fakhri; Lopez-Sejas, Nelson; Campos, Carmen; Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Tarazona, Raquel; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael

    2017-06-29

    The differential impact of ageing and cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection on human T-cell subsets remains to some extent controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Eomes and CD57 on CD4+, CD4 hi CD8 lo and CD8+ T-cell subsets in healthy individuals, stratified by age and CMV serostatus. The percentage of CD4+ T-cells expressing T-bet or Eomes was very low, in particular in CD4+ T-cells from young CMV-seronegative individuals, and were higher in CMV-seropositive older individuals, in both CD57- and CD57+ CD4+ T-cells. The study of the minor peripheral blood double-positive CD4 hi CD8 lo T-cells showed that the percentage of these T-cells expressing both Eomes and T-bet was higher compared to CD4+ T-cells. The percentage of CD4 hi CD8 lo T-cells expressing T-bet was also associated with CMV seropositivity and the coexpression of Eomes, T-bet and CD57 on CD4 hi CD8 lo T-cells was only observed in CMV-seropositive donors, supporting the hypothesis that these cells are mature effector memory cells. The percentage of T-cells expressing Eomes and T-bet was higher in CD8+ T-cells than in CD4+ T-cells. The percentages of CD8+ T-cells expressing Eomes and T-bet increased with age in CMV-seronegative and -seropositive individuals and the percentages of CD57- CD8+ and CD57+ CD8+ T-cells coexpressing both transcription factors were similar in the different groups studied. These results support that CMV chronic infection and/or ageing are associated to the expansion of highly differentiated CD4+, CD4 hi CD8 lo and CD8+ T-cells that differentially express T-bet and Eomes suggesting that the expression of these transcription factors is essential for the generation and development of an effector-memory and effector T lymphocytes involved in conferring protection against chronic CMV infection.

  10. [Evaluation of the usefulness of various PCR method variations and nucleic acid hybridization for CMV infection in immunosuppressed patients].

    PubMed

    Siennicka, J; Trzcińska, A; Litwińska, B; Durlik, M; Seferyńska, I; Pałynyczko, G; Kańtoch, M

    2000-01-01

    In diagnosis of CMV infection various laboratory methods are used. The methods based on detection of viral nucleic acids have been introduced routinely in many laboratories. The aim of this study was to compare nucleic acid hybridisation method and various variants of PCR methods with respect to their ability to detect CMV DNA. The studied material comprised 60 blood samples from 19 patients including 13 renal transplant recipients and 6 with acute leukaemia. The samples were subjected to hybridisation (Murex Hybrid Capture System CMV DNA) and PCR carried out in 3 variants: with one pair of primers (single PCR), nested PCR and Digene SHARP System with detection of PCR product using a genetic probe in ELISA system. The sensitivity of the variants ranged from 10(0) particles of viral DNA in nested PCR to 10(2) in single PCR. The producer claimed the sensitivity of the hybridisation test to be 3 x 10(5) and it seems to be sufficient for detection of CMV infection. The obtained results show that sensitivity of hybridisation was comparable to that of single PCR and the possibility of obtaining quantitative results makes it superior, on efficacy of antiviral therapy, especially in monitoring CMV infection in immunossuppressed patients and in following the efficacy of antiviral treatment.

  11. Long-term cognitive and neurological outcome of preterm infants with postnatally acquired CMV infection through breast milk.

    PubMed

    Goelz, Rangmar; Meisner, Christoph; Bevot, Andrea; Hamprecht, Klaus; Kraegeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Poets, Christian F

    2013-09-01

    Long-term follow-up data on preterm infants with breast milk-acquired postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are sparse. To systematically evaluate the long-term cognitive outcome and prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in patients after postnatal CMV infection. All surviving infants <1500 g born in our centre between 1 June 1995 and 1 June 2000, and with postnatal CMV infection acquired at up to 3 months of corrected age, were eligible for our study; this included neurological and neurocognitive assessment, using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) at the age of >4 years. A blinded and controlled matched-pairs design was used with gestational age, gender and date of birth as matching criteria. Of 50 eligible children, 42 (84%) could be tested. There was no difference in the prevalence of cerebral palsy. Following CMV infection during their hospital stay, infants had significantly lower results in the simultaneous processing scale of the K-ABC (p=0.029) after correction for additional risk factors like socioeconomic status (SES). Results for the sequential and achievement scales were only slightly reduced (p>0.05). It seems possible that breast milk-acquired CMV infection has a detrimental influence on cognitive development of preterm infants.

  12. CMV - pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... produces no symptoms, or it produces a temporary mononucleosis-type illness. However, those with a weakened immune ... Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  13. Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD4+ T-cell Responses and CMV-IgG Levels are associated with Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Ballegaard, Vibe; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Pedersen, Maria; Brændstrup, Peter; Kirkby, Nikolai; Buus, Anette Stryhn; Ryder, Lars P; Gerstoft, Jan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2018-05-30

    Mechanisms leading to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) on stable antiretroviral therapy (cART) remain unknown. We investigated the association between CMV immunity, HIV-specific variables and NCI in PLWHIV on stable cART and with low comorbidity. 52 PLWHIV on stable cART and 31 HIV-uninfected controls matched on age, gender, education and comorbidity were tested with a neurocognitive test-battery and CMV-immunoglobulin G (CMV-IgG) levels were measured. In PLWHIV, CMV-specific (CMV-pp65 and CMV-gB) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were measured using intracellular-cytokine-staining and flowcytometry. NCI was defined as a global-deficit-scale score (GDS-score) ≥ 0.5. GDS-scores and domain-specific-scores defined severity of NCI. Logistic and linear multivariate regression analyses were used. NCI was detected in 30.8% of PLWHIV, and HIV was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 5.18 (95%CI: 1.15; 23.41, p=0.033) for NCI. In PLWHIV, higher CMV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses increased the probability of NCI with an aOR of 1.68 (95%CI: 1.10; 2.57) for CMV-pp65 or an aOR of 3.73 (95%CI: 1.61; 16.98) for CMV-gB, respectively. Similar associations were not found with CMV-IgG or CMV-specific CD8+ T-cells, but when assessing severity of NCI, higher CMV-IgG (per 100 U/ml) was associated with worse GDS-scores (β=0.08 (0.01-0.16), p=0.044), specifically in the domain of speed of information processing (β=0.20 (0.04-0.36, p=0.019). PLWHIV had increased risk of NCI. Excess risk may be associated with CMV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses and CMV-IgG. Larger longitudinal studies investigating the impact of CMV immunity on risk of NCI are warranted.

  14. Outcomes and prognostic factors of non-HIV patients with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and pulmonary CMV co-infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Jia, Peng; Su, Li; Zhao, Hong; Que, Chengli

    2017-06-05

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) and pulmonary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are common opportunistic infections among immunocompromised patients. However, few studies have evaluated their co-infection, especially among non-HIV patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors among non-HIV patients with PJP according to their CMV infection status. This retrospective study evaluated non-HIV patients who were diagnosed with PJP between January 2009 and January2016.The patients were classified and compared according to their pulmonary CMV infection status (positive infection: bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF] CMV DNA loads of >500copies/mL). Among 70 non-HIV patients with PJP, we identified 38 patients (54.3%) with pulmonary CMV infection. There was no significant difference in the mortality rates for the two groups (p = 0.15). Pulmonary CMV infection was significantly more common among patients who were receiving glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants, compared to corticosteroids only (p = 0.02). Pulmonary CMV infection was also significantly associated with severe dyspnea, a lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 , and the presence of centrilobular nodules (p = 0.008). Higher CMV DNA loads in the BALF were positively associated with mortality (p = 0.012). Combined therapy using corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants may be a risk factor for pulmonary CMV co-infection among patients with PJP. In addition, CMV pneumonia should be considered when centrilobular nodules and/or severe hypoxemia are observed in non-HIV patients with PJP. Furthermore, antiviral treatment should be promptly initiated for patients with a high CMV DNA load in BALF, based on their poor prognosis.

  15. Regulation of adaptive NK cells and CD8 T cells by HLA-C correlates with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and with CMV reactivation1

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Amir; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Norman, Paul J.; Cooley, Sarah; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Parham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass cytometry was used to investigate the effect of CMV reactivation on lymphocyte reconstitution in hematopoietic cell transplant patients. For eight transplant recipients, four CMV negative and four CMV positive, we studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained six months after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Forty cell-surface markers, distinguishing all major leukocyte populations in PBMC, were analyzed by mass cytometry. These included 34 NK cell markers. Compared to healthy controls, transplant recipients had higher HLA-C expression on CD56−CD16+ NK cells, B cells, CD33bright myeloid cells and CD4CD8 T cells. The increase in HLA-C expression was greater for CMV-positive HCT recipients than CMV negative recipients. Present in CMV-positive HCT recipients, but not in CMV-negative HCT recipients or controls, is a population of KIR-expressing CD8 T cells not previously described. These CD8 T cells co-express CD56, CD57 and NKG2C. The HCT recipients also have a population of CD57+NKG2A+ NK cells that preferentially express KIR2DL1. An inverse correlation was observed between the frequencies of CD57+NKG2C+ NK cells and CD57+NKG2A+ NK cells. Although CD57+NKG2A+ NK cells are less abundant in CMV-positive recipients, their phenotype is of a more activated cell than the CD57+NKG2A+ NK cells of controls and CMV-negative HCT recipients. These data demonstrate that HCT and CMV reactivation are associated with an increased expression of HLA-C. This could influence NK cell education during lymphocyte reconstitution. The increased inhibitory KIR expression by proliferating CMV-specific CD8 T cells suggests regulatory interactions between HLA-C and KIR might promote GVL effects following transplantation. PMID:26416275

  16. Quantification of the progression of CMV infection as observed from retinal angiograms in patients with AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Djamel; Cassoux, Nathalie; Serruys, Camille; Giron, Alain; Lehoang, Phuc; Fertil, Bernard

    1999-05-01

    To support ophthalmologists in their daily routine and enable the quantitative assessment of progression of Cytomegalovirus infection as observed on series of retinal angiograms, a methodology allowing an accurate comparison of retinal borders has been developed. In order to evaluate accuracy of borders, ophthalmologists have been asked to repeatedly outline boundaries between infected and noninfected areas. As a matter of fact, accuracy of drawing relies on local features such as contrast, quality of image, background..., all factors which make the boundaries more or less perceptible from one part of an image to another. In order to directly estimate accuracy of retinal border from image analysis, an artificial neural network (a succession of unsupervised and supervised neural networks) has been designed to correlate accuracy of drawing (as calculated form ophthalmologists' hand-outlines) with local features of the underlying image. Our method has been applied to the quantification of CMV retinitis. It is shown that accuracy of border is properly predicted and characterized by a confident envelope that allows, after a registration phase based on fixed landmarks such as vessel forks, to accurately assess the evolution of CMV infection.

  17. How understanding immunology contributes to managing CMV disease in immunosuppressed patients: now and in future.

    PubMed

    Sissons, J G Patrick; Wills, Mark R

    2015-06-01

    Several decades of research on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the principal mammalian cytomegaloviruses which to varying degrees act as models of HCMV infection, particularly murine, guinea pig and rhesus CMV, have led to the recognition of the CMVs as interesting models of persistent infection with a large and complex DNA virus, which have been highly informative of the immunology and molecular pathogenesis of the virus-host relationship in the normal host. However, it is appropriate to ask how this relative wealth of knowledge has influenced the understanding and management of clinical disease due to HCMV. This article considers the immunology of cytomegalovirus in the normal human host, and the interrelated issue of the sites of HCMV latency and mechanisms of reactivation in the myeloid cell lineage, and in related in vitro model systems. The way in which this site of latency conditions the immune response, and emerging information on the special features of the adaptive immune response to HCMV during latency are also considered. Examples of HCMV disease associated with acquired immunosuppression, principally in the context of transplantation, but also as a consequence of HIV/AIDS and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, are then discussed, with a particular emphasis on how understanding the immunology of persistent infection may contribute to managing CMV disease now and in future.

  18. Multi-site analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT tacrolimus assay.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Goffinet, Jean-Sebastien; O'Morchoe, Susan; Rosiere, Thomas; Maine, Gregory T; Labalette, Myriam; Aimo, Giuseppe; Dickson, Diana; Schmidt, Ed; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Schmid, Rainer W

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay. Proficiency panels and specimens from a population of organ transplant recipients were analyzed in 6 clinical laboratories in Europe and the United States, and the results were compared with other methods. The ARCHITECT assay requires a whole blood specimen pretreatment step with methanol/zinc sulfate to precipitate protein and extract the drug, followed by a 30-minute immunoassay using anti-tacrolimus antibody-coated paramagnetic microparticles and an acridinium-tacrolimus tracer. The assay was free from hematocrit interference in the range 25%-55% and from interference by extremes of cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, total protein, and uric acid. The total percent of coefficient of variations of the assay were 4.9%-7.6% at 3 ng/mL, 2.9%-4.6% at 8.6 ng/mL, and 3.1%-8.2% at 15.5 ng/mL. Limit of detection was < or =0.5 ng/mL and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.69 to 1.07 ng/mL across the 6 sites (based on the upper 95% confidence interval concentrations). The 2007 European Consensus Conference on Tacrolimus Optimization recommended the use of assay methods with an LOQ around 1 ng/mL, based upon the need to measure trough tacrolimus blood concentrations precisely down to 3 ng/mL during low-dose tacrolimus regimens. Tacrolimus International Proficiency Testing Scheme samples were measured by the ARCHITECT immunoassay at 5 sites and showed an average bias of -0.28 to +0.85 ng/mL versus IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay historical values and -0.21 to +0.68 ng/mL versus liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) Tacrolimus historical values. Method comparison studies were performed with the ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay on patient specimens with the following results: ARCHITECT Tacrolimus assay versus the Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay (4 sites) yielded average biases between -0.94 and +0.26 ng/mL; ARCHITECT assay

  19. A multicenter nationwide reference intervals study for common biochemical analytes in Turkey using Abbott analyzers.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Aslan, Diler; Aybek, Hulya; Ari, Zeki; Taneli, Fatma; Coker, Canan; Akan, Pinar; Sisman, Ali Riza; Bahceci, Onur; Sezgin, Nurzen; Demir, Meltem; Yucel, Gultekin; Akbas, Halide; Ozdem, Sebahat; Polat, Gurbuz; Erbagci, Ayse Binnur; Orkmez, Mustafa; Mete, Nuriye; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Kiyici, Aysel; Vatansev, Husamettin; Ozturk, Bahadir; Yucel, Dogan; Kayaalp, Damla; Dogan, Kubra; Pinar, Asli; Gurbilek, Mehmet; Cetinkaya, Cigdem Damla; Akin, Okhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Kurt, Ismail; Erdinc, Selda; Kadicesme, Ozgur; Ilhan, Necip; Atali, Dilek Sadak; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Noyan, Tevfik; Can, Murat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Okuyucu, Ali; Deger, Orhan; Agac, Suret; Ademoglu, Evin; Kaya, Ayşem; Nogay, Turkan; Eren, Nezaket; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, GulOzlem; Aykus, Mehmet; Gunes, Yeliz; Ozmen, Sevda Unalli; Kawano, Reo; Tezcan, Sehavet; Demirpence, Ozlem; Degirmen, Elif

    2014-12-01

    A nationwide multicenter study was organized to establish reference intervals (RIs) in the Turkish population for 25 commonly tested biochemical analytes and to explore sources of variation in reference values, including regionality. Blood samples were collected nationwide in 28 laboratories from the seven regions (≥400 samples/region, 3066 in all). The sera were collectively analyzed in Uludag University in Bursa using Abbott reagents and analyzer. Reference materials were used for standardization of test results. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, RIs were derived by a parametric method employing the modified Box-Cox formula and compared with the RIs by the non-parametric method. Three-level nested ANOVA was used to evaluate variations among sexes, ages and regions. Associations between test results and age, body mass index (BMI) and region were determined by multiple regression analysis (MRA). By ANOVA, differences of reference values among seven regions were significant in none of the 25 analytes. Significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed for 10 and seven analytes, respectively. MRA revealed BMI-related changes in results for uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Their RIs were thus derived by applying stricter criteria excluding individuals with BMI >28 kg/m2. Ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than those by parametric method especially for those analytes affected by BMI. With the lack of regional differences and the well-standardized status of test results, the RIs derived from this nationwide study can be used for the entire Turkish population.

  20. Enlightenment about the new Architect-i2000 estradiol (Abbott Laboratories) immunoassay during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Taieb, Joëlle; Mendez Lozano, Daniel H; Benattar, Clarisse; Messaoudi, Chérif; Poüs, Christian

    2007-12-01

    We assessed a new estradiol (E2) immunoassay on the Architect-i2000 (Abbott Laboratories) for monitoring ovulation stimulation for IVF-ET and re-establishing clinical cut-off points. The method has been modified to improve E2 measurements especially at normal and low concentrations. E2 was determined for 552 samples, from 83 women, presenting normal follicular status and undergoing 100 cycles of IVF treatment. We assessed the value of this assay for down-regulation of E2 concentration limit using gonadoliberin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), and monitoring of the ovarian hyperstimulation, expected range of E2 per mature follicle prior to the administration of exogenous hCG and day 3 concentration limit. We compared results with our routine method (E2-6II Advia-Centaur; Siemens-Diagnostics) for which decision-making values were known. Considering E2 concentrations obtained with the new Architect-i2000 assay for patients treated with GnRHa for 2 weeks, the cutoff-point for ovarian down-regulation should be set down at 110 pmol/L to maintain 100% of sensitivity. Considering day 3 concentration limit determination, results were not significantly different from those obtained with our routine method. The mean E2 values per mature follicle fell into the range generally expected. E2 determination with the new E2 Architect-i2000 assay could be used to monitor ovulation, in patients undergoing IVF-ET, in combination with transvaginal ultrasound.

  1. Random uncertainty of photometric determination of hemolysis index on the Abbott Architect c16000 platform.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Elena; Carnevale, Assunta; Pasqualetti, Sara; Birindelli, Sarah; Dolci, Alberto; Panteghini, Mauro

    2018-01-16

    Automatic photometric determination of the hemolysis index (HI) on serum and plasma samples is central to detect potential interferences of in vitro hemolysis on laboratory tests. When HI is above an established cut-off for interference, results may suffer from a significant bias and undermine clinical reliability of the test. Despite its undeniable importance for patient safety, the analytical performance of HI estimation is not usually checked in laboratories. Here we evaluated for the first time the random source of measurement uncertainty of HI determination on the two Abbott Architect c16000 platforms in use in our laboratory. From January 2016 to September 2017, we collected data from daily photometric determination of HI on a fresh-frozen serum pool with a predetermined HI value of ~100 (corresponding to ~1g/L of free hemoglobin). Monthly and cumulative CVs were calculated. During 21months, 442 and 451 measurements were performed on the two platforms, respectively. Monthly CVs ranged from 0.7% to 2.7% on c16000-1 and from 0.8% to 2.5% on c16000-2, with a between-platform cumulative CV of 1.82% (corresponding to an expanded uncertainty of 3.64%). Mean HI values on the two platforms were just slightly biased (101.3 vs. 103.1, 1.76%), but, due to the high precision of measurements, this difference assumed statistical significance (p<0.0001). Even though no quality specifications are available to date, our study shows that the HI measurement on Architect c16000 platform has nice reproducibility that could be considered in establishing the state of the art of the measurement. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Active B12: a rapid, automated assay for holotranscobalamin on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jeff; Wilson, Lesley; McGregor, Lynda; Valente, Edward; Orning, Lars

    2008-03-01

    Conventional tests for vitamin B(12) deficiency measure total serum vitamin B12, whereas only that portion of vitamin B12 carried by transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin) is metabolically active. Measurement of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) may be more diagnostically accurate for detecting B(12) deficiency that requires therapy. We developed an automated assay for holoTC that can be used on the Abbott AxSYM immunoassay analyzer. AxSYM Active B12 is a 2-step sandwich microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In step 1, a holoTC-specific antibody immobilized onto latex microparticles captures holoTC in samples of serum or plasma. In step 2, the captured holoTC is detected with a conjugate of alkaline phosphatase and antiTC antibody. Neither apoTC nor haptocorrin exhibited detectable cross-reactivity. The detection limit was < or = 0.1 pmol/L. Within-run and total imprecision (CV ranges) were 3.4%-5.1% and 6.3%-8.5%, respectively. Assay CVs were < 20% from at least 3 pmol/L to 107 pmol/L. With diluted serum samples, measured concentrations were 104%-114% of the expected values in the working range of the assay. No interference from bilirubin, hemoglobin, triglycerides, erythrocytes, rheumatoid factor, or total protein was detected at expected (abnormal) concentrations. A comparison of the AxSYM Active B12 assay with a commercial RIA for holoTC yielded the regression equation: AxSYM = 0.98RIA + 4.7 pmol/L (S(y x), 11.4 pmol/L; n = 204). Assay throughput was 45 tests/h. A 95% reference interval of 19-134 pmol/L holoTC was established with samples from 292 healthy individuals. The AxSYM Active B12 assay allows rapid, precise, sensitive, specific, and automated measurement of human holoTC in serum and plasma.

  3. Key Performance Indicators to Measure Improvement After Implementation of Total Laboratory Automation Abbott Accelerator a3600.

    PubMed

    Miler, Marijana; Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Dukic, Lora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-12-27

    The aim of the study was to estimate improvement of work efficiency in the laboratory after implementation of total laboratory automation (TLA) by Abbott Accelerator a3600 in the laboratory with measuring different key performance indicators (KPIs) before and after TLA implementation. The objective was also to recommend steps for defining KPIs in other laboratories. For evaluation of improvement 10 organizational and/or technical KPIs were defined for all phases of laboratory work and measured before (November 2013) and after (from 2015 to 2017) TLA implementation. Out of 10 defined KPIs, 9 were successfully measured and significantly improved. Waiting time for registration of samples in the LIS was significantly reduced from 16 (9-28) to 9 (6-16) minutes after TLA (P < 0.001). After TLA all tests were performed at core biochemistry analyzers which significantly reduced walking distance for sample management (for more than 800 m per worker) and number of tube touches (for almost 50%). Analyzers downtime and engagement time for analyzers maintenance was reduced for 50 h and 28 h per month, respectively. TLA eliminated manual dilution of samples with extreme results with sigma values increment from 3.4 to >6 after TLA. Although median turnaround time TAT for potassium and troponin was higher (for approximately 20 min), number of outliers with TAT >60 min expressed as sigma values were satisfying (>3). Implementation of the TLA improved the most of the processes in our laboratory with 9 out of 10 properly defined and measured KPIs. With proper planning and defining of KPIs, every laboratory could measure changes in daily workflow.

  4. Harmonization of the Bayer ADVIA Centaur and Abbott AxSYM automated B-type natriuretic peptide assay in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Barak, Mira; Weinberger, Ronit; Marcusohn, Jerom; Froom, Paul

    2005-01-01

    There are two fully automated high-throughput clinical instruments for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) assays, the Bayer ADVIA Centaur assay, and the Abbott AxSYM assay. Although both recommend a cut-off value of 100 pg/mL, we are unaware of previous studies that have compared the unadjusted results of the two methods, required for proper evaluation of patients undergoing this test on different platforms. From 43 hemodialysis patients, 80 paired samples were collected by venipuncture into plastic evacuated tubes containing EDTA. The Bayer assay yielded lower values than the Abbott assay, with linear regression of 0.53 x Abbott assay (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.56) being forced through 0, demonstrating an r(2)-value of 0.954. Regression for the Abbott assay was 1.79 x Bayer assay (95% CI, 1.69-1.89). The cut-off values for abnormal BNP results analyzed on the Abbott system are not identical to those on the Bayer system, and this needs to be taken into account when comparing studies on the clinical utility of these systems.

  5. Evaluation of a novel semi-automated HPLC procedure for whole blood cyclosporin A confirms equivalence to adjusted monoclonal values from Abbott TDx.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Norman B; Dutton, John; Higgins, Gerald; Allars, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    The problem in the measurement of cyclosporin (CyA) is that the widely used immuno-based assays suffer from interference by metabolites present in unpredictable excess. To resolve this, the consensus view has been to develop more specific and robust procedures for the measurement of CyA alone in order to give values similar to those obtained by HPLC. We developed an alternative strategy based on Abbott poly- and monoclonal assays to derive an adjusted monoclonal value as an equivalent measurement to HPLC. We have now evaluated a recently developed semi-automated HPLC procedure and used it to test the validity of the adjusted monoclonal value. The automated HPLC procedure with online clean-up was optimised for the separation of CyA and internal standard CyD. The assay was simple to use, precise and gave good recovery of cyclosporin from whole blood. Comparisons with the more specific immunoassays Abbott AxSym and EMIT showed close agreement, whereas Abbott monoclonal values indicated up to 20% positive bias. In contrast, the adjusted monoclonal values gave good agreement with HPLC. Data obtained from HPLC linked to tandem mass spectrometry (MS) indicated closer agreement with Abbott monoclonal values than expected, suggesting some positive bias with MS. The benefit of using an adjusted monoclonal value is that a result equivalent to HPLC is obtained, as well as an indication of the concentration of metabolites from the Abbott polyclonal measurement.

  6. Effect of age and latent CMV infection on CD8+ CD56+ T cells (NKT-like) frequency and functionality.

    PubMed

    Hassouneh, Fakhri; Campos, Carmen; López-Sejas, Nelson; Alonso, Corona; Tarazona, Raquel; Solana, Rafael; Pera, Alejandra

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the T cell pool caused by CMV infection have been proposed to contribute to immunosenescence, but it has been postulated that CMV can also have some beneficial effects in young individuals improving the immune response to other pathogens. T cells expressing CD56 (NKT-like cells) are cytotoxic effector cells with a significant role in the immune response against cancer. We have studied how age and latent CMV infection affect the frequency of NKT-like cells (CD8+ CD56+ T cells) and their response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in the context of CMV and ageing. NKT-like cell percentage increases with the combination of both CMV and age. The response to SEB and the polyfunctional index of NKT-like cells also increase with age in CMV-seropositive individuals. In young individuals, CMV infection induces a shift on the polyfunctional profile of CD8+ CD56- T cells not observed on the NKT-like cells response. NKT-like cells expressing CD57 are expanded in CMV-seropositive individuals and are more polyfunctional than their CD57-  counterpart. In addition CD57- NKT-like cells are more polyfunctional than CD8+ CD56- CD57- T cells. The results support that the expansion of polyfunctional NKT-cells may have a beneficial effect on the immune response against pathogens. C