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Sample records for abbott realtime cmv

  1. Cytomegalovirus quantification in plasma with Abbott RealTime CMV and Roche Cobas Amplicor CMV assays.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maxime-Antoine; Rodrigue, Marc-André; Deschênes, Louise; Boivin, Guy; Longtin, Jean

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the performance of Abbott RealTime CMV assay (ARC) compared to Roche Cobas Amplicor CMV Monitor Test (RCM) for quantification of CMV in plasma of transplant patients. Commercial panels were used to test linearity, precision and interference and 83 clinical samples were used for the accuracy and precision analyses. All 43 RCM-positive clinical samples tested positive by ARC. The overall concordance between the two tests was good (98%). Based on 17 samples, the inter-assay median coefficient of variation was 13%. A linearity panel ranging from approximately 1 to 7log10copies/mL was used to confirm linearity (R(2)=0.99). CMV viral load measurement was not affected by different concentrations of HSV-1 or EBV DNA. We conclude that The Abbott RealTime CMV assay offers good sensitivity, precision and linearity and is suitable for monitoring CMV viral loads in transplant recipients. Standardization with the WHO CMV standard allows for comparison with other assays. PMID:26341060

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Real-Q Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Quantification Kit Using Two Real-Time PCR Systems for Quantifying CMV DNA in Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2016-11-01

    Standardized cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA quantification is important for managing CMV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q CMV Quantification Kit (Real-Q assay; BioSewoom, Korea) using whole blood (WB), with nucleic acid extraction using MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Real-time PCR was performed on two platforms: the 7500 Fast real-time PCR (7500 Fast; Applied Biosystems, USA) and CFX96 real-time PCR detection (CFX96; Bio-Rad, USA) systems. The WHO international standard, diluted with CMV-negative WB, was used to validate the analytical performance. We used 90 WB clinical samples for comparison with the artus CMV RG PCR kit (artus assay; Qiagen, Germany). Limits of detections (LODs) in 7500 Fast and CFX96 were 367 and 479 IU/mL, respectively. The assay was linear from the LOD to 10⁶ IU/mL (R² ≥0.9886). The conversion factors from copies to IU in 7500 Fast and CFX96 were 0.95 and 1.06, respectively. Compared with the artus assay, for values <1,000 copies/mL, 100% of the samples had a variation <0.7 log₁₀ copies/mL; >1,000 copies/mL, 73.3% and 80.6% of samples in 7500 Fast and CFX96, respectively, had <0.5 log₁₀ copies/mL. The Real-Q assay is useful for quantifying CMV in WB with the two real-time PCR platforms. PMID:27578516

  3. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories. PMID:26071001

  4. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. PMID:26085611

  5. Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA by real-time PCR for occurrence of CMV disease in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Gourlain, Karine; Salmon, Dominique; Gault, Elyanne; Leport, Catherine; Katlama, Christine; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Mazeron, Marie-Christine; Fillet, Anne-Marie

    2003-03-01

    In HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) included in the Predivir cohort, we have evaluated the usefulness of CMV DNA quantitation by a TaqMan PCR assay from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to predict CMV disease occurrence. In parallel with the immune restoration after treatment by HAART, the percentage of positive samples decreased progressively from 7.3% at Day 0 to 3.5% at Month 12. Among the CMV markers, the smallest concordance with PBL CMV TaqMan PCR, as evaluated by kappa, was observed with pp65 antigenemia, whereas concordance with all other CMV markers was high. Among the 16 patients with CMV DNA copies at least once >100/150,000 cells, CMV disease occurred in six during follow-up, whereas among the 159 patients with CMV DNA copies always <10/150,000 cells, CMV disease occurred in three and among the seven patients with CMV DNA copies >10 and <100 occurred in only one. In univariate Cox models, all the CMV markers including PBL CMV TaqMan PCR >10/150,000 cells (RR: 27.6, IC95: 7.1-107.2), the CD4 cell count <75 cells/mm(3) and the HIV viral load >100,000 copies/ml were predictive for CMV disease. In a stepwise multivariate analysis, which should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of events (n = 10), three covariates were associated independently with CMV disease: pp65 antigenemia >100 nuclei/200,000, PBL CMV TaqMan PCR >10 copies/150,000 cells and HIV viral load remaining or increasing >100,000 copies/ml. PMID:12526052

  6. CMV pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... help prevent CMV pneumonia in certain people: Using organ transplant donors who don't have CMV Using CMV-negative blood products for transfusion Using CMV-immune globulin in certain ... that can occur in people who have a weakened immune system.

  7. Comparison of Two Commercial Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction and Integrated Quantitation Real-Time PCR Platforms for the Detection of Cytomegalovirus in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Tsai, You-Yuan; Lin, I-Ting; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Chang, Kung-Chao; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load in the transplant patients has become a standard practice for monitoring the response to antiviral therapy. The cut-off values of CMV viral load assays for preemptive therapy are different due to the various assay designs employed. To establish a sensitive and reliable diagnostic assay for preemptive therapy of CMV infection, two commercial automated platforms including m2000sp extraction system integrated the Abbott RealTime (m2000rt) and the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep for extraction integrated COBAS Taqman (CAP/CTM) were evaluated using WHO international CMV standards and 110 plasma specimens from transplant patients. The performance characteristics, correlation, and workflow of the two platforms were investigated. The Abbott RealTime assay correlated well with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (R2 = 0.9379, P<0.01). The Abbott RealTime assay exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of CMV viral load, and viral load values measured with Abbott RealTime assay were on average 0.76 log10 IU/mL higher than those measured with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (P<0.0001). Workflow analysis on a small batch size at one time, using the Roche CAP/CTM platform had a shorter hands-on time than the Abbott RealTime platform. In conclusion, these two assays can provide reliable data for different purpose in a clinical virology laboratory setting. PMID:27494707

  8. Abbott RealTime PCR assay is useful for evaluating virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the utility of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay (ART) for the monitoring of chronic hepatitis C patients. The serum samples of 183 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b who had completed a 48-week period of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment were prospectively analyzed. Serum HCV RNA levels were measured both by ART and by the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor test, version2.0 (CAM) at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 of treatment, and at 24 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). A significant positive correlation of pretreatment HCV RNA levels was found between ART and CAM (r = 0.595, P < 0.0001). Of the 183 patients, 66 (36.0%) achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The logarithmic decline of the HCV RNA level from the pretreatment level determined by ART in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients at all time points tested. The logarithmic decline determined by CAM in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients only at week 4, but there was no significant difference at other weeks. Of 124 patients who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by ART, 58 (46.8%) had a relapse of viremia at 24 weeks after EOT, whereas 77 of 143 patients (53.8%) who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by CAM had a relapse. The relapse rate was lower when determined by ART than by CAM, but not significantly so. ART is more useful than CAM for evaluating the virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:21528383

  9. Characterization of Samples Identified as Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 without Subtype by Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II Assay Using the New Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO Test

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Camelia; Ebel, Anne; Reinhardt, Birgit; Merlin, Sandra; Proust, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping continues to be relevant for therapeutic strategies. Some samples are reported as genotype 1 (gt 1) without subtype by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (GT II) test. To characterize such samples further, the Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO (Plus) assay, which targets the core region for gt 1a, gt 1b, and gt 6 detection, was evaluated as a reflex test in reference to NS5B or 5′-untranslated region (UTR)/core region sequencing. Of 3,626 routine samples, results of gt 1 without subtype were received for 171 samples (4.7%), accounting for 11.5% of gt 1 specimens. The Plus assay and sequencing were applied to 98 of those samples. NS5B or 5′-UTR/core region sequencing was successful for 91/98 specimens (92.9%). Plus assay and sequencing results were concordant for 87.9% of specimens (80/91 samples). Sequencing confirmed Plus assay results for 82.6%, 85.7%, 100%, and 89.3% of gt 1a, gt 1b, gt 6, and non-gt 1a/1b/6 results, respectively. Notably, 12 gt 6 samples that had been identified previously as gt 1 without subtype were assigned correctly here; for 25/28 samples reported as “not detected” by the Plus assay, sequencing identified the samples as gt 1 with subtypes other than 1a/1b. The genetic variability of HCV continues to present challenges for the current genotyping platforms regardless of the applied methodology. Samples identified by the GT II assay as gt 1 without subtype can be further resolved and reliably characterized by the new Plus assay. PMID:26582834

  10. Real-time analysis of the transcriptional regulation of HIV and hCMV promoters in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    White, M R; Masuko, M; Amet, L; Elliott, G; Braddock, M; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1995-02-01

    The regulation of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene expression has been studied in single intact mammalian cells. Viral promoters were placed upstream of the firefly luciferase reporter gene and the resulting hybrid reporter constructs were stably integrated into the HeLa cell genome. A highly sensitive photon-counting camera system was used to study the level of gene expression in single intact cells. Luciferase expression was studied in the absence of activators of viral gene expression, in the presence of the HIV-1 TAT transactivator protein, or in the presence of sodium butyrate, a non-viral activator of gene expression. In the absence of any activator of gene expression, while expression was undetectable in most cells, significant levels of basal luciferase activity were observed in a few cells, indicating heterogeneity in gene expression in the cell population. In the presence of the general activator of viral gene expression, sodium butyrate, transcriptional activation from the viral promoters gave rise to significant and relatively homogeneous levels of luciferase expression in a majority of cells. The luciferase imaging technology was used for the real-time analysis of changes of gene expression within a single cell. This non-invasive reporter assay should become important for studies of the temporal regulation of gene expression in single cells. PMID:7768992

  11. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The first treatments for CMV required daily intravenous infusions. Most people had a permanent medication “port” inserted ... This may require additional medications. Other drugs require infusions that can take a long time. Discuss the ...

  12. Evaluation of a standardised real-time PCR based DNA-detection method (Realstar®) in whole blood for the diagnosis of primary human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Berth, M; Benoy, I; Christensen, N

    2016-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA detection in blood could, as a supplementary test to serology, improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis of an acute CMV infection. In this study we evaluated the performance of a commercially available and standardised CMV PCR assay in whole blood for the diagnosis of a primary infection in immunocompetent adults. Moreover, the kinetics of viral DNA was evaluated in order to provide a time frame in which viral DNA could be detected during an acute primary infection. Whole blood samples were collected from 66 patients with an acute CMV infection, 65 patients with an acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, 27 patients with various other acute infections (parvovirus B19, HIV, Toxoplasma gondii), 20 patients with past CMV infections (>1 year) and 20 apparently healthy persons. For CMV DNA detection and quantification a commercially available real-time PCR was applied (RealStar®, altona Diagnostics). The clinical sensitivity of CMV PCR in whole blood for the diagnosis of a recent primary CMV infection was 93.9 % and the diagnostic specificity 99.2 %. In the majority of the patients CMV DNA was not detectable anymore approximately within 4 weeks after the first blood sample was taken. From these data we concluded that, together with a suggestive serological profile, a positive CMV PCR result in whole blood can be regarded as a diagnostic confirmation of a recent CMV infection on a single blood sample in an immunocompetent patient. However, a negative CMV PCR result does not exclude a recent CMV infection. PMID:26661089

  13. Congenital CMV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... CMV Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Detection and Intervention Helping Children With Congenital CMV Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  14. Evaluation of 3 automated real-time PCR (Xpert C. difficile assay, BD MAX Cdiff, and IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 assay) for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin gene compared to toxigenic culture in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaeeun; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the performance of the 3 automated systems (Cepheid Xpert, BD MAX, and IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000) detecting Clostridium difficile toxin gene compared to toxigenic culture. Of the 254 stool specimens tested, 87 (48 slight, 35 moderate, and 4 heavy growth) were toxigenic culture positive. The overall sensitivities and specificities were 82.8% and 98.8% for Xpert, 81.6% and 95.8% for BD MAX, and 62.1% and 99.4% for IMDx, respectively. The specificity was significantly higher in IMDx than BD MAX (P= 0.03). All stool samples underwent toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay testing, and of the 254 samples, only 29 samples were positive and 2 of them were toxigenic culture negative. Considering the rapidity and high specificity of the real-time PCR assays compared to the toxigenic culture, they can be used as the first test method for C. difficile infection/colonization. PMID:26081240

  15. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Good Hand Hygiene CDC Feature on Prenatal Infections Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... should consult their healthcare providers about breastfeeding. CMV Transmission during Pregnancy In the United States, approximately 30- ...

  16. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864171

  17. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk for CMV infection? Women who work in day-care centers or women who are around toddlers and ... saliva. Mouth-to-mouth kissing with children attending day-care is discouraged. Pregnant women should refrain from sharing ...

  18. [CMV infection in elderly].

    PubMed

    Pytka, Dorota; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects approximately 40-90% of the world population. The infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons. However, it may have negative impact on physiological status or accompanying diseases especially in the elderly. In particular, increasing number of data suggests that persistent infection with CMV is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system accompanying by the decrease in the number of naïve T cells, the increase in in the number of late-differentiated T cells, and reduced TCD4/ TCD8 ratio. This constellation reduces immunity against a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and alters the response to vaccinations. CMV infection could also influence the pathophysiology of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, however, the mechanism of such influence is still not clear. It is not clear as well, whether CMV infection influences the all-cause and cardiovascular diseases-related mortality. In conclusion, CMV infection could intensify immunosenescence and contribute to age-related diseases, but inconsistent results of many experiments do not allow currently to define clear guidelines for the treatment of CMV infection in elderly. PMID:27526428

  19. Priorities for CMV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philip R; Bialek, Stephanie R; Boppana, Suresh B; Griffiths, Paul D; Laughlin, Catherine A; Ljungman, Per; Mocarski, Edward S; Pass, Robert F; Read, Jennifer S; Schleiss, Mark R; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2013-12-17

    A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering pre-emptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of pre-emptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune

  20. Ability of Two Commercially Available Assays (Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Version 2.0) To Quantify Low HIV-1 RNA Levels (<1,000 Copies/Milliliter): Comparison with Clinical Samples and NIBSC Working Reagent for Nucleic Acid Testing Assays

    PubMed Central

    Marsella, Patrizia; Bloisi, Maria; Forbici, Federica; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Concordance between molecular assays may be suboptimal at low HIV-1 viremia levels (<1,000 copies/ml); therefore, it may be difficult to define and compare virologic endpoints for successful and failed therapy. We compared two commercial assays (the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/TaqMan HIV-1 version 2.0) for their ability to detect and quantify low viral loads. A comparison was performed using 167 residual clinical samples (with values ranging from “not detected” to 1,000 copies/ml, as measured by the Abbott assay) and the National Institute and Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) HIV-1 RNA working reagent 1 for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) assays (serially diluted to a range from 1 to 1,000 copies/ml). Quantitative results were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot. Concordance with the qualitative results was measured by Cohen's kappa statistic. With clinical samples, the degree of interassay concordance of the qualitative results at a 40-copies/ml HIV-1 RNA threshold was substantial (κ = 0.762); the correlation among the quantified samples was suboptimal (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.728; P < 0.0001); the mean difference of the values between the Roche and Abbott assays was 0.193 log10 copies/ml. Using the HIV-1 RNA working reagent 1 for NAT assays, the results provided by the Roche assay were, on average, 3 times higher than expected, while the Abbott assay showed high accuracy. The Roche assay was highly sensitive, being able to detect a level as low as 3.5 copies/ml HIV-1 RNA with 95% probability. The performance characteristics of each molecular assay should be taken into account when HIV-1 RNA threshold values for “virologic suppression,” “virologic failure,” “persistent low viral loads,” etc., are defined and indicated in the support of clinical decisions. PMID:24671791

  1. Testing and Diagnosis of CMV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hygiene CDC Feature on Prenatal Infections Testing and Diagnosis of CMV Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Tests that detect the virus are used to diagnosis CMV infection at birth (congenital CMV infection). A ...

  2. [Comparison of the CMV antigenemia test and CMV-DNA PCR results in solid organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Özkarata, Emre; Özkarataş, Emre; Özbek, Ö Alpay; Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is among the most common important viral infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Diagnostic tests for detecting CMV replication are widely used for this group of patients, however there is no clear agreement on the cut-off levels for interpretation of clinical decisions especially when the low level of viral load is detected. In this study, CMV pp65 antigenemia test results were compared with plasma CMV-DNA levels detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples of kidney and liver transplant recipients in the Central Laboratory of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between 2011 and 2013, and the correlation between these two tests and viral load equivalent to antigenemia positivity were determined. In the study, pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR results were evaluated retrospectively. The samples from the same patients were included if the time between antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR tests were less than 48 hours. SPSS v15.0 was used for correlation, regression and ROC curve analysis. The results of the 217 samples collected from 100 patients (59 male, 41 female; age range: 16-71, mean age: 46 ± 13 years), 36 liver and 64 kidney recipients were evaluated in the study. Of the patients 80% were CMV IgM negative, IgG positive; 1% was CMV IgG and IgM positive; 2% were CMV IgM and IgG negative, while for 17 patients serological results could not be reached. CMV pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA were both negative in 102 (47%) samples, while both were positive in 37 (17%) samples. The single sample from a case with CMV IgM and IgG positivity yielded negative results for both antigenemia and CMV-DNA tests. In 78 samples antigenemia were negative and CMV-DNA qPCR were positive, while there were no samples with antigenemia positive and qPCR negative. Mean values of antigenemia and qPCR tests were 23 positive cells/200.000 leukocytes (range: 1 to 230 positive cells) and 12.595 copies/ml (range: 180 to 106

  3. CMV in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de la Cámara, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on the outcome of stem cell transplant (SCT) and solid organ transplant patients (SOT) CMV has been called “the troll of transplantation”. One of the greatest advances in the management of SCT has been the introduction of the preemptive strategy. Since its introduction, the incidence of the viremia, as expected, remains unchanged but there has been a marked decline in the incidence of early CMV disease. However, in spite of the advances in prevention of CMV disease, CMV is still today an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Late CMV disease is still occurring in a significant proportion of patients and the so-called indirect effects of CMV are causing significant morbidity and mortality. Fortunately there have been several advances in the development of new antivirals, adoptive immunotherapy and DNA-CMV vaccines that might transform the management of CMV in the near future. PMID:27413524

  4. Health Update: CMV and Child Care Prgrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses appropriate steps to be taken in a day care setting to minimize the known risks associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV). Explains what CMV is; why people should worry about CMV; how it is spread; and how it can be treated and prevented. Suggests a number of hygiene practices for use in day care centers. (RWB)

  5. The Immunology of Posttransplant CMV Infection: Potential Effect of CMV Immunoglobulins on Distinct Components of the Immune Response to CMV

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly complex, including humoral, cellular, innate, and adaptive immune responses. Detection of CMV by the innate immune system triggers production of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines which initiate cellular and humoral responses that are critical during the early viremic phase of CMV infection. Sustained control of CMV infection is largely accounted for by cellular immunity, involving various T-cell and B-cell subsets. In solid organ transplant patients, global suppression of innate and adaptive immunities by immunosuppressive agents limits immunological defense, including inhibition of natural killer cell activity with ongoing lowering of Ig levels and CMV-specific antibody titers. This is coupled with a short-term suppression of CMV-specific T cells, the extent and duration of which can predict risk of progression to CMV viremia. CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) preparations have the potential to exert immunomodulatory effects as well as providing passive immunization. Specific CMVIG antibodies and virus neutralization might be enhanced by modulation of dendritic cell activity and by a decrease in T-cell activation, effects which are of importance during the initial phase of infection. In summary, the role of CMVIG in reconstituting specific anti-CMV antibodies may be enhanced by some degree of modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses, which could help to control some of the direct and indirect effects of CMV infection. PMID:26900990

  6. CMV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Virus Antibodies , Herpes Testing , Chickenpox and Shingles Tests , TORCH All content on Lab Tests Online has been ... is one of the conditions included in a TORCH testing panel . This panel of tests screens for ...

  7. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral capsules held by Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott), 100 Abbott Park Rd., Abbott Park, IL 60064. Abbott has voluntarily requested that approval of this application be withdrawn, thereby waiving its opportunity for a...

  8. Comparing Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV test and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman HIV test, v2.0 in treated HIV-1 B and non-B subjects with low viraemia.

    PubMed

    Margariti, Apostolia; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Metallidis, Simeon; Pilalas, Dimitrios; Kourelis, Andreas; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Malisiovas, Nicolaos; Skoura, Lemonia

    2016-04-01

    Viral load testing is a valuable tool in HIV clinical care and research. Discrepancies among diverse viral load assays, especially with regard to non-B HIV-1 subtypes have been reported. Our study aimed to explore the impact of HIV subtype (B versus non-B) on the agreement between CAP/CTM, v2.0 and m2000 RealTime in treated HIV patients, focusing on low viral loads (<200 copies/ml). Our findings indicate that there is a significant difference in the performance of the compared assays in the low-viremic range and non-B subtypes, suggesting that a single assay should be used for follow-up. PMID:26331699

  9. Treatment of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis with CMV-Specific T-Lymphocyte Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mrinali; Coombs, Peter; Prockop, Susan E.; Hasan, Aisha A.; Doubrovina, Ekatarina; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Cohen, Stuart H.; Park, Susanna S.; Kiss, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a blinding infection that affects immunocompromised patients who are unable to generate a T-cell response against the organism. Infusion of CMV-specific leukocytes has been shown to be effective in patients with systemic CMV infection, especially those resistant to standard therapies. We report a case of a patient with CMV viremia with retinitis in whom infusion of third-party donor derived CMV pp65-specific T-cells alone prompted resolution of CMV retinitis in this patient. This case suggests a potential role for CMV-specific leukocyte infusion in the treatment of CMV retinitis, especially in cases resistant to or refractory or antiviral therapies. PMID:25559515

  10. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on February 24, 2011, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories... location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division. The Department has determined that these...

  11. Evaluation of Different Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA PCR Protocols for Analysis of Dried Blood Spots from Consecutive Cases of Neonates with Congenital CMV Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Soetens, Oriane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Foulon, Ina; Dubreuil, Pascal; De Saeger, Ben; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Naessens, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Two protocols for the extraction of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA and two methods for the amplification of CMV DNA in dried blood spots were evaluated for the retrospective diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. During the period from 1996 to 2006, a urine screening program detected 76 congenitally infected neonates. Stored Guthrie cards with blood from 55 cases and 12 controls were tested. Two spots of dried blood were cut from each card and evaluated in two centers. CMV DNA was extracted from a whole single spot. Center 1 used phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation followed by a conventional PCR. Center 2 used the NucliSens easyMAG automated DNA/RNA extraction platform (bioMérieux) followed by a real-time PCR. For evaluation of the extraction method, DNA extracted from each blood spot was evaluated by the amplification method used by the collaborating center. The sensitivities were 66% for center 1 and 73% for center 2. None of the controls were positive. A sensitivity as high as 82% could be obtained by combining the most sensitive extraction method (the phenol-chloroform procedure) with the most sensitive PCR method (real-time PCR). The detection rate was not influenced by the duration of storage of the spots. The sensitivity was higher with blood from congenitally infected cases due to a primary maternal CMV infection, regardless of the protocol used. However, the difference reached significance only for the least-sensitive protocol (P = 0.036). PMID:18199787

  12. Role of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG Avidity Testing in Diagnosing Primary CMV Infection during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lapé-Nixon, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The risk of intrauterine transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy is much greater for women who contract primary CMV infection after conception than for women with evidence of infection (circulating CMV antibodies) before conception. Thus, laboratory tests that aid in the identification of recent primary CMV infection are important tools for managing the care of pregnant women suspected of having been exposed to CMV. CMV IgM detection is a sensitive marker of primary CMV infection, but its specificity is poor because CMV IgM is also produced during viral reactivation and persists following primary infection in some individuals. Studies conducted over the last 20 years convincingly demonstrate that measurement of CMV IgG avidity is both a sensitive and a specific method for identifying pregnant women with recent primary CMV infection and thus at increased risk for vertical CMV transmission. IgG avidity is defined as the strength with which IgG binds to antigenic epitopes expressed by a given protein; it matures gradually during the 6 months following primary infection. Low CMV IgG avidity is an accurate indicator of primary infection within the preceding 3 to 4 months, whereas high avidity excludes primary infection within the preceding 3 months. In this minireview, we summarize published data demonstrating the clinical utility of CMV IgG avidity results for estimating time since primary infection in pregnant women, describe commercially available CMV IgG avidity assays, and discuss some of the issues and controversies surrounding CMV IgG avidity testing during pregnancy. PMID:25165026

  13. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in 2004-05,…

  14. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patients without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.

  15. "A Prairie Childhood" by Edith Abbott: An Excerpt from "The Children's Champion," a Biography of Grace Abbott

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John

    2003-01-01

    Grace Abbott's courageous struggles--to protect the rights of immigrants, to increase the role of women in government, and to improve the lives of all children--are filled with adventurous tales of the remarkable human ability to seek out suffering and to do something about it. "A Prairie Childhood" is an excerpt from the Grace Abbott biography…

  16. Comparison of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and CMV quantiferon gamma interferon-releasing assays in assessing risk of CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Abate, Davide; Saldan, Alda; Mengoli, Carlo; Fiscon, Marta; Silvestre, Cristina; Fallico, Loredana; Peracchi, Marta; Furian, Lucrezia; Cusinato, Riccardo; Bonfante, Luciana; Rossi, Barbara; Marchini, Francesco; Sgarabotto, Dino; Rigotti, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    Assessing cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) represents an appealing strategy for identifying transplant recipients at risk of infection. In this study, we compared two gamma interferon-releasing assays (IGRAs), Quantiferon-CMV and CMV enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT), to determine the ability of each test to predict protective CMV-specific T-cell responses. Two hundred twenty-one Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT tests were conducted on 120 adult kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), including 100 CMV-seropositive transplant recipients (R+) and 20 CMV-seronegative transplant recipients of a CMV-positive donor (D+/R-). As a control cohort, 39 healthy adult subjects (including 33 CMV-seropositive and 6 CMV-seronegative subjects) were enrolled. CMV IgG serology was used as a reference for both tests. In the CMV-seropositive individuals, the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays provided 46% concordance with the serology, 12% discordance, 18% disagreement between ELISPOT or Quantiferon-CMV and the serology, and 24% gray areas when one or both tests resulted in weak positives. None of the CMV-seronegative subjects showed detectable responses in the ELISPOT or the Quantiferon-CMV test. In transplant recipients, both the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with CMV DNAemia in a significant way (P<0.05). During the antiviral prophylaxis, all 20 D+/R- KTRs we examined displayed undetectable Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT results, and there was no evidence of CMV seroconversion. The receiving operator curve (ROC) statistical analysis revealed similar specificities and sensitivities in predicting detectable viremia (areas under the curve [AUC], 0.66 and 0.62 for Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT, respectively). ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV values of >150 spots/200,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and >1 to 6 IU gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were associated with protection from CMV

  17. CMV Immunoglobulins for the Treatment of CMV Infections in Thoracic Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Uwe; Solidoro, Paolo; Müller, Veronika; Szabo, Attila; Gottlieb, Jens; Wilkens, Heinrike; Enseleit, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Intravenous ganciclovir and, increasingly, oral valganciclovir are now considered the mainstay of treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or CMV disease. Under certain circumstances, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) may be an appropriate addition or, indeed, alternative. Data on monotherapy with CMVIG are limited, but encouraging, for example in cases of ganciclovir intolerance. In cases of recurrent CMV in thoracic transplant patients after a disease- and drug-free period, adjunctive CMVIG can be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Antiviral-resistant CMV, which is more common among thoracic organ recipients than in other types of transplant, can be an indication for introduction of CMVIG, particularly in view of the toxicity associated with other options, such as foscarnet. Due to a lack of controlled trials, decision-making is based on clinical experience. In the absence of a robust evidence base, it seems reasonable to consider the use of CMVIG to treat CMV in adult or pediatric thoracic transplant patients with ganciclovir-resistant infection, or in serious or complicated cases. The latter can potentially include (i) treatment of severe clinical manifestations, such as pneumonitis or eye complications; (ii) patients with a positive biopsy in end organs, such as the lung or stomach; (iii) symptomatic cases with rising polymerase chain reaction values (for example, higher than 5.0 log10) despite antiviral treatment; (iv) CMV disease or CMV infection or risk factors, such as CMV-IgG-negative serostatus; (vi) ganciclovir intolerance; (vii) patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:26900992

  18. CMV Immunoglobulins for the Treatment of CMV Infections in Thoracic Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Uwe; Solidoro, Paolo; Müller, Veronika; Szabo, Attila; Gottlieb, Jens; Wilkens, Heinrike; Enseleit, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intravenous ganciclovir and, increasingly, oral valganciclovir are now considered the mainstay of treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or CMV disease. Under certain circumstances, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) may be an appropriate addition or, indeed, alternative. Data on monotherapy with CMVIG are limited, but encouraging, for example in cases of ganciclovir intolerance. In cases of recurrent CMV in thoracic transplant patients after a disease- and drug-free period, adjunctive CMVIG can be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Antiviral-resistant CMV, which is more common among thoracic organ recipients than in other types of transplant, can be an indication for introduction of CMVIG, particularly in view of the toxicity associated with other options, such as foscarnet. Due to a lack of controlled trials, decision-making is based on clinical experience. In the absence of a robust evidence base, it seems reasonable to consider the use of CMVIG to treat CMV in adult or pediatric thoracic transplant patients with ganciclovir-resistant infection, or in serious or complicated cases. The latter can potentially include (i) treatment of severe clinical manifestations, such as pneumonitis or eye complications; (ii) patients with a positive biopsy in end organs, such as the lung or stomach; (iii) symptomatic cases with rising polymerase chain reaction values (for example, higher than 5.0 log10) despite antiviral treatment; (iv) CMV disease or CMV infection or risk factors, such as CMV-IgG–negative serostatus; (vi) ganciclovir intolerance; (vii) patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:26900992

  19. Analysis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia using the pp65 antigenemia assay, the amplicor CMV test, and a semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction test after allogeneic marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, H; Eljed, H; Greco, A; Lakhal, A; Torjman, L; Abdelkefi, A; Ben Othmen, T; Ladeb, S; Slim, A; Zouari, B; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

    2007-03-01

    A pp65 antigenemia assay for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) (CINAkit Rapid Antigenemia), and a qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for plasma 'PCR-P qual' (Amplicor cytomegalovirus [CMV] test) were performed for 126 samples (blood and plasma) obtained from 18 bone marrow transplant patients, over a 9-month surveillance period. Among those samples, 92 were assayed with a semi-quantitative PCR test for PMNLs 'PCR-L quant.' The number of samples with a positive CMV test for antigenemia and PCR-P qual assays was 20.63% and 12.7%, respectively, whereas the PCR-L quant assay was positive in 48 of the 92 samples assayed (52.17%). The rates of concordance of the results of PCR-P qual and antigenemia, PCR-P qual and PCR-L quant, antigenemia and PCR-L quant were 92%, 65.2% and 66.8%, respectively. The analysis of the results for the 92 specimens tested by all 3 methods showed a rate of concordance of 63% among all methods. Good agreement (kappa=0.72) was found only between pp65 Ag and PCR-P qual assays. Clinical disease correlates with an antigenemia high viral load. Three patients had CMV disease despite preemptive therapy, and all of them had graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). PMNLs-based assays are more efficient in monitoring CMV reactivation, but for high-risk patients with GVHD, more sensitive assays (real-time PCR) must be done. PMID:17313466

  20. Impact of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Reactivation After Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jill C.; Wagner, John E.; DeFor, Todd E.; Brunstein, Claudio G.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Young, Jo-Anne; Weisdorf, Daniel H.; Cooley, Sarah; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Verneris, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of pre-transplant CMV serostatus and post-transplant CMV reactivation and disease on umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) outcomes. Between 1994 and 2007, 332 patients with hematologic malignancies underwent UCBT and 54% were CMV seropositive. Pre-transplant recipient CMV serostatus had no impact on acute or chronic GVHD, relapse, DFS or OS. There was a trend toward greater day 100 TRM in CMV seropositive recipients (p=0.07). CMV reactivation occurred in 51% (92/180) of patients with no difference in myeloablative vs. RIC recipients (p=0.33). Similarly, reactivation was not influenced by the number of UCB units transplanted, the degree of HLA disparity, the CD34+ or CD3+ cell dose or donor KIR gene haplotype. Rapid lymphocyte recovery was associated with CMV reactivation (p=0.02). CMV reactivation was not associated with acute (p=0.97) or chronic GVHD (p=0.65), nor did it impact TRM (p=0.88), relapse (p=0.62) or survival (p=0.78). CMV disease occurred in 13.8% of the CMV seropositive patients resulting in higher TRM (p=0.01) and lower OS (p=0.02). Thus, while recipient CMV serostatus and CMV reactivation have little demonstrable impact on UCB transplant outcomes, the development of CMV disease remains a risk, associated with inferior outcomes. PMID:19786112

  1. MI2TC_CMV_HDF_NRT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    MI2TC_CMV_HDF_NRT MISR Level 2 Cloud Motion Vectors product in near real time as HDF format files Project Title:  MISR Discipline:  ... 1 session (10-50 minutes) File Format:  HDF Tools:  HTTP Access: Data Pool Search and Order:  ...

  2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: People Who Care for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... of personal contact in the healthcare setting. To learn more about how CMV is spread, see Transmission . Top of ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  3. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  4. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  5. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  6. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  7. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... on-site at the Santa Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology... International, reporting to Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site...

  8. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by Education Law Center and…

  9. Women in History--Grace Abbott: A Leader in Social Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari Cole

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Grace Abbott, one of the earlier 20th century American women leaders in Progressivism. Abbott's heritage influenced her lifetime commitment to social improvement. She was born on November 17, 1878 in Grand Island, Nebraska into a family of activists. Her Quaker mother, Elizabeth Griffin Abbott, came from an abolitionist…

  10. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  11. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report: Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite-Coney, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  12. The Instructional Guide for Abbott Skills Enhancement Classes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Ronda; Gee, Mary Kay

    This guide, which integrates adult basic education (ABE) curriculum, job skills for Abbott Laboratories, and work-related foundation skills, is designed for an instructional program in the skill areas of reading, writing, oral communications, mathematics, and problem solving. In addition to creating a uniform process and product to promote…

  13. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Africa: a neglected but important pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew; Brantsaeter, Arne Broch

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in a diverse range of patient groups. Congenital CMV infection is common, and most children undergo primary infection during the first year of life. Preliminary studies suggest that these early primary CMV infections could have population-wide effects on growth and development. In most studies of adults, CMV seroprevalence is close to 100%, but some studies have found that significant minorities of adults are seronegative. CMV is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in hospitalised immunosuppressed patient groups, and CMV DNAemia may be an important marker of rapid progression and poor outcomes of HIV infection, despite roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Diagnosis and treatment of CMV-related disease is broadly neglected in Africa, and no randomised clinical trials of anti-CMV drugs have been conducted to date. Autopsy is rarely performed in Africa, but identifies CMV as a frequent pathogen when it is carried out. Here we review the available literature on CMV in Africa, primarily in adult patients, and discuss this in the context of contemporary understanding of CMV as a human pathogen. PMID:27482452

  15. Gastritis as a manifestation of primary CMV infection in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Pedro; Dias, Nuno; Marques, Nuno; Saraiva da Cunha, José

    2015-01-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease spectrum is very wide, with symptomatic infections being rare in immunocompetent hosts. We present the case of a 31-year-old immunocompetent man diagnosed with CMV gastritis in the context of primary infection. The most important laboratory abnormalities leading to diagnosis were: elevation of liver enzymes (3-4× the upper limit of normal), thrombocytopenia (133 G/L), lymphocytosis (55%-4.2 G/L) with activated lymphocytes, CMV IgM positive (negative IgG), CMV viral load of 5700 copies/mL (real-time PCR); autoimmunity study showed antiparietal cell antibodies; abdominal ultrasonography detected homogenous splenomegaly (14.6×13.4 cm) and endoscopy unveiled superficial erosions of the gastric antrum that were biopsied. Anatomopathology and immunohistochemistry of the samples identified cytomegalic inclusions in endothelial cells. Cellular and humoral immunity deficits were excluded. As the patient developed severe asthaenia, adynamia and epigastric pain, he was administered gancyclovir 5 mg/kg intravenously twice daily for 7 days, with resolution of symptoms and gastric lesions confirmed by re-evaluation through endoscopy. PMID:26150611

  16. CMV infection, diagnosis and antiviral strategies after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Irmeli

    2009-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a significant pathogen complicating the post-transplant course of organ recipients. In liver transplant patients, the febrile clinical illness caused by CMV may be associated with end-organ disease, such as hepatitis or infection of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to direct effects, CMV may have indirect effects including the risk of other infections or graft rejection. Recently, major advances in the management of CMV infection have been achieved through the development of new diagnostic techniques and antiviral strategies to prevent CMV disease. Quantitative nucleic acid testing to monitor viral load is now commonly used to diagnose and guide the treatment of CMV infections. The standardization of the testing, however, needs to be improved. There are two main strategies to prevent CMV disease after liver transplantation: prophylaxis and pre-emptive therapy. Both strategies are effective, but also have disadvantages. The disadvantages of prophylaxis include prolonged drug exposure, the development of resistance and, most of all, the development of delayed and late-onset CMV disease. On the other hand, the pre-emptive strategy is based on frequent laboratory monitoring of viral loads, and some patients may develop symptomatic infection before the diagnosis of CMV. This overview summarizes the current status of CMV in liver transplantation. PMID:19619175

  17. Lentiviral vectors with CMV or MHCII promoters administered in vivo: immune reactivity versus persistence of expression.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takahiro; Koya, Richard C; Anselmi, Laura; Sternini, Catia; Wang, He-Jing; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Prins, Robert M; Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle; Rozengurt, Nora; Cui, Yan; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Stripecke, Renata

    2007-07-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are potential tools for genetic vaccination. To improve the safety of LV vaccines, we evaluated the selectivity, bio-distribution, persistence of expression, and immune potency of vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped vectors transcriptionally targeted to antigen presenting cells (APCs) through a major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) promoter. Control vectors contained the ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Bio-distribution studies after intravenous injections of LVs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase were conducted by a combination of flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-Q-PCR) and whole-body bioluminescence analyses. GFP-expressing vectors showed selective expression in MHCII(+) cells of spleen and LV-CMV-GFP administration produced noticeable spleen inflammation, whereas LV-MHCII-GFP did not. Long-term optical imaging analyses of C57BL/6 mice injected with LV-CMV-LUC showed diminishing luciferase expression in the liver and spleen over time. Vaccination/boost with LV-CMV expressing the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) yielded dose-dependent antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell reactivity and high protection against B16 melanoma challenge. Unexpectedly, administration of LVs containing the MHCII promoter resulted in persistence of luciferase expression and viral integration in MHCII(+) splenocytes and virtually no CD8(+) T-cell responses against TRP2. These studies reveal that APC transduction by LVs could lead to immune reactivity (LV-CMV) or persistence of transgene expression (LV-MHCII), providing a relevant paradigm for vaccination and gene replacement approaches. PMID:17505480

  18. [CMV-associated gastric ulcer in an immunocompetent male patient].

    PubMed

    Kastenbauer, U; Ließ, H; Kremer, M

    2016-07-01

    This article reports the case of a 45-year-old male immunocompetent patient who presented with acute epigastric pain and vomiting. Diagnostic tests confirmed a recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a contributory cause of a florid gastric ulcer. Primary CMV infections affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract are rare in immunocompetent adults. In this case treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and eradication of concomitant Helicobacter pylori colonization led to a full recovery. Anti-CMV treatment was not necessary. PMID:27080250

  19. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    PubMed

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products. PMID:22493409

  20. Impact of donor CMV status on viral infection and reconstitution of multifunction CMV-specific T cells in CMV-positive transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wendi; Longmate, Jeff; Lacey, Simon F.; Palmer, Joycelynne M.; Gallez-Hawkins, Ghislaine; Thao, Lia; Spielberger, Ricardo; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Forman, Stephen J.; Zaia, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstitution of cytomegalovirus (CMV)–specific CD8+ T cells is essential to the control of CMV infection in CMV-positive recipients (R+) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Six-color flow cytometry was used to assess the functional profile of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells in 62 of 178 R+ HCT recipients followed virologically for CMV reactivation. R+ recipients receiving grafts from CMV-negative donors (D−; D−/R+) reconstituted fewer multifunctional CD8+ T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and CD107 in addition to interferon-γ (IFN-γ), compared with D+/R+ recipients. Unlike monofunctional CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ, which were abundantly generated during CMV reactivation in D−/R+ recipients, the relative lack of multifunctional CD8+ T cells persisted until at least 1 year post-HCT. D−/R+ recipients were more likely to require recurrent and prolonged use of antivirals. These findings were robust to statistical adjustment for pretransplant factors, as well as for posttransplant factors including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and its treatment by steroids. These analyses suggest that D+/R+ transplants, on average, generate higher levels of multifunctional CMV-specific T cells and require less antiviral therapy compared with D−/R+ HCT recipients. These results highlight the benefit of D+ donors in improving outcomes of R+ HCT recipients by reducing the duration and recurrent need of antiviral treatment, aided by increased levels of multifunctional CMV-specific T cells. PMID:19369230

  1. Treatment of CMV infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maffini, Enrico; Giaccone, Luisa; Festuccia, Moreno; Brunello, Lucia; Busca, Alessandro; Bruno, Benedetto

    2016-06-01

    Despite a remarkable reduction in the past decades, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remains a feared complication, still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Today, first line treatment of CMV infection/reactivation is still based on dated antiviral compounds Ganciclovir (GCV), Foscarnet (FOS) and Cidofovir (CDF) with their burdensome weight of side effects. Maribavir (MBV), Letermovir (LMV) and Brincidofovir (BDF) are three new promising anti-CMV drugs without myelosuppressive properties or renal toxic effects that are under investigation in randomized phase II and III trials. Adoptive T-cell therapy (ATCT) in CMV infection possesses a strong rationale, demonstrated by several proof of concept studies; its feasibility is currently under investigation by clinical trials. ATCT from third-party and naïve donors could meet the needs of HSCT recipients of seronegative donors and cord blood grafts. In selected patients such as recipients of T-cell depleted grafts, ATCT, based on CMV-specific host T-cells reconstitution kinetics, would be of value in the prophylactic and/or preemptive CMV treatment. Vaccine-immunotherapy has the difficult task to reduce the incidence of CMV reactivation/infection in highly immunocompromised HSCT patients. Newer notions on CMV biology may represent the base to flush out the Troll of transplantation. PMID:27043241

  2. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ..., Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc., submitted a notification for expanded... FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77...

  3. Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study: Fifth Grade Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Youn, Min-Jong; Frede, Ellen C.

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey's Abbott Preschool program is of broad national and international interest because the Abbott program provides a model for building a high-quality system of universal pre-K through public-private partnerships that transform the existing system. The program offers high-quality pre-K to all children in 31 New Jersey communities with high…

  4. A genetically novel, narrow-host-range isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, Mark; Girardot, Gregory; Fénéant, Lucie; Ben Tamarzizt, Hana; Verdin, Eric; Moury, Benoît; Jacquemond, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    An isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), designated CMV-Rom, was isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) plants in several locations near Avignon, France. Laboratory studies showed that, unlike typical CMV isolates, CMV-Rom has a particularly narrow host range. It could be transmitted by aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae, but with low efficacy compared to a typical CMV isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the CMV-Rom genomic RNAs shows that this isolate does not belong to any of the previously described CMV subgroups, IA, IB, II or III. PMID:27138549

  5. Clinical profile of hearing loss in children with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection: CMV DNA diagnosis using preserved umbilical cord

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of bilateral and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children, accounting for 9.0% of SNHL cases. The diagnostic rate using combined genetic deafness test and CMV DNA detection test was determined to be 46.4% in bilateral profound SNHL. Objectives. The present study investigated the prevalence of congenital CMV infection diagnosed retrospectively by detection of CMV DNA in dried umbilical cord specimens from children with unilateral or bilateral SNHL up to the age of 12 years. Methods: Preserved dried umbilical cords were collected from 134 children with bilateral (46 children) or unilateral (88 children) SNHL. DNA was extracted from the dried umbilical cords and CMV DNA was detected by quantitative PCR. Genetic deafness tests based on the invader assay were performed in children with bilateral SNHL. Results: CMV DNA from the dried umbilical cords was detected in 8.7% of the bilateral SNHL and 9.1% of unilateral SNHL. Deafness gene mutations were identified in 21.7% (10/46) of children with bilateral SNHL. PMID:21612560

  6. Suppressive effects of sirtinol on human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection and hCMV-induced activation of molecular mechanisms of senescence and production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Mao, Genxiang; Li, Huifen; Ding, Xiang; Meng, Xin; Wang, Guofu; Leng, Sean X

    2016-09-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that chronic human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection contributes significantly to T-cell immunosenescence and adverse health outcomes in older adults. As such, it is important to search for compounds with anti-hCMV properties. Studies have shown that resveratrol, a sirtuin activator, suppresses hCMV infection. Here we report suppressive effects of sirtinol, a sirtuin antagonist, on hCMV infection and its cellular and molecular consequences. Human diploid fibroblast WI-38 cells were infected by hCMV Towne strain in the absence or presence of sirtinol. hCMV replication was measured using qPCR. Senescent phenotype was determined by senescence-associated β galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity. Expression of hCMV immediate early (IE) and early (E) proteins and senescence-associated proteins (pRb and Rb, p16(INK4), and p53) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. The results demonstrated that sirtinol suppressed hCMV infection as well as hCMV-induced activation of molecular mechanisms of senescence and ROS production. While underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, these findings indicate sirtinol as a novel and potent anti-hCMV agent with the potential to be developed as an effective treatment for chronic hCMV infection and its cellular and molecular consequences that are important to ageing and health of older adults. PMID:26763147

  7. PCR activity of CMV in healthy CMV-seropositive individuals: does latency need redefinition?

    PubMed

    Toro, A I; Ossa, J

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate a possible association between stress factors and the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in leukocytes and in cell-free body fluids, at 2-week intervals over a 6-month period, specimens were taken for HCMV DNA testing from 11 healthy CMV-seropositive individuals who were also surveyed for stress-producing events occurring during the previous week. A positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) signal was given in 104/127 (81.9%) urines, 73/127 (57.3%) throat washings and 68/127 (53.6%) leukocyte samples. An association was found between HCMV DNA in urine and a stress-producing event at work (p < 0.04). An association was also found between detection of HCMV DNA in throat washings and alcohol ingestion (P < 0.006) and between the presence of oral herpes lesions and the detection of HCMV DNA in leukocytes (p < 0.0019). The results suggest that viral reactivation is more common than previously thought and that stress may be a triggering event. PMID:8837231

  8. Pretransplant immediately early-1-specific T cell responses provide protection for CMV infection after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bestard, O; Lucia, M; Crespo, E; Van Liempt, B; Palacio, D; Melilli, E; Torras, J; Llaudó, I; Cerezo, G; Taco, O; Gil-Vernet, S; Grinyó, J M; Cruzado, J M

    2013-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is still a major complication after kidney transplantation. Although cytotoxic CMV-specific T cells play a crucial role controlling CMV survival and replication, current pretransplant risk assessment for CMV infection is only based on donor/recipient (IgG)-serostatus. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of monitoring pre- and 6-month CMV-specific T cell responses against two dominant CMV antigens (IE-1 and pp65) and a CMV lysate, using an IFN-γ Elispot, for predicting the advent of CMV infection in two cohorts of 137 kidney transplant recipients either receiving routine prophylaxis (n = 39) or preemptive treatment (n = 98). Incidence of CMV antigenemia/disease within the prophylaxis and preemptive group was 28%/20% and 22%/12%, respectively. Patients developing CMV infection showed significantly lower anti-IE-1-specific T cell responses than those that did not in both groups (p < 0.05). In a ROC curve analysis, low pretransplant anti-IE-1-specific T cell responses predicted the risk of both primary and late-onset CMV infection with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC > 0.70). Furthermore, when using most sensitive and specific Elispot cut-off values, a higher than 80% and 90% sensitivity and negative predictive value was obtained, respectively. Monitoring IE-1-specific T cell responses before transplantation may be useful for predicting posttransplant risk of CMV infection, thus potentially guiding decision-making regarding CMV preventive treatment. PMID:23711167

  9. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection: A Guide for Patients and Families After Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection: A Guide for Patients and Families after Stem Cell Transplant What is cytomegalovirus (CMV)? Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ... weakened by medicines that you must take after stem cell transplant and by the transplant itself. Your body ...

  10. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used

  11. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Results: Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. Conclusion: The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required. PMID:26649001

  12. Fulfilling the Promise of Abbott: The Lighthouse Assessment Process--Improving Programs through Measured Outcomes. Policy Progress, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to better prepare young children for the challenges of kindergarten and first grade, the Supreme Court of New Jersey, in its 1998 landmark decision of "Abbott v. Burke" (Abbott V), required the State's poorest school districts to implement high quality, intensive preschool for all 3-and 4-year old children. To take advantage of the…

  13. AUTOMATED BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL FISH PATHOGENS USING THE ABBOTT QUANTUM II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quantum II, originally designed by Abbott Diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of Enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. he instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. ample cartri...

  14. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...- 17-09); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 8052... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area Pursuant to its authority under the...

  15. Early Childhood Education: The Sustainability of the Benefits of Preschool Participation in Abbott Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The landmark New Jersey Supreme Court school funding case, "Abbott v. Burke", established the availability of preschool for all three- and four-year-olds living within the state's thirty-one poorest districts as a means of eradicating the effects of poverty. Longitudinal studies have shown the value of high quality preschool programs for improving…

  16. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  17. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 4283, 1/25/2011) and... Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant to its Authority Under the... 153, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.,...

  18. Preconcepts in Physics. Report to the John Abbott College Research and Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, L. O.

    This study was conducted to examine the basic conceptual knowledge and understanding of physics possessed by students enrolled in introductory physics, mechanics and waves and optics courses at John Abbott College (JAC). The study used a 36-item multiple-choice test of physics preconcepts developed by Halloun and Hestenes. The Halloun and Hestenes…

  19. Surveillance of active human cytomegalovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HLA sibling identical donor): search for optimal cutoff value by real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection still causes significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, it is extremely important to diagnosis and monitor active CMV infection in HSCT patients, defining the CMV DNA levels of virus replication that warrant intervention with antiviral agents in order to accurately prevent CMV disease and further related complications. Methods During the first 150 days after allogeneic HSTC, thirty patients were monitored weekly for active CMV infection by pp65 antigenemia, nested-PCR and real-time PCR assays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot analysis was performed to determine a threshold value of the CMV DNA load by real-time PCR. Results Using ROC curves, the optimal cutoff value by real-time PCR was 418.4 copies/104 PBL (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.7%). Twenty seven (90%) of the 30 analyzed patients had active CMV infection and two (6.7%) developed CMV disease. Eleven (40.7%) of these 27 patients had acute GVHD, 18 (66.7%) had opportunistic infection, 5 (18.5%) had chronic rejection and 11 (40.7%) died - one died of CMV disease associated with GVHD and bacterial infection. Conclusions The low incidence of CMV disease in HSCT recipients in our study attests to the efficacy of CMV surveillance based on clinical routine assay. The quantification of CMV DNA load using real-time PCR appears to be applicable to the clinical practice and an optimal cutoff value for guiding timely preemptive therapy should be clinically validated in future studies. PMID:20515464

  20. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infections in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Laura Patricia; Bernstein, David I; Callahan, S. Todd; Ferreira, Jennifer; Gorgone Simone, Gina A.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Although the seroprevalence of CMV and associated exposure and behavioral risk factors have been reported in adolescent females, limited data exists in males. Method Serum was obtained from males (aged 12–17 years) from 6/2006 – 7/2007 in Cincinnati, OH, Galveston, TX, and Nashville, TN and tested for CMV IgG antibody using a commercial assay. Participants completed a computer assisted screening interview to assess seven risk categories. Results A total of 397 adolescent males were screened and 165 (47%) were seropositive. African American race, older age, and exposure to children ≤3 years of age in the home were significant predictors of CMV infection in the univariate analysis. Hispanic ethnicity, group living situations, saliva sharing behaviors, and intimate sexual contact were not associated with CMV infection. However, among those with a history of sexual contact, the number of life time partners was associated with CMV. In the final multivariate model, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher in African American subjects (OR 1.99 (95% CI [1.27, 2.95]) and subjects >14 years of age (OR 1.1 (95%CI [1.00, 1.28]. With each additional risk factor, males had a 1.6x increased risk of CMV. Conclusions This study indicates that CMV infections are common in adolescent males, increase with age, and are associated with African American race. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at both adolescent males and females. Summary This study indicates CMV infections are common in adolescent males, increase with age, and are associated with African Americans. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at adolescent males and females. PMID:20936976

  1. Poor Predictive Value of Cytomegalovirus (CMV)–Specific T Cell Assays for the Development of CMV Retinitis in Patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Mark A.; Tan, Qi Xuan; Girling, Valerie; Poon, C.; Van Natta, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A.; Inokuma, Margaret; Maecker, Holden T.; Bredt, Barry; Sinclair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined the potential clinical utility of using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)–specific T cell immunoassay to determine the risk of developing new-onset CMV retinitis (CMVR) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods CMV-specific T cell assays were performed by multiparameter flow cytometry using stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells that had been obtained in an observational study 2–6 months before new-onset CMVR was diagnosed in case patients (at a study visit during which a dilated ophthalmologic examination revealed no evidence of CMVR) and at the same study visit in control subjects (matched by absolute CD4+ T cell count at entry) who did not subsequently develop retinitis during 1–6 years of study follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in CMV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell interferon-γ or interleukin-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from case patients and control subjects. Although there were trends toward lower percentages and absolute numbers of CMV-specific, cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells with a “late memory” phenotype (CD27−CD28−) as well as with an “early memory” phenotype (CD27+CD28+CD45RA+) in case patients than in control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Many studies have reported that CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses distinguish patients with active CMVR (i.e., who lack CMV-protective immunity) from those with inactive CMVR after immune restoration by antiretroviral treatment (i.e., who have CMV-protective immunity). However, the multiple CMV-specific immune responses we measured do not appear to have clinical utility for predicting the risk for patients with AIDS of developing new-onset CMVR with sufficient accuracy to be used in guiding therapeutic management. PMID:18173357

  2. Kidney Allograft Telomere Length Is Not Associated with Sex, Recipient Comorbid Conditions, Post-Transplant Infections, or CMV Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kłoda, Karolina; Domański, Leszek; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Drozd, Arleta; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immunosenescence is closely linked to chromosome telomere erosion and telomerase activity alterations. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of relative telomere length (RTL) of a graft with sex, comorbid conditions, post-transplant infections, and CMV reactivation among transplanted kidney recipients. Additionally, the associations of donor and recipient hTERT, BICD1 genes and chromosome 18 polymorphisms with post-transplant infections were analyzed, including the analysis of donor-recipient genotype pairs. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study enrolled 119 white Polish kidney allograft recipients (64M/55F, mean age 47.3±14.0). The RTL was assessed by modification of a method developed by Cawthon, using a qPCR system. To identify genotypes of the studied polymorphisms, real-time PCR was performed. RESULTS There were no significant associations between graft RTL and sex of donor and recipient, comorbid DM and AH, as well as post-transplant infections and CMV reactivation. There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of hTERT, BICD1 genes and chromosome 18 graft and recipient polymorphisms genotypes between individuals with post-transplant infection and those without infection. The rs2735940 CX-TT hTERT gene donor-recipient genotypes combination was associated with higher risk of post-transplant infection on the border of statistical significance (OR=4.632, 95%CI (0.853-25.14); p=0.067). CONCLUSIONS Assessment of kidney allograft RTL does not show its association with sex, DM, AH, post-transplant infection, or CMV reactivation in the recipients, suggesting that other factors, probably directly related to the transplantation procedure, have a greater effect on telomere length. PMID:27350315

  3. Antibodies against the gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 Complex Comprise the Majority of the Anti-Cytomegalovirus (Anti-CMV) Neutralizing Antibody Response in CMV Hyperimmune Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Ashley E.; Chan, Pamela; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Vandlen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) hyperimmune globulin (HIG) has demonstrated efficacy in preventing CMV disease in solid-organ transplant patients as well as congenital disease when administered to pregnant women. To identify the neutralizing component of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG), we performed serial depletions of CMV-HIG on cell-surface-expressed CMV antigens as well as purified antigens. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the major neutralizing antibody response is directed at the gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 complex, suggesting little role for anti-gB antibodies in CMV-HIG neutralization. PMID:22532696

  4. Examining the Species-Specificity of Rhesus Macaque Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Perciani, Catia T.; Russell, Justen N. Hoffman; Chan, Jacqueline K.; Janes, Michelle; Antony, Joseph M.; Pilon, Richard; Sandstrom, Paul; Willer, David O.; MacDonald, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly species-specific virus that has co-evolved with its host over millions of years and thus restricting cross-species infection. To examine the extent to which host restriction may prevent cross-species research between closely related non-human primates, we evaluated experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with a recombinant rhesus macaque-derived CMV (RhCMV-eGFP). Twelve cynomolgus macaques were randomly allocated to three groups: one experimental group (RhCMV-eGFP) and two control groups (UV-inactivated RhCMV-eGFP or media alone). The animals were given two subcutaneous inoculations at week 0 and week 8, and a subset of animals received an intravenous inoculation at week 23. No overt clinical or haematological changes were observed and PBMCs isolated from RhCMV-eGFP inoculated animals had comparable eGFP- and IE-1-specific cellular responses to the control animals. Following inoculation with RhCMV-eGFP, we were unable to detect evidence of infection in any blood or tissue samples up to 4 years post-inoculation, using sensitive viral co-culture, qPCR, and Western blot assays. Co-culture of urine and saliva samples demonstrated the presence of endogenous cynomolgus CMV (CyCMV) cytopathic effect, however no concomitant eGFP expression was observed. The absence of detectable RhCMV-eGFP suggests that the CyCMV-seropositive cynomolgus macaques were not productively infected with RhCMV-eGFP under these inoculation conditions. In a continued effort to develop CMV as a viral vector for an HIV/SIV vaccine, these studies demonstrate that CMV is highly restricted to its host species and can be highly affected by laboratory cell culture. Consideration of the differences between lab-adapted and primary viruses with respect to species range and cell tropism should be a priority in evaluating CMV as vaccine vector for HIV or other pathogens at the preclinical development stage. PMID:25822981

  5. Long-term control of CMV retinitis in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Shigeko; Fujino, Yujiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Inamochi, Kazuya; Oka, Shinichi

    2013-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is rare and difficult to control. We report a first case for long-term control of CMV retinitis with ICL using interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy and succeeded in discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy. A 49-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with ICL based on low CD4(+) count (72/μl), negative for HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, and absence of any defined immunodeficiency diseases or immunosuppressive therapy. PCR test of the aqueous humor in the right eye was suggestive of CMV retinitis. She was treated with systemic ganciclovir, but after several relapses of CMV retinitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment appeared in the right eye and she became blind in that eye. Three years later, she developed CMV retinitis in the left eye. Although she received systemic and focal anti-CMV treatments, the retinitis showed no improvement. Finally, retinal detachment occurred, and she underwent vitrectomy. IL-2 was injected to increase CD4(+) counts. Because of hyperpyrexia, blepharedema, central scotoma, and color anomaly, we changed to low-dose IL-2 therapy with no side effects. Finally, we succeeded in increasing the CD4(+) count to more than 200/μl after discontinuation of low-dose IL-2 therapy. CMV retinitis never recurred after discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy, with good visual acuity of 20/20 in the left eye. She developed blindness of the first affected right eye, whereas the visual acuity of the left eye remains excellent more than 12 years after the onset of CMV retinitis through the combined use of anti-CMV therapy, IL-2 therapy, and vitrectomy. PMID:22935818

  6. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing. PMID:19000975

  7. Evaluation of the United States Public Health Service guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Janet T.; Colvin, Ryan; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Bardsley, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate US Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines for discontinuing anti-CMV therapy in patients with AIDS who have immune recovery and quiescent retinitis after initiating highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Design Cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS). Methods Participants had CMV retinitis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 50 cells/uL or fewer enrolled from 1998 to 2009 who demonstrated sustained immune recovery (two consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts of 100 cells/uL or more at least 6 months apart) and inactive retinitis. Participants were classified into 2 groups according to anti-CMV treatment after immune recover: (1) continued anti-CMV therapy and (2) discontinued therapy. We evaluated survival, visual acuity, and CMV retinitis activity; we employed propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors for these analyses. Results Of 152 participants reviewed, 71 demonstrated immune recovery; 37 of whom discontinued therapy and 34 who continued therapy. At immune recovery, participants continuing therapy tended to be older (44 vs 40 years, P=0.09), have bilateral retinitis (53% vs 32%, P=0.10), and have lower CD4+ T-cell counts (148 vs 207 cells/μL, P<0.001). There were no statistical differences in any of the clinical outcomes (death, retinitis progress, visual acuity or incidence of bilateral retinitis). Both groups lost visual acuity during follow-up, on average 1.2 letters per year (P<0.01). Conclusion Discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery did not increase the risk of poor outcomes. These results support the current guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after achievement of sustained immune recovery. PMID:21742304

  8. CMV-specific central memory T cells reside in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Anne; Knoedler, Maren; Na, Il-Kang; Kern, Florian; Asemissen, Anne-Marie; Keilholz, Ulrich; Loesch, Michael; Thiel, Eckhard; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in peripheral blood (PB) are characterized by a preponderance of effector and effector memory T cells. CMV-specific central memory T cells (T(CM)), which are considered crucial in maintaining long-term immunity, are rarely detectable in PB. In this study we have analyzed differentiation and function of CMV pp65-specific CD8(+) T cells in paired samples of human PB and BM using intracellular cytokine and tetramer staining. Overall frequencies of CMV pp65-specific T cells were similar in PB compared to BM; however, CMV-specific CD45RA(-)CCR7(+) T(CM) were almost exclusively detectable in BM, which was not related to a general accumulation of T(CM) in BM. In vitro, CMV-specific T cells could be more efficiently expanded from BM (median 128-fold, n=6) than from PB (median 72-fold, p=0.01). Taken together, these data show that the BM is a compartment harboring CMV-specific T(CM) and underline the concept of the BM as a secondary immune organ. CMV specific BM-derived T(CM) might be a valuable source for generating T cells for adoptive transfer. PMID:17960663

  9. The role of early colonoscopy in CMV colitis of transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, M; Kunefeci, G; Selcuk, H; Unal, H; Gur, G; Yilmaz, U; Arslan, H; Demirhan, B; Boyacioglu, S; Haberal, M

    2005-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated diseases remain a major problem in transplant recipients. Early diagnosis is critical. Presentation of early CMV colitis can be mild and nonspecific in transplant recipients. Although serology is helpful in the diagnosis, sometimes it is inadequate. Because the endoscopic features of CMV colitis are specific, colonoscopy facilitates the histopathologic examination. We present the clinical properties and advantages of early colonoscopy in transplant recipients with CMV colitis. The study group included seven patients (six men, one woman of mean age, 36.7 years (range, 22 to 64 years) whose mean transplant duration was 12.3 months (range, 1 to 72 months). Six of the seven patients experienced an acute graft rejection treated with high doses of steroids; one patient had a herpes simplex virus infection. All patients were on steroid treatment with a various combinations of immunosuppressive agents, including cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. All patients presented with mild diarrhea without any blood or mucous discharge. Four patients had fever exceeding 38 degrees C; two had abdominal pain. Stool examinations revealed normal findings in six patients, while one patient had white blood cells and amoebic cysts. Serum CMV IgM and CMV pp65 antigenemia were negative in five of seven patients and two had positive results. All patients showed typical colonoscopic and histopathologic findings compatible with CMV colitis. Standard ganciclovir treatment was successful in all patients. Early and rapid colonoscopy is beneficial for the early diagnosis and management of CMV colitis in transplant recipients. PMID:16213304

  10. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis. PMID:26022014

  11. Pre-transplant assessment of CMV-specific immune response by Elispot assay in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rittà, Massimo; Costa, Cristina; Sidoti, Francesca; Ballocco, Cinzia; Ranghino, Andrea; Messina, Maria; Biancone, Luigi; Cavallo, Rossana

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection or re-activation in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, with patients with IgG-CMV D+/R- sero-matching at greater risk. The impact of pre-transplant CMV-specific host cellular immunity on the long-term risk of CMV replication in kidney transplants (KT) was prospectively evaluated in eighty patients by CMV-EliSpot assay. The study population included 54 male and 26 female recipients, with CMV-IgG distribution: 60 D+/R+, 11 D-/R+, 7 D+/R-, 2 D-/R-. At pre-transplantation, 49 KT (61.3%) were CMV-responders by EliSpot. At 3-month follow up, 16 (32.7%) out of 49 CMV-responders showed CMV blood infection, compared to 8 (25.8%) out of 31 non-responders. No further episode of CMV viraemia was reported in the responder group, in comparison to 15 out 31 non-responders (48.4%) showing at least one episode of CMV-DNAemia at 12-month follow-up. Baseline CMV-IgG serology showed a strong correlation with EliSpot determinations; KT recipients exhibiting at least one episode of CMV viraemia at 12-month follow-up showed lower baseline CMV-EliSpot values than those without signs of CMV replication. The study suggests that monitoring CMV-specific T-cell responses at pre-transplantation by EliSpot assay may be useful for predicting the post-transplantation risk of CMV infection and reactivation. PMID:26147141

  12. Role of retinal vascular endothelial cells in development of CMV retinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, N A; Zhang, J; Ishimoto, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is known to occur in association with retinal microangiopathy in individuals with marked immunodeficiency, glial cells are believed to be the initial target cells in the development of retinitis. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that CMV gains access to the retinal glia because of altered vascular permeability. In an attempt to address the hypothesis, we studied 30 autopsy eyes of AIDS patients with systemic CMV infection, with or without clinically apparent CMV retinitis. METHODS: The autopsy eyes were processed in three ways. First, dual immunohistochemical studies were done by using anti-CMV antibodies for immediate early, early, and late antigens. The retinal cell types infected with the virus were then determined by using anti-GFAP, anti-VonWillebrand's factor, neuronal specific enolase, and leukocyte marker CD68. Second, selected eyes were processed for in situ hybridization with DNA probe specific to CMV. Third, an eye with clinically apparent CMV retinitis was submitted for electron microscopic examination. RESULTS: At the site of retinal necrosis in those eyes with a clinical diagnosis of CMV retinitis, the immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and ultrastructural examinations revealed that CMV was present primarily in the Müller cells and in perivascular glial cells. Adjacent to these infected cells, focal areas of positive staining for CMV antigen were seen in the glial cells, neuronal cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells. At these sites most of the retinal capillaries were devoid of endothelial cells. Few vessels located at the advancing margin of retinal necrosis showed the presence of viral proteins in the endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that retinal vascular endothelial cells could be the initial target in the development of viral retinitis, with subsequent spread of the infection to perivascular glia, Müller cells, and other retinal cells, including the

  13. Differences in immune responses between CMV-seronegative and -seropositive patients with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Shmeleva, Evgeniya V; Boag, Stephen E; Murali, Santosh; Bennaceur, Karim; Das, Rajiv; Egred, Mohaned; Purcell, Ian; Edwards, Richard; Todryk, Stephen; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2015-01-01

    CMV infection is responsible for acceleration of immune senescence and linked to systemic pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated differences in the immune response between CMV-seropositive and seronegative patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute myocardial infarction (MI). Peripheral blood samples were taken at six different time points: pre-, 15, 30, 90 min, 24 h after PPCI and at 3 months after MI. Absolute counts of lymphocyte subpopulations, immune response to specific and nonspecific stimulation, serum cytokines and levels of CMV-IgG, cardiolipin-IgG, and anti-endothelial cell antibodies were assessed. CMV-seropositive patients with MI showed a twofold higher IFN-γ production to PHA-stimulation, up to 2.5-fold higher levels of IP-10 in serum and up to 30% lower serum levels of IL-16 compared to CMV-seronegative individuals. CMV-seropositive patients could be divided into two subgroups with high (IL-10Hi) and low (IL-10Lo) IL-10 serum levels during the acute stage of MI. The IL-10Hi CMV-seropositive subgroup showed an increased exit of late-differentiated T lymphocytes, NK and NKT-like cells from the circulation, which may potentially enhance cytotoxic damage in the ischemic myocardium. Finally, we did not observe an acceleration of autoimmunity by MI in CMV-seropositive individuals. The immune response during acute MI showed characteristic differences between CMV seronegative and seropositive patients, with a stronger pro-inflammatory response in seropositive patients. The effects of IP-10, IL-16, and IL-10 on characteristics of acute immune responses and formation of different immune profiles in CMV-seropositive individuals require further investigation. PMID:26029366

  14. Detection of CMV DNA in the perilymph of a 6-year-old boy with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Ina; Soetens, Oriane; Vleurinck, Leen; Gordts, Frans; Leus, Astrid; Naessens, Anne

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who received a cochlear implant for profound sensorineural hearing loss after being born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Even after 6 years, CMV DNA was still found in the perilymph of the cochlea. Our case shows that CMV DNA can be present in the cochlea years after congenital CMV infection, and it can explain why progressive and/or late-onset hearing loss occurs in these children. PMID:27304443

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoomi; Kang, Min-Young; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, JeeNa; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper) production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase). Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum ‘Bukang’ cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic) leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection. PMID:26751216

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoomi; Kang, Min-Young; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, JeeNa; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper) production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase). Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic) leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection. PMID:26751216

  17. CMV Colitis in Immunocompetent Patients: 2 Cases of a Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Paparoupa, Maria; Schmidt, Viola; Weckauf, Helgard; Ho, Huy; Schuppert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    CMV infections are generally thought to be opportunistic by immunosuppression. Many literature cases though indicate that CMV infections can be also observed in immunocompetent patients. We present an unusual case of an extensive concentric benign stenosis due to CMV colitis and a case of coexistence with Crohn's Disease, both observed in nonimmunosuppressed individuals. The right diagnosis was set after implementation of multiple unsuccessful treatment strategies. Our purpose is therefore to familiarize clinicians involved with the diagnosis and treatment of gastroenterological diseases with this entity. PMID:27190660

  18. VCL-CB01, an injectable bivalent plasmid DNA vaccine for potential protection against CMV disease and infection

    PubMed Central

    Schleiss, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Vaccines for the prevention of human CMV (hCMV) infection and disease are a major public health priority. Immunization with DNA vaccines encoding key proteins involved in the immune response to hCMV has emerged as a major focus of hCMV vaccine research. Validation of the protective effect of DNA vaccination in animal models has provided support for clinical trials. VCL-CB01, under development byVical Inc for the prevention of hCMV infection and disease, is a poloxamer-formulated, bivalent DNA vaccine that contains plasmids encoding hCMV tegument phosphoprotein 65 and the major hCMV surface glycoprotein B. In a phase I trial in healthy adults, VCL-CB01 was well tolerated. In interim results from a phase II trial in hCMV-seropositive hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, VCL-CB01 increased T-cell responses compared with placebo. The final results from the phase II trial will be of value for developing strategies to prevent hCMV disease in hCMV-seropositive transplant recipients, and may lead to other trials of VCL-CB01 or related vaccines for the prevention of congenital hCMV infection. PMID:19806506

  19. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in EDTA Whole-Blood Samples: Evaluation of the Quantitative artus CMV LightCycler PCR Kit in Conjunction with Automated Sample Preparation▿

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Birgit D. A.; Hadžisejdić, Ita; Bozic, Michael; Grahovac, Maja; Hess, Markus; Grahovac, Blaženka; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H.

    2008-01-01

    Whole blood has been found to be a reliable matrix for the detection and quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. In this study, the performance of the artus CMV LightCycler (LC) PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on a BioRobot EZ1 workstation was evaluated. The accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, and inter- and intra-assay variations were determined. A total of 102 clinical EDTA whole-blood samples were investigated, and results were compared with those obtained with the in vitro diagnostics (IVD)/Conformité Européene (CE)-labeled CMV HHV6,7,8 R-gene quantification kit. When the accuracy of the new kit was tested, seven of eight results were found to be within ±0.5 log10 unit of the expected panel results. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve over more than 5 log units. The lower limit of detection of the assay was determined to be 139 copies/ml in EDTA whole blood. The interassay variation ranged from 15 to 58%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 7 to 35%. When clinical samples were tested and the results were compared with those of the routinely used IVD/CE-labeled assay, 53 samples tested positive and 13 samples tested negative by both of the assays. One sample was found to be positive with the artus CMV LC PCR kit only, and 35 samples tested positive with the routinely used assay only. The majority of discrepant results were found with low-titer samples. In conclusion, use of the artus CMV LC PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on the BioRobot EZ1 workstation may be suitable for the detection and quantitation of CMV DNA in EDTA whole blood in the routine low-throughput laboratory; however, low-positive results may be missed by this assay. PMID:18272703

  20. Recovery from CMV esophagitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation using non-myeloablative conditioning: the role of immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Fiegl, Michael; Gerbitz, Armin; Gaeta, Antonia; Campe, Hartmut; Jaeger, Gundula; Kolb, Hans-Jochem

    2005-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) positive recipients of CMV negative bone marrow bear a significantly higher risk of developing CMV disease compared to all other constellations. Here, we report a case of severe CMV induced esophagitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The patient developed the first symptoms between day 10 and 20 after dose reduced conditioning and HLA-matched unrelated stem cell transplantation. Esophageal tissue biopsies as well as peripheral blood proved positive for CMV DNA by PCR. Treatment with acyclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, and immunoglobulines resulted in elimination of CMV in peripheral blood but not in clinical improvement. Only tapering of cyclosporine at day +120 eventually led to the development of CMV-specific T-cells and resolution of esophagitis. PMID:16129661

  1. Dasatinib-Induced CMV Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Rare Complication of a Common Drug.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Fidencio; Chaucer, Benjamin; Zafar, Wahib; Salman, Shamim; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Dasatinib is a common anticancer drug used in the treatment of leukemia. Several side effects have been reported, the most common being myelosuppression, diarrhea, edema, and nausea. Three papers have been published reporting hepatic side effects of dasatinib treatment. A rare side effect of dasatinib treatment is reactivation of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Never before has dasatinib therapy shown to be the cause of CMV hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient who was treated with the standard dose of dasatinib therapy and subsequently developed CMV hepatitis. Well-known side effects of dasatinib therapy are understood and documented; unknown adverse drug reactions can occur and should be monitored for. This is a significant finding given the high rate of CMV seropositivity in the general population. PMID:27267844

  2. VZV encephalitis following successful treatment of CMV infection in a patient with kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Shahzaib; Kahlon, Pushpinderdeep; Goggins, Mariella; Patel, Anita

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman with a history of deceased donor kidney transplantation and a recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, presented to the emergency department with an altered mental status. She was found to have varicella zoster virus VZV encephalitis based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis and was treated successfully with intravenous valaciclovir with an improvement in her mental status. A review of the literature shows very few case reports on patients with kidney transplantation developing VZV encephalitis. A few case reports and studies report an association between CMV and VZV infection. In these patients, CMV infection can cause a marked decline in immunity and this predisposes them to other infections. Such associations have also been reported between other types of virus infections from the Herpesviridae family. The risk of disseminated VZV infection increases in the presence of CMV infection. PMID:25465457

  3. Dataset of aqueous humor cytokine profile in HIV patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jayant Venkatramani; Agrawal, Rupesh; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Gunasekeran, Dinesh V; Balne, Praveen Kumar; Lee, Bernett; Au, Veonice Bijin; Connolly, John; Teoh, Stephen C B

    2016-09-01

    The data shows the aqueous humor cytokine profiling results acquired in a small cohort of 17 HIV patients clinically diagnosed with Cytomegalovirus retinitis using the FlexMAP 3D (Luminex®) platform using the Milliplex Human Cytokine® kit. Aqueous humor samples were collected from these patients at different time points (pre-treatment and at 4-weekly intervals through the 12-week course of intravitreal ganciclovir treatment) and 41 cytokine levels were analyzed at each time point. CMV DNA viral load was assessed in 8 patients at different time points throughout the course of ganciclovir treatment. The data described herein is related to the research article entitled "Aqueous humor immune factors and cytomegalovirus (CMV) levels in CMV retinitis through treatment - The CRIGSS study" (Iyer et al., 2016) [1]. Cytokine levels against the different time points which indicate the response to the given treatment and against the CMV viral load were analyzed. PMID:27547803

  4. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity decreases B cell responses to the influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Landin, Ana Marie; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositivity has been shown to have a negative effect on influenza vaccine-specific antibody responses. In this paper we confirm and extend these results showing for the first time a negative association between CMV-seropositivity and B cell predictive biomarkers of optimal vaccine responses. These biomarkers are switched memory B cells and AID in CpG-stimulated B cell cultures measured before vaccination which positively correlate with the serum response to the influenza vaccine. We also found that CMV-seropositivity is associated with increased levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation and these both correlate with lower B cell function. Finally, CMV-seropositivity is associated with decreased percentages of individuals responding to the vaccine in both young and elderly individuals. PMID:25659271

  5. Consistent associations between measures of psychological stress and CMV antibody levels in a large occupational sample.

    PubMed

    Rector, Jerrald L; Dowd, Jennifer B; Loerbroks, Adrian; Burns, Victoria E; Moss, Paul A; Jarczok, Marc N; Stalder, Tobias; Hoffman, Kristina; Fischer, Joachim E; Bosch, Jos A

    2014-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that has been implicated in biological aging and impaired health. Evidence, largely accrued from small-scale studies involving select populations, suggests that stress may promote non-clinical reactivation of this virus. However, absent is evidence from larger studies, which allow better statistical adjustment for confounding and mediating factors, in more representative samples. The present study involved a large occupational cohort (N=887, mean age=44, 88% male). Questionnaires assessed psychological (i.e., depression, anxiety, vital exhaustion, SF-12 mental health), demographic, socioeconomic (SES), and lifestyle variables. Plasma samples were analyzed for both the presence and level of CMV-specific IgG antibodies (CMV-IgG), used as markers for infection status and viral reactivation, respectively. Also assessed were potential biological mediators of stress-induced reactivation, such as inflammation (C-reactive protein) and HPA function (awakening and diurnal cortisol). Predictors of CMV infection and CMV-IgG among the infected individuals were analyzed using logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. Confirming prior reports, lower SES (education and job status) was positively associated with infection status. Among those infected (N=329), higher CMV-IgG were associated with increased anxiety (β=.14, p<.05), depression (β=.11, p=.06), vital exhaustion (β=.14, p<.05), and decreased SF-12 mental health (β=-.14, p<.05), adjusting for a range of potential confounders. Exploratory analyses showed that these associations were generally stronger in low SES individuals. We found no evidence that elevated inflammation or HPA-function mediated any of the associations. In the largest study to date, we established associations between CMV-IgG levels and multiple indicators of psychological stress. These results demonstrate the robustness of prior findings, and extend these to a general working population. We propose

  6. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  7. Anti-TNF-refractory colitis after checkpoint inhibitor therapy: Possible role of CMV-mediated immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lankes, Katharina; Hundorfean, Gheorghe; Harrer, Thomas; Pommer, Ansgar J; Agaimy, Abbas; Angelovska, Irena; Tajmir-Riahi, Azadeh; Göhl, Jonas; Schuler, Gerold; Neurath, Markus F; Hohenberger, Werner; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2016-06-01

    Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by checkpoint inhibitors are well known. Since fatal outcomes have been reported early detection and adequate management are crucial. In particular, colitis is frequently observed and can result in intestinal perforation. This is the first report of an autoimmune colitis that was treated according to algorithms but became resistant due to a CMV reactivation. The 32-y-old male patient with metastatic melanoma treated within an anti-PD-1/ipilimumab combination study developed severe immune-mediated colitis (CTCAE grade 3) with up to 18 watery stools per day starting 2 weeks after treatment initiation. After improving upon therapy with immunosuppressive treatment (high dose steroids and infliximab) combined with parenteral nutrition diarrhea again exacerbated. Additionally, the patient had asymptomatic grade 3 CTCAE amylase and lipase elevation. Colitis was monitored by weekly endoscopies and colon biopsies were analyzed histologically with CMV staining, multi-epitope ligand cartography (MELC) and qRT-PCR for inflammatory genes. In the course, CMV reactivation was detected in the colon and treated with antiviral medication in parallel to a reduction of corticosteroids. Subsequently, symptoms improved. The patient showed a complete response for 2 y now including regression of bone metastases. CMV reactivation under checkpoint inhibitor therapy in combination with immunosuppressive treatment for autoimmune side effects has to be considered in these patients and if present treated. Potentially, CMV reactivation is underdiagnosed. Treatment algorithms should include CMV diagnostics. PMID:27471608

  8. Current and emerging antivirals for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis: an update on recent patents.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D; Vadlapatla, Ramya K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common ocular opportunistic complication and a serious cause of vision loss in immunocompromised patients. Even though, a rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals seems to be a major factor responsible for the prevalence of CMV retinitis, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CMV retinitis. Thorough evaluation of the patient's immune status and an exact classification of the retinal lesions may provide better understanding of the disease etiology, which would be necessary for optimizing the treatment conditions. Current drugs such as ganciclovir, valganciclovir, cidofovir and foscarnet have been highly active against CMV, but prolonged therapy with these approved drugs is associated with dose-limiting toxicities thus limiting their utility. Moreover development of drug-resistant mutants has been observed particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Continuous efforts by researchers in the industry and academia have led to the development of newer candidates with enhanced antiviral efficacy and apparently minimal side effects. These novel compounds can suppress viral replication and prevent reactivation in the target population. Though some of the novel therapeutics possess potent viral inhibitory activity, these compounds are still in stages of clinical development and yet to be approved. This review provides an overview of disease etiology, existing anti-CMV drugs, advances in emerging therapeutics in clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of CMV retinitis. PMID:22044356

  9. Donor and Recipient CMV Serostatus and Outcome of Pediatric Allogeneic HSCT for Acute Leukemia in the Era of CMV-Preemptive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, Carolyn E.; Rosenthal, Joseph; Bolotin, Ellen; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Zaia, John; Forman, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In the era of cytomegalovirus(CMV)-preemptive therapy, it is unclear whether CMV serostatus of donor or recipient affects outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) among children with leukemia. To investigate, consecutive patients age 0–8 who underwent primary HSCT for acute leukemia in 1997–007 (HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donor, myeloablative conditioning, unmanipulated bone marrow or peripheral blood, preemptive therapy, no CMV prophylaxis) were followed retrospectively through January 2008. Treatment failure (relapse or death) was analyzed using survival-based proportional hazards regression. Competing risks (relapse and non-relapse mortality, NRM) were analyzed using generalized linear models of cumulative incidence-based proportional hazards. Excluding 4 (2.8%) patients lacking serostatus of donor or recipient, there were 140 subjects, of whom 50 relapsed and 24 died in remission. Pretransplant CMV seroprevalence was 55.7% in recipients, 57.1% in donors. Thirty-five (25.0%) grafts were from seronegative donor to seronegative recipient (D−/R−). On univariate analysis, D−/R− grafts were associated with shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) than other grafts (median 1.06 versus 3.15 years, p<0.05). Adjusted for donor type, diagnosis, disease stage, recipient and donor age, female-to-male graft, graft source, and year, D−/R− graft was associated with relapse (hazards ratio 3.15, 95% confidence interval 1.46–6.76) and treatment failure (2.45, 1.46–4.12) but not significantly with NRM (2.00, 0.44–9.09). In the current era, children who undergo allogeneic HSCT for acute leukemia have reduced risk of relapse and superior RFS when recipient and/or donor is CMV-seropositive before transplantation. However, no net improvement in RFS would be gained from substituting seropositive unrelated for seronegative sibling donors. PMID:19135943

  10. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity. PMID:20027770

  11. Incidence of CMV co-infection in HIV-positive women and their neonates in a tertiary referral centre: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Reitter, A; Buxmann, H; Haberl, A E; Schlösser, R; Kreibich, M; Keppler, O T; Berger, A

    2016-02-01

    Co-infection with CMV in HIV-positive pregnant women is associated with perinatal mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of both viruses. This retrospective study reports on the incidence of maternal and neonatal CMV (presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM, CMV DNA PCR and/or CMV virus isolation) in high-risk pregnancies due to maternal HIV infection, MTCT of HIV and/or CMV. One hundred and eleven maternal samples and 75 matched neonatal samples were available for HIV and subsequent CMV testing. In this cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women, 96 (86.5 %) serum samples were anti-CMV IgG positive. In nine (9.4 %) of these, anti-CMV IgM was detected, and in none of them a maternal primary CMV infection was suspected. Fifty-seven (51.8 %) maternal serum samples were tested retrospectively by CMV DNA PCR; one sample was positive (0.9 %). All matched neonates were tested for HIV by PCR in the first month of life; HIV transmission was detected in one case. In 74 (67.2 %) of neonates, CMV testing was performed. Sixty-six of these serum samples were tested retrospectively by CMV DNA PCR. Two newborns (2.7 %) showed laboratory markers for CMV infection (one by detection of CMV DNA in plasma, and one by isolation of CMV from a urine sample). In the follow-up, neither of these two showed clinical signs for active CMV disease. We discussed these findings in the light of the national official guidelines. All CMV transmissions occurred due to maternal reinfection or endogenous reactivation. This suggests the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy in preventing MTCT of HIV and CMV disease and highlights the importance of adequate care and follow-up. PMID:26155982

  12. Differing HLA types influence inhibitory receptor signalling in CMV-specific CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Richard; Riddell, Natalie E; Griffiths, Stephen J; Akbar, Arne N; Henson, Sian M

    2013-03-01

    The dysregulated immune response to CMV constitutes a major force driving T cell immunosenescence and growing evidence suggests that it is not a benign virus in old age. We show here that the PD-1/L pathway defines a reversible defect in CMV specific CD8(+) T cell proliferative responses in both young and old individuals. More specifically, highly differentiated CD45RA(+)CD27(-) CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells exhibit a proliferative deficit compared their central and effector memory counterparts, which is reversed following PD-L blockade. However, we also report that HLA-B(∗)07/TPR specific CD8(+) T cells express higher levels of PD-1 than HLA-A(∗)02/NLV specific cells and HLA-A(∗)02 individuals show a higher proliferative response to PD-L blockade, than HLA-B(∗)07 individuals, which we postulate may be due to the differing functional avidities for these two CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells populations. Nevertheless data presented here demonstrate that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells can be functionally enhanced by perturbation of the PD-1/L signalling pathway, whose manipulation may provide a therapeutic modality to combat age-associated immune decline. PMID:23220495

  13. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongqiu; Shen, Ye; Li, Jing; Lin, Zhongping; Chen, Min; Wang, Min; Li, Man; Dong, Hongran; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a "top grade" herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP) genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM). PMID:27618888

  14. Breastfeeding and transmission of cytomegalovirus to preterm infants. Case report and kinetic of CMV-DNA in breast milk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has a major impact on CMV epidemiology. Postnatal CMV reactivation's incidence during lactation is nearby the maternal seroprevalence. Although perinatal CMV infection has practically no consequences in term newborn, it may cause, in some cases, a severe symptomatic disease in preterm newborns. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the rate and clinical expression of CMV infection breast milk transmitted in preterm infants and to check the safety of the freezing treated breast milk. Methods The study included fifty-seven preterm infants and their CMV seropositive mothers. Fresh breast milk samples have been collected from 1st to 9th postpartum week. Both fresh breast milk and 72, 96, 120 hours frozen samples have been examined, checking the presence of CMV; urine samples have been tested too. Results 70.2% of tested mothers showed reactivation of the infection, and CMV-positive breast milk during the six weeks postpartum has been found. However, only one infant was infected by CMV, developing hepatic affection concomitantly with a multi-system involvement, as shown CMV DNA detection in urine, saliva, blood, gastric aspirate, and stools. Conclusion Freezing breast milk at -20°C and pasteurization may respectively reduce or eliminate the viral load. PMID:21247481

  15. Postmortem diagnosis of cytomegalovirus and accompanying other infection agents by real-time PCR in cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI).

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Gulhan; Ziyade, Nihan; Elgormus, Neval; Das, Taner; Sahin, M Feyzi; Yildirim, Muzaffer; Ozgun, Ayse; Akcay, Arzu; Karayel, Ferah; Koc, Sermet

    2016-02-01

    As an opportunistic pathogen with high mortality rates, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to fatal disseminated CMV infection of the premature and newborn; thus necessitating the demonstration of CMV-DNA with clinical history and/or histopathological findings of CMV infection and defining other bacterial and viral infection agents with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in udden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) cases as we aimed in this study. 314 (144 female, 170 male) SUDI cases were prospectively investigated from January 2013 to January 2015 in Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution. The study includes 87 tissue samples of 39 cases for post-mortem histopathological examination of interstitial pneumonia, myocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, colitis or tubulointerstitial nephritis and/or accompanying chronic sialadenitis. CMV-DNA was found positive in 35 (40.2%) salivary gland, 19 (21.8%) lung, 1 (1.1%) tonsil, and 1 (1.1%) brain tissues. CMV sialadenitis and/or CMV pneumonia associated with other viral and/or bacterial agents were detected in 23 (60%) of 39 infant cases. The demonstration of CMV-DNA would significantly clarify the cause of death and collection of epidemiological data in SUDI cases with clinical history and histopathological findings of CMV infection accompanying chronic CMV sialadenitis. Furthermore, CMV suppresses the immune system, and may predispose to other bacterial and/or viral infections in these cases. Post-mortem molecular investigations are useful in explaining cause of death in SUDI with a suspicion of infection in forensic autopsies. PMID:26694873

  16. Altered dendritic cell subset distribution in patients with Parkinson's disease: Impact of CMV serostatus.

    PubMed

    Goldeck, David; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Oettinger, Lilly; Pawelec, Graham

    2016-01-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by low-level systemic inflammation, which may be at least partly due to pathophysiological activation of immunity. Here, the frequencies of different types of circulating dendritic cells (DCs) with and without a pro-inflammatory phenotype were determined in PD patients and controls. A high proportion of older people is infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), which acts as a chronic antigenic stressor that could also contribute to increased inflammation. Following this idea, we found higher frequencies of myeloid DCs with a pro-inflammatory CD16+ILT2(high) phenotype in CMV-positive PD patients than controls, suggesting the potential involvement of CMV in exacerbating PD. PMID:26711571

  17. The Prevalence and Incidence of Epiretinal Membranes in Eyes With Inactive Extramacular CMV Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Igor; Vaidya, Vijay; Van Natta, Mark L.; Pak, Jeong W.; May, K. Patrick; Thorne, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods. A case–control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study by the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group. A total of 357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence, and incidence odds ratios. Results. The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 1.8% (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for prevalence was 9.8 (5.5–17.5) (P < 0.01). The crude OR (95% CI) for incidence was 9.4 (3.2–27.9) (P < 0.01). Conclusions. A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to what is seen in eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. PMID:24925880

  18. The rationale for third trimester testing of vertical HIV transmission in neonates with CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Boos, Vinzenz; Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Sarpong, Akosua; Garten, Lars; Cremer, Malte; von Weizsäcker, Katharina; Bührer, Christoph; Dame, Christof

    2016-08-01

    We report on a late-preterm neonate with severe congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, refractory to antiviral therapy with ganciclovir. Subsequent immune diagnostics led to the finding of HIV infection at day 69, even though the mother tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Thus, in congenital CMV infection, HIV testing should be performed to elucidate maternal HIV seroconversion during late pregnancy. Our case strongly supports third trimester screening of HIV infection acquired during pregnancy, yet recommended only for women with traditional risk factors for HIV or living in an area of high HIV prevalence. PMID:26830786

  19. cmv1 is a gate for Cucumber mosaic virus transport from bundle sheath cells to phloem in melon.

    PubMed

    Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Díaz-Pendón, Juan Antonio; Peña, Eduardo J; Heinlein, Manfred; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat

    2016-08-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has the broadest host range among plant viruses, causing enormous losses in agriculture. In melon, strains of subgroup II are unable to establish a systemic infection in the near-isogenic line SC12-1-99, which carries the recessive resistance gene cmv1 from the accession PI 161375, cultivar 'Songwhan Charmi'. Strains of subgroup I overcome cmv1 resistance in a manner dependent on the movement protein. We characterized the resistance conferred by cmv1 and established that CMV-LS (subgroup II) can move from cell to cell up to the veins in the inoculated leaf, but cannot enter the phloem. Immunogold labelling at transmission electron microscopy level showed that CMV-LS remains restricted to the bundle sheath (BS) cells in the resistant line, and does not invade vascular parenchyma or intermediary cells, whereas, in the susceptible line 'Piel de Sapo' (PS), the virus invades all vein cell types. These observations indicate that the resistant allele of cmv1 restricts systemic infection in a virus strain- and cell type-specific manner by acting as an important gatekeeper for virus progression from BS cells to phloem cells. Graft inoculation experiments showed that CMV-LS cannot move from the infected PS stock into the resistant cmv1 scion, thus suggesting an additional role for cmv1 related to CMV transport within or exit from the phloem. The characterization of this new form of recessive resistance, based on a restriction of virus systemic movement, opens up the possibility to design alternative approaches for breeding strategies in melon. PMID:26661733

  20. Retrobulbar optic neuritis and meningoencephalitis following progressive outer retinal necrosis due to CMV in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Bang, J H; Park, W B; Kim, H B; Kim, N J; Ahn, J K; Chang, K H; Oh, M D; Choe, K W

    2008-10-01

    We report on a 34-year-old male patient with AIDS who developed retrobulbar optic neuritis and meningoencephalitis following bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV). This case documents the presumed association of PORN with retrobulbar optic neuritis, and CMV meningoencephalitis in an AIDS patient. PMID:18574556

  1. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered compatible? States are not required to adopt 49 CFR parts 398 and 399, subparts A... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be...

  2. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered compatible? States are not required to adopt 49 CFR parts 398 and 399, subparts...

  3. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered compatible? States are not required to adopt 49 CFR parts 398 and 399, subparts A... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be...

  4. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered compatible? States are not required to adopt 49 CFR parts 398 and 399, subparts A... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be...

  5. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered compatible? States are not required to adopt 49 CFR parts 398 and 399, subparts A... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be...

  6. CMV retinitis after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection in a patient with Behçet's uveitis.

    PubMed

    Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Araz, Bilge; Cagatay, Atahan

    2010-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with Behçet's uveitis who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection. We reviewed the patient's chart for the purpose of this report. An IVTA injection was performed for treatment of severe panuveitis in the left eye of a 30-year-old male patient with Behçet's disease. Systemic treatment included high dose corticosteroid and azathioprine. Fourteen weeks after IVTA, extensive areas of necrotizing retinitis developed in the left eye. Polymerase chain reaction of serum and vitreous samples was positive for CMV DNA. Serum anti-CMV IgG was positive, IgM was negative, anti-HIV antibody was negative, complete blood count was normal, and CD4 count was 1,060 cells/μl. The patient responded well to intravitreal ganciclovir injection performed twice and intravenous ganciclovir treatment administered for five weeks. Local immunosuppression with IVTA may cause CMV retinitis. Awareness of this serious complication is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20033756

  7. Seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV, and EBV among the general population in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent in Africa, but less common elsewhere and the modes of transmission are still subject to debate. Generally, they rarely cause disease in the immunocompetent host but are highly oncogenic when associated with immunosuppression. Although the high prevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV has been well documented in Africa, such data are sparse from Ghana. Methods Serum samples from 3275 HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors and 250 HIV-AIDS patients were tested for antibodies specific for HHV-8, CMV and EBV by IgG ELISA assays. Differences in seropositivity rates by gender and age were evaluated using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Of the 3275 HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors tested, 2573 (78.6%) were males and 702 (21.4%) were females, with ages ranging from 18 to 65 years (median 32.6; mean 31.2; mode 30). Of the 250 HIV-AIDS patients tested, 140 (56%) were males and 110 (44%) were females, with ages ranging from 17 to 64 years (median 30.8; mean 30.3; mode 28). Among the HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors, overall seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was 23.7%, 77.6% and 20.0%, respectively. Among the HIV-AIDS patients, overall seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was 65.6%, 59.2% and 87.2%, respectively. The seroprevalence of HHV-8 (p < 0.005) and EBV (p < 0.001) was statistically significantly higher in HIV-AIDS patients compared to HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.24) between CMV seroprevalence in HIV-AIDS patients and HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors. Age and gender were not independent determinants (p > 0.05) for all three infections among HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors and HIV-AIDS patients in Ghana. Conclusion The results presented herein indicate that HHV-8, CMV and EBV infections are hyperendemic in both HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive Ghanaians, and

  8. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with neuropathological findings in the diagnosis of HIV and CMV associated CNS disease in AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R F; Lucas, S B; Hall-Craggs, M A; Brink, N S; Scaravilli, F; Chinn, R J; Kendall, B E; Williams, I G; Harrison, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of clinical assessment and MRI with neuropathological findings in the diagnosis of HIV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) associated CNS disease. METHODS: A retrospective study of 35 patients infected with HIV who were examined at necropsy between four and 70 (median 20) days after neurological assessment and MRI. RESULTS: Of the 35 patients, 19 had diffuse white matter hyperintensity on T2 weighted MRI, six of whom also had focal lesions. Nine other patients had focal white matter lesions and seven had changes in cortical atrophy only. Necropsy in the 19 with diffuse white matter hyperintensity showed HIV leukoencephalopathy (HIVLEP) with encephalitis in 10, CMV encephalitis in three, both HIVLEP/HIV encephalitis and CMV encephalitis in one, lymphoma in three, and non-specific inflammation in two. Necropsy in the 16 other patients without diffuse white matter hyperintensity showed CMV encephalitis in six, HIV encephalitis (without HIVLEP) in two, CMV encephalitis and HIVLEP/HIV encephalitis in one, non-HIV associated abnormalities in five, herpes simplex encephalitis in one, and lymphoma in one. CMV DNA was detected in CSF of five of seven patients with CMV encephalitis and in two of two with CMV associated polyradiculopathy but without CMV encephalitis. Diffuse white matter hyperintensity on MRI had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 66.6%, and a positive predictive value of 58% for diagnosis of HIVLEP. CONCLUSION: Diffuse white matter hyperintensity on MRI can be due to either HIV or CMV associated pathology or non-specific abnormalities. Images PMID:9120446

  9. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  10. Hidden processes in structural representations: A reply to Abbott, Austerweil, and Griffiths (2015).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael N; Hills, Thomas T; Todd, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    In recent work exploring the semantic fluency task, we found evidence indicative of optimal foraging policies in memory search that mirror search in physical environments. We determined that a 2-stage cue-switching model applied to a memory representation from a semantic space model best explained the human data. Abbott, Austerweil, and Griffiths demonstrate how these patterns could also emerge from a random walk applied to a network representation of memory based on human free-association norms. However, a major representational issue limits any conclusions that can be drawn about the process model comparison: Our process model operated on a memory space constructed from a learning model, whereas their model used human behavioral data from a task that is quite similar to the behavior they attempt to explain. Predicting semantic fluency (e.g., how likely it is to say cat after dog in a sequence of animals) from free association (how likely it is to say cat when given dog as a cue) should be possible with a relatively simple retrieval mechanism. The 2 tasks both tap memory, but they also share a common process of retrieval. Assuming that semantic memory is a network from free-association behavior embeds variance due to the shared retrieval process directly into the representation. A simple process mechanism is then sufficient to simulate semantic fluency because much of the requisite process complexity may already be hidden in the representation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120911

  11. Human bone marrow as a source to generate CMV-specific CD4+ T cells with multifunctional capacity.

    PubMed

    Na, Il-Kang; Letsch, Anne; Guerreiro, Manuel; Bauer, Sandra; Noack, Ines; Geginat, Jens; Reinke, Petra; Loesch, Michael; Kienapfel, Heino; Thiel, Eckhard; Volk, Hans Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow (BM) is an important compartment for T cell memory. In cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive individuals peripheral blood (PB) CMV-specific T cells constitute a large fraction of PB T cells but are mostly differentiated effector/effector memory T cells with limited survival and proliferative potential. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the CMV-specific T cell response in BM studying both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against overlapping peptide pools of the CMV proteins pp65 and immediate early protein-1. CMV-specific T cell responses were characterized ex vivo and after in vitro expansion of paired PB/BM samples by multiparameter flow cytometry determining surface phenotype, cytokine profile, and cytotoxic capability. Comparable frequencies of CMV-specific T cells were found in un-manipulated PB and BM. Both total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells could be more rapidly expanded from BM. Expanded BM T cells contained significantly higher frequencies of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells than PB. Furthermore, higher frequencies of specific CD4+ T cells from BM were multifunctional, characterized by simultaneous production of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-2. Use of BM may thus facilitate more rapid generation of adoptive T cells with enhanced functionality. PMID:19816191

  12. CMV reactivation drives posttransplant T-cell reconstitution and results in defects in the underlying TCRβ repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Suessmuth, Yvonne; Mukherjee, Rithun; Watkins, Benjamin; Koura, Divya T.; Finstermeier, Knut; Desmarais, Cindy; Stempora, Linda; Horan, John T.; Langston, Amelia; Qayed, Muna; Khoury, Hanna J.; Grizzle, Audrey; Cheeseman, Jennifer A.; Conger, Jason A.; Robertson, Jennifer; Garrett, Aneesah; Kirk, Allan D.; Waller, Edmund K.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Robins, Harlan S.

    2015-01-01

    Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation has long been implicated in posttransplant immune dysfunction, the molecular mechanisms that drive this phenomenon remain undetermined. To address this, we combined multiparameter flow cytometric analysis and T-cell subpopulation sorting with high-throughput sequencing of the T-cell repertoire, to produce a thorough evaluation of the impact of CMV reactivation on T-cell reconstitution after unrelated-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We observed that CMV reactivation drove a >50-fold specific expansion of Granzyme Bhigh/CD28low/CD57high/CD8+ effector memory T cells (Tem) and resulted in a linked contraction of all naive T cells, including CD31+/CD4+ putative thymic emigrants. T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) deep sequencing revealed a striking contraction of CD8+ Tem diversity due to CMV-specific clonal expansions in reactivating patients. In addition to querying the topography of the expanding CMV-specific T-cell clones, deep sequencing allowed us, for the first time, to exhaustively evaluate the underlying TCR repertoire. Our results reveal new evidence for significant defects in the underlying CD8 Tem TCR repertoire in patients who reactivate CMV, providing the first molecular evidence that, in addition to driving expansion of virus-specific cells, CMV reactivation has a detrimental impact on the integrity and heterogeneity of the rest of the T-cell repertoire. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01012492. PMID:25852054

  13. Abundant cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactive clonotypes in the CD8(+) T cell receptor alpha repertoire following allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Link, C S; Eugster, A; Heidenreich, F; Rücker-Braun, E; Schmiedgen, M; Oelschlägel, U; Kühn, D; Dietz, S; Fuchs, Y; Dahl, A; Domingues, A M J; Klesse, C; Schmitz, M; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M; Schetelig, J; Bonifacio, E

    2016-06-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is potentially curative, but associated with post-transplantation complications, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. An effective immune response requires T cells recognizing CMV epitopes via their T cell receptors (TCRs). Little is known about the TCR repertoire, in particular the TCR-α repertoire and its clinical relevance in patients following stem cell transplantation. Using next-generation sequencing we examined the TCR-α repertoire of CD8(+) T cells and CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells in four patients. Additionally, we performed single-cell TCR-αβ sequencing of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells. The TCR-α composition of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 CMVpp65- and CMVIE -specific T cells was oligoclonal and defined by few dominant clonotypes. Frequencies of single clonotypes reached up to 11% of all CD8(+) T cells and half of the total CD8(+) T cell repertoire was dominated by few CMV-reactive clonotypes. Some TCR-α clonotypes were shared between patients. Gene expression of the circulating CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells was consistent with chronically activated effector memory T cells. The CD8(+) T cell response to CMV reactivation resulted in an expansion of a few TCR-α clonotypes to dominate the CD8(+) repertoires. These results warrant further larger studies to define the ability of oligoclonally expanded T cell clones to achieve an effective anti-viral T cell response in this setting. PMID:26800118

  14. Seropositivity for CMV and IL-6 levels are associated with grip strength and muscle size in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults, with immunosenescence and inflammation being possible underlying mechanisms. We investigated the relationship between latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, muscle size and strength in a group of healthy older community-dwelling people. Methods Participants were healthy volunteers from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Participants had IL-6 level and CMV antibody titre measured at age 70 years and grip strength and a volumetric T1-weighted MRI brain scan (allowing measurement of neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA)) at age 73. Markers of childhood deprivation were adjusted for in the analysis due to correlations between childhood deprivation and latent CMV infection. Results 866 participants were studied; 448 men (mean age 72.48 years, sd 0.70) and 418 women (mean age 72.51 years, sd 0.72). In men, CMV seropositivity was associated with smaller neck muscle CSA (p = 0.03, partial eta squared = 0.01), even after adjustment for IL-6 levels. Neck muscle CSA was not associated with CMV seropositivity in women, or CMV antibody titre or IL-6 level in either sex. Grip strength associated negatively with IL-6 level (right grip strength p<0.00001, partial eta squared 0.032 and left grip strength p<0.00001, partial eta squared 0.027) with or without adjustment for CMV serostatus or antibody titre. CMV status and antibody titre were not significantly associated with grip strength in either hand. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that there is a relationship between markers of immunosenescence (i.e. CMV serostatus and IL6 level) and low muscle mass and strength and longitudinal studies in older cohorts are now required to investigate these relationships further. PMID:23938060

  15. Murine CMV infection induces the continuous production of mucosal resident T cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Corinne J.; Caldeira-Dantas, Sofia; Turula, Holly; Snyder, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that persists for life and maintains extremely large numbers of T cells with select specificities in circulation. However, it is unknown how viral persistence impacts T cell populations in mucosal sites. We found that many murine (M)CMV-specific CD8s in mucosal tissues became resident memory T cells (TRM). These cells adopted an intraepithelial localization in the salivary gland that correlated with, but did not depend on, expression of the integrin CD103. MCMV-specific TRM cells formed early after infection and spleen-localized cells had reduced capacities to become TRM at late times. Surprisingly however, small numbers of new TRM cells were formed from the circulating pool throughout infection, favoring populations maintained at high levels in the blood and shifting the immunodominance within the TRM populations over time. These data show that mucosal TRM populations can be dynamically maintained by a persistent infection. PMID:26526996

  16. [Prognosis value of the pp65 antigenemia and semi-quantitative PCR in the detection of the CMV reactivation in bone marrow grafted patients].

    PubMed

    Ksouri, H; Lakhal, A; Ben Amor, R; Torjman, L; Achour, W; Ben Othmen, T; Ladeb, S; Abdelkefi, A; Slim, A; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

    2006-07-01

    In this article a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and semiquantitative PCR retrospective evaluation of 26 bone marrow allo-grafted patients for different haematological disease is reported. Eighteen patients had a CMV reactivation despite a prophylactic treatment, seven of those patients had both positive antigenemia pp65 and positive semi-quantitative CMV PCR. During CMV reactivation, 3 patients developed a CMV disease despite a pre-emptive therapy. The follow up of the antigenemia was performed since D21 until D100 post transplantation, the antigenemia positivity occurred at D53 and was preceded about 7 days by CMV PCR positivity The CMV disease wasn't associated with a high viral load. All patients that had CMV reactivation had a positive CMV serology before the graft, whereas only 37.5% of the patients who did not reactivate had a positive CMV serology. Respectively half patients who reactivated and only 12.5% of those who didn't had a Graft versus host disease (GVHD), witch preceded the reactivation about 21 days in six of the formers. Clinical and biological signs presented by our patients in this cases report, seems to be associated more with the GVHD than with CMV reactivation. PMID:16983816

  17. Ongoing burden of disease and mortality from HIV/CMV coinfection in Africa in the antiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Klenerman, Paul; Goulder, Philip; Matthews, Philippa C.

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-recognized pathogen in the context of HIV infection, but since the roll out of ART, clinical and scientific interest in the problem of HIV/CMV coinfection has diminished. However, CMV remains a significant cofactor in HIV disease, with an influence on HIV acquisition, disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation. The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life. Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority. PMID:26441939

  18. Seroprevalence of CMV, HSV-2 and HBV among HIV-Infected Malawian Children: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chris Buck, W.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Phiri, Sam; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Weigel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about viral co-infections in African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. We examined the prevalence of seromarkers for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: Ninety-one serum samples were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV, and IgG antibodies to HSV-2 and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from electronic records. Results: CMV IgG was the most common positive result in all age groups (in 73% of children <1 year, and 100% in all other groups). Three patients were CMV IgM positive (3.3%), suggesting acute infection. HSV-2 IgG was positive in four patients (4.4%), and HBsAg in two (2.2%). Conclusions: CMV infection occurred early in life, and few children had specific signs of CMV infection at the time of ART initiation. Unrecognized HBV infection represents opportunities for testing and treatment of HIV/HBV co-infected children. PMID:26884443

  19. Rat Cytomegalovirus Vaccine Prevents Accelerated Chronic Rejection in CMV-Naïve Recipients of Infected Donor Allograft Hearts.

    PubMed

    Streblow, D N; Hwee, Y K; Kreklywich, C N; Andoh, T; Denton, M; Smith, P; Hart, E; Broekel, R; Pallett, C; Rogers, K; Streblow, A D; Chuop, M; Perry, A; Slifka, M; Messaoudi, I; Orloff, S L

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus accelerates transplant vascular sclerosis (TVS) and chronic rejection (CR) in solid organ transplants; however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. We determined the efficacy of a CMV vaccine in preventing CMV-accelerated rat cardiac allograft rejection in naïve recipients of CMV+ donor hearts. F344 donor rats were infected with RCMV 5 days prior to heterotopic cardiac transplantation into CMV-naïve or H2 O2 -inactivated RCMV-vaccinated Lewis recipients. Recipients of RCMV-infected donor hearts rejected at POD59, whereas vaccinated recipients exhibited a significantly prolonged time to rejection-POD97, similar to recipients of uninfected donor hearts (POD108). Although all of the donor hearts were preinfected, the vaccinated recipients had lower graft and PBMC viral loads at POD 7 compared to unvaccinated controls. Adoptive T cell and passive antibody transfers from vaccinated Lewis rats into naïve recipients demonstrate that both T-cell and B-cell arms of the adaptive immune response provide protection against CMV-accelerated rejection. Similar findings were obtained when testing three different adjuvants in passive transfer experiments. We have determined that the timing of the vaccine prior to transplantation and the specific adjuvant play critical roles in mediating anti-viral responses and promoting graft survival. CMV vaccination prior to transplantation may effectively increase graft survival. PMID:25766876

  20. Age Associated Increase of Low Avidity CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells That Re-Express CD45RA

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Stephen J.; Riddell, Natalie E.; Masters, Joanne; Libri, Valentina; Henson, Sian M.; Wertheimer, Anne; Wallace, Diana; Sims, Stuart; Rivino, Laura; Larbi, Anis; Kemeny, David M.; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Kern, Florian; Klenerman, Paul; Emery, Vince C.; Akbar, Arne N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating memory CD8+ T cell function and homeostasis during ageing are unclear. CD8+ effector memory T cells that re-express CD45RA (EMRA T cells) increase considerably in older humans and both ageing and persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are independent factors in this process. We used MHC class I tetrameric complexes that were mutated in the CD8 binding domain to identify CMV-specific CD8+ T cells with high antigen binding avidity. In individuals who were HLA-A*0201, CD8+ T cells that expressed CD45RA and were specific for the pp65 protein (NLV epitope) had lower avidity than those that expressed CD45RO and demonstrated decreased cytokine secretion and cytolytic potential after specific activation. Furthermore, low avidity NLV-specific CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in older individuals. The stimulation of blood leukocytes with CMV lysate induced high levels of IFNα that in turn induced IL-15 production. Moreover, the addition of IL-15 to CD45RA−CD45RO+ CMV-specific CD8+ T cells induced CD45RA expression while antigen activated cells remained CD45RO+. This raises the possibility that non-specific cytokine driven accumulation of CMV-specific CD8+ CD45RA+ T cells with lower antigen binding avidity may exacerbate the effects of viral re-activation on skewing the T cell repertoire in CMV infected individuals during ageing. PMID:23636061

  1. CMV pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  2. CMV retinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. If there are symptoms, they may include: Blind spots Blurred vision and other vision problems Floaters ... treatment, damage to the retina can lead to blindness in 4 to 6 months or less.

  3. Sweet syndrome on a patient with autoimmune hepatitis on azathioprine and CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Xenophontos, Eleni; Ioannou, Antreas; Constantinides, Thrasos; Papanicolaou, Eleni

    2016-02-01

    Sweet syndrome (SS) is a rare inflammatory process presenting with painful erythematous skin eruptions, accompanied by fever and neutrophilia. It is associated with upper respiratory infection in fertile women (classic form), malignancy, infections, drugs and autoimmune diseases. Its pathogenesis remains to be determined. Nevertheless, cytokines may have a prominent role, due to a rapid response after corticosteroid administration. We describe a 32-year-old female with autoimmune hepatitis on azathioprine and prednisone, presenting with fever and inflammatory skin eruptions. Histologic examination of the skin lesions showed neutrophilic infiltrations of the dermis, confirming the diagnosis of SS. Concurrently, she tested borderline positive for recent CMV infection. PMID:26913201

  4. CMV2b-AGO Interaction Is Required for the Suppression of RDR-Dependent Antiviral Silencing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shang-Wu; Wang, Sheng; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Using a transient plant system, it was previously found that the suppression of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein relies on its double-strand (ds) RNA binding capacity, but it is independent of its interaction with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. Thus, the biological meaning of the 2b-AGO interaction in the context of virus infection remains elusive. In this study, we created infectious clones of CMV mutants that expressed the 2b functional domains of dsRNA or AGO binding and tested the effect of these CMV mutants on viral pathogenicity. We found that the mutant CMV2b(1–76) expressing the 2b dsRNA-binding domain exhibited the same virulence as wild-type CMV in infection with either wild-type Arabidopsis or rdr1/6 plants with RDR1- and RDR6-deficient mutations. However, remarkably reduced viral RNA levels and increased virus (v)siRNAs were detected in CMV2b(1–76)-infected Arabidopsis in comparison to CMV infection, which demonstrated that the 2b(1–76) deleted AGO-binding domain failed to suppress the RDR1/RDR6-dependent degradation of viral RNAs. The mutant CMV2b(8–111) expressing mutant 2b, in which the N-terminal 7 amino acid (aa) was deleted, exhibited slightly reduced virulence, but not viral RNA levels, in both wild-type and rdr1/6 plants, which indicated that 2b retained the AGO-binding activity acquired the counter-RDRs degradation of viral RNAs. The deletion of the N-terminal 7 aa of 2b affected virulence due to the reduced affinity for long dsRNA. The mutant CMV2b(18–111) expressing mutant 2b lacked the N-terminal 17 aa but retained its AGO-binding activity greatly reduced virulence and viral RNA level. Together with the instability of both 2b(18–111)-EGFP and RFP-AGO4 proteins when co-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, our data demonstrates that the effect of 2b-AGO interaction on counter-RDRs antiviral defense required the presence of 2b dsRNA-binding activity. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the dsRNA-binding activity of

  5. CMV2b-AGO Interaction Is Required for the Suppression of RDR-Dependent Antiviral Silencing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shang-Wu; Wang, Sheng; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Using a transient plant system, it was previously found that the suppression of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein relies on its double-strand (ds) RNA binding capacity, but it is independent of its interaction with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. Thus, the biological meaning of the 2b-AGO interaction in the context of virus infection remains elusive. In this study, we created infectious clones of CMV mutants that expressed the 2b functional domains of dsRNA or AGO binding and tested the effect of these CMV mutants on viral pathogenicity. We found that the mutant CMV2b(1-76) expressing the 2b dsRNA-binding domain exhibited the same virulence as wild-type CMV in infection with either wild-type Arabidopsis or rdr1/6 plants with RDR1- and RDR6-deficient mutations. However, remarkably reduced viral RNA levels and increased virus (v)siRNAs were detected in CMV2b(1-76)-infected Arabidopsis in comparison to CMV infection, which demonstrated that the 2b(1-76) deleted AGO-binding domain failed to suppress the RDR1/RDR6-dependent degradation of viral RNAs. The mutant CMV2b(8-111) expressing mutant 2b, in which the N-terminal 7 amino acid (aa) was deleted, exhibited slightly reduced virulence, but not viral RNA levels, in both wild-type and rdr1/6 plants, which indicated that 2b retained the AGO-binding activity acquired the counter-RDRs degradation of viral RNAs. The deletion of the N-terminal 7 aa of 2b affected virulence due to the reduced affinity for long dsRNA. The mutant CMV2b(18-111) expressing mutant 2b lacked the N-terminal 17 aa but retained its AGO-binding activity greatly reduced virulence and viral RNA level. Together with the instability of both 2b(18-111)-EGFP and RFP-AGO4 proteins when co-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, our data demonstrates that the effect of 2b-AGO interaction on counter-RDRs antiviral defense required the presence of 2b dsRNA-binding activity. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the dsRNA-binding activity of the 2b was

  6. Comparison of Perceptions of "Preparedness" of John Abbott C.E.G.E.P. Nursing Graduates: Prior to Graduation and After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iton, Carmen; Sabiston, Judy

    A study of John Abbott College's nursing graduates was conducted to determine how well prepared for their professional responsibilities the graduates saw themselves just prior to graduation and later after working in the nursing field. A sample of 98 nursing students who graduated between 1986 and 1988 was surveyed, with 93% responding to the…

  7. Elimination of complement interference can improve the diagnostic performance of the VIDAS CMV IgG assay in acute cytomegalovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Berth, Mario; Willaert, Sofie

    2016-05-01

    In this study we showed that complement factors are responsible for assay interference in the VIDAS cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) assay. Three different serum treatments were applied to show the cause of interference: heat treatment (56 °C), adding cobra venom factor, and adding EDTA. Elimination of complement interference by EDTA treatment of serum was prospectively evaluated on 215 CMV IgM positive samples and a sensitivity increase of the VIDAS CMV IgG assay was noticed. On average the CMV IgG level increased 100% after EDTA treatment of the serum. In paired serum samples from 38 patients we could show that serum treatment with EDTA can make the CMV IgG level changes more obvious in recent CMV infections. Since the CMV IgG avidity II assay on VIDAS depends on the determination of CMV IgG, the CMV IgG avidity was also evaluated in this study but only a limited effect of the complement interference was observed. PMID:26971633

  8. Acute Confusional State: A Manifestation of Toxoplasma and CMV Co-infection in HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Waqas; Sareen, Romil; Sen, Shuvendu; Raoof, Nazar; Yousif, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Context: When dealing with a patient with HIV that presents with an altered mental status, there are various infections and disease etiologies a physician has to rule out that may play a role in complicating the inherent complex nature of HIV. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) affect a large part of the world's population and lead to a varied and broad symptomatology depending upon the severity of HIV, the CD4 count and how early the infection is diagnosed. Case Report: We report an HIV+ patient in his early 50s and with a low CD4 count that presented with severe lethargy and confusion. Imaging studies that were performed after stabilizing the patient revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the brain and after further testing, a diagnosis of reactivated T. gondii with co-infection with CMV was made. Patients infected with T. gondii that are already immune-compromised deteriorate rapidly and the disease diagnosis poses several challenges. Conclusion: Clinicians have to be extremely careful about making a prompt diagnosis and initiate treatment without delay before the infection takes a deadly toll on the patient. Since our patient was not on the required prophylactic medication to prevent infection with T. gondii, it was imperative to start treatment in a timely manner and to monitor the patient for any further decline in functioning. PMID:25489570

  9. Quantification of the progression of CMV infection as observed from retinal angiograms in patients with AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Djamel; Cassoux, Nathalie; Serruys, Camille; Giron, Alain; Lehoang, Phuc; Fertil, Bernard

    1999-05-01

    To support ophthalmologists in their daily routine and enable the quantitative assessment of progression of Cytomegalovirus infection as observed on series of retinal angiograms, a methodology allowing an accurate comparison of retinal borders has been developed. In order to evaluate accuracy of borders, ophthalmologists have been asked to repeatedly outline boundaries between infected and noninfected areas. As a matter of fact, accuracy of drawing relies on local features such as contrast, quality of image, background..., all factors which make the boundaries more or less perceptible from one part of an image to another. In order to directly estimate accuracy of retinal border from image analysis, an artificial neural network (a succession of unsupervised and supervised neural networks) has been designed to correlate accuracy of drawing (as calculated form ophthalmologists' hand-outlines) with local features of the underlying image. Our method has been applied to the quantification of CMV retinitis. It is shown that accuracy of border is properly predicted and characterized by a confident envelope that allows, after a registration phase based on fixed landmarks such as vessel forks, to accurately assess the evolution of CMV infection.

  10. Rapid Genotyping of Cytomegalovirus in Dried Blood Spots by Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays Targeting the Envelope Glycoprotein gB and gH Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Els; Korver, Anna M. H.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Rusman, Lisette G.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Genotyping of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is useful to examine potential differences in the pathogenicity of strains and to demonstrate coinfection with multiple strains involved in CMV disease in adults and congenitally infected newborns. Studies on genotyping of CMV in dried blood spots (DBS) are rare and have been hampered by the small amount of dried blood available. In this study, two multiplex real-time PCR assays for rapid gB and gH genotyping of CMV in DBS were developed. Validation of the assays with 39 CMV-positive plasma samples of transplant recipients and 21 urine specimens of congenitally infected newborns was successful in genotyping 100% of the samples, with gB1 and gB3 being the most prevalent genotypes. Multiple gB and gH genotypes were detected in 36% and 33% of the plasma samples, respectively. One urine sample from a newborn with symptomatic congenital CMV was positive for gB1 and gB2. DBS of congenitally infected newborns (n = 41) were tested using 9 μl of dried blood, and genotypes were detected in 81% (gB) and 73% (gH) of the samples, with gB3 being the most prevalent genotype. No clear association of specific genotypes with clinical outcome was observed. In conclusion, the CMV gB and gH PCR assays were found to be rapid, sensitive for detecting mixed infections, and suitable for direct usage on DBS. These assays are efficient tools for genotyping of CMV in DBS of congenitally infected newborns. PMID:22116158

  11. Pregnancy Outcomes of Mothers with Detectable CMV-Specific IgM Antibodies: A Three-Year Review in a Large Irish Tertiary Referral Maternity Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Richard J.; Stapleton, Patrick; Abu, Hala; Healy, Eibhlín; Ferguson, Wendy; De Gascun, Cillian; O'Gorman, Joanne; Eogan, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective audit was performed for all obstetric patients who had positive CMV IgM results between January 2012 and December 2014 in the Rotunda Hospital, Ireland. In total, 622 CMV IgM positive tests were performed on samples from 572 patients. Thirty-seven patients had a positive CMV IgM result (5.9%) on the Architect system as part of the initial screening. Three patients were excluded as they were not obstetric patients. Of the 34 pregnant women with CMV IgM positive results on initial screening, 16 (47%) had CMV IgM positivity confirmed on the second platform (VIDAS) and 18 (53%) did not. In the 16 patients with confirmed positive CMV IgM results, four (25%) had acute infection, two (12.5%) had infection of uncertain timing, and ten (62.5%) had infection more than three months prior to sampling as determined by the CMV IgG avidity index. Two of the four neonates of women with low avidity IgG had CMV DNA detected in urine. Both these cases had severe neurological damage and the indication for testing their mothers was because the biparietal diameter (BPD) was less than the 5th centile at the routine 20-week gestation anomaly scan. PMID:26696757

  12. CMV-Specific T-cells Generated From Naïve T-cells Recognize Atypical Epitopes And May Be Protective in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Scheinberg, Phillip; Blaney, James W.; Demmler-Harrison, Gail; Cruz, C. Russell; Lam, Sharon; Krance, Robert A.; Leung, Kathryn S.; Martinez, Caridad A.; Liu, Hao; Heslop, Helen E.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Barrett, A. John; Rodgers, John R.; Bollard, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of adult-seropositive, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells can effectively restore antiviral immunity after transplantation. Lack of CMV-specific memory T-cells in blood from CMV-seronegative adult and cord blood (CB) donors restricts the availability of donor-derived virus-specific T-cells for immunoprophylaxis. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of naïve-donor-derived CMV-specific T-cell therapy for transplant recipients. Primed naïve T-cells recognized only atypical epitopes and with a similar avidity to CMV-seropositive-derived T-cells recognizing typical epitopes, but T-cells from CMV-seropositive donors recognizing atypical epitopes had a lower avidity suggesting the loss of high-avidity T-cells over time. Clonotypic analysis revealed T-cells recognizing atypical CMVpp65 epitopes in the peripheral blood of recipients of CB grafts who did not develop CMV. T-cell receptors from atypical epitopes were most common in unmanipulated CB units explaining why these T-cells expanded. When infused to recipients, naïve donor-derived virus specific T-cells that recognized atypical epitopes were associated with prolonged periods of CMV-free survival and complete remission. PMID:25925682

  13. A significant increase of RNAi efficiency in human cells by the CMV enhancer with a tRNAlys promoter.

    PubMed

    Weiwei, Ma; Zhenhua, Xie; Feng, Liu; Hang, Ning; Yuyang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNA(lys) and CMV enhancer-tRNA(lys) promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNA(lys) or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNA(lys) promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNA(lys) promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene. PMID:19859553

  14. A Significant Increase of RNAi Efficiency in Human Cells by the CMV Enhancer with a tRNAlys Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Weiwei, Ma; Zhenhua, Xie; Feng, Liu; Hang, Ning; Yuyang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNAlys and CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNAlys or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene. PMID:19859553

  15. Mechanism for neutralizing activity by the anti-CMV gH/gL monoclonal antibody MSL-109

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Ashley E.; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Stengel, Katharina F.; Ellerman, Diego; Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Warming, Søren; Eaton, Dan L.; Feierbach, Becket

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that causes birth defects when transmitted transplacentally and severe systemic illness in immunocompromised individuals. MSL-109, a human monoclonal IgG isolated from a CMV seropositive individual, binds to the essential CMV entry glycoprotein H (gH) and prevents infection of cells. Here, we suggest a mechanism for neutralization activity by MSL-109. We define a genetic basis for resistance to MSL-109 and have generated a structural model of gH that reveals the epitope of this neutralizing antibody. Using surface-based, time-resolved FRET, we demonstrate that gH/gL interacts with glycoprotein B (gB). Additionally, we detect homodimers of soluble gH/gL heterodimers and confirm this novel oligomeric assembly on full-length gH/gL expressed on the cell surface. We show that MSL-109 perturbs the dimerization of gH/gL:gH/gL, suggesting that dimerization of gH/gL may be required for infectivity. gH/gL homodimerization may be conserved between alpha- and betaherpesviruses, because both CMV and HSV gH/gL demonstrate self-association in the FRET system. This study provides evidence for a novel mechanism of action for MSL-109 and reveals a previously undescribed aspect of viral entry that may be susceptible to therapeutic intervention. PMID:24843144

  16. Coordinated expansion of both memory T cells and NK cells in response to CMV infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Bayard, Charles; Lepetitcorps, Hélène; Roux, Antoine; Larsen, Martin; Fastenackels, Solène; Salle, Virginie; Vieillard, Vincent; Marchant, Arnaud; Stern, Marc; Boddaert, Jacques; Bajolle, Fanny; Appay, Victor; Sauce, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    NK cells are key players in the fight against persistent viruses. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with the presence of a population of CD16(+) CD56(dim) NKG2C(+) NK cells in both acutely and latently infected individuals. Here, we studied the nature of these terminally differentiated NK cells in different human populations infected with HCMV: healthy donors stratified by age, thymectomized individuals, pregnant women suffering from primary CMV infection, and lung transplant patients. Both CD16(+) CD56(dim) NK- and CD8 T-cell phenotypes as well as functional capacities were determined and stratified according to age and/or CMV event. Similarly to T-cell responsiveness, we observe an accumulation over time of NKG2C(+) NK cells, which preferentially expressed CD57. This accumulation is particularly prominent in elderly and amplified further by CMV infection. Latent HCMV infection (without replication) is sufficient for NKG2C(+) CD57(+) NK cells to persist in healthy individuals but is not necessarily required in old age. Collectively, the present work supports the emerging concept that CMV shapes both innate and adaptive immunity in humans. PMID:26910859

  17. Association of CMV, HBV, or HCV co-infection with vaccine response in adults with well-controlled HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Troy, S B; Rossheim, A E B; Siik, J; Cunningham, T D; Kerry, J A

    2016-05-01

    Even after CD4 count recovery on antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection is associated with decreased response to most vaccines compared to the general population. Chronic infections with viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are more prevalent in HIV-infected populations, have been linked to immune dysfunction and decreased vaccine response in the general population. However, whether co-infection with these other viruses contributes to the decreased vaccine response seen in adults with well-controlled HIV infection is unknown. We conducted a secondary analysis of data and serum from adults with well-controlled HIV infection from an inactivated polio vaccine trial (224 subjects) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine study (128 subjects). We evaluated the association of CMV, HBV, or HCV co-infection with post-vaccination antibody levels using both univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for factors such as age, race, CD4 count, comorbidities, smoking status, and baseline antibody levels. Ninety-three percent, 7%, and 14% of subjects were co-infected with CMV, HBV, and HCV respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, neither CMV nor HCV co-infection were significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody levels to either vaccine. HBV co-infection was significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody concentrations for pneumococcal serotype 7F on univariate analysis and 6A on multivariate analysis, but the association was with higher antibody concentrations. In conclusion, co-infection with CMV, HBV, or HCV does not appear to contribute to the decreased vaccine response seen in adults with well-controlled HIV infection. PMID:26751638

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Three Commercial Quantitative Cytomegalovirus Standards by Use of Digital and Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Sam, S. S.; Sun, Y.; Tang, L.; Pounds, S.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the introduction of commercially produced secondary standards have raised hopes of improved agreement among laboratories performing quantitative PCR for CMV. However, data to evaluate the trueness and uniformity of secondary standards and the consistency of results achieved when these materials are run on various assays are lacking. Three concentrations of each of the three commercially prepared secondary CMV standards were tested in quadruplicate by three real-time and two digital PCR methods. The mean results were compared in a pairwise fashion with nominal values provided by each manufacturer. The agreement of results among all methods for each sample and for like concentrations of each standard was also assessed. The relationship between the nominal values of standards and the measured values varied, depending upon the assay used and the manufacturer of the standards, with the degree of bias ranging from +0.6 to −1.0 log10 IU/ml. The mean digital PCR result differed significantly among the secondary standards, as did the results of the real-time PCRs, particularly when plotted against nominal log10 IU values. Commercially available quantitative secondary CMV standards produce variable results when tested by different real-time and digital PCR assays, with various magnitudes of bias compared to nominal values. These findings suggest that the use of such materials may not achieve the intended uniformity among laboratories measuring CMV viral load, as envisioned by adaptation of the WHO standard. PMID:25694529

  19. Comparison of three real-time PCR assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in young pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Peuchant, Olivia; de Diego, Sabrina; Le Roy, Chloé; Frantz-Blancpain, Sandrine; Hocké, Claude; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2015-12-01

    We compared 3 commercial real-time PCR assays, the Abbott RealTime CT/NG, the cobas® 4800 CT/NG, and the Cepheid Xpert® CT/NG, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in vaginal swabs collected prospectively from pregnant women aged <25 years. The overall agreement among 2 assays ranged from 98.9% to 99.5% with a kappa score between 0.94 and 0.97 for C. trachomatis. For N. gonorrhoeae, the overall agreement was 100%. All kits allowed prompt and specific results for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in young pregnant women. PMID:26423658

  20. Functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX And AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX in gene therapy for hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-02-01

    There has been substantial progress in using gene therapy to treat animals with hemophilia. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer of coagulation factor IX to skeletal muscle and liver of murine and canine models of hemophilia has resulted in sustained systemic expression and, in several studies, in complete cure of the bleeding disorder. Two AAV vectors widely used at present are AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX. This work compares the predicted molecular functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX by sequence docking and gene ontology. It is shown that both AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX induce coagulation factor IXa activity; however, AAV-CMV-F.IX administration also yields coagulation factor XIa activity and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX treatment results in coagulation factor Xa activity. Therefore, AAV-CMV-F.IX might be useful for factor XI deficiency. AAV-CMV-F.IX has several additional molecular functions and processes compared with AAV-CMV-F.IX. PMID:17266422

  1. Protective effect of CMV reactivation on relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in AML patients is influenced by their conditioning regimen

    PubMed Central

    Manjappa, Shivaprasad; Bhamidipati, Pavan Kumar; Stokerl-Goldstein, Keith E.; DiPersio, John F.; Uy, Geoffrey L.; Westervelt, Peter; Liu, Jingxia; Schroeder, Mark A.; Vij, Ravi; Abboud, Camille N.; Fehniger, Todd A; Cashen, Amanda F.; Pusic, Iskra; Jacoby, Meagan; Meera, Srinidhi J.; Romee, Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) has been associated with reduced risk of relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However the influence of the conditioning regimen on this protective effect of CMV reactivation after allo-HCT is relatively unexplored. To address this, we evaluated the risk of relapse in 264 AML patients who received T cell replete, 6/6 HLA matched sibling or 10/10 HLA matched unrelated donor transplantation at a single institution between 2006 and 2011. Out of these 264 patients, 206 received myeloablative (MA) and 58 received reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens. CMV reactivation was observed in 88 patients with MA conditioning and 37 patients with RIC. At a median follow up of 299 days, CMV reactivation was associated with significantly lower risk of relapse in patients who received MA conditioning both in univariate (P= .01) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio of 0.5246, P= .006), however CMV reactivation did not significantly affect the risk of relapse in our RIC cohort. These results confirm the protective effect of CMV reactivation on relapse in AML patients after allo-HCT reported by previous studies, however they suggest that this protective effect of CMV reactivation on relapse is influenced by the conditioning regimen used with the transplant. PMID:24120526

  2. Genetic mapping of Cmv1 in the region of mouse chromosome 6 encoding the NK gene complex-associated loci Ly49 and musNKR-P1

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.A.; Lyons, P.A.; Fitzgerald, N.A.

    1995-06-10

    The Cmv1 resistance gene controls splenic replication of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and confers natural killer (NK) cell-mediated resistance to otherwise lethal infection. The Cmv1 phenotypes of 13 inbred mouse strains have been assessed, and it was found that the Cmv1{sup r} resistance phenotype was restricted to the C57BL/6J and Ma/MyJ strains. We have further analyzed the linkage of Cmv1 to the NK gene complex (NKC) mapping to distal mouse chromosome 6 in 99 (BALB/c x C57BL/6J)F{sub 1} x BALB/c backcross mice using cloned gene probes and microsatellite markers from this region. No recombinants were observed between Cmv1 and the NKC-associated Ly49 and musNKR-P1 multigene families, nor the Kap locus, nor with 7 microsatellite markers, indicating that Cmv1 is closely linked (<1 cM) to all of these markers. Analysis of the genotype of the MCMV-susceptible BXD8 RI strain around the NKC region revealed that it had C57BL/6J alleles at microsatellite markers immediately proximal and distal to Cmv1. This suggests that the Cmv1{sup s} phenotype of this strain is due to a germ-line mutation. Thus, the close linkage of Cmv1 to the Ly49 and musNK-R-P1 multigene families suggests that it may represent an NK cell recognition structure encoded in the NKC region. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. IL-12 and type I IFN response of neonatal myeloid DC to human CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Renneson, Joelle; Dutta, Binita; Goriely, Stanislas; Danis, Bénédicte; Lecomte, Sandra; Laes, Jean-François; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Goldman, Michel; Marchant, Arnaud

    2009-10-01

    Following congenital human CMV (HCMV) infection, 15-20% of infected newborns develop severe health problems whereas infection in immunocompetent adults rarely causes illness. The immaturity of neonatal antigen presenting cells could play a pivotal role in this susceptibility. Neonatal myeloid DC were shown to be deficient in IFN-beta and IL-12 synthesis in response to TLR triggering. We studied the response of cord and adult blood-derived myeloid DC to HCMV infection. Neonatal and adult DC were equally susceptible to in vitro HCMV infection. Among immunomodulatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-beta and IFN-lambda1 were produced at lower levels by neonatal as compared with adult DC. In contrast, neonatal and adult DC produced similar levels of IFN-alpha and IFN-inducible genes. Microarray analysis indicated that among the more than thousand genes up- or down-regulated by HCMV infection of myeloid DC, 88 were differently regulated between adult and neonatal DC. We conclude that neonatal and adult DC trigger a partly different response to HCMV infection. The deficient IL-12 and mature IFN-alpha production by neonatal DC exposed to HCMV are likely to influence the quality of the T lymphocyte response to HCMV infection in early life. PMID:19637227

  4. No reactivation of JCV and CMV infections in the temporal cortex and cerebellum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Judith; Krasemann, Susanne; Zerr, Inga; Matschke, Jakob; Glatzel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is characterized by great phenotypic variability regarding clinical course and neuropathology. The most prominent disease modifiers are a polymorphism in Codon 129 of the prion protein gene and conformational variations of the misfolded prion protein. The cellular form of the prion protein restricts replication of viruses and may be involved in viral host defense, and viral infections influence the presentation and neuropathology in prion diseased mice. We investigated the occurrence of reactivated persistent viral infections of the brain in brain tissue samples of 25 sCJD patients. No evidence of reactivated JCV and CMV infections could be detected. This suggests that JCV and CMV infections are not reactivated as consequence of prion disease and do not act as disease modifiers in sCJD. PMID:25628966

  5. BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Jie; Hou, Mingsheng; Liu, Shengyi; Huang, Junyan; Cai, Li

    2015-08-01

    Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene) with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov) and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si) oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6) plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation) for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties. PMID:26225990

  6. BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Jie; Hou, Mingsheng; Liu, Shengyi; Huang, Junyan; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene) with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov) and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si) oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6) plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation) for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties. PMID:26225990

  7. Premarket Evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay

    PubMed Central

    Espino, A. A.; Maceira, V. P.; Nattanmai, S. M.; Butt, S. A.; Wroblewski, D.; Hannett, G. E.; Musser, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories. PMID:24554744

  8. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    PubMed Central

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Results Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Conclusion Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control. PMID:26981018

  9. Lower CD28+ T cell proportions were associated with CMV-seropositivity in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alterations in the naive T cell subpopulations have been demonstrated in patients with T cell mediated autoimmune disorders, reminiscent of immunological changes found in the elderly during immunosenescence, including the switch from CD45RA + to CD45RO + T cells and decreased thymic function with increased compensatory proliferative mechanisms, partly associated with latent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The present study was aimed to investigate proportions of lymphocytes, their relation to CMV-seropositivity and the replicative history of CD45RA + expressing T cells in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT, n = 18) and healthy controls (HC, n = 70). Methods Proportions of peripheral T cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The replicative history was assessed by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and relative telomere length (RTL). Expression of CD62L was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in thyroid sections. The role of CMV was assessed by serology, ELISPOT assay and in situ hybridization. Results Our results demonstrated a significant increase of CD28-negative T cells, associated with CMV-seropositivity in HT patients. HT showed abundant CD45RO + T cells with peripheral loss of CD62L-expressing CD8 + CD45RA + T cells, the latter mainly depending on disease duration. CD62L was expressed in thyroid lymphocyte infiltrations. The diagnosis of HT and within the HT group CMV-seropositivity were the main determinants for the loss of CD28 expression. RTL was not different between HC and HT. HT showed significantly lower TRECs in CD4 + CD45RA + T cells compared to HC. Conclusions Patients with HT display a peripheral T cell phenotype reminiscent of findings in elderly persons or other autoimmune disorders. Whether these mechanisms are primary or secondary to the immunological alterations of autoimmune conditions should be investigated in longitudinal studies which may open research on new therapeutic regimes for

  10. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M; Barry, Catherine P; Choi, Won S; Abravaya, Klara B; Schneider, George J; Ho, Shiaolan Y

    2016-06-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  11. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M.; Barry, Catherine P.; Choi, Won S.; Abravaya, Klara B.; Schneider, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  12. Erythropoiesis: Short Report: Translation of Analysis Results between Serum Ferritin Assays, Ferritin RIA AmershamTM and Abbott AxSYMTM Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Milman, NILS; Byg, KELD-ERIK; Juul-Jørgensen, BIRGIT; Weis Bentzon, MICHAEL

    1999-01-01

    The serum ferritin assays, Ferritin RIA Amersham(TM) and Abbott AxSYM(TM) Ferritin were compared in order to translate values from one assay to the other. Serum ferritin was analysed with both assays in 102 samples. Logarithmic transformation of the results was performed in order to stabilize the variance. The relationship between the untransformed values was most exactly expressed by a proportionality: AxSYM Ferritin = 0.873 * RIA Ferritin. Due to this proportionality, the numerical difference between the assays increases with the ferritin concentration, although the percentage difference between the assays remains constant. PMID:11399562

  13. Improved muscle-derived expression of human coagulation factor IX from a skeletal actin/CMV hybrid enhancer/promoter.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, J N; Couto, L B; Scallan, C; Burton, M; McCleland, M L; Fields, P A; Arruda, V R; Herzog, R W; High, K A

    2000-04-15

    Hemophilia B is caused by the absence of functional coagulation factor IX (F.IX) and represents an important model for treatment of genetic diseases by gene therapy. Recent studies have shown that intramuscular injection of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector into mice and hemophilia B dogs results in vector dose-dependent, long-term expression of biologically active F.IX at therapeutic levels. In this study, we demonstrate that levels of expression of approximately 300 ng/mL (6% of normal human F.IX levels) can be reached by intramuscular injection of mice using a 2- to 4-fold lower vector dose (1 x 10(11) vector genomes/mouse, injected into 4 intramuscular sites) than previously described. This was accomplished through the use of an improved expression cassette that uses the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer/promoter in combination with a 1.2-kilobase portion of human skeletal actin promoter. These results correlated with enhanced levels of F.IX transcript and secreted F.IX protein in transduced murine C2C12 myotubes. Systemic F.IX expression from constructs containing the CMV enhancer/promoter alone was 120 to 200 ng/mL in mice injected with 1 x 10(11) vector genomes. Muscle-specific promoters performed poorly for F.IX transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. However, the incorporation of a sequence from the alpha-skeletal actin promoter containing at least 1 muscle-specific enhancer and 1 enhancer-like element further improved muscle-derived expression of F.IX from a CMV enhancer/promoter-driven expression cassette over previously published results. These findings will allow the design of a clinical protocol for therapeutic levels of F.IX expression with lower vector doses, thus enhancing efficacy and safety of the protocol. (Blood. 2000;95:2536-2542) PMID:10753832

  14. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott Avantage system for identification of frequently isolated nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Dyke, J W; Helgeson, N G; Cooper, B H; Redding, J S; Crawford, S A; Andruszewski, M T; Prowant, S A

    1984-01-01

    The capability of the Abbott Avantage system to identify 10 species of commonly isolated glucose nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli in a 5-h test period was evaluated in a collaborative study. The Avantage nonenteric data base uses 20 biochemical test reactions performed in an expanded Abbott bacterial identification cartridge plus the results of a manual oxidase test. The species included in the Avantage data base are Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter Iwoffi, Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium meningosepticum-IIb group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pasteurella multocida, and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The collaborative study included the testing of 200 coded challenge strains in all three laboratories and the subsequent testing of an additional group of 100 to 200 clinical isolates recovered independently by each laboratory. Reference identifications for all isolates were determined by conventional biochemical test reactions. The overall accuracy of identification of the coded challenge strains for the three laboratories was 97%, whereas 95% of 437 clinical isolates and selected stock cultures of clinical derivation were identified correctly. PMID:6392323

  15. Are female daycare workers at greater risk of cytomegalovirus infection? A secondary data analysis of CMV seroprevalence between 2010 and 2013 in Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stranzinger, Johanna; Kozak, Agnessa; Schilgen, Benjamin; Paris, Diana; Nießen, Thomas; Schmidt, Lutz; Wille, Andreas; Wagner, Norbert L.; Nienhaus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Close contact with asymptomatic children younger than three years is a risk factor for a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. In pregnant women, such primary infection increases the risk of CMV-induced feto- or embryopathy. Daycare providers have therefore implemented working restrictions for pregnant daycare workers (DCWs) in accordance with legislation and guidelines for maternity protection. However, little is known about the infection risk for DCWs. We therefore compared the prevalence of CMV antibodies of pregnant DCWs to that of female blood donors (BDs). Method: In a secondary data analysis, the prevalence of anti-CMV IgG among pregnant DCWs (N=509) in daycare centers (DCCs) was compared to the prevalence of female first-time BDs (N=14,358) from the greater region of Hamburg, Germany. Data collection took place between 2010 and 2013. The influence of other risk factors such as age, pregnancies and place of residence was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of CMV antibodies in pregnant DCWs was higher than in female BDs (54.6 vs 41.5%; OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3–1.9). The subgroup of BDs who had given birth to at least one child and who lived in the city of Hamburg (N=2,591) had a prevalence of CMV antibodies similar to the prevalence in pregnant DCWs (53.9 vs 54.6%; OR 0.9; 95%CI 0.8–1.2). Age, pregnancy history and living in the center of Hamburg were risk factors for CMV infections. Conclusion: The comparison of pregnant DCWs to the best-matching subgroup of female first-time BDs with past pregnancies and living in the city of Hamburg does not indicate an elevated risk of CMV infection among DCWs. However, as two secondary data sets from convenience samples were used, a more detailed investigation of the risk factors other than place of residence, age and maternity was not possible. Therefore, the CMV infection risk in DCWs should be further studied by taking into consideration the potential preventive effect of

  16. Responses of Dendritic Cells to TLR-4 Stimulation Are Maintained in the Elderly and Resist the Effects of CMV Infection Seen in the Young.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Nicole; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Demuth, Ilja; Arnaout, Fadel; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Pawelec, Graham

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of several age-related diseases. Although poorer function of circulating myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) has been reported in the elderly, data on TLR-4 function in these cells in older people are lacking. Here, we investigated TLR-4 functionality in the elderly by ex vivo analysis of cytokine production of mDCs in response to LPS in 39 younger (23-34 years) and 61 older (62-77 years) healthy people using flow cytometry. We matched these subjects for Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-serostatus because a latent infection with this ubiquitous herpesvirus is known to affect numerous immune parameters. We found that TLR-4-dependent production of IL-6 and TNF was strongly stimulated in circulating mDCs from the elderly. However, mDCs of more than half of the young donors failed to respond in the same way. This was related to their already highly activated ex vivo state, predominantly observed in CMV-seropositive young donors and associated with lower CMV-specific IgG titres. This may reflect an increasingly important requirement for control of CMV infection throughout life. These data suggest that TLR-4 agonists may be the adjuvants of choice for elderly people, most of whom are CMV-positive, and whose responses to immunization are frequently impaired. PMID:26615178

  17. Brief Report: Effect of CMV and HIV Transcription on CD57 and PD-1 T-Cell Expression During Suppressive ART

    PubMed Central

    Massanella, Marta; Smith, Davey M.; Spina, Celsa A.; Schrier, Rachel; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Morris, Sheldon R.; Gianella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: HIV-infected men who have sex with men are nearly universally coinfected with cytomegalovirus (CMV). In this study of 45 HIV-infected men who have sex with men virologically suppressed on ART, we found that presence of seminal CMV DNA shedding and higher levels of systemic cellular HIV RNA transcription were both independently associated with increased PD-1 expression on circulating CD4+ T cells, but not with higher levels of senescent (CD57+) T cells. In addition, greater HIV RNA transcription was associated with lower CD57 expression on CD8 T cells. Although causality cannot be inferred from this retrospective study, these results suggest that asymptomatic CMV replication and residual cellular HIV transcription may contribute to persistent immune dysregulation during suppressive ART. PMID:26818740

  18. Une colite à CMV révélant un lupus érythémateux systémique

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ghorbel, Imed; Boussetta, Najeh; Boubaker, Jalel; Zehani, Alia; Lamloum, Mounir; Houman, Mohamed Habib

    2014-01-01

    Le cytomégalovirus (CMV) est responsable d'infections souvent asymptomatiques chez les immunocompétents mais également d'infections graves chez les immunodéprimés notamment chez les patients lupiques. La réactivation du CMV au cours du lupus est une complication fréquente mais rarement inaugurale. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient ayant présenté une colite à CMV révélatrice d'un lupus érythémateux systémique. Le diagnostic a été retenu sur les données sérologiques, de la biopsie colique et la bonne évolution après un traitement par ganciclovir. PMID:25977743

  19. Brief Report: Effect of CMV and HIV Transcription on CD57 and PD-1 T-Cell Expression During Suppressive ART.

    PubMed

    Dan, Jennifer M; Massanella, Marta; Smith, Davey M; Spina, Celsa A; Schrier, Rachel; Daar, Eric S; Dube, Michael P; Morris, Sheldon R; Gianella, Sara

    2016-06-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men are nearly universally coinfected with cytomegalovirus (CMV). In this study of 45 HIV-infected men who have sex with men virologically suppressed on ART, we found that presence of seminal CMV DNA shedding and higher levels of systemic cellular HIV RNA transcription were both independently associated with increased PD-1 expression on circulating CD4 T cells, but not with higher levels of senescent (CD57) T cells. In addition, greater HIV RNA transcription was associated with lower CD57 expression on CD8 T cells. Although causality cannot be inferred from this retrospective study, these results suggest that asymptomatic CMV replication and residual cellular HIV transcription may contribute to persistent immune dysregulation during suppressive ART. PMID:26818740

  20. Associations between EBV and CMV Seropositivity, Early Exposures, and Gut Microbiota in a Prospective Birth Cohort: A 10-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Johansson, Maria A.; Persson, Jan-Olov; Jörtsö, Evelina; Kjerstadius, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Caroline; Saghafian-Hedengren, Shanie; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Early-life infections with persistent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are delayed in affluent countries, probably due to alterations in early environmental exposures, such as maternal age, siblings, and day-care attendance. We have previously reported that the timing of EBV and CMV contraction is related both to allergic sensitization and changes in functional competence of immune cells, while the presence/absence of lactobacilli [Lactobacillus (L.) casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus] or Staphylococcus (S.) aureus in feces is related to the risk for allergy. Here, we used the same prospective longitudinal birth cohort of children to investigate early-life environmental exposures and their influence on EBV and CMV contraction over time. Since gut microbes also belong to this category of early exposures, we investigated their association with herpesvirus contraction. Our results show that these two viruses are acquired with different kinetics and that EBV and CMV seroprevalence at 10 years of age was 47 and 57%, respectively. We also observed that a delayed EBV or CMV infection was associated with older maternal age [time ratio (TR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.21, Padj < 0.001 and TR 1.09, CI 1.03–1.16, Padj = 0.008, respectively]. Further, we present the novel finding that S. aureus colonization reduced the time to CMV acquisition (TR 0.21, CI 0.06–0.78, Padj = 0.02). Together, these findings suggest that there is a relationship between timing of herpesvirus acquisition and early-life immune modulating exposures, which interestingly also includes the early infant gut microbiota.

  1. Forscarnet vs ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia after allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT): a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Moretti, S; Zikos, P; Van Lint, M T; Tedone, E; Occhini, D; Gualandi, F; Lamparelli, T; Mordini, N; Berisso, G; Bregante, S; Bruno, B; Bacigalupo, A

    1998-07-01

    This trial was designed to compare foscarnet with ganciclovir as pre-emptive therapy for CMV infection in patients undergoing allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Thirty-nine patients were randomized to receive foscarnet 90 mg/kg every 12 h (n = 20) or ganciclovir 5 mg/kg every 12 h (n = 19) for 15 days at the time of development of CMVAg-emia. Primary-end points of the study were (1) outcome of CMVAg-emia; (2) progression to CMV disease; and (3) side-effects of treatment. The secondary end-point was transplant-related mortality (TRM). The two groups were comparable for diagnosis, status of disease, donor type, acute graft-versus-host (aGVHD) prophylaxis, interval between HSCT and CMVAg-emia and number of CMVAg positive cells; the donor and recipient age were borderline older in the foscarnet group. Increments of serum creatinine in the foscarnet group, and cytopenia in the ganciclovir group were controlled by reducing the administered dose: in the first 15 days of therapy 9/20 foscarnet and 10/19 ganciclovir patients had a dose reduction greater than 20% (P = 0.43). Clearance of CMVAg-emia was faster in the foscarnet group although with borderline statistical significance. Failures of treatment occurred in 3/20 patients in foscarnet group vs 8/19 patients in ganciclovir group (P= 0.06): causes of failure were the need for combination therapy to control antigenemia (1/20 vs 5/19), and reactivation during treatment for 2 vs 3 patients, respectively. CMV disease was diagnosed in 1 vs 2 patients (P = 0.5) who subsequently died. The actuarial 1-year TRM was 25 vs 12%, respectively (P = 0.3). This study suggests that foscarnet and ganciclovir are both effective for pre-emptive therapy of CMVAg-emia, although the number of failures would seem to be slightly higher in the ganciclovir patients. Side-effects are seen in both groups and can be managed with appropriate dose reduction. PMID:9707026

  2. Assessment of hydrologic and water quality data collected in Abbotts Lagoon watershed, Point Reyes National Seashore, California, during water years 1999 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Saleh, Dina K.; Zamora, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Abbotts Lagoon is part of Point Reyes National Seashore, located about 40 miles northwest of San Francisco and about 20 miles south of Bodega Bay. Water-quality samples were collected quarterly during water year 1999 at a site in each of three connected lagoons that make up Abbotts Lagoon and at a site in its most significant tributary. The quarterly samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a. A bed-sediment sample was collected in each lagoon during August 1999 and was analyzed for organic carbon, iron, and total phosphorus. Seven tributaries were sampled during a February 1999 storm and four during an April 1999 storm. These samples were analyzed only for nutrients. One storm sample collected in April 1999 from a tributary downstream of the I Ranch dairy was analyzed for a suite of 47 compounds indicative of wastewater. Continuous water-level recorders were installed in the most significant tributary and the two largest lagoons for portions of the study. A water budget analysis for an April 2000 storm indicated that the main tributary accounted for 85 percent of surface inflows to Abbotts Lagoon. The portion of the surface inflow from the main tributary was lower in the February 1999 storms and is a function of upstream storage and vegetative growth in the tributary basins. Another water budget analysis for a period of no surface inflow (June and July 2000) indicated that the net ground-water contribution was an outflow (seepage) from Abbotts Lagoon of about 0.3 ft3/s. Salinity increased and nutrient concentrations decreased from upstream to downstream in the chain of lagoons. The lower lagoon, nearest the ocean, had less organic carbon and total phosphorus in the bed sediment than the upper lagoons. The two tributaries originating in the I Ranch dairy had the highest concentrations of nutrients in storm runoff, and the highest loading rates and yields of ammonia and phosphorus. These tributaries account for only 10.3 percent of the area

  3. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  4. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  5. [ABACTO-SCREEN: a new system for the rapid screening of bacteriuria. Evaluation of the precision versus the traditional methods and compared with the Abbott MS-2].

    PubMed

    Allocca, F; Campolmi, M; Guarnieri, M; Verdiani, S; Alegente, G

    1987-09-01

    ABACTO-SCREEN is an automated turbidimetric system for rapid screening of bacteriuria composed by a multichannel photometric instrument and an original disposable. In this study the system has shown good sensitivity (6.9% of false negative results on the true positives) and specificity (22.4% of false positive results on the true negatives) when on assuming 100,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml as a threshold of positivity. Comparison with Abbott MS-2 has revealed better performances for sensitivity and comparable specificity. False negatives analysis has revealed probable influence of anaerobic bacteria in the plate counting or slowing in culture broth growth cause by antimicrobial substances in urine samples. PMID:3332379

  6. Assessment of IgG Antibodies Against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV in Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris Versus Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Rashidi, Fateme; Saberi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Regarding the implication of viruses particularly herpes in pemphigus vulgaris, we sought to assess and compare the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 27 healthy individuals comprised the experimental and control groups, respectively. Serum samples were taken from both groups; the levels of IgG antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured using ELISA. Results: Immunoglobulin G titer was higher for all four viruses in the patient group in comparison to the control group. This difference was significant for anti-EBV (P= 0.005), anti-CMV (P=0.0001) and anti-HSV2 (P=0.001) but not significant for anti-HSV1 (P= 0.36). Conclusion: Viruses including EBV, CMV, and HSV2 probably play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus in addition to the effects of genetics, toxins and other predisposing factors. In this study, no statistically significant relationship was observed between HSV1 and pemphigus vulgaris, which was probably due to the high titer of anti-HSV1 IgG in healthy individuals in the community. More studies must be done in this regard. PMID:27507994

  7. In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis and of a panel of DNA (HSV-2, CMV, adenovirus, BK virus) and RNA (RSV, enterovirus) viruses by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Bélec, L; Tevi-Benissan, C; Bianchi, A; Cotigny, S; Beumont-Mauviel, M; Si-Mohamed, A; Malkin, J E

    2000-11-01

    Kinetics of inactivation by the detergent spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BZK) of Chlamydia trachomatis and of a panel of DNA viruses [herpes simplex virus hominis type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus (ADV) and BK virus (BKV)] and RNA [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and enterovirus (ENV)] were established in accordance with a standardized in vitro protocol. After a 5 min incubation, inactivation of >95% of HSV-2 and CMV was obtained at a concentration of 0.0025% (w/v) (25 Ig/L); concentrations as low as 0.0005%, 0.0050% and 0.0125%, induced a 3.0 log10 reduction in infectivity of HSV-2 and CMV, RSV and ADV, respectively. After a 60 min incubation, concentrations of 0.0125% and 0.050% provided a 3.0 log10 reduction in infectivity of ENV and BKV, respectively. These features indicate that sensitivity to BZK was very high (HSV-2 and CMV) or high (RSV) for enveloped viruses, intermediate (ADV) or low (ENV and BKV) for non-enveloped viruses. Furthermore, BZK had marked antichlamydial activity, showing >99% killing after only a 1 min incubation at a concentration of 0.00125%. BZK demonstrates potent in vitro activity against the majority of microorganisms causing sexually transmitted infectious diseases, including those acting as major genital cofactors of human immunodeficiency virus transmission. These attributes qualify BZK as a particularly attractive candidate for microbicide development. PMID:11062186

  8. Impact of age, sex and CMV-infection on peripheral T cell phenotypes: results from the Berlin BASE-II Study.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Svetlana; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Goldeck, David; Müller, Ludmila; Pawelec, Graham

    2015-10-01

    Advancing age is characterized by functional and phenotypic alterations in the distribution of circulating T-cell subsets, some of which are exacerbated by a latent infection with the persistent herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV). The influence of age, sex and CMV-infection on T-cell subpopulations in the peripheral blood remains incompletely understood. Here, T cells from 157 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) were characterized at 21-34 (n = 59) and 62-85 (n = 98) years of age. We found that the frequency of naïve CD8(+) T cells was significantly lower in the older group than in the young, and was different in men and women. Elderly men had a significantly lower proportion of naïve CD8(+) T cells than younger men, regardless of their CMV-status, but in older women, this was seen only in the CMV-seropositive group. Reciprocally, older men had a higher proportion of late-differentiated, potentially "senescent" CD57(+) T cells. Thus, T-cell senescence may be more pronounced in older men than women. Within the CD4(+) population, in the elderly of both sexes there was a significantly higher proportion of late-differentiated TEMRA cells (T effector memory cells re-expressing CD45RA), but these were present exclusively in CMV-positive subjects. Finally, for the first time, we examined the so-called TSCM cell (T-stem cell-like memory) subpopulations in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets and found that neither CMV-seropositivity nor age or sex affected their frequencies. This study confirms significant cross-sectional age-associated differences of T-cell subset distribution in a representative German urban population and emphasizes the impact of both sex and CMV-infection on T-cell naïve and memory phenotypes, but unaffected frequencies of T-stem cell-like memory cells. PMID:25732234

  9. Comparison of the BD Directigen Flu A+B Kit and the Abbott TestPack RSV with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA for rapid detection of influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Gröndahl, B; Puppe, W; Weigl, J; Schmitt, H-J

    2005-10-01

    The Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and the Abbott TestPack RSV enzyme immunoassay were each compared with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA by testing 635 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged < 16 years who had been hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infection during the epidemic season 2002-2003. In this study, the sensitivity of the Directigen Flu A+B assay was unacceptably low (29.3% and 10.0%, respectively) for the detection of influenza A and B viruses. The sensitivity of the Abbott TestPack RSV assay (77.4%) was acceptable and in agreement with the multiplex RT-PCR ELISA. PMID:16153263

  10. Type I Interferon Elevates Co-Regulatory Receptor Expression on CMV- and EBV-Specific CD8 T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Owusu Sekyere, Solomon; Suneetha, Pothakamuri Venkata; Hardtke, Svenja; Falk, Christine Susanne; Hengst, Julia; Manns, Michael Peter; Cornberg, Markus; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Schlaphoff, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) readily sets up persistence in a large fraction of infected hosts. Mounting epidemiological and immunological evidence suggest that HCV’s persistence could influence immune responses toward unrelated pathogens and vaccines. Nonetheless, the fundamental contribution of the inflammatory milieu during persistent HCV infection in impacting immune cells specific for common pathogens such as CMV and EBV has not been fully studied. As the co-regulatory receptors PD-1, Tim-3, and 2B4 have all been shown to be vital in regulating CD8+ T cell function, we assessed their expression on CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy controls ex vivo and upon stimulation with virus-specific peptides in vitro. Total and CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1, Tim-3, and 2B4 were highly enriched in patients with CHC compared to healthy individuals ex vivo. In vitro peptide stimulation further potentiated the differential co-regulatory receptor expression of PD-1, Tim-3, and 2B4, which then culminated in an enhanced functionality of CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in CHC patients. Comprehensively analyzing plasma cytokines between the two cohorts, we observed that not only was IFNα-2a dominant among 21 other inflammatory mediators elevated in CHC patients but it also correlated with PD-1 and Tim-3 expressions ex vivo. Importantly, IFNα-2a further caused upregulation of these markers upon in vitro peptide stimulation. Finally, we could prospectively study patients receiving novel IFN-free antiviral therapy. Here, we observed that treatment-induced clearance of HCV resulted in a partial reversion of the phenotype of CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in patients with CHC. These data reveal an alteration of the plasma concentrations of IFNα-2a together with other inflammatory mediators during CHC, which appeared to pervasively influence co-regulatory receptor expression on CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:26113847

  11. Dextramer reagents are effective tools for quantifying CMV antigen-specific T cells from peripheral blood samples.

    PubMed

    Tario, Joseph D; Chen, George L; Hahn, Theresa E; Pan, Dalin; Furlage, Rosemary L; Zhang, Yali; Brix, Liselotte; Halgreen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Kivin; McCarthy, Philip L; Wallace, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of antigen-specific T cells is increasingly relevant in clinical and research settings. This information is useful for evaluating immune responses to treatment, monitoring the efficacy of anticancer vaccines, and for detecting self-reactive T cells in autoimmune disorders. Quantifying antigen-specific T cells can be accomplished via IFNγ ELISpot assay, the measurement of intracellular cytokine production by flow cytometry, or by lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to antigen. While robust, these technologies are labor-intensive and can take several days to obtain results. New technology has led to more powerful tools for quickly and accurately measuring antigen-specific T cells by flow cytometry via fluorescently-labeled TCR-specific multimers. In this study, we evaluated the use of an assay based on Dextramer reagents for enumerating cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen-specific T cells (CASTs). Assay performance characteristics were assessed by establishing Dextramers' sensitivity (median=0.4; range=0.1-1.4 CASTs μl(-1) ), determining their specificity (100%), evaluating assay robustness with different leukocyte sources and assay reproducibility via interlaboratory and interinstrument investigations. Furthermore, the levels of CASTs in 95 peripheral blood samples from 62 unique blood and marrow transplants recipients correlated well between Dextramers and Tetramers (R(2)  =0.9042). PMID:25338522

  12. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations. PMID:23542765

  13. Induction of innate immune signatures following polyepitope protein-glycoprotein B-TLR4&9 agonist immunization generates multifunctional CMV-specific cellular and humoral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Smith, Corey; Schuessler, Andrea; Zhong, Jie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a successful subunit human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine requires improved formulation to generate broad-based anti-viral immunity following immunization. Here we report the development of a non-live protein-based vaccine strategy for CMV based on a polyepitope protein and CMV glycoprotein B (gB) adjuvanted with TLR4 and/or TLR9 agonists. The polyepitope protein includes contiguous multiple MHC class I-restricted epitopes with an aim to induce CD8+ T cell immunity, while gB is an important target for CD4+ T cell immunity and neutralizing antibodies. Optimal immunogenicity of this bivalent non-live protein vaccine formulation was dependent upon the co-administration of both the TLR4 and TLR9 agonist, which was associated with the activation of innate immune signatures and the influx of different DC subsets including plasmacytoid DCs and migratory CD8-DEC205+CD103-CD326- langerin-negative dermal DCs into the draining lymph nodes. Furthermore these professional antigen presenting cells also expressed IL-6, IL-12p70, TNFα, and IFNα which play a crucial role in the activation of adaptive immunity. In summary, this study provides a novel platform technology in which broad-based anti-CMV immune responses upon vaccination can be maximized by co-delivery of viral antigens and TLR4 and 9 agonists which induce activation of innate immune signatures and promote potent antigen acquisition and cross-presentation by multiple DC subsets. PMID:24463331

  14. The Cmv1 host resistance locus is closely linked to the Ly49 multigene family within the natural killer cell gene complex on mouse chromosome 6

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, C.A.; Shellam, G.R.; Scalzo, A.A.

    1997-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in controlling tumor cells and against a range of infectious organisms. Recent studies of mouse NK cell surface receptors, which may be involved in the specificity of NK cells, have shown that many of these molecules are encoded by the Ly49 and Ly55 (Nkrp1) multigene families that map to distal mouse chromosome 6. Also mapping to this NK cell gene complex (NKC) is the resistance locus, Cmv1, which is involved in genetically determined resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The aim of this study was to localize Cmv1 more precisely in relation to other NKC loci by generating a high-resolution genetic map of the region. We have analyzed 1250 backcross mice comprising panels of 700 (BALB/c x C57BL/6J)F{sub 1} X BALB/c and 550 (A/J X C57BL/6J)F{sub 1} X A/J progeny. A total of 25 polymorphic genes or microsatellite markers were analyzed over a region of 10 map units from D6Mit134 to D6Mit59. The Cmv1 phenotypes of mice recombinant in this interval were tested by infection with MCMV. The results obtained indicate that the functionally important NKC region is a tightly linked cluster of loci spanning at least 0.4 map units. Furthermore, Cmv1 maps distal to, but very closely linked to, the Ly49 multigene family (< 0.2 map units), suggesting that MCMV resistance may be conferred by MHC class I-specific NK cell receptors. 49 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Comparison of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and CMV promoter-driven reporter gene expression in BLV-infected and non-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jerome S; Eakle, Kurt A; Kuo, Lillian S; Bremel, Robert D; Splitter, Gary A

    2004-01-01

    Background Viral promoters are used in mammalian expression vectors because they generally have strong activity in a wide variety of cells of differing tissues and species. Methods The utility of the BLV LTR/promoter (BLVp) for use in mammalian expression vectors was investigated through direct comparison to the CMV promoter (CMVp). Promoter activity was measured using luciferase assays of cell lines from different tissues and species stably transduced with BLVp or CMVp driven luciferase vectors including D17, FLK, BL3.1 and primary bovine B cells. Cells were also modified through the addition of BLV Tax expression vectors and/or BLV infection as well as treatment with trichostatin A (TSA). Results Results indicate the BLV promoter, while having low basal activity compared to the CMV promoter, can be induced to high-levels of activity similar to the CMV promoter in all cells tested. Tax or BLV infection specifically enhanced BLVp activity with no effect on CMVp activity. In contrast, the non-specific activator, TSA, enhanced both BLVp and CMVp activity. Conclusion Based on these data, we conclude the BLV promoter could be very useful for transgene expression in mammalian expression vectors. PMID:15327692

  16. Comparison of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and CMV promoter-driven reporter gene expression in BLV-infected and non-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Harms, Jerome S; Eakle, Kurt A; Kuo, Lillian S; Bremel, Robert D; Splitter, Gary A

    2004-08-24

    BACKGROUND: Viral promoters are used in mammalian expression vectors because they generally have strong activity in a wide variety of cells of differing tissues and species. METHODS: The utility of the BLV LTR/promoter (BLVp) for use in mammalian expression vectors was investigated through direct comparison to the CMV promoter (CMVp). Promoter activity was measured using luciferase assays of cell lines from different tissues and species stably transduced with BLVp or CMVp driven luciferase vectors including D17, FLK, BL3.1 and primary bovine B cells. Cells were also modified through the addition of BLV Tax expression vectors and/or BLV infection as well as treatment with trichostatin A (TSA). RESULTS: Results indicate the BLV promoter, while having low basal activity compared to the CMV promoter, can be induced to high-levels of activity similar to the CMV promoter in all cells tested. Tax or BLV infection specifically enhanced BLVp activity with no effect on CMVp activity. In contrast, the non-specific activator, TSA, enhanced both BLVp and CMVp activity. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, we conclude the BLV promoter could be very useful for transgene expression in mammalian expression vectors. PMID:15327692

  17. Recent accelerated warming of the continental shelf off New Jersey: Observations from the CMV Oleander expendable bathythermograph line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, Jacob Samuel Tse; Andres, Magdalena; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.

    2015-03-01

    Expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) have been launched along a repeat track from New Jersey to Bermuda from the CMV Oleander through the NOAA/NEFSC Ship of Opportunity Program about 14 times per year since 1977. The XBT temperatures on the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf are binned with 10 km horizontal and 5 m vertical resolution to produce monthly, seasonally, and annually averaged cross-shelf temperature sections. The depth-averaged shelf temperature, Ts, calculated from annually averaged sections that are spatially averaged across the shelf, increases at 0.026 ± 0.001°C yr-1 from 1977 to 2013, with the recent trend substantially larger than the overall 37 year trend (0.11 ± 0.02°C yr-1 since 2002). The Oleander temperature sections suggest that the recent acceleration in warming on the shelf is not confined to the surface, but occurs throughout the water column with some contribution from interactions between the shelf and the adjacent Slope Sea reflected in cross-shelf motions of the shelfbreak front. The local warming on the shelf cannot explain the region's amplified rate of sea level rise relative to the global mean. Additionally, Ts exhibits significant interannual variability with the warmest anomalies increasing in intensity over the 37 year record even as the cold anomalies remain relatively uniform throughout the record. Ts anomalies are not correlated with annually averaged coastal sea level anomalies at zero lag. However, positive correlation is found between 2 year lagged Ts anomalies and coastal sea level anomalies, suggesting that the region's sea level anomalies may serve as a predictor of shelf temperature.

  18. Inhibition of IL-1β Transcription by Peptides Derived from the hCMV IE2 Transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Listman, James; Race, JoAnne E.; Walker-Kopp, Nancy; Unlu, Sebnem; Auron, Philip E.

    2008-01-01

    The immediate early (IE) proteins of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) have diverse roles in directing viral and host cell transcription. Among these is the ability of IE2 to induce transcription of the IL1B gene that codes for IL-1β in monocytes. This function is partially explained by interaction between IE2 and the host cell transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 (Spi-1). We now show that maximal IE2 function also depends on productive interactions localizing to two C/EBP sites on the IL1B promoter suggesting either bi- or tri-molecular interactions between IE2, Spi-1 and C/EBPβ at two different locations on the promoter. The IE2 interaction region on Spi-1 was previously mapped to the DNA-binding ETS domain and overlaps the region of Spi-1 that interacts with the transcription factor C/EBPβ, a factor known to be critical for the induction of IL1B in response to Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) family signal transduction. The Spi-1 interacting region of IE2 maps to amino acids 315–328, a sequence that also interacts with the bZIP domain of C/EBPβ. An expression vector coding for amino acids 291–364 of IE2 can suppress LPS induction of a cotransfected IL1B enhancer-promoter fragment in a monocyte cell line. This inhibition is likely the result of competition between Spi-1 and C/EBPβ, thus blunting gene induction. PMID:18308397

  19. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatic complications of solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation. In: Feldman M, Freidman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  20. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact Urine Most people come into contact with ... with another person. You should avoid kissing and sexual contact with an infected person. The virus may ...

  1. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    MedlinePlus

    Larson AM, McDonald GB. Gastrointestinal and hepatic complications of solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation. In: Feldman M, Freidman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. ...

  2. Improving Laboratory Efficiency by Automation of Preanalytic Processing of ThinPrep Specimens for Real-Time PCR High-Risk HPV Testing.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Daniela; Venturoli, Simona; Costa, Silvano; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-06-01

    Cervical specimens collected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) media are the most common sample type used for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Since preanalytic steps such as vortexing and decapping vials, liquid transfer to a sample input tube with matching unique identifier, and recapping the original vials are required for processing LBC samples prior to running the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany), a full manual execution can be complicated, especially in high-throughput diagnostic contexts. Here, a custom-configured worktable setup for the Tecan Freedom EVO (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) designed to automate and control preanalytic steps for ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) samples was used to evaluate the impact of automated versus manual preanalytics. Archival results for manual processing of 226 samples were compared with those obtained with the Tecan protocol, observing a very good overall concordance for final assay interpretation (95.6%). High overall agreement (100%) resulted also from retesting 99 samples by both the preanalytical protocols. High reproducibility was observed analyzing 23 randomly selected samples by automated preprocessing in triplicate. Hence, the new configuration of the Tecan platform translates the manual steps required to process ThinPrep specimens into automated operations, controls sample identification, and allows for saving hands-on time, while maintaining assay reproducibility and ensuring reliability of results, making it suitable for screening settings. PMID:25673634

  3. A randomized trial comparing methotrexate and vinblastine (MV) with cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV) in advanced transitional cell carcinoma: results and a report on prognostic factors in a Medical Research Council study. MRC Advanced Bladder Cancer Working Party.

    PubMed Central

    Mead, G. M.; Russell, M.; Clark, P.; Harland, S. J.; Harper, P. G.; Cowan, R.; Roberts, J. T.; Uscinska, B. M.; Griffiths, G. O.; Parmar, M. K.

    1998-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas may arise at any site within the urinary tract and are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality. In particular, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis, with less than 5% alive at 5 years. A multicentre randomized trial comparing methotrexate and vinblastine (MV) with cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV) in advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma was conducted in the UK. From April 1991 to June 1995, 214 patients were entered by 16 centres, 108 randomized to CMV and 106 to MV. A total of 204 patients have died. The hazard ratio (relative risk of dying) was 0.68 (95% CI 0.51-0.90, P-value = 0.0065) in favour of CMV. This translates to an absolute improvement in 1-year survival of 13%, 16% in MV and 29% in CMV. The median survival for CMV and MV was 7 months and 4.5 months respectively. Two hundred and eight patients objectively progressed or died. The hazard ratio was 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.73, P-value = 0.0001) in favour of CMV. Two hundred and nine patients symptomatically progressed or died. The hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% CI 0.36-0.64, P-value = 0.0001) in favour of CMV. The most important pretreatment factors influencing overall survival were WHO performance status and extent of disease. These two factors were used to derive a prognostic index which could be used to categorize patients into three prognostic groups. We conclude that the addition of cisplatin to methotrexate and vinblastine should be considered in patients with transitional cell carcinoma, taking into account the increased toxicity. PMID:9792152

  4. The influence of controlled mandatory ventilation (CMV), intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure (BIPAP) on duration of intubation and consumption of analgesics and sedatives. A prospective analysis in 596 patients following adult cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, J; Schorn, B; Falk, V; Kazmaier, S; Spiegel, T; Burchardi, H

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the influence of ventilation modes on the consumption of analgesics and sedatives, duration of intubation and pulmonary gas exchange. Assist/controlled mandatory ventilation (S-CMV, 123 patients), synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (S-IMV, 431 patients) and biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation (BIPAP, 42 patients) were compared in a prospective, controlled, open clinical trial over an 18-month period. Five hundred and ninety-six adult patients with normal pulmonary function before surgery and uneventful course following coronary artery bypass graft surgery were studied. Patients ventilated with BIPAP had a significantly shorter mean duration of intubation (10.1 h, P < 0.05) than patients treated with S-IMV (14.7 h) and S-CMV (13.2 h). In the S-CMV group, 39.9% of the patients required single or multiple doses of midazolam, but only 13.5% in the S-IMV group and 9.5% in the BIPAP group. The mean total amount of midazolam administered to these patients was significantly higher in the S-CMV group (8.8 mg) than in the S-IMV group (6.6 mg, P < 0.05) and in the BIPAP group (4.3 mg, P < 0.05). The consumption of pethidine and piritramide did not differ between S-CMV and S-IMV, but was significantly lower during BIPAP (P < 0.05). After extubation the patients' PaCO2 was highest in the S-CMV group. We conclude that ventilatory support with BIPAP reduces the consumption of analgesics and sedatives, and the duration of intubation. The possibility of unrestricted spontaneous breathing in all phases of the respiratory cycle is considered to be the reason. BIPAP seems to be an alternative to S-CMV and S-IMV in short-term ventilated patient. PMID:9466092

  5. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Wenjian; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Guangming; Xie, Yi; Hao, Jifang; Min, Fengling; Zhou, Qingming; Duan, Xin

    2007-04-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOI of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were significantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30% 60%, 20% 130% and 30% 70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  6. High-efficiency headspace sampling of volatile organic compounds in explosives using capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Almirall, José

    2014-03-01

    A novel geometry configuration based on sorbent-coated glass microfibers packed within a glass capillary is used to sample volatile organic compounds, dynamically, in the headspace of an open system or in a partially open system to achieve quantitative extraction of the available volatiles of explosives with negligible breakthrough. Air is sampled through the newly developed sorbent-packed 2 cm long, 2 mm diameter capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) and subsequently introduced into a commercially available thermal desorption probe fitted directly into a GC injection port. A sorbent coating surface area of ∼5 × 10(-2) m(2) or 5,000 times greater than that of a single solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber allows for fast (30 s), flow-through sampling of relatively large volumes using sampling flow rates of ∼1.5 L/min. A direct comparison of the new CMV extraction to a static (equilibrium) SPME extraction of the same headspace sample yields a 30 times improvement in sensitivity for the CMV when sampling nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and diphenylamine (DPA) in a mixture containing a total mass of 500 ng of each analyte, when spiked into a liter-volume container. Calibration curves were established for all compounds studied, and the recovery was determined to be ∼1 % or better after only 1 min of sampling time. Quantitative analysis is also possible using this extraction technique when the sampling temperature, flow rate, and time are kept constant between calibration curves and the sample. PMID:24141390

  7. Expansion of CMV-mediated NKG2C+ NK cells associates with the development of specific de novo malignancies in liver-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Achour, Abla; Baychelier, Florence; Besson, Caroline; Arnoux, Armelle; Marty, Michel; Hannoun, Laurent; Samuel, Didier; Debré, Patrice; Vieillard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Solid cancers are a major adverse outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although the use of chronic immunosuppression is known to play a role in T cell impairment, recent insights into the specificities of NK cells led us to reassess the potential modulation of this innate immune cell compartment after transplantation. Our extensive phenotypic and functional study reveals that the development of specific de novo noncutaneous tumors post-OLT is linked to unusual NK cell subsets with maturation defects and to uncommon cytokine production associated with the development of specific cancers. Remarkably, in CMV(+) patients, the development de novo head/neck or colorectal tumors is linked to an aberrant expansion of NK cells expressing NKG2C and a high level of intracellular TNF-α, which impact on their polyfunctional capacities. In contrast, NK cells from patients diagnosed with genitourinary tumors possessed a standard immature signature, including high expression of NKG2A and a robust production of IFN-γ. Taken together, our results suggest that under an immunosuppressive environment, the interplay between the modulation of NK repertoire and CMV status may greatly hamper the spectrum of immune surveillance and thus favor outgrowth and the development of specific de novo tumors after OLT. PMID:24307732

  8. The Presence of HLA-E-Restricted, CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Blood of Lung Transplant Recipients Correlates with Chronic Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lucy C.; Westall, Glen P.; Widjaja, Jacqueline M. L.; Mifsud, Nicole A.; Nguyen, Thi H. O.; Meehan, Aislin C.; Kotsimbos, Tom C.; Brooks, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune evasion protein, UL40, shares an identical peptide sequence with that found in the leader sequence of many human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C alleles and when complexed with HLA-E, can modulate NK cell functions via interactions with the CD94-NKG2 receptors. However the UL40-derived sequence can also be immunogenic, eliciting robust CD8+ T cell responses. In the setting of solid organ transplantation these T cells may not only be involved in antiviral immunity but also can potentially contribute to allograft rejection when the UL40 epitope is also present in allograft-encoded HLA. Here we assessed 15 bilateral lung transplant recipients for the presence of HLA-E-restricted UL40 specific T cells by tetramer staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). UL40-specific T cells were observed in 7 patients post-transplant however the magnitude of the response varied significantly between patients. Moreover, unlike healthy CMV seropositive individuals, longitudinal analyses revealed that proportions of such T cells fluctuated markedly. Nine patients experienced low-grade acute cellular rejection, of which 6 also demonstrated UL40-specific T cells. Furthermore, the presence of UL40-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood was significantly associated with allograft dysfunction, which manifested as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). Therefore, this study suggests that minor histocompatibility antigens presented by HLA-E can represent an additional risk factor following lung transplantation. PMID:26302084

  9. De novo PIK3R1 gain-of-function with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, long-lasting chronic CMV-lymphadenitis and microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, Michaela; Hönscheid, Andrea; Loizou, Loizos; Nabhani, Schafiq; Fischer, Ute; Stepensky, Polina; Schaper, Jörg; Klapper, Wolfram; Siepermann, Meinolf; Schuster, Friedhelm; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1) gain-of-function has recently been described in patients with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, chronic CMV-/EBV-infections, lymphoproliferation, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Here we report a 15-year-old boy with treatment refractory CMV lymphadenitis, severe combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly and a severe developmental defect of Th17 cells. To avoid poor outcome, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed. Subsequently, whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous G-to-C mutation (chr5: 5:67,589,663: G>C) at the splice donor site of the PIK3R1 gene. Our data suggest that PIK3R1 gain-of-function leads to developmental defects in helper and regulatory T-cell subsets, the latter expanding the immunological features of PIK3R1 gain-of-function. T-cell subsets play a critical role in the regulation of immune response against infectious agents and of autoimmunity and thus may be particularly accountable for the clinical phenotype of affected patients. PMID:26529633

  10. The Presence of HLA-E-Restricted, CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Blood of Lung Transplant Recipients Correlates with Chronic Allograft Rejection.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lucy C; Westall, Glen P; Widjaja, Jacqueline M L; Mifsud, Nicole A; Nguyen, Thi H O; Meehan, Aislin C; Kotsimbos, Tom C; Brooks, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune evasion protein, UL40, shares an identical peptide sequence with that found in the leader sequence of many human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C alleles and when complexed with HLA-E, can modulate NK cell functions via interactions with the CD94-NKG2 receptors. However the UL40-derived sequence can also be immunogenic, eliciting robust CD8+ T cell responses. In the setting of solid organ transplantation these T cells may not only be involved in antiviral immunity but also can potentially contribute to allograft rejection when the UL40 epitope is also present in allograft-encoded HLA. Here we assessed 15 bilateral lung transplant recipients for the presence of HLA-E-restricted UL40 specific T cells by tetramer staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). UL40-specific T cells were observed in 7 patients post-transplant however the magnitude of the response varied significantly between patients. Moreover, unlike healthy CMV seropositive individuals, longitudinal analyses revealed that proportions of such T cells fluctuated markedly. Nine patients experienced low-grade acute cellular rejection, of which 6 also demonstrated UL40-specific T cells. Furthermore, the presence of UL40-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood was significantly associated with allograft dysfunction, which manifested as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). Therefore, this study suggests that minor histocompatibility antigens presented by HLA-E can represent an additional risk factor following lung transplantation. PMID:26302084

  11. The Unmet Need in the Elderly: How immunosenescence, CMV infection, co-morbidities and frailty are a challenge for the development of more effective influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Janet E.; Zhou, Xin; Talbot, H. Keipp; Soethout, Ernst; Bleackley, R. Chris; Granville, David; Pawelec, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Influenza remains the single most important cause of excess disability and mortality during the winter months. In spite of widespread influenza vaccination programs leading to demonstrated cost-savings in the over 65 population, hospitalization and death rates for acute respiratory illnesses continue to rise. As a person ages, increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines are commonly recorded (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6). Termed “inflammaging”, this has been linked to persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and immune senescence, while increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) are possibly associated with more healthy aging. Paradoxically, a shift with aging toward an anti-inflammatory (IL-10) response and decline in the IFN-γ:IL-10 ratio in influenza-challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with a decline in the cytolytic capacity of CD8+ T cells responsible for clearing influenza virus from infected lung tissue. Thus, it is seemingly counter intuitive that the immune phenotype of healthy aging predicts a poor cell-mediated immune response and more serious outcomes of influenza. Herein we postulate a mechanistic link between the accumulation of late-stage, potentially terminally-differentiated T cells, many or most of which result from CMV infection, and the immunopathogenesis of influenza infection, mediated by granzyme B in older adults. Further, adjuvanted influenza vaccines that stimulate inflammatory cytokines and suppress the IL-10 response to influenza challenge, would be expected to enhance protection in the 65+ population. PMID:22289511

  12. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800, Beckman Coulter LH 780, and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on adult specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new Beckman Coulter DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) and Beckman Coulter LH 780 hematology analyzers using 430 adult specimens. The DxH 800 provided a CBC and differential that correlated well with those of the Sapphire and LH 780, with most parameters showing correlation coefficients (r) of more than 0.97. In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, all 3 instruments showed similar and acceptable accuracy to the reference method except for nucleated RBC (NRBC) enumeration, in which the DxH 800 and Sapphire outperformed the LH 780. We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the DxH 800 were 77.0%, 87.1%, and 73.0%, respectively, compared with the Sapphire at 75.8%, 93.5%, and 68.8%, respectively, and LH 780 at 66.1%, 93.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. PMID:21571967

  13. Abbott Preschool: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Laura Fasbach

    2009-01-01

    When New Jersey set out to level the educational playing field between the state's poorest and wealthiest school districts a decade ago, one of the mission's most important components was ensuring teacher quality met the same high standards regardless of zip code. Research shows, a teacher's own education and training in early childhood education…

  14. Abbott, Francis (1799-1883)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Watchmaker, born in Derby, England, convict, transported to Tasmania in 1845. He made astronomical observations at the Rossbank Observatory after the end of his sentence until its closure in 1854 and in his private laboratory in Hobart....

  15. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  16. Mercury contamination from mine and natural sources in Harley Gulch, downstream from the Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury Mines, Lake County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hothem, R. L.; Rytuba, J. J.; Goldstein, D.; Brussee, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury (Hg) mine area in central California has released Hg tailings into the Harley Gulch watershed since 1862. Harley Gulch flows into Cache Creek which is a significant source of Hg into San Francisco Bay Delta. Thermal mine water effluent emanating from the Turkey Run adit flows into the upper part of the watershed. Despite remediation efforts, Hg tailings and enriched sediment remain in the Harley Gulch wetlands and in the creek downstream from the mine area. Water, sediment, and biota have been sampled from below the mine area to 15 km downstream to the confluence with Cache Creek in order to assess the impact of Hg on water quality and biota. Two previously unrecognized natural sources of Hg in the watershed are connate groundwater with elevated levels of Hg, and biogenic sediment composed of phytoplankton that accumulates in the upper part of the watershed during the dry season. The connate groundwater source contains isotopically-heavy Mg-Ca-Cl-CO3-SO4 water that has elevated concentrations of Ba, W, Ti, and Hg. This water first enters Harley Gulch in the central part of the wetland immediately downstream from the mine area and continues to contribute water downstream for a distance of 1.5 km. It is both chemically and isotopically distinct from the thermal mine water effluent from the Turkey Run adit. The biogenic source consists of blooms of phytoplankton that accumulate to a thickness of up to 0.2 m. Phytoplankton have a large bioaccumulation factor of Hg and monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) that results in a high concentrations of Hg and MMeHg (Hg: 5-25 μg/g, MMeHg 5.2 ng/g) in the biogenic sediment. The tan biogenic sediment at the surface consists of living diatoms and below it is a layer of black reduced biogenic sediment consisting of diatom fragments with micron- to submicron-sized FeS, HgS, and barite grains. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate to sulfide in the pore waters of the biogenic sediment that reacts with

  17. A Neutralizing Anti-gH/gL Monoclonal Antibody Is Protective in the Guinea Pig Model of Congenital CMV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Marcy R.; Yan, Donghong; Vij, Rajesh; Hongo, Jo-Anne; Nakamura, Gerald; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Lein, Samantha; Chan, Pamela; Ross, Jed; Carano, Richard; Deng, Rong; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Xu, Min; Feierbach, Becket

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital virus infection. Congenital HCMV infection occurs in 0.2–1% of all births, and causes birth defects and developmental abnormalities, including sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay. Several key studies have established the guinea pig as a tractable model for the study of congenital HCMV infection and have shown that polyclonal antibodies can be protective [1]–[3]. In this study, we demonstrate that an anti-guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects against fetal infection and loss in the guinea pig. Furthermore, we have delineated the kinetics of GPCMV congenital infection, from maternal infection (salivary glands, seroconversion, placenta) to fetal infection (fetus and amniotic fluid). Our studies support the hypothesis that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody targeting an envelope GPCMV glycoprotein can protect the fetus from infection and may shed light on the therapeutic intervention of HCMV congenital infection in humans. PMID:24722349

  18. Fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic gunshot residues on the hands of suspects by CMV-GC-MS and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarifa, Anamary; Almirall, José R

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the characterization of both organic and inorganic components of gunshot residues (GSR) is proposed as an alternative tool to facilitate the identification of a suspected shooter. In this study, two fast screening methods were developed and optimized for the detection of organic compounds and inorganic components indicative of GSR presence on the hands of shooters and non-shooters. The proposed methods consist of headspace extraction of volatile organic compounds using a capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) device previously reported as a high-efficiency sampler followed by detection by GC-MS. This novel sampling technique has the potential to yield fast results (<2min sampling) and high sensitivity capable of detecting 3ng of diphenylamine (DPA) and 8ng of nitroglycerine (NG). Direct analysis of the headspace of over 50 swabs collected from the hands of suspected shooters (and non-shooters) provides information regarding VOCs present on their hands. In addition, a fast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) screening method for the detection of the inorganic components indicative of the presence of GSR (Sb, Pb and Ba) is described. The sampling method for the inorganics consists of liquid extraction of the target elements from the same cotton swabs (previously analyzed for VOCs) and an additional 30 swab samples followed by spiking 1μL of the extract solution onto a Teflon disk and then analyzed by LIBS. Advantages of LIBS include fast analysis (~12s per sample) and high selectivity and sensitivity, with expected LODs 0.1-18ng for each of the target elements after sampling. The analytical performance of the LIBS method is also compared to previously reported methods (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The combination of fast CMV sampling, unambiguous organic compound identification with GC-MS and fast LIBS analysis provides the basis for a new comprehensive screening method for GSR. PMID:25934368

  19. Pp65 antigenemia, plasma real-time PCR and DBS test in symptomatic and asymptomatic cytomegalovirus congenitally infected newborns

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many congenitally cytomegalovirus-infected (cCMV) neonates are at risk for severe consequences, even if they are asymptomatic at birth. The assessment of the viral load in neonatal blood could help in identifying the babies at risk of sequelae. Methods In the present study, we elaborated the results obtained on blood samples collected in the first two weeks of life from 22 symptomatic and 48 asymptomatic newborns with cCMV diagnosed through urine testing. We evaluated the performances of two quantitative methods (pp65 antigenemia test and plasma Real-time PCR) and the semi-quantitative results of dried blood sample (DBS) test in the aim of identifying a valid method for measuring viral load. Results Plasma qPCR and DBS tests were positive in 100% of cases, antigenemia in 81%. Only the latter test gave quantitatively different results in symptomatic versus asymptomatic children. qPCR values of 103 copies/ml were found in 52% of newborn. "Strong" DBS test positivity cases had higher median values of both pp65 positive PBL and DNA copies/ml than cases with a "weak" positivity. Conclusions As expected antigenemia test was less sensitive than molecular tests and DBS test performed better on samples with higher rates of pp65 positive PBL and higher numbers of DNA copies/ml. The prognostic significance of the results of these tests will be evaluated on completion of the ongoing collection of follow-up data of these children. PMID:20149232

  20. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  1. Microgravity Analogues of Herpes Virus Pathogenicity: Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and Varicella Zoster (VZV) Infectivity in Human Tissue Like Assemblies (TLAs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Albrecht, T.; Cohrs, R.

    2009-01-01

    The old adage we are our own worst enemies may perhaps be the most profound statement ever made when applied to man s desire for extraterrestrial exploration and habitation of Space. Consider the immune system protects the integrity of the entire human physiology and is comprised of two basic elements the adaptive or circulating and the innate immune system. Failure of the components of the adaptive system leads to venerability of the innate system from opportunistic microbes; viral, bacteria, and fungal, which surround us, are transported on our skin, and commonly inhabit the human physiology as normal and imunosuppressed parasites. The fine balance which is maintained for the preponderance of our normal lives, save immune disorders and disease, is deregulated in microgravity. Thus analogue systems to study these potential Risks are essential for our progress in conquering Space exploration and habitation. In this study we employed two known physiological target tissues in which the reactivation of hCMV and VZV occurs, human neural and lung systems created for the study and interaction of these herpes viruses independently and simultaneously on the innate immune system. Normal human neural and lung tissue analogues called tissue like assemblies (TLAs) were infected with low MOIs of approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) pfu hCMV or VZV and established active but prolonged low grade infections which spanned .7-1.5 months in length. These infections were characterized by the ability to continuously produce each of the viruses without expiration of the host cultures. Verification and quantification of viral replication was confirmed via RT_PCR, IHC, and confocal spectral analyses of the respective essential viral genomes. All host TLAs maintained the ability to actively proliferate throughout the entire duration of the experiments as is analogous to normal in vivo physiological conditions. These data represent a significant advance in the ability to study the triggering

  2. Development of a real-time imaging system for hypoxic cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kagiya, Go; Ogawa, Ryohei; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yamashita, Kei; Nakamura, Mizuki; Ishii, Ayumi; Sejimo, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Shintaro; Murata, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hatashita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic regions within the tumor form due to imbalances between cell proliferation and angiogenesis; specifically, temporary closure or a reduced flow due to abnormal vasculature. They create environments where cancer cells acquire resistance to therapies. Therefore, the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the hypoxic cells is one of the most crucial challenges for cancer regression. Screening potential candidates for effective diagnostic modalities even under a hypoxic environment would be an important first step. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time imaging system to monitor hypoxic cell apoptosis for such screening. The imaging system is composed of a cyclic luciferase (luc) gene under the control of an improved hypoxic-responsive promoter. The cyclic luc gene product works as a caspase-3 (cas-3) monitor as it gains luc activity in response to cas-3 activation. The promoter composed of six hypoxic responsible elements and the CMV IE1 core promoter drives the effective expression of the cyclic luc gene in hypoxic conditions, enhancing hypoxic cell apoptosis visualization. We also confirmed real-time imaging of hypoxic cell apoptosis in the spheroid, which shares properties with the tumor. Thus, this constructed system could be a powerful tool for the development of effective anticancer diagnostic modalities. PMID:26966700

  3. Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Coryphaeus Software, founded in 1989 by former NASA electronic engineer Steve Lakowske, creates real-time 3D software. Designer's Workbench, the company flagship product, is a modeling and simulation tool for the development of both static and dynamic 3D databases. Other products soon followed. Activation, specifically designed for game developers, allows developers to play and test the 3D games before they commit to a target platform. Game publishers can shorten development time and prove the "playability" of the title, maximizing their chances of introducing a smash hit. Another product, EasyT, lets users create massive, realistic representation of Earth terrains that can be viewed and traversed in real time. Finally, EasyScene software control the actions among interactive objects within a virtual world. Coryphaeus products are used on Silican Graphics workstation and supercomputers to simulate real-world performance in synthetic environments. Customers include aerospace, aviation, architectural and engineering firms, game developers, and the entertainment industry.

  4. Alanine Scanning of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) 2B Protein Identifies Different Positions for Cell-To-Cell Movement and Gene Silencing Suppressor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nemes, Katalin; Gellért, Ákos; Balázs, Ervin; Salánki, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    The multifunctional 2b protein of CMV has a role in the long distance and local movement of the virus, in symptom formation, in evasion of defense mediated by salicylic acid as well as in suppression of RNA silencing. The role of conserved amino acid sequence domains were analyzed previously in the protein function, but comprehensive analysis of this protein was not carried out until recently. We have analyzed all over the 2b protein by alanine scanning mutagenesis changing three consecutive amino acids (aa) to alanine. We have identified eight aa triplets as key determinants of the 2b protein function in virus infection. Four of them (KKQ/22-24/AAA, QNR/31-33/AAA, RER/34-36/AAA, SPS/40-42/AAA) overlap with previously determined regions indispensable in gene silencing suppressor function. We have identified two additional triplets necessary for the suppressor function of the 2b protein (LPF/55-57/AAA, NVE/10-12/AAA), and two other positions were required for cell-to-cell movement of the virus (MEL/1-3/AAA, RHV/70-72/AAA), which are not essential for suppressor activity. PMID:25380036

  5. Prevalence of Bloodstream Pathogens Is Higher in Neonatal Encephalopathy Cases vs. Controls Using a Novel Panel of Real-Time PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Cally J.; Nkurunziza, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Oweka, James; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Were, Jackson; Nyombi, Natasha; Hughes, Peter; Willey, Barbara A.; Elliott, Alison M.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda. Methodology Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls. Principal Findings Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively). Conclusion/Significance This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting. PMID:24836781

  6. Evaluation of Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile Assays for Direct Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sun Mee; Shin, Won Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the performance of four commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs: Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile) for direct and rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxin genes. Methods We compared four NAATs on the same set of 339 stool specimens (303 prospective and 36 retrospective specimens) with toxigenic culture (TC). Results Concordance rate among four NAATs was 90.3% (306/339). Based on TC results, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.9% for Xpert; 86.3% and 89.3% for Max; 84.3% and 94.4% for IMDx; and 82.4% and 93.7% for Illumigene, respectively. For 306 concordant cases, there were 11 TC-negative/NAATs co-positive cases and 6 TC-positive/NAATs co-negative cases. Among 33 discordant cases, 18 were only single positive in each NAAT (Xpert, 1; Max, 12; IMDx, 1; Illumigene, 4). Positivity rates of the four NAATs were associated with those of semi-quantitative cultures, which were maximized in grade 3 (>100 colony-forming unit [CFU]) compared with grade 1 (<10 CFU). Conclusions Commercial NAATs may be rapid and reliable methods for direct detection of tcdA and/or tcdB in stool specimens compared with TC. Some differences in the sensitivity of the NAATs may partly depend on the number of toxigenic C. difficile in stool specimens. PMID:26709260

  7. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800 and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on pediatric and neonatal specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new UniCel DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) using 156 pediatric specimens in Microtainer tubes (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). The CBC and differential showed good interinstrument correlation, including WBCs (r = 0.995), RBCs (r = 0.992), hemoglobin (r = 0.998), mean corpuscular volume (r = 0.988), platelets (r = 0.997), neutrophils (r = 0.988), lymphocytes (r = 0.984), monocytes (r = 0.815), eosinophils (r = 0.840), basophils (r = 0.049), and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs; r = 0.906). In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, the DxH 800 and Sapphire showed comparable performance for nearly all parameters except for NRBCs, for which the DxH 800 correlated better (r = 0.989) than the Sapphire (r = 0.906). We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency of the DxH 800 was 78.0% vs the Sapphire at 68.1%. Both instruments showed identical sensitivity (91.1%), but the specificity for the DxH 800 (71.9%) was higher than that of the Sapphire (57.3%). PMID:21571966

  8. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  9. Real-time refinery optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    This article discusses refinery operation with specific consideration of the topics of: gasoline; control projects; catalytic reforming control; hydrocracker control packages; blending optimization; real-time data acquisition; and other plant automation packages.

  10. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  11. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  12. Real-Time Benchmark Suite

    1992-01-17

    This software provides a portable benchmark suite for real time kernels. It tests the performance of many of the system calls, as well as the interrupt response time and task response time to interrupts. These numbers provide a baseline for comparing various real-time kernels and hardware platforms.

  13. Real-time tritium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1981-09-15

    A real-time image of a tritium-containing titanium film has been made by detecting the secondary electrons produced by tritium ..beta.. decay with a simple two-element electrostatic lens and microchannel plate image intensifier. The obtained image indicates that a resolution of better than 100 ..mu..m is currently obtainable and suggests that image magnification to enhance resolution should be possible.

  14. Real-time ultrasound elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Unmin; Kim, Yongmin

    2007-03-01

    Ultrasound elastography can provide tissue stiffness information that is complementary to the anatomy and blood flow information offered by conventional ultrasound machines, but it is computationally challenging due to many time-consuming modules and a large amount of data. To facilitate real-time implementations of ultrasound elastography, we have developed new methods that can significantly reduce the computational burden of common processing components in ultrasound elastography, such as the crosscorrelation analysis and spatial filtering applied to displacement and strain estimates. Using the new correlation-based search algorithm, the computational requirement of correlation-based search does not increase with the correlation window size. For typical parameters used in ultrasound elastography, the computation in correlation-based search can be reduced by a factor of more than 30. Median filtering is often performed to suppress the spike-like noise that results from correlation-based search. For fast median filtering, we have developed a method that efficiently finds a new median value utilizing the sort result of the previous pixel. With careful mapping of the new algorithms on digital signal processors, our work has led to development of a clinical ultrasound machine supporting real-time elastography. Our methods can help real-time implementations of various applications including ultrasound elastography, which could lead to increased use of ultrasound elastography in the clinic.

  15. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  16. Realtime multi-plot graphics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipkowski, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The increased complexity of test operations and customer requirements at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) surpassed the capabilities of the initial realtime graphics system. The analysis of existing hardware and software and the enhancements made to develop a new realtime graphics system are described. The result of this effort is a cost effective system, based on hardware already in place, that support high speed, high resolution, generation and display of multiple realtime plots. The enhanced graphics system (EGS) meets the current and foreseeable future realtime graphics requirements of the NTF. While this system was developed to support wind tunnel operations, the overall design and capability of the system is applicable to other realtime data acquisition systems that have realtime plot requirements.

  17. Real-time face tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yufeng; Wilder, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    A real-time face tracker is presented in this paper. The system has achieved 15 frames/second tracking using a Pentium 200 PC with a Datacube MaxPCI image processing board and a Panasonic RGB color camera. It tracks human faces in the camera's field of view while people move freely. A stochastic model to characterize the skin color distribution of human skin is used to segment the face and other skin areas from the background. Median filtering is then used to clean up the background noise. Geometric constraints are applied to the segmented image to extract the face from the background. To reduce computation and achieve real-time tracking, 1D projections (horizontal and vertical) of the image are analyzed instead of the 2D image. Run-length- encoding and frequency domain analysis algorithms are used to separate faces from other skin-like blobs. The system is robust to illumination intensity variations and different skin colors. It can be applied to many human-computer interaction applications such as sound locating, lip- reading, gaze tracking and face recognition.

  18. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  19. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  20. Real-Time Monitoring of Active Landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Ellis, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Landslides threaten lives and property in every State in the Nation. To reduce the risk from active landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops and uses real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides immediate notification of landslide activity, potentially saving lives and property. Continuous information from real-time monitoring also provides a better understanding of landslide behavior, enabling engineers to create more effective designs for halting landslide movement.

  1. Donor TLR9 gene tagSNPs influence susceptibility to aGVHD and CMV reactivation in the allo-HSCT setting without polymorphisms in the TLR4 and NOD2 genes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H W; Luo, Y; Lai, X Y; Shi, J M; Tan, Y M; He, J S; Xie, W Z; Zheng, W Y; Ye, X J; Yu, X H; Cai, Z; Lin, M F; Huang, H

    2014-02-01

    Owing to ethnicity of the population, those best confirmed polymorphisms in the TLR (toll-like receptor)4 and NOD2 genes with significantly prognostic impact on allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) seem to be more applicable to Europeans and are nonpolymorphic in the Asian population. The influence of innate immunity gene polymorphisms on the outcomes of allo-HSCT in those populations has been questioned. We evaluated the influence of 10 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR8 and TLR9 genes on the outcomes of allo-HSCT in a Chinese population including 138 pairs of patients and unrelated donors and a second cohort of 102 pairs of patients and HLA-identical sibling donors. We found that two tagSNPs in the TLR9 gene in the donor side, +1174 A/G (rs352139) and +1635 C/T (rs352140), influenced the risk of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and CMV reactivation. Furthermore, the presence of the susceptible haplotype (A-C) in donor may be an informative predicator of worse OS at 5 years compared with those with the G-C and G-T haplotypes (58% vs 82.9%, P=0.024). Our data suggested an unrecognized association between donor TLR9 tagSNPs and the risk of HSCT-related complications in a population without polymorphisms in the TLR4 and NOD2 genes. PMID:24121213

  2. Real-time smart fluorescence sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Jason E.; Vaughn, Mike S.; Taylor, Mervin; Ponstingl, Mike

    2011-06-01

    A novel compact LED array based light induced fluorescence (LIF) sensor has been developed for real-time in-line monitoring of intrinsic fluorophores in the solid and liquid state. The sensor is essential for on-the-spot, routine, and cost effective real-time analysis. The sensor is designed to provide real-time emission response along with various smart sensing parameters to ensure real-time measurement quality that is required for regulated GMP process monitoring applications. This work describes a LIF sensor tailored for solid-phase fluorometry. Fundamental figures of merit, excitation overexposure and smart sensing features required for modern process monitoring and control are discussed within the context of pharmaceutical solid-phase manufacturing and similar applications.

  3. Improving the learning efficiencies of realtime search

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Toru; Shimbo, Masashi

    1996-12-31

    The capability of learning is one of the salient features of realtime search algorithms such as LRTA*. The major impediment is, however, the instability of the solution quality during convergence: (1) they try to find all optimal solutions even after obtaining fairly good solutions, and (2) they tend to move towards unexplored areas thus failing to balance exploration and exploitation. We propose and analyze two new realtime search algorithms to stabilize the convergence process. {epsilon}-search (weighted realtime search) allows suboptimal solutions with {epsilon} error to reduce the total amount of learning performed. {delta}-search (realtime search with upper bounds) utilizes the upper bounds of estimated costs, which become available after the problem is solved once. Guided by the upper bounds, {delta}-search can better control the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation.

  4. Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Tyler S; Marks, Daniel L; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-02-18

    An interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) system design with real-time 2D cross-sectional processing is described in detail. The system can acquire, process, and display the ISAM reconstructed images at frame rates of 2.25 frames per second for 512 X 1024 pixel images. This system provides quantitatively meaningful structural information from previously indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time ISAM systems. PMID:18542337

  5. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  6. Hard Real-Time: C++ Versus RTSJ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Daniel L.; Reinholtz, William K.

    2004-01-01

    In the domain of hard real-time systems, which language is better: C++ or the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ)? Although ordinary Java provides a more productive programming environment than C++ due to its automatic memory management, that benefit does not apply to RTSJ when using NoHeapRealtimeThread and non-heap memory areas. As a result, RTSJ programmers must manage non-heap memory explicitly. While that's not a deterrent for veteran real-time programmers-where explicit memory management is common-the lack of certain language features in RTSJ (and Java) makes that manual memory management harder to accomplish safely than in C++. This paper illustrates the problem for practitioners in the context of moving data and managing memory in a real-time producer/consumer pattern. The relative ease of implementation and safety of the C++ programming model suggests that RTSJ has a struggle ahead in the domain of hard real-time applications, despite its other attractive features.

  7. Real-time Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Harrah, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    Flying in poor visibility conditions, such as rain, snow, fog or haze, is inherently dangerous. However these conditions can occur at nearly any location, so inevitably pilots must successfully navigate through them. At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), under support of the Aviation Safety and Security Program Office and the Systems Engineering Directorate, we are developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) that combines image enhancement and synthetic vision elements to assist pilots flying through adverse weather conditions. This system uses a combination of forward-looking infrared and visible sensors for data acquisition. A core function of the system is to enhance and fuse the sensor data in order to increase the information content and quality of the captured imagery. These operations must be performed in real-time for the pilot to use while flying. For image enhancement, we are using the LaRC patented Retinex algorithm since it performs exceptionally well for improving low-contrast range imagery typically seen during poor visibility conditions. In general, real-time operation of the Retinex requires specialized hardware. To date, we have successfully implemented a single-sensor real-time version of the Retinex on several different Digital Signal Processor (DSP) platforms. In this paper we give an overview of the EVS and its performance requirements for real-time enhancement and fusion and we discuss our current real-time Retinex implementations on DSPs.

  8. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  9. Real-time enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Harrah, Steven D.

    2005-05-01

    Flying in poor visibility conditions, such as rain, snow, fog or haze, is inherently dangerous. However these conditions can occur at nearly any location, so inevitably pilots must successfully navigate through them. At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), under support of the Aviation Safety and Security Program Office and the Systems Engineering Directorate, we are developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) that combines image enhancement and synthetic vision elements to assist pilots flying through adverse weather conditions. This system uses a combination of forward-looking infrared and visible sensors for data acquisition. A core function of the system is to enhance and fuse the sensor data in order to increase the information content and quality of the captured imagery. These operations must be performed in real-time for the pilot to use while flying. For image enhancement, we are using the LaRC patented Retinex algorithm since it performs exceptionally well for improving low-contrast range imagery typically seen during poor visibility poor visibility conditions. In general, real-time operation of the Retinex requires specialized hardware. To date, we have successfully implemented a single-sensor real-time version of the Retinex on several different Digital Signal Processor (DSP) platforms. In this paper we give an overview of the EVS and its performance requirements for real-time enhancement and fusion and we discuss our current real-time Retinex implementations on DSPs.

  10. Characterization of real-time computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Krishna, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A real-time system consists of a computer controller and controlled processes. Despite the synergistic relationship between these two components, they have been traditionally designed and analyzed independently of and separately from each other; namely, computer controllers by computer scientists/engineers and controlled processes by control scientists. As a remedy for this problem, in this report real-time computers are characterized by performance measures based on computer controller response time that are: (1) congruent to the real-time applications, (2) able to offer an objective comparison of rival computer systems, and (3) experimentally measurable/determinable. These measures, unlike others, provide the real-time computer controller with a natural link to controlled processes. In order to demonstrate their utility and power, these measures are first determined for example controlled processes on the basis of control performance functionals. They are then used for two important real-time multiprocessor design applications - the number-power tradeoff and fault-masking and synchronization.

  11. Impact of HCV kinetics on treatment outcome differs by the type of real-time HCV assay in NS3/4A protease inhibitor-based triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Takeo; Shimizu, Motohiro; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Repeated measurement of the HCV RNA level is essential for properly monitoring treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of two HCV real-time assays in the evaluation of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics on the outcome of triple therapy with NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir or simeprevir. This study consisted of 171 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. All 3266 serum samples taken during and post treatment were tested with both the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HCV Test v2.0 and the Abbott RealTime (ART) HCV Test. Of the 2597 samples undetectable (lower limit of detection [

  12. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  13. Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.

    PubMed

    Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-11-10

    The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 μs for small AO systems. PMID:21068868

  14. Real-Time Sensor Validation System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1998-01-01

    Real-time sensor validation improves process monitoring and control system dependability by ensuring data integrity through automated detection of sensor data failures. The NASA Lewis Research Center, Expert Microsystems, and Intelligent Software Associates have developed an innovative sensor validation system that can automatically detect automated sensor failures in real-time for all types of mission-critical systems. This system consists of a sensor validation network development system and a real-time kernel. The network development system provides tools that enable systems engineers to automatically generate software that can be embedded within an application. The sensor validation methodology captured by these tools can be scaled to validate any number of sensors, and permits users to specify system sensitivity. The resulting software reliably detects all types of sensor data failures.

  15. Real-time cardiac MRI using DSP's.

    PubMed

    Morgan, P N; Iannuzzelli, R J; Epstein, F H; Balaban, R S

    1999-07-01

    A real-time cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been implemented using digital signal processing (DSP) technology. The system enables real-time acquisition, processing, and display of ungated cardiac movies at moderate video rates of 20 images/s. A custom graphical user interface (GUI) provides interactive control of data acquisition parameters and image display functions. Images can be compressed into moving-picture experts group (MPEG) movies, but are displayed on the console without compression during the scan. Compared to existing real-time MRI systems, implementation with DSP's allows rapid parallel computations, fast data transfers, and greater system flexibility, including the ability to scale to multiple channels, at the expense of somewhat higher component cost. PMID:10504098

  16. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  17. Real-time monitoring of landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.; Schulz, William H.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides cause fatalities and property damage throughout the Nation. To reduce the impact from hazardous landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey develops and uses real-time and near-real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides prompt notification of landslide activity, advances our understanding of landslide behavior, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts.

  18. Automated real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  19. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  20. HHV-6 encephalitis may complicate the early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Detection by qualitative multiplex PCR and subsequent quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Inazawa, Natsuko; Hori, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hatakeyama, Naoki; Yoto, Yuko; Nojima, Masanori; Yasui, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Norio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Viral reactivation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cause various complications especially viral encephalitis. In this prospective study, we investigated the correlation of post-HSCT viral reactivation in blood with CNS dysfunction. We employed a multiplex PCR that detects 13 kinds of viruses as a first-line screening test and real-time PCR for subsequent quantitative evaluation. Five hundred ninety-one whole blood samples were collected from 105 patients from before until 42 days after HSCT. Seven patients developed CNS dysfunction such as altered consciousness. In six of the seven, the multiplex PCR test detected HHV-6 DNA in at least one sample. In contrast, DNA from other viruses, such as CMV, EBV, HHV-7, adenovirus, and HBV was never detected in any of the seven patients throughout the study period. Quantitative measurement of whole blood HHV-6 DNA levels demonstrated four of the six HHV-6 DNA loads were elevated at successive time points during the CNS dysfunction. In addition, the virus DNA peaks were temporally associated with the development of CNS dysfunction. CSF was tested in two of the four patients and high HHV-6 DNA levels comparable to those in whole blood were confirmed in both. These four patients were, thus, suspected to have developed HHV-6 encephalitis, a rate of 3.8% in the study population. Our results suggest that early diagnosis of probable HHV-6 encephalitis can be improved by confirming high HHV-6 DNA load in blood. PMID:26241219

  1. A tool for modeling concurrent real-time computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Huang, Shie-Rei; Bhatt, Rahul; Sridharan, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time computation is a significant area of research in general, and in AI in particular. The complexity of practical real-time problems demands use of knowledge-based problem solving techniques while satisfying real-time performance constraints. Since the demands of a complex real-time problem cannot be predicted (owing to the dynamic nature of the environment) powerful dynamic resource control techniques are needed to monitor and control the performance. A real-time computation model for a real-time tool, an implementation of the QP-Net simulator on a Symbolics machine, and an implementation on a Butterfly multiprocessor machine are briefly described.

  2. Real-time data flow and product generating for GNSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Caissy, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The last IGS workshop with the theme 'Towards Real-Time' resulted in the design of a prototype for real-time data and sharing within the IGS. A prototype real-time network is being established that will serve as a test bed for real-time activities within the IGS. We review the developments of the prototype and discuss some of the existing methods and related products of real-time GNSS systems. Recommendations are made concerning real-time data distribution and product generation.

  3. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  4. Real-Time Operating System/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  5. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  6. Real-Time Multidetector Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drejzin, V. E.; Grimov, A. A.; Logvinov, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    We explain a new approach to constructing a real-time neutron spectrometer, using several detectors with different spectral characteristics and coprocessing the data using a pre-trained neural network. We present the results of simulation and experimental studies on a prototype, demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach.

  7. Real-time distributed multimedia systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rahurkar, S.S.; Bourbakis, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a survey on distributed multimedia systems and discusses real-time issues. In particular, different subsystems are reviewed that impact on multimedia networking, the networking for multimedia, the networked multimedia systems, and the leading edge research and developments efforts and issues in networking.

  8. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  9. Solar neutrinos: Real-time experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsuka, Yoji

    1993-04-01

    This report outlines the principle of real-time solar neutrino detection experiments by detecting electrons with suitable target material, via Charged-Current (CC) reaction using conventional counting techniques developed in high-energy physics. Only B-8 neutrinos can be detected by minimum detectable energy of several MeV. The MSW (Mikheyev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein) effect not only distorts the energy spectrum but also induces new type of neutrinos, i.e. mu-neutrinos or tau-neutrinos. These neutrinos do not participate in the CC reaction. Therefore real-time experiment is to be sensitive to Neutral Current (NC) reactions. It is a challenge to eliminate environment background as much as possible and to lower the minimum detectable energy to several 100 keV, which will enable observation of Be-7 neutrinos. Target particles of real-time experiments currently running and under construction or planning are electron, deuteron, or argon. The relevant reactions corresponding to CC reaction and some relevant comments on the following targets are described: (1) electron target; (2) deuteron target; and (3) argon target. On-going experiment and future experiments for real-time neutron detection are also outlined.

  10. Real-time GPS monitoring throughout Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Szeliga, W. M.; Webb, F.; Abundiz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Over 400 GPS receivers of the combined PANGA and PBO networks currently operate along the Cascadia subduction zone, all of which are high-rate and telemetered in real-time. These receivers span the M9 megathrust, M7 crustal faults beneath population centers, several active Cascades volcanoes, and a host of other hazard sources, and together enable a host of new approaches towards hazards mitigation. Data from the majority of the stations is received in real time at CWU and processed into one-second position estimates using 1) relative positioning within several reference frames constrained by 2) absolute point positioning using streamed satellite orbit and clock corrections. While the former produces lower-noise time series, for earthquakes greater than ~M7 and ground displacements exceeding ~20 cm, point positioning alone is shown to provide very rapid and robust estimates of the location and amplitude of both dynamic strong ground motion and permanent deformation. Raw phase and range observables from stations throughout Cascadia are being processed in real time at JPL and CWU into station positions, which in turn are analyzed also in real-time for earthquake processes at CWU. Our efforts can be broken down into three distinct areas: 1) Real-time point-positioning methodologies, 2) a data aggregator that captures real-time position streams from a variety of processing centers and methodologies (JPL RTGipsy, CWU rtPP, Trimble VRS) and re-streams the data as configurable streams to application clients out anywhere on the web, and 3) a suite of analysis tools that operate on the real-time position streams, including plotting, vectors, peak ground deformation contouring, and finite-fault inversions. This suite is currently bundled within a single client written in JAVA, called 'GPS Cockpit.'

  11. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  12. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1985-04-01

    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  13. Real-time support for high performance aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time processing schemes using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is investigated. A rationale for digital neural nets is presented and a general processor architecture for control applications is illustrated. Research results on ANN structures for real-time applications are given. Research results on ANN algorithms for real-time control are also shown.

  14. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  15. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  16. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  17. ALMA Correlator Real-Time Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J.; Amestica, R.; Perez, J.

    2005-10-01

    The design of a real-time Linux application utilizing Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI) to process real-time data from the radio astronomy correlator for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is described. The correlator is a custom-built digital signal processor which computes the cross-correlation function of two digitized signal streams. ALMA will have 64 antennas with 2080 signal streams each with a sample rate of 4 giga-samples per second. The correlator's aggregate data output will be 1 gigabyte per second. The software is defined by hard deadlines with high input and processing data rates, while requiring interfaces to non real-time external computers. The designed computer system - the Correlator Data Processor or CDP, consists of a cluster of 17 SMP computers, 16 of which are compute nodes plus a master controller node all running real-time Linux kernels. Each compute node uses an RTAI kernel module to interface to a 32-bit parallel interface which accepts raw data at 64 megabytes per second in 1 megabyte chunks every 16 milliseconds. These data are transferred to tasks running on multiple CPUs in hard real-time using RTAI's LXRT facility to perform quantization corrections, data windowing, FFTs, and phase corrections for a processing rate of approximately 1 GFLOPS. Highly accurate timing signals are distributed to all seventeen computer nodes in order to synchronize them to other time-dependent devices in the observatory array. RTAI kernel tasks interface to the timing signals providing sub-millisecond timing resolution. The CDP interfaces, via the master node, to other computer systems on an external intra-net for command and control, data storage, and further data (image) processing. The master node accesses these external systems utilizing ALMA Common Software (ACS), a CORBA-based client-server software infrastructure providing logging, monitoring, data delivery, and intra-computer function invocation. The software is being developed in tandem

  18. Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Di Saverio, Emanuele; Cesati, Marco; Di Biagio, Christian; Pennella, Guido; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

  19. Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

    2014-10-13

    In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

  20. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  1. Real-Time Gauge/Gravity Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Skenderis, Kostas; Rees, Balt C. van

    2008-08-22

    We present a general prescription for the holographic computation of real-time n-point functions in nontrivial states. In quantum field theory such real-time computations involve a choice of a time contour in the complex time plane. The holographic prescription amounts to 'filling in' this contour with bulk solutions: real segments of the contour are filled in with Lorentzian solutions while imaginary segments are filled in with Riemannian solutions and appropriate matching conditions are imposed at the corners of the contour. We illustrate the general discussion by computing the 2-point function of a scalar operator using this prescription and by showing that this leads to an unambiguous answer with the correct i{epsilon} insertions.

  2. Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science. PMID:23715056

  3. Real-time hyperspectral detection and cuing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellman, Christopher M.; Hazel, Geoff; Bucholtz, Frank; Michalowicz, Joseph V.; Stocker, Alan D.; Schaaf, William

    2000-07-01

    The Dark HORSE 1 (Hyperspectral Overhead Reconnaissance and Surveillance Experiment 1) flight test has demonstrated autonomous, real-time visible hyperspectral detection of military ground targets with real-time cuing of a high- resolution framing camera. An overview of the Dark HORSE 1 hyperspectral sensor system is presented. The system hardware components are described in detail, with an emphasis on the visible hyperspectral sensor and the real- time processor. Descriptions of system software and processing methods are also provided. The recent field experiment in which the Dark HORSE 1 system was employed is described in detail along with an analysis of the collected data. The results evince per-pixel false-alarm rates on the order of 10-5/km2, and demonstrate the improved performance obtained by operating two detection algorithms simultaneously.

  4. Real-time RGBD SLAM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czupryński, BłaŻej; Strupczewski, Adam

    2015-09-01

    A real-time tracking and mapping SLAM system is presented. The developed system uses input from an RGBD sensor and tracks the camera pose from frame to frame. The tracking is based on matched feature points and is performed with respect to selected keyframes. The system is robust and scalable, as an arbitrary number of keyframes can be chosen for visualization and tracking depending on the desired accuracy and speed. The presented system is also a good platform for further research.

  5. Real-Time X-Ray Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray imaging instrument adapted to continuous scanning. Modern version of fluoroscope enables rapid x-ray inspection of parts. Developed for detection of buckling in insulated ducts. Uses radiation from radioactive gadolinium or thallium source. Instrument weighs only 6 1/2 lb. Quickly scanned by hand along duct surface, providing real-time image. Based on Lixiscope, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  6. Real-time contingency handling in MAESTRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Daniel L.; Geoffroy, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    A scheduling and resource management system named MAESTRO was interfaced with a Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard at MSFC. The combined system serves to illustrate the integration of planning, scheduling, and control in a realistic, complex domain. This paper briefly describes the functional elements of the combined system, including normal and contingency operational scenarios, then focusses on the method used by the scheduler to handle real-time contingencies.

  7. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  8. Real-time earthquake data feasible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Scientists agree that early warning devices and monitoring of both Hurricane Hugo and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption saved thousands of lives. What would it take to develop this sort of early warning and monitoring system for earthquake activity?Not all that much, claims a panel assigned to study the feasibility, costs, and technology needed to establish a real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) system. The panel, drafted by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Seismology, has presented its findings in Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring. The recently released report states that “present technology is entirely capable of recording and processing data so as to provide real-time information, enabling people to mitigate somewhat the earthquake disaster.” RTEM systems would consist of two parts—an early warning system that would give a few seconds warning before severe shaking, and immediate postquake information within minutes of the quake that would give actual measurements of the magnitude. At this time, however, this type of warning system has not been addressed at the national level for the United States and is not included in the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, according to the report.

  9. Real-time monitoring system for microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Cantelli, G.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.; Bucolo, M.

    2007-05-01

    A new non-invasive real-time system for the monitoring and control of microfluidodynamic phenomena is proposed. The general purpose design of such system is suitable for in vitro and in vivo experimental setup and therefore for microfluidic application in the biomedical field such as lab-on-chip and for research studies in the field of microcirculation. The system consists of an ad hoc optical setup for image magnification providing images suitable for image acquisition and processing. The optic system was designed and developed using discrete opto-mechanic components mounted on a breadboard in order to provide an optic path accessible at any point where the information needs to be acquired. The optic sensing, acquisition, and processing were performed using an integrated vision system based on the Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) analogic technology called Focal Plane Processor (FPP, Eye-RIS, Anafocus) and inserted in the optic path. Ad hoc algorithms were implemented for the real-time analysis and extraction of fluido-dynamic parameters in micro-channels. They were tested on images recorded during in vivo microcirculation experiments on hamsters and then they were applied on images optically acquired and processed in real-time during in vitro experiments on a continuous microfluidic device (serpentine mixer, ThinXXS) with a two-phase fluid.

  10. Real-Time Blackboards For Sensor Fusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald H.; Shaw, Scott W.; Reynolds, Steven; Himayat, Nageen

    1989-09-01

    Multi-sensor fusion, at the most basic level, can be cast into a concise, elegant model. Reality demands, however, that this model be modified and augmented. These modifications often result in software systems that are confusing in function and difficult to debug. This problem can be ameliorated by adopting an object-oriented, data-flow programming style. For real-time applications, this approach simplifies data communications and storage management. The concept of object-oriented, data-flow programming is conveniently embodied in the black-board style of software architecture. Blackboard systems allow diverse programs access to a central data base. When the blackboard is described as an object, it can be distributed over multiple processors for real-time applications. Choosing the appropriate parallel architecture is the subject of ongoing research. A prototype blackboard has been constructed to fuse optical image regions and Doppler radar events. The system maintains tracks of simulated targets in real time. The results of this simulation have been used to direct further research on real-time blackboard systems.

  11. Comparison of cytomegalovirus viral load measure by real-time PCR with pp65 antigenemia for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Hernando, S; Folgueira, L; Lumbreras, C; San Juan, R; Maldonado, S; Prieto, C; Babiano, M J; Delgado, J; Andres, A; Moreno, E; Aguado, J M; Otero, J R

    2005-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most frequent complication in solid organ transplant recipients. Currently, the antigenemia assay is widely used to detect this infection, although its success is being questioned to a great extent nowadays. The aim of our study is to compare a quantitative real time PCR to measure CMV DNA to the antigenemia assay, for the diagnosis to CMV disease. For our research, we prospectively processed 1198 samples (plasma and peripheral blood leukocytes [PBMC]), which belonged to 158 transplant recipients. In every sample the detection of the pp65 antigen in PBMC was carried out, as well as the quantification of CMV DNA by PCR (Light Cycler, LC-PCR). For this process, FRET probes, which detect a 254-bp fragment from the CMV gB gene, were used. The dynamic range of the LC-PCR was 500 to 5.10(7) copies/mL plasma and from 62 to 6.10(6) copies/10(6) PBMC. Twenty-three episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurred in 22 out of 158 patients and PCR displayed levels of sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The antigenemia assay obtained values of 91% and 57%. We established a cutoff value of 10(3) copies/mL plasma and 315 copies/10(6) cells. According to these cutoff values, PCR showed levels of sensitivity, specificity, VPN and VPP of 95.6%, 81.6%, 99%, and 53% respectively. Moreover, the LC-PCR assay anticipated the antigenemia assay in 10 patients out of 22 who developed CMV disease and the appearance of any clinical symptoms in 12 out of 22 patients. In conclusion, we believe that the quantification of CMV DNA by LC-PCR is a superior assay to pp65 antigenemia test regarding the early diagnosis of CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:16386635

  12. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  13. Object detection in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solder, Ulrich; Graefe, Volker

    1991-03-01

    An algorithm working on monocular gray-scale image sequences for object detection combined with a road tracker is presented. This algorithm appropriate for the real-time demands of an autonomous car driving with speeds over 40 km/h may be used for triggering obstacle avoidance maneuvers such as coming to a safe stop automatically in front of an obstacle or following another car. Moving and static objects have been detected in real-world experiments on various types of roads even under unfavorable weather conditions. . Morgenthaler and

  14. Real-Time Surface Traffic Adviser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A real-time data management system which uses data generated at different rates by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources are presented. In one embodiment, the invention is as an airport surface traffic data management system (traffic adviser) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline, and airport operations user communities to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. The system uses an expert system to fuse dam from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control sources, in order to establish, predict, and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation.

  15. Real-time teleteaching in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Woo, M; Ng, Kh

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics is a relatively small professional community, usually with a scarcity of expertise that could greatly benefit students entering the field. However, the reach of the profession can span great geographical distances, making the training of students a difficult task. In addition to the requirement of training new students, the evolving field of medical physics, with its many emerging advanced techniques and technologies, could benefit greatly from ongoing continuing education as well as consultation with experts.Many continuing education courses and workshops are constantly being offered, including many web-based study courses and virtual libraries. However, one mode of education and communication that has not been widely used is the real-time interactive process. Video-based conferencing systems do exist, but these usually require a substantial amount of effort and cost to set up.The authors have been working on promoting the ever-expanding capability of the Internet to facilitate the education of medical physics to students entering the field. A pilot project has been carried out for six years and reported previously. The project is a collaboration between the Department of Medical Physics at the Toronto Odette Cancer Centre in Canada and the Department of Biomedical Imaging at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Since 2001, medical physics graduate students at the University of Malaya have been taught by lecturers from Toronto every year, using the Internet as the main tool of communication.The pilot study explored the different methods that can be used to provide real-time interactive remote education, and delivered traditional classroom lectures as well as hands-on workshops.Another similar project was started in 2007 to offer real-time teaching to a class of medical physics students at Wuhan University in Hubei, China. There are new challenges as well as new opportunities associated with this project. By building an inventory of tools and

  16. Software Package For Real-Time Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1991-01-01

    Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

  17. Simultaneous real-time data collection methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klincsek, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of electronic test equipment which executes, supervises, and reports on various tests. This validation process uses computers to analyze test results and report conclusions. The test equipment consists of an electronics component and the data collection and reporting unit. The PC software, display screens, and real-time data-base are described. Pass-fail procedures and data replay are discussed. The OS2 operating system and Presentation Manager user interface system were used to create a highly interactive automated system. The system outputs are hardcopy printouts and MS DOS format files which may be used as input for other PC programs.

  18. Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer

    2005-03-30

    The Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer (ROCA) produces an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scans the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converts the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. Changes in the occupancy grid can be reported in real time to support a number of tracking capabilities. The benefit of ROCA is that rather than only providing a vector tomore » the detected change, it provides the actual x,y position of the change.« less

  19. [Development of real-time CT fluoroscopy].

    PubMed

    Katada, K; Anno, H; Takeshita, G; Ogura, Y; Koga, S; Ida, Y; Nonomura, K; Kanno, T; Ohashi, A; Sata, S

    1994-10-25

    A new CT system that permits real-time monitoring of CT images was developed. Phantom and volunteer studies revealed that the images were displayed at a rate of six per second with a delay time of 0.83 second with clinically sufficient resolution (256 x 256) using the newly developed fast image processor and partial-reconstruction algorithm. The clinical trial of stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematoma was successful. The initial trial with CT fluoroscopy revealed potential usefulness of the system in biopsy and other CT-guided interventions. PMID:9261196

  20. Real-time optical fiber dosimeter probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, André; Caron, Serge; Rink, Alexandra; Jaffray, David; Mermut, Ozzy

    2011-03-01

    There is a pressing need for a passive optical fiber dosimeter probe for use in real-time monitoring of radiation dose delivered to clinical radiation therapy patients. An optical fiber probe using radiochromic material has been designed and fabricated based on a thin film of the radiochromic material on a dielectric mirror. Measurements of the net optical density vs. time before, during, and after irradiation at a rate of 500cGy/minute to a total dose of 5 Gy were performed. Net optical densities increased from 0.2 to 2.0 for radiochromic thin film thicknesses of 2 to 20 μm, respectively.

  1. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification. PMID:26843055

  2. TOMS Near Realtime System design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

  3. Easy and hard testbeds for real-time search algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, S.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Although researchers have studied which factors influence the behavior of traditional search algorithms, currently not much is known about how domain properties influence the performance of real-time search algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that Eulerian state spaces (a super set of undirected state spaces) are very easy for some existing real-time search algorithms to solve: even real-time search algorithms that can be intractable, in general, are efficient for Eulerian state spaces. Because traditional real-time search testbeds (such as the eight puzzle and gridworlds) are Eulerian, they cannot be used to distinguish between efficient and inefficient real-time search algorithms. It follows that one has to use non-Eulerian domains to demonstrate the general superiority of a given algorithm. To this end, we present two classes of hard-to-search state spaces and demonstrate the performance of various real-time search algorithms on them.

  4. Making It Realtime: Exploring the Use of Optimized Realtime Environments for Historical Simulation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calef, Chris; Vilbrandt, Turlif; Vilbrandt, Carl; Goodwin, Janet; Goodwin, James

    As museums and educators struggle with the challenges of presenting their material in a digital format, many overlook the application that has spearheaded the development of virtual reality for the average consumer: 3D realtime game engines. These 3D game engines offer greater versatility, usability, maturity, simulation, and codebase than most…

  5. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E. )

    1989-10-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed.

  6. Residential Real-time Price Response Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2011-10-10

    The electric industry is gaining experience with innovative price responsive demand pilots and limited roll-outs to customers. One of these pilots is investigating real-time pricing signals to engage end-use systems and local distributed generation and storage in a distributed optimization process. Attractive aspects about the approach include strong scalability characteristics, simplified interfaces between automation devices, and the adaptability to integrate a wide variety of devices and systems. Experience in this nascent field is revealing a rich array of for engineering decisions and the application of complexity theory. To test the decisions, computer simulations are used to reveal insights about design, demand elasticity, and the limits of response (including consumer fatigue). Agent-based approaches lend themselves well in the simulation to modeling the participation and interaction of each piece of equipment on a distribution feeder. This paper discusses rate design and simulation experiences at the distribution feeder level where consumers and their HVAC systems and water heaters on a feeder receive real-time pricing signals.

  7. The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

    The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

  8. Real-time adaptive video image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garside, John R.; Harrison, Chris G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a continuing collaboration between the University of Manchester and British Aerospace, a signal processing array has been constructed to demonstrate that it is feasible to compensate a video signal for the degradation caused by atmospheric haze in real-time. Previously reported work has shown good agreement between a simple physical model of light scattering by atmospheric haze and the observed loss of contrast. This model predicts a characteristic relationship between contrast loss in the image and the range from the camera to the scene. For an airborne camera, the slant-range to a point on the ground may be estimated from the airplane's pose, as reported by the inertial navigation system, and the contrast may be obtained from the camera's output. Fusing data from these two streams provides a means of estimating model parameters such as the visibility and the overall illumination of the scene. This knowledge allows the same model to be applied in reverse, thus restoring the contrast lost to atmospheric haze. An efficient approximation of range is vital for a real-time implementation of the method. Preliminary results show that an adaptive approach to fitting the model's parameters, exploiting the temporal correlation between video frames, leads to a robust implementation with a significantly accelerated throughput.

  9. Real-time computed optical interferometric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Ahmad, Adeel; Adie, Steven G.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-03-01

    High-resolution tomography is of great importance to many areas of biomedical imaging, but with it comes several apparent tradeoffs such as a narrowing depth-of-field and increasing optical aberrations. Overcoming these challenges has attracted many hardware and computational solutions. Hardware solutions, though, can become bulky or expensive and computational approaches can require high computing power or large processing times. This study demonstrates memory efficient implementations of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) - two computational approaches for overcoming the depthof- field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Traditionally requiring lengthy post processing, here we report implementations of ISAM and CAO on a single GPU for real-time in vivo imaging. Real-time, camera-limited ISAM processing enabled reliable acquisition of stable data for in vivo imaging, and CAO processing on the same GPU is shown to quickly correct static aberrations. These algorithmic advances hold the promise for high-resolution volumetric imaging in time-sensitive situations as well as enabling aberrationfree cellular-level volumetric tomography.

  10. Real-time Raman sensing without spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho; Yang, Timothy K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bae, Sung Chul

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in various fields of science and technology ranging from analytical chemistry to biomedical imaging. In spite of unique features, Raman spectroscopy has also some limitations. Among them are weak Raman signal compared to strong fluorescence and relatively complicated setup with expensive and bulky spectrometer. In order to increase the sensitivity of Raman technique, many clever attempts have been made and some of them were very successful including CARS, SRS, and so on. However, these still requires expensive and more complicated setup. In this work, we have attempted to build a real-time compact Raman sensor without spectrometer. Conventional spectrometer was replaced with a narrow-band optical filter and alternatively modulated two lasers with slightly different wavelengths. At one laser, Raman signal from a target molecule was transmitted through the optical filter. At the other laser, this signal was blocked by the optical filter and could not be detected by photon detector. The alternative modulation of two lasers will modulate the Raman signal from a target molecule at the same modulation frequency. This modulated weak Raman signal was amplified by a lock-in amplifier. The advantages of this setup include compactness, low cost, real-time monitoring, and so on. We have tested the sensitivity of this setup and we found that it doesn't have enough sensitivity to detect single molecule-level, but it is still good enough to monitor the change of major chemical composition in the sample.

  11. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  12. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2000-05-01

    Optoacoustic monitoring of tissue optical properties and speed of sound in real time can provide fast and accurate feedback information during thermotherapy performed with various heating or cooling agents. Amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic pressure waves are dependent on tissue properties. Detection and measurement of the optoacoustic waves may be used to monitor the extent of tissue hyperthermia, coagulation, or freezing with high resolution and contrast. We studied real-time optoacoustic monitoring of thermal coagulation induced by conductive heating and laser radiation and cryoablation with liquid nitrogen. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses were used as probing radiation to induce optoacoustic waves in tissues. Dramatic changes in optoacoustic signal parameters were detected during tissue freezing and coagulation due to sharp changes in tissue properties. The dimensions of thermally- induced lesions were measured in real time with the optoacoustic technique. Our studies demonstrated that the laser optoacoustic technique is capable of real-time monitoring of tissue coagulation and freezing front with submillimeter spatial resolution. This may allow accurate thermal ablation or cryotherapy of malignant and benign lesions with minimal damage to normal tissues.

  13. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Real-time design with peer tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre; Howes, Norman R.; Wood, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a real-time design methodology for large scale, distributed, parallel architecture, real-time systems (LDPARTS), as an alternative to those methods using rate or dead-line monotonic analysis. In our method the fundamental units of prioritization, work items, are domain specific objects with timing requirements (deadlines) found in user's specification. A work item consists of a collection of tasks of equal priority. Current scheduling theories are applied with artifact deadlines introduced by the designer whereas our method schedules work items to meet user's specification deadlines (sometimes called end-to-end deadlines). Our method supports these scheduling properties. Work item scheduling is based on domain specific importance instead of task level urgency and still meets as many user specification deadlines as can be met by scheduling tasks with respect to urgency. Second, the minimum (closest) on-line deadline that can be guaranteed for a work item of highest importance, scheduled at run time, is approximately the inverse of the throughput, measured in work items per second. Third, throughput is not degraded during overload and instead of resorting to task shedding during overload, the designer can specify which work items to shed. We prove these properties in a mathematical model.

  15. Real-time CHAMP (RTC) infrared scene generation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.

    2001-08-01

    The Real-Time CHAMP (RTC) program is a computer simulation used to provide time varying high-fidelity infrared simulations of airborne vehicles and backgrounds in real- time. RTC is currently being utilized to provide real-time infrared imagery to support closed-loop digital and hardware-in-the-loop simulations. RTC computational algorithms take advantage of parametric databases created by its non real-time companion code (CHAMP--Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume) to allow accurate infrared imagery to be generated at real-time frame rates.

  16. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: People with Weakened Immune Systems

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Feature on Prenatal Infections People with Weakened Immune Systems Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... disease in immunocompromised persons (meaning people with weakened immune systems), such as organ and bone marrow transplant recipients, ...

  17. Real-time radar rainfall estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Emmanouil Nikolaos

    1997-08-01

    This research reports on several aspects of real-time monitoring of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall from ground-based weather radar. Optimization of the performance of the National Weather Service's Precipitation Processing Subsystem (PPS) is the first objective. This is achieved by developing a calibration procedure which simultaneously estimates the optimal parameter values by providing a global assessment of the system's performance. Evaluation of the system is based on a data set consisting of two months of radar reflectivity measurements, and hourly raingage rainfall accumulations, from the Melbourne, Florida WSR-88D site. Radar-raingage root mean square (RMS) difference reduction up to 20% with respect to the default system parameter values is demonstrated. Investigation of statistical procedures for real-time adjustment of the mean-field systematic radar rainfall error is the second objective. For this purpose, a data- based Monte Carlo simulation experiment is performed. The study uses an extensive data set of hourly radar rainfall products and raingage accumulations from the Tulsa, Oklahoma WSR-88D site. This intercomparison study concluded to a bias procedure which overall appeared to perform better than the other. The main results from this research are: (1) statistical methods with optimal error model parameters perform significantly better than using only bias observations, and (2) bias adjustment is mostly effective in cold season precipitation measurements. Final objective of this research is development of a new real-time radar rainfall estimation algorithm. The new processing steps introduced in this algorithm are beam- height effect correction, vertical integration, rain classification, and continuous range effect correction. Additionally, the algorithm applies advection correction at the gridded rainfall rates to minimize the temporal sampling effect, and its calibration is cast in a recursive formulation with parameters

  18. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, Larry H.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  19. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Matthies, Larry H.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  20. Real-time slicing of data space

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Real-time rendering of iso-contour surfaces is problematic for large complex data sets. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that allows very rapid representation of an interval set surrounding a iso-contour surface. The algorithm draws upon three main ideas. A fast indexing scheme is used to select only those data points near the contour surface. Hardware assisted splatting is then employed on these data points to produce a volume rendering of the interval set. Finally, by shifting a small window through the indexing scheme or data space, animated volumes are produced showing the changing contour values. In addition to allowing fast selection and rendering of the data, the indexing scheme allows a much compressed representation of the data by eliminating ``noise`` data points.

  1. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  2. Modeling fibril fragmentation in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pengzhen; Hong, Liu

    2013-08-01

    During the application of the mass-action-equation models to the study of amyloid fiber formation, time-consuming numerical calculations constitute a major bottleneck. To conquer this difficulty, here an alternative efficient method is introduced for the fragmentation-only model. It includes two basic steps: (1) simulate close-formed time-evolutionary equations for the number concentration P(t) derived from the moment-closure method; (2) reconstruct the detailed fiber length distribution based on the knowledge of moments obtained in the first step. Compared to direct calculation, our method speeds up the performance by at least 10 000 times (from days to seconds). The accuracy is also satisfactory if suitable functions for the approximate fibril length distribution are taken. Further application to the sonication studies on PI264-b-PFS48 micelles performed by Guerin et al. confirms our method is very promising for the real-time analysis of the experiments on fibril fragmentation.

  3. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  4. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  5. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  6. Real-time value-driven diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambrosio, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis is often thought of as an isolated task in theoretical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of updating our beliefs about the world). We present a decision-theoretic interpretation of diagnosis as a task in practical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of acting in the world), and sketch components of our approach to this task. These components include an abstract problem description, a decision-theoretic model of the basic task, a set of inference methods suitable for evaluating the decision representation in real-time, and a control architecture to provide the needed continuing coordination between the agent and its environment. A principal contribution of this work is the representation and inference methods we have developed, which extend previously available probabilistic inference methods and narrow, somewhat, the gap between probabilistic and logical models of diagnosis.

  7. Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Bedard, Noah; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential to detect important molecular biomarkers of early cancer based on their unique spectral signatures. Several drawbacks have limited its use for in vivo screening applications: most notably the poor temporal and spatial resolution, high expense, and low optical throughput of existing hyperspectral imagers. We present the development of a new real-time hyperspectral endoscope (called the image mapping spectroscopy endoscope) based on an image mapping technique capable of addressing these challenges. The parallel high throughput nature of this technique enables the device to operate at frame rates of 5.2 frames per second while collecting a (x, y, λ) datacube of 350 × 350 × 48. We have successfully imaged tissue in vivo, resolving a vasculature pattern of the lower lip while simultaneously detecting oxy-hemoglobin. PMID:21639573

  8. A Measure of Real-Time Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavane, Vaibhav

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new measure of intelligence for general reinforcement learning agents, based on the notion that an agent's environment can change at any step of execution of the agent. That is, an agent is considered to be interacting with its environment in real-time. In this sense, the resulting intelligence measure is more general than the universal intelligence measure (Legg and Hutter, 2007) and the anytime universal intelligence test (Hernández-Orallo and Dowe, 2010). A major advantage of the measure is that an agent's computational complexity is factored into the measure in a natural manner. We show that there exist agents with intelligence arbitrarily close to the theoretical maximum, and that the intelligence of agents depends on their parallel processing capability. We thus believe that the measure can provide a better evaluation of agents and guidance for building practical agents with high intelligence.

  9. Real-time remote scientific model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frainier, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes flight results from the use of a CLIPS-based validation facility to compare analyzed data from a space life sciences (SLS) experiment to an investigator's preflight model. The comparison, performed in real-time, either confirms or refutes the model and its predictions. This result then becomes the basis for continuing or modifying the investigator's experiment protocol. Typically, neither the astronaut crew in Spacelab nor the ground-based investigator team are able to react to their experiment data in real time. This facility, part of a larger science advisor system called Principal Investigator in a Box, was flown on the space shuttle in October, 1993. The software system aided the conduct of a human vestibular physiology experiment and was able to outperform humans in the tasks of data integrity assurance, data analysis, and scientific model validation. Of twelve preflight hypotheses associated with investigator's model, seven were confirmed and five were rejected or compromised.

  10. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

    2000-08-17

    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  11. Real-Time Inspection Of Currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Henry

    1986-12-01

    An automatic inspection machine, designed and manufactured by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation for the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, is capable of real-time inspection of currency at rates compatible with the output of modern high-speed printing presses. Inspection is accomplished by comparing test notes (in 32-per-sheet format) with reference notes stored in the memory of a digital computer. This paper describes the development of algorithms for detecting defective notes, one of the key problems solved during the development of the inspection system. Results achieved on an analytical model, used for predicting probability of false alarms and probability of detecting typically defective notes, are compared to those obtained by system simulation.

  12. Passive Global, Real-Time TEC Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    2002-12-01

    Sensors are being developed to provide a satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor (e.g. Suszcynsky, et al., "VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitoring from Space: Storm-level Characterization of VHF Lightning Emissions," EOS Trans. AGU 2001 Fall Mt. Prog. And Abstr. 82, No. 47, F143, 2001). Dispersive effects of propagation of the lightning electromagnetic wave through the ionospheric and plasmaspheric plasmas cause the higher frequency components to arrive at the satellite before lower frequency components. From the time-of-arrival at several frequencies we can derive the TEC between the satellite and the lightning. Using multi-satellite techniques we can geolocate the lightning and the ionospheric penetration point quite accurately. A single ground station could provide essentially real-time regional TEC coverage. Four ground stations could provide global, real-time TEC measurements to supplement existing ground-based systems, especially over broad ocean areas. We expect several lightning detections per satellite per minute. Temporal resolution will be limited only by ground segment processing. Spatial coverage and resolution will be limited by lightning occurrence, but many commercial sector TEC requirements are also correlated to lightning occurrence. With our FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite we sense lightning over most of the globe including the oceans. We expect to determine TEC spatial gradients with tens of km resolution. This capability should be especially useful in severe convective weather to aircraft using GPS-based navigation, e.g. the FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

  13. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  14. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... successful real-time information program. A Request for Comments was published on May 4, 2006, at 71 FR 26399... 14, 2009, at 74 FR 1993. The purpose was to propose the establishment of minimum parameters and... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management...

  15. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR 68418. The final rule document also... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... available and share traffic and travel conditions information via real-time information programs as...

  16. REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTIPLE MAIZE PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This talk presents updates on the development of real-time PCR assays for two seedborne pathogens of maize, Pantoea (Erwinia) stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt, and Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, the causal agent of Diplodia ear rot. We developed primers and a real-time PCR p...

  17. COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

  18. Real-time hyperspectral imaging for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral imaging systems with selected bands can commonly be used for real-time applications of food processing. Recent research has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, noise removal filter, and appropriate morphological analysis in real-time mode can remove most fa...

  19. Acting to gain information: Real-time reasoning meets real-time perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stan

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent reactive systems suggest new approaches to the problem of deriving task-relevant information from perceptual systems in real time. The author will describe work in progress aimed at coupling intelligent control mechanisms to real-time perception systems, with special emphasis on frame rate visual measurement systems. A model for integrated reasoning and perception will be discussed, and recent progress in applying these ideas to problems of sensor utilization for efficient recognition and tracking will be described.

  20. A real-time simulator of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    A real-time digital simulator of a Pratt and Whitney F100 engine has been developed for real-time code verification and for actuator diagnosis during full-scale engine testing. This self-contained unit can operate in an open-loop stand-alone mode or as part of closed-loop control system. It can also be used for control system design and development. Tests conducted in conjunction with the NASA Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation program show that the simulator is a valuable tool for real-time code verification and as a real-time actuator simulator for actuator fault diagnosis. Although currently a small perturbation model, advances in microprocessor hardware should allow the simulator to evolve into a real-time, full-envelope, full engine simulation.

  1. A real-time photogrammetry system based on embedded architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. Y.; Gui, L.; Wang, X. N.; Ma, D.

    2014-06-01

    In order to meet the demand of real-time spatial data processing and improve the online processing capability of photogrammetric system, a kind of real-time photogrammetry method is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed method, system based on embedded architecture is then designed: using FPGA, ARM+DSP and other embedded computing technology to build specialized hardware operating environment, transplanting and optimizing the existing photogrammetric algorithm to the embedded system, and finally real-time photogrammetric data processing is realized. At last, aerial photogrammetric experiment shows that the method can achieve high-speed and stable on-line processing of photogrammetric data. And the experiment also verifies the feasibility of the proposed real-time photogrammetric system based on embedded architecture. It is the first time to realize real-time aerial photogrammetric system, which can improve the online processing efficiency of photogrammetry to a higher level and broaden the application field of photogrammetry.

  2. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  3. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  4. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of vitamin D 3 as a nutrient supplement in food... for the safe use of vitamin D 3 as a nutrient supplement in meal replacement beverages and...

  5. Teaching with Real-Time Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, T. K.; Ortiz, A.; Hall-Wallace, M.; Taber, J.; Braile, L.

    2002-12-01

    Many terabytes of digital seismic data have been gathered in the past decade. These data include summary tables of events as well as raw seismograms. The event information, which can be plotted, analyzed statistically and interpreted in the context of plate tectonics and geologic hazards, make excellent classroom investigations. However, the bulk of the data are raw seismograms that require advanced knowledge and specific software to analyze and manipulate thus, they are generally inaccessible to a non-seismologist. To make real-time seismic data more accessible to students in high schools and colleges, we are developing a network of school seismometers through the IRIS Seismometer in Schools Program. The goal of this program is to promote seismology as a platform for teaching principles of physics and Earth science in schools across the nation. When studying plate tectonics and earthquakes, a seismometer in the classroom promotes awareness of earthquake activity around the world and provides an opportunity to teach with real-time data and real-world examples. The AS-1 seismometer is a low cost, durable, yet precise instrument that allows students to both investigate how a seismometer works and the recordings of the instrument, making it ideal for student and classroom use. The AS-1 recording and analysis software, AmaSeis, is simple to use yet includes all the basic tools needed for analysis: waveform display, filtering, and phase picking. The software also includes travel time curves to determine event distance and location. The seismometer keeps time using the computer's clock, which can be updated regularly through the Internet. While each instrument's response is unique, it is possible to calibrate the instrument and determine accurate magnitudes for events. In the past year our efforts have resulted in teachers using the seismometer effectively in high school classrooms. For example, using data from their own station and several others, students located

  6. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  7. Real-time detection of airborne chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L. A.; Fryer, Michael O.; Kaser, Timothy

    1999-02-01

    Accurate, real time air quality measurements are difficult to make, because real time sensors for some gas species are not specific to a single gas. For example, some carbon dioxide sensors react to hydrogen sulfide. By combining the response of several types of real time gas sensors the Real-time Air Quality Monitoring System (RAQMS) accurately measures many different gases. The sensor suite for the INEEL's Real-time Air Quality Monitoring System (RAQMS) incudes seven, inexpensive, commercially-available chemical sensors for gases associated with air quality. These chemical sensors are marketed as devices to measure carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and volatile organic compounds (VOC's). However, these chemical sensors respond to more than a single compound, e.g. both the VOC and the carbon dioxide sensors respond strongly to methane. This multiple sensor response to a given chemical is used to advantage in the RAQMS system, as patterns of responses by the sensors were found to be unique and distinguishable for several chemicals. Therefore, there is the potential that the seven sensors combined output can: (1) provide more accurate measurements of the advertized gases and (2) estimate the presence and quantity of additional gases. The patterns of sensor response can be thought of as clusters of data points in a seven dimensional space. One dimension for each sensor's output. For all of the gases tested, these clusters were separated enough that good quantitative results were obtained. As an example, the prototype RAQMS is able to distinguish methane from butane and predict accurate concentrations of both gases. A mathematical technique for estimating probability density functions from random samples is used to distinguish the data clusters from each other and to make gas concentration estimates. Bayes optimal estimates of gas concentration are calculated using the probability density function. The

  8. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  9. Real-Time MEG Source Localization Using Regional Clustering.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Christoph; Strohmeier, Daniel; Luessi, Martin; Güllmar, Daniel; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2015-11-01

    With its millisecond temporal resolution, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is well suited for real-time monitoring of brain activity. Real-time feedback allows the adaption of the experiment to the subject's reaction and increases time efficiency by shortening acquisition and off-line analysis. Two formidable challenges exist in real-time analysis: the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limited time available for computations. Since the low SNR reduces the number of distinguishable sources, we propose an approach which downsizes the source space based on a cortical atlas and allows to discern the sources in the presence of noise. Each cortical region is represented by a small set of dipoles, which is obtained by a clustering algorithm. Using this approach, we adapted dynamic statistical parametric mapping for real-time source localization. In terms of point spread and crosstalk between regions the proposed clustering technique performs better than selecting spatially evenly distributed dipoles. We conducted real-time source localization on MEG data from an auditory experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed real-time method localizes sources reliably in the superior temporal gyrus. We conclude that real-time source estimation based on MEG is a feasible, useful addition to the standard on-line processing methods, and enables feedback based on neural activity during the measurements. PMID:25782980

  10. High-density FPGAs for real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhauser, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.; Castracane, James; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason; Simkulet, Michelle D.

    1997-04-01

    The use of an off-the-shelf general purpose processing system supplied by Giga Operations as applied to real-time video applications is described. The system is modular enough to be used in many scientific and industrial applications and powerful enough to maintain the throughput required for real-time video processing. This hardware and the associated programming environment has enabled InterScience to pursue research in real-time data compression, real-time Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) image processing, and industrial quality control and manufacturing. The system is based on Xilinx 4000 series field programmable gate arrays with associated static and dynamic random access memory in an architecture optimized for video processing on either the VL-Bus or PCI. This paper will focus on the design and development of a real-time frame subtractor for ESPI using this technology. Examples of the improvement in research capability provided by real-time frame subtraction are shown, including images from biomedical experiments. Further applications, based on this system are described. These include real-time data compression, quality control for production lines as part of an automated inspection system and a multi-camera security system allowing motion estimation to automatically prioritize camera selection.

  11. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  12. Method for Real-Time Model Based Structural Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and methods for real-time model based vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.

  13. Methods for real-time speech processing on Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses computer programming done at the University of California, Berkeley, in support of research work in the area of speech analysis and synthesis. The purpose of this programming is to set up a system for doing real-time speech sampling using the Unix operating system. Two alternative approaches to real time work on Unix are discussed. The first approach is to do the real-time input/output on a secondary (satellite) machine that is not running Unix. The second approach is to do the real-time input/output on the main machine with the aid of special hardware.

  14. Real-time accumulative computation motion detectors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  15. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  16. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  17. Real-time multi-view deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Benjamin; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Summary: In light-sheet microscopy, overall image content and resolution are improved by acquiring and fusing multiple views of the sample from different directions. State-of-the-art multi-view (MV) deconvolution simultaneously fuses and deconvolves the images in 3D, but processing takes a multiple of the acquisition time and constitutes the bottleneck in the imaging pipeline. Here, we show that MV deconvolution in 3D can finally be achieved in real-time by processing cross-sectional planes individually on the massively parallel architecture of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Our approximation is valid in the typical case where the rotation axis lies in the imaging plane. Availability and implementation: Source code and binaries are available on github (https://github.com/bene51/), native code under the repository ‘gpu_deconvolution’, Java wrappers implementing Fiji plugins under ‘SPIM_Reconstruction_Cuda’. Contact: bschmid@mpi-cbg.de or huisken@mpi-cbg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26112291

  18. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  19. Real-time realistic skin translucency.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Whelan, David; Sundstedt, Veronica; Gutierrez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion theory allows the production of realistic skin renderings. The dipole and multipole models allow for solving challenging diffusion-theory equations efficiently. By using texture-space diffusion, a Gaussian-based approximation, and programmable graphics hardware, developers can create real-time, photorealistic skin renderings. Performing this diffusion in screen space offers advantages that make diffusion approximation practical in scenarios such as games, where having the best possible performance is crucial. However, unlike the texture-space counterpart, the screen-space approach can't simulate transmittance of light through thin geometry; it yields unrealistic results in those cases. A new transmittance algorithm turns the screen-space approach into an efficient global solution, capable of simulating both reflectance and transmittance of light through a multilayered skin model. The transmittance calculations are derived from physical equations, which are implemented through simple texture access. The method performs in real time, requiring no additional memory usage and only minimal additional processing power and memory bandwidth. Despite its simplicity, this practical model manages to reproduce the look of images rendered with other techniques (both offline and real time) such as photon mapping or diffusion approximation. PMID:20650726

  20. Real-time neural coding of memory.

    PubMed

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2007-01-01

    Recent identification of network-level functional coding units, termed neural cliques, in the hippocampus has allowed real-time patterns of memory traces to be mathematically described, intuitively visualized, and dynamically deciphered. Any given episodic event is represented and encoded by the activation of a set of neural clique assemblies that are organized in a categorical and hierarchical manner. This hierarchical feature-encoding pyramid is invariantly composed of the general feature-encoding clique at the bottom, sub-general feature-encoding cliques in the middle, and highly specific feature-encoding cliques at the top. This hierarchical and categorical organization of neural clique assemblies provides the network-level mechanism the capability of not only achieving vast storage capacity, but also generating commonalities from the individual behavioral episodes and converting them to the abstract concepts and generalized knowledge that are essential for intelligence and adaptive behaviors. Furthermore, activation patterns of the neural clique assemblies can be mathematically converted to strings of binary codes that would permit universal categorizations of the brain's internal representations across individuals and species. Such universal brain codes can also potentially facilitate the unprecedented brain-machine interface communications. PMID:17925242

  1. Real-time computerized annotation of pictures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, James Z

    2008-06-01

    Developing effective methods for automated annotation of digital pictures continues to challenge computer scientists. The capability of annotating pictures by computers can lead to breakthroughs in a wide range of applications, including Web image search, online picture-sharing communities, and scientific experiments. In this work, the authors developed new optimization and estimation techniques to address two fundamental problems in machine learning. These new techniques serve as the basis for the Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures - Real Time (ALIPR) system of fully automatic and high speed annotation for online pictures. In particular, the D2-clustering method, in the same spirit as k-means for vectors, is developed to group objects represented by bags of weighted vectors. Moreover, a generalized mixture modeling technique (kernel smoothing as a special case) for non-vector data is developed using the novel concept of Hypothetical Local Mapping (HLM). ALIPR has been tested by thousands of pictures from an Internet photo-sharing site, unrelated to the source of those pictures used in the training process. Its performance has also been studied at an online demo site where arbitrary users provide pictures of their choices and indicate the correctness of each annotation word. The experimental results show that a single computer processor can suggest annotation terms in real-time and with good accuracy. PMID:18421105

  2. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  3. Real-time pricing's hidden surprise

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, R.; Woodley, J.

    1994-03-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States and the rest of the world is in the midst of profound change, with various models of regulation and nonregulation being tested. The United States has opted for an incremental approach to changes in fundamental aspects of the industry. Other countries, most notably the United Kingdom, are in the process of deregulation. These different structures rely on and result in dramatically different markets. While market structures may differ, similar approaches to service designs are evolving. Specifically, service options based on pricing are proliferating, and customers are being given the opportunity to select from a menu of options. This is in marked contrast to the rigid tariff structures that presuppose monopoly status to achieve utility goals. Strong parallels may be drawn between the pool-pricing options and associated hedging mechanisms offered in England and Wales, and the two-part tariff-based real-time pricing (RTP) programs in the United States. The latter service design, which is undergoing experimentation at Georgia Power Co., and in pilot operation at Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., has been criticized as too complex and not reflecting a competitive pricing structure. However, the similarity between two-part tariff programs and pool-pricing services (offered in the U.K. to a significantly larger customer base, under greater competition) undercuts these criticisms.

  4. Real-time DIRCM system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Mikael

    2004-12-01

    Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

  5. Real-time sensor data validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of an on-going effort to develop software capable of detecting sensor failures on rocket engines in real time. This software could be used in a rocket engine controller to prevent the erroneous shutdown of an engine due to sensor failures which would otherwise be interpreted as engine failures by the control software. The approach taken combines analytical redundancy with Bayesian belief networks to provide a solution which has well defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates. Analytical redundancy is a technique in which a sensor's value is predicted by using values from other sensors and known or empirically derived mathematical relations. A set of sensors and a set of relations among them form a network of cross-checks which can be used to periodically validate all of the sensors in the network. Bayesian belief networks provide a method of determining if each of the sensors in the network is valid, given the results of the cross-checks. This approach has been successfully demonstrated on the Technology Test Bed Engine at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Current efforts are focused on extending the system to provide a validation capability for 100 sensors on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  6. Recommendations for real-time speech MRI.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P; Miquel, Marc E; Nayak, Krishna S

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  7. Real-time holographic camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail Y.; Grabovski, Vitaly V.; Stolyarenko, Alexandr V.; Zahaykevich, George A.

    1997-04-01

    The holographic camera system for surface-relief hologram multiple reversible registration is presented. Photosensitive media is a single-layer photothermoplastic polymer on a glass substrate with conductive layer. This exclude a charges accumulation in the polymer volume and permits to realize an efficient enhancement of latent electrostatic image and its fast pulse heating development. The processes of charging, photogeneration, carriers transport, fast development and erasing, image enhancement were studied in detail and optimized. In order to improve some defects of photothermoplastic recording, originating from influences of circumstances and recording conditions, some new processes were developed: (1) fast charging with pulses corona in closed dielectric volume, (2) optoelectronic enhancement of electrostatic image, and (3) fast pulsed development with automatically controlled temperature rate. The dust-proof recording camera with built-in highvoltage power supply, thermo- and photosensors was designed to meet the needs of real-time or multiple- exposure interferometry, holographic training recording, holographic storage systems, correlation investigations and pattern recognition.

  8. Handheld real-time PCR device.

    PubMed

    Ahrberg, Christian D; Ilic, Bojan Robert; Manz, Andreas; Neužil, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Here we report one of the smallest real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems to date with an approximate size of 100 mm × 60 mm × 33 mm. The system is an autonomous unit requiring an external 12 V power supply. Four simultaneous reactions are performed in the form of virtual reaction chambers (VRCs) where a ≈200 nL sample is covered with mineral oil and placed on a glass cover slip. Fast, 40 cycle amplification of an amplicon from the H7N9 gene was used to demonstrate the PCR performance. The standard curve slope was -3.02 ± 0.16 cycles at threshold per decade (mean ± standard deviation) corresponding to an amplification efficiency of 0.91 ± 0.05 per cycle (mean ± standard deviation). The PCR device was capable of detecting a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) copy. These results further suggest that our handheld PCR device may have broad, technologically-relevant applications extending to rapid detection of infectious diseases in small clinics. PMID:26753557

  9. Towards real-time image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, Bobby; Grecos, Christos

    2011-03-01

    We introduce a real-time implementation and evaluation of a new fast accurate full reference based image quality metric. The popular general image quality metric known as the Structural Similarity Index Metric (SSIM) has been shown to be an effective, efficient and useful, finding many practical and theoretical applications. Recently the authors have proposed an enhanced version of the SSIM algorithm known as the Rotated Gaussian Discrimination Metric (RGDM). This approach uses a Gaussian-like discrimination function to evaluate local contrast and luminance. RGDM was inspired by an exploration of local statistical parameter variations in relation to variation of Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for a range of particular distortion types. In this paper we out-line the salient features of the derivation of RGDM and show how analyses of local statistics of distortion type necessitate variation in discrimination function width. Results on the LIVE image database show tight banding of RGDM metric value when plotted against mean opinion score indicating the usefulness of this metric. We then explore a number of strategies for algorithmic speed-up including the application of Integral Images for patch based computation optimisation, cost reduction for the evaluation of the discrimination function and general loop unrolling. We also employ fast Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) intrinsics and explore data parallel decomposition on a multi-core Intel Processor.

  10. Distributed real-time model-based diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, A. C.; Chung, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to onboard anomaly diagnosis that combines the simplicity and real-time guarantee of a rule-based diagnosis system with the specification ease and coverage guarantees of a model-based diagnosis system.

  11. Real-time interactive speech technology at Threshold Technology, Incorporated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herscher, Marvin B.

    1977-01-01

    Basic real-time isolated-word recognition techniques are reviewed. Industrial applications of voice technology are described in chronological order of their development. Future research efforts are also discussed.

  12. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  13. Real-time holography on bacteriorhodopsin-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Victor B.

    1998-09-01

    The main properties and mechanisms of photoresponse of the bacteriohodopsin-based materials are presented. Fields of their potential applications in the real-time holography and nonlinear optics are discussed.

  14. Estimating correlation for a real-time measure of connectivity.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Akhil; Panday, Ashish; Joshi, Bharat; Ravindran, Arun; Zaveri, Hitten P

    2012-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in connectivity analysis of fMRI and scalp and intracranial EEG time-series. The computational requirements of the pair-wise correlation (PWC), the core time-series measure used to estimate connectivity, presents a challenge to the real-time estimation of the PWC between all pairs of multiple time-series. We describe a parallel algorithm for computing PWC in real-time for streaming data from multiple channels. The algorithm was implemented on the Intel Xeon™ and IBM Cell Broadband Engine™ platforms. We evaluated time to estimate correlation for signals recorded with different acquisition parameters as a comparison to real-time constraints. We demonstrate that the execution time of these efficient implementations meet real-time constraints in most instances. PMID:23367098

  15. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safadi, Lilac

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care. PMID:27294118

  16. Real-time and reliable human detection in clutter scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yumei; Luo, Xiaoshu; Xia, Haiying

    2013-10-01

    To solve the problem that traditional HOG approach for human detection can not achieve real-time detection due to its time-consuming detection, an efficient algorithm based on first segmentation then identify method for real-time human detection is proposed to achieve real-time human detection in clutter scene. Firstly, the ViBe algorithm is used to segment all possible human target regions quickly, and more accurate moving objects is obtained by using the YUV color space to eliminate the shadow; secondly, using the body geometry knowledge can help to found the valid human areas by screening the regions of interest; finally, linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier and HOG are applied to train for human body classifier, to achieve accurate positioning of human body's locations. The results of our comparative experiments demonstrated that the approach proposed can obtain high accuracy, good real-time performance and strong robustness.

  17. Clinical experience with real-time ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Wolfman, Neil T.; Covitz, Wesley

    1995-05-01

    After testing the extended multimedia interface (EMMI) product which is an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) user to network interface (UNI) of AT&T at the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology conference in Winston-Salem, the Department of Radiology together with AT&T are implementing a tele-ultrasound system to combine real- time ultrasound with the static imaging features of more traditional digital ultrasound systems. Our current ultrasound system archives digital images to an optical disk system. Static images are sent using our digital radiology systems. This could be transferring images from one digital imaging and communications (DICOM)-compliant machine to another, or the current image transfer methodologies. The prototype of a live ultrasound system using the EMMI demonstrated the feasibility of doing live ultrasound. We now are developing the scenarios using a mix of the two methodologies. Utilizing EMMI technology, radiologists at the BGSM review at a workstation both static images and real-time scanning done by a technologist on patients at a remote site in order to render on-line primary diagnosis. Our goal is to test the feasibility of operating an ultrasound laboratory at a remote site utilizing a trained technologist without the necessity of having a full-time radiologist at that site. Initial plans are for a radiologist to review an initial set of static images on a patient taken by the technologist. If further scanning is required, the EMMI is used to transmit real-time imaging and audio using the audio input of a standard microphone system and the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) output of the ultrasound equipment from the remote site to the radiologist in the department review station. The EMMI digitally encodes this data and places it in an ATM format. This ATM data stream goes to the GCNS2000 and then to the other EMMI where the ATM data stream is decoded into the live studies and voice communication which are then

  18. An Evaluation of Real-Time Zenith Total Delay Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R.; Laurichesse, D.

    2012-12-01

    The use of modern low-latency Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models by meteorological institutions to improve nowcasting operations requires the accurate and timely estimation of the Zenith Total Delay (ZTD). Observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be processed to obtain such ZTD estimates. As of now, meeting the established requirements on the latency (as low as 5 min) and accuracy (up to few millimeters) of the ZTD for its use in nowcasting applications stands as a challenge. However, using, for example, the real-time orbit and clock products from the recently established IGS Real-Time Service, it is possible to estimate the ZTD by different processing strategies and each strategy can result in a different level of accuracy. The Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie Ntrip Client (BNC) can provide ZTD estimates in real-time using precise point positioning (PPP) without integer ambiguity resolution. Recently, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) has released a modified version of BNC which produces ZTD estimates in real-time with integer-PPP, i.e. PPP with integer ambiguity resolution using their integer-recovery clock and widelane phase bias information. trackRT from MIT and RTNet from GPS Solutions Inc are also capable of providing real-time estimates of the ZTD. In this study, we present an evaluation of the real-time ZTD estimates obtained from different GNSS processing systems. Furthermore, we compare the real-time estimates to those from a near real-time system and the IGS Final Troposphere products.

  19. Can Real-Time Data Also Be Climate Quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, M.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    GMI, AMSR-2 and WindSat herald a new era of highly accurate and timely microwave data products. Traditionally, there has been a large divide between real-time and re-analysis data products. What if these completely separate processing systems could be merged? Through advanced modeling and physically based algorithms, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has narrowed the gap between real-time and research-quality. Satellite microwave ocean products have proven useful for a wide array of timely Earth science applications. Through cloud SST capabilities have enormously benefited tropical cyclone forecasting and day to day fisheries management, to name a few. Oceanic wind vectors enhance operational safety of shipping and recreational boating. Atmospheric rivers are of import to many human endeavors, as are cloud cover and knowledge of precipitation events. Some activities benefit from both climate and real-time operational data used in conjunction. RSS has been consistently improving microwave Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) for several decades, while making near real-time data publicly available for semi-operational use. These data streams have often been produced in 2 stages: near real-time, followed by research quality final files. Over the years, we have seen this time delay shrink from months or weeks to mere hours. As well, we have seen the quality of near real-time data improve to the point where the distinction starts to blur. We continue to work towards better and faster RFI filtering, adaptive algorithms and improved real-time validation statistics for earlier detection of problems. Can it be possible to produce climate quality data in real-time, and what would the advantages be? We will try to answer these questions…

  20. Real-time transesophageal echocardiography facilitates antegrade balloon aortic valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazato; Yano, Kentaro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Nakashoji, Tomohiro; Tonomura, Daisuke; Takehara, Kosuke; Kino, Naoto; Yoshida, Masataka; Kurotobi, Toshiya; Tsuchida, Takao; Fukumoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of severe aortic stenosis (AS) where antegrade balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) was performed under real-time transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance. Real-time TEE can provide useful information for evaluating the aortic valve response to valvuloplasty during the procedure. It was led with the intentional wire-bias technique in order to compress the severely calcified leaflet, and consequently allowed the balloon to reach the largest possible size and achieve full expansion of the aortic annulus. PMID:27054107

  1. Real-time and postprocessing holographic effects in dichromated pullulan.

    PubMed

    Savić, Svetlana; Pantelić, Dejan; Jakovijević, Dragica

    2002-08-01

    Experimental results concerning both real-time and postprocessing (after-development) behavior of a novel photosensitive material, dichromate-sensitized pullulan (DCP), are investigated. The exposure mechanism and possibilities for controlling holographic grating properties are discussed. We have shown that it is possible to maximize the diffraction efficiency of interference gratings after development by controlling diffraction efficiency in real time. Stronger real-time effects of DCP compared with those of dichromated gelatin are achieved. PMID:12153075

  2. Real-time shipboard orbit determination using Kalman filtering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The real-time tracking and orbit determination program used on board the NASA tracking ship, the USNS Vanguard, is described in this paper. The computer program uses a variety of filtering algorithms, including an extended Kalman filter, to derive real-time orbit determinations (position-velocity state vectors) from shipboard tracking and navigation data. Results from Apollo missions are given to show that orbital parameters can be estimated quickly and accurately using these methods.

  3. Real-time flight test data distribution and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesel, Michael C.; Hammons, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    Enhancements to the real-time processing and display systems of the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range are described. Display processing has been moved out of the telemetry and radar acquisition processing systems super-minicomputers into user/client interactive graphic workstations. Real-time data is provided to the workstations by way of Ethernet. Future enhancement plans include use of fiber optic cable to replace the Ethernet.

  4. TRMM Realtime Data Production, Transfer, and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, a joint US NASA and Japan NASDA mission, was launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Island, Japan on a NASDA provided H-II launch vehicle. The TRMM objectives are: to obtain and study multi-year science data sets of tropical and sub- tropical rainfall measurement; to understand how interactions between the sea, air, and land masses produce changes in global rainfall and climate; to help improve modeling of tropical rainfall processes; to test, evaluate, and improve the performance of satellite rainfall estimates measurements and techniques. The routine production and quick distribution of standard products provides an important underpinning to these objectives. The determination of standard TRMM algorithms and the requirements for routine production and distribution fall within the authority of the joint US-Japan Science Team. In April of 1998, the Joint TRMM Science team requested that TRMM data be made available in near real-time to approved international agencies and modelers. This request was an addition to the routine production of the standard TRMM data products. The science team requested that near-realtime products be as small as possible to facilitate their transfer via networks. Indeed, it was determined that only network transfer would be available. This presentation provides an overview of the type of products available from the realtime system and how the TRMM system was developed at the lowest cost in the shortest amount of time. It then describes the real-time data flow. The presentation also summarizes how the science quality of real-time data is maintained. It describes how interested groups can get access to this data and the importance of networks for the future of real-time data expansion. The presentation concludes real-time possibilities and improvements possible as part of the proposed Global Precipitation Mission. High speed network access availability is an important catalyst to real-time

  5. Real-time laser holographic Interferometry for aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in thermoplastic recording holograms and advancements in automated image digitalization and analysis make real-time laser holographic interferometry feasible for two-dimensional flows such as airfoil flows. Typical airfoil measurements would include airfoil presssure distributions, wake and boundary layer profiles, and flow field density contours. This paper addresses some of the problems and requirements of a real-time laser holographic interferometer.

  6. Real-time laser holographic interferometry for aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in thermoplastic recording holograms and advancements in automated image digitalization and analysis make real-time laser holographic interferometry feasible for two-dimensional flows such as airfoil flows. Typical airfoil measurements would include airfoil pressure distributions, wake and boundary layer profiles, and flow field density contours. This paper addresses some of the problems and requirements of a real-time laser holographic interferometer.

  7. Real-Time Feature Tracking Using Homography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel S.; Cheng, Yang; Ansar, Adnan I.; Trotz, David C.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2010-01-01

    This software finds feature point correspondences in sequences of images. It is designed for feature matching in aerial imagery. Feature matching is a fundamental step in a number of important image processing operations: calibrating the cameras in a camera array, stabilizing images in aerial movies, geo-registration of images, and generating high-fidelity surface maps from aerial movies. The method uses a Shi-Tomasi corner detector and normalized cross-correlation. This process is likely to result in the production of some mismatches. The feature set is cleaned up using the assumption that there is a large planar patch visible in both images. At high altitude, this assumption is often reasonable. A mathematical transformation, called an homography, is developed that allows us to predict the position in image 2 of any point on the plane in image 1. Any feature pair that is inconsistent with the homography is thrown out. The output of the process is a set of feature pairs, and the homography. The algorithms in this innovation are well known, but the new implementation improves the process in several ways. It runs in real-time at 2 Hz on 64-megapixel imagery. The new Shi-Tomasi corner detector tries to produce the requested number of features by automatically adjusting the minimum distance between found features. The homography-finding code now uses an implementation of the RANSAC algorithm that adjusts the number of iterations automatically to achieve a pre-set probability of missing a set of inliers. The new interface allows the caller to pass in a set of predetermined points in one of the images. This allows the ability to track the same set of points through multiple frames.

  8. Compact snapshot real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2011-11-01

    The described spectral imaging system, referred to as a Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer, is capable of acquiring spectral image data of a scene in a single integration of a camera, is ultra-compact, inexpensive (commercial off-the-shelf), has no moving parts, and can produce datacubes (x, y, λ) in real time. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai [1], the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. By combining a birefringent interferometer with a lenslet array, the entire spectrometer consumes approximately 15×15×20 mm3, excluding the imaging camera. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment and a laboratory proof of concept of the sensor. Post-processing is currently accomplished in Matlab, but progress is underway in developing real-time reconstruction capabilities with software programmed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is anticipated that processing of >30 datacubes per second can be achieved with modest GPU hardware, with spatial/spectral data of or exceeding 256×256 spatial resolution elements and 60 spectral bands over the visible (400-800 nm) spectrum. Data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions as well as retinal imaging.

  9. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-05-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  10. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  11. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Alain C; Haag, Moritz P; Reiher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm used and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semiempirical methods as the data source and apply the surrogate-potential mediator to deliver reliable real-time feedback. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26678030

  12. Real-time dynamic simulation of the Cassini spacecraft using DARTS. Part 2: Parallel/vectorized real-time implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, A.; Roberts, J. A.; Jain, A.; Man, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper presented the requirements for the real-time simulation of Cassini spacecraft along with some discussion of the DARTS algorithm. Here, in Part 2 we discuss the development and implementation of parallel/vectorized DARTS algorithm and architecture for real-time simulation. Development of the fast algorithms and architecture for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of spacecraft dynamics is motivated by the fact that it represents a hard real-time problem, in the sense that the correctness of the simulation depends on both the numerical accuracy and the exact timing of the computation. For a given model fidelity, the computation should be computed within a predefined time period. Further reduction in computation time allows increasing the fidelity of the model (i.e., inclusion of more flexible modes) and the integration routine.

  13. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... establish a real-time information program for traffic and travel conditions reporting with the same... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program... TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  14. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... establish a real-time information program for traffic and travel conditions reporting with the same... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program... TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  15. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... establish a real-time information program for traffic and travel conditions reporting with the same... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program... TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  16. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... establish a real-time information program for traffic and travel conditions reporting with the same... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program... TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  17. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  18. Geomagnetic Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several international agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time geomagnetic data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping geomagnetic activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of geomagnetic activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical geomagnetic and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints

  19. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  20. Spatio-temporal modeling for real-time ozone forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Paci, Lucia; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate assessment of exposure to ambient ozone concentrations is important for informing the public and pollution monitoring agencies about ozone levels that may lead to adverse health effects. High-resolution air quality information can offer significant health benefits by leading to improved environmental decisions. A practical challenge facing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is to provide real-time forecasting of current 8-hour average ozone exposure over the entire conterminous United States. Such real-time forecasting is now provided as spatial forecast maps of current 8-hour average ozone defined as the average of the previous four hours, current hour, and predictions for the next three hours. Current 8-hour average patterns are updated hourly throughout the day on the EPA-AIRNow web site. The contribution here is to show how we can substantially improve upon current real-time forecasting systems. To enable such forecasting, we introduce a downscaler fusion model based on first differences of real-time monitoring data and numerical model output. The model has a flexible coefficient structure and uses an efficient computational strategy to fit model parameters. Our hybrid computational strategy blends continuous background updated model fitting with real-time predictions. Model validation analyses show that we are achieving very accurate and precise ozone forecasts. PMID:24010052

  1. Real-time simulation of thermal shadows with EMIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andreas; Oberhofer, Stefan; Schätz, Peter; Nischwitz, Alfred; Obermeier, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern missile systems use infrared imaging for tracking or target detection algorithms. The development and validation processes of these missile systems need high fidelity simulations capable of stimulating the sensors in real-time with infrared image sequences from a synthetic 3D environment. The Extensible Multispectral Image Generation Toolset (EMIT) is a modular software library developed at MBDA Germany for the generation of physics-based infrared images in real-time. EMIT is able to render radiance images in full 32-bit floating point precision using state of the art computer graphics cards and advanced shader programs. An important functionality of an infrared image generation toolset is the simulation of thermal shadows as these may cause matching errors in tracking algorithms. However, for real-time simulations, such as hardware in the loop simulations (HWIL) of infrared seekers, thermal shadows are often neglected or precomputed as they require a thermal balance calculation in four-dimensions (3D geometry in one-dimensional time up to several hours in the past). In this paper we will show the novel real-time thermal simulation of EMIT. Our thermal simulation is capable of simulating thermal effects in real-time environments, such as thermal shadows resulting from the occlusion of direct and indirect irradiance. We conclude our paper with the practical use of EMIT in a missile HWIL simulation.

  2. IGS Real-Time Service - Status And Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rülke, Axel; Agrotis, Loukis; Caissy, Mark; Habrich, Heinz; Neumaier, Peter; Söhne, Wolfgang; Weber, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides high quality products for a large variety of scientific and engineering GNSS applications. Well known post-processing results are satellite ephemeris and station coordinates in a global reference frame, Earth orientation and atmospheric parameters. With its Real-Time Service now the IGS extends its capability to support applications requiring real-time access to products. In this paper we introduce the latest status of the IGS Real-Time Service (IGS RTS) and describe its Initial Operational Capability (IOC). Components of the implemented infrastructure are described and an overview on available products and their usage is presented. The product quality is evaluated in view of applications such as real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The plan is to declare Full Operational Capability (FOC) in 2014, as soon as the IGS Governing Board is satisfied with the accuracy and availability of the GNSS products. Hence the presentation closes with an outlook on progress towards real-time multi-GNSS in IGS.

  3. Head movement compensation in real-time magnetoencephalographic recordings

    PubMed Central

    Little, Graham; Boe, Shaun; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback- and brain-computer interface (BCI)-based interventions can be implemented using real-time analysis of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings. Head movement during MEG recordings, however, can lead to inaccurate estimates of brain activity, reducing the efficacy of the intervention. Most real-time applications in MEG have utilized analyses that do not correct for head movement. Effective means of correcting for head movement are needed to optimize the use of MEG in such applications. Here we provide preliminary validation of a novel analysis technique, real-time source estimation (rtSE), that measures head movement and generates corrected current source time course estimates in real-time. rtSE was applied while recording a calibrated phantom to determine phantom position localization accuracy and source amplitude estimation accuracy under stationary and moving conditions. Results were compared to off-line analysis methods to assess validity of the rtSE technique. The rtSE method allowed for accurate estimation of current source activity at the source-level in real-time, and accounted for movement of the source due to changes in phantom position. The rtSE technique requires modifications and specialized analysis of the following MEG work flow steps.•Data acquisition•Head position estimation•Source localization•Real-time source estimation This work explains the technical details and validates each of these steps. PMID:26150963

  4. A Practical Approach to Implementing Real-Time Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Bhat, Girish; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates implementations of process algebras which are suitable for modeling concurrent real-time systems. It suggests an approach for efficiently implementing real-time semantics using dynamic priorities. For this purpose a proces algebra with dynamic priority is defined, whose semantics corresponds one-to-one to traditional real-time semantics. The advantage of the dynamic-priority approach is that it drastically reduces the state-space sizes of the systems in question while preserving all properties of their functional and real-time behavior. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by a case study which deals with the formal modeling and verification of the SCSI-2 bus-protocol. The case study is carried out in the Concurrency Workbench of North Carolina, an automated verification tool in which the process algebra with dynamic priority is implemented. It turns out that the state space of the bus-protocol model is about an order of magnitude smaller than the one resulting from real-time semantics. The accuracy of the model is proved by applying model checking for verifying several mandatory properties of the bus protocol.

  5. Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, Matthew P.

    2006-02-01

    The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were presented. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line. The test results of industrial sacle real-time system showed that the multispectral imaging technique performed well for detecting fecal contaminants with a commercial processing speed (currently 140 birds per minute). The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was approximately 96%.

  6. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  7. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non

  8. Real-time measurement of mental workload: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Arthur; Humphrey, Darryl; Sirevaag, Erik; Mecklinger, Axel

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to explore the utility of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as real-time measures of workload. To this end, subjects performed two different tasks both separately and together. One task required that subjects monitor a bank of constantly changing gauges and detect critical deviations. Difficulty was varied by changing the predictability of the gauges. The second task was mental arithmetic. Difficulty was varied by requiring subjects to perform operations on either two or three columns of numbers. Two conditions that could easily be distinguished on the basis of performance measures were selected for the real-time evaluation of ERPs. A bootstrapping approach was adopted in which one thousand samples of n trials (n = 1, 3, 5 ...65) were classified using several measures of P300 and Slow Wave amplitude. Classification accuracies of 85 percent were achieved with 25 trials. Results are discussed in terms of potential enhancements for real-time recording.

  9. Explaining How to Play Real-Time Strategy Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metoyer, Ronald; Stumpf, Simone; Neumann, Christoph; Dodge, Jonathan; Cao, Jill; Schnabel, Aaron

    Real-time strategy games share many aspects with real situations in domains such as battle planning, air traffic control, and emergency response team management which makes them appealing test-beds for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning. End user annotations could help to provide supplemental information for learning algorithms, especially when training data is sparse. This paper presents a formative study to uncover how experienced users explain game play in real-time strategy games. We report the results of our analysis of explanations and discuss their characteristics that could support the design of systems for use by experienced real-time strategy game users in specifying or annotating strategy-oriented behavior.

  10. Safe Runtime Verification of Real-Time Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Christian; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Introducing a monitor on a system typically changes the system’s behaviour by slowing the system down and increasing memory consumption. This may possibly result in creating new bugs, or possibly even ‘fixing’ bugs, only to reappear as the monitor is removed. Properties written in a real-time logic, such as duration calculus, can be particularly sensitive to such changes induced through monitoring. The same problem occurs in other scenarios such as when a system is ported to a faster machine. In this paper, we identify a class of real-time properties, in duration calculus, which are monotonic under the slowing down (speeding up) of the underlying system. We apply this approach to the real-time runtime monitoring tool Larva, where we use duration calculus as a monitoring property specification language, so we automatically identify properties which can be shown to be monotonic with respect to system re-timing.

  11. A Scheduling Algorithm for Replicated Real-Time Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Albert C.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    We present an algorithm for scheduling real-time periodic tasks on a multiprocessor system under fault-tolerant requirement. Our approach incorporates both the redundancy and masking technique and the imprecise computation model. Since the tasks in hard real-time systems have stringent timing constraints, the redundancy and masking technique are more appropriate than the rollback techniques which usually require extra time for error recovery. The imprecise computation model provides flexible functionality by trading off the quality of the result produced by a task with the amount of processing time required to produce it. It therefore permits the performance of a real-time system to degrade gracefully. We evaluate the algorithm by stochastic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the algorithm is resilient under hardware failures.

  12. Test applications for heterogeneous real-time network testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.F.; Knightly, E.W.

    1994-07-01

    This paper investigates several applications for a heterogeneous real-time network testbed. The network is heterogeneous in terms of network devices, technologies, protocols, and algorithms. The network is real-time in that its services can provide per-connection end-to-end performance guarantees. Although different parts of the network use different algorithms, all components have the necessary mechanisms to provide performance guarantees: admission control and priority scheduling. Three applications for this network are described in this paper: a video conferencing tool, a tool for combustion modeling using distributed computing, and an MPEG video archival system. Each has minimum performance requirements that must be provided by the network. By analyzing these applications, we provide insights to the traffic characteristics and performance requirements of practical real-time loads.

  13. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  14. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  15. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  16. Towards real-time medical diagnostics using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgan, Asgeir; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides non-contact, high resolution spectral images which has a substantial diagnostic potential. This can be used for e.g. diagnosis and early detection of arthritis in finger joints. Processing speed is currently a limitation for clinical use of the technique. A real-time system for analysis and visualization using GPU processing and threaded CPU processing is presented. Images showing blood oxygenation, blood volume fraction and vessel enhanced images are among the data calculated in real-time. This study shows the potential of real-time processing in this context. A combination of the processing modules will be used in detection of arthritic finger joints from hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance data.

  17. Coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, Swaminathan; Zhao, Wei

    1994-01-01

    In this project, we addressed issues in coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems. In particular, we concentrated on design and implementation of a new distributed real-time system called R-Shell. The design objective of R-Shell is to provide computing support for space programs that have large, complex, fault-tolerant distributed real-time applications. In R-shell, the approach is based on the concept of scheduling agents, which reside in the application run-time environment, and are customized to provide just those resource management functions which are needed by the specific application. With this approach, we avoid the need for a sophisticated OS which provides a variety of generalized functionality, while still not burdening application programmers with heavy responsibility for resource management. In this report, we discuss the R-Shell approach, summarize the achievement of the project, and describe a preliminary prototype of R-Shell system.

  18. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  19. Continuous focus tracking for real-time optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Michael J.; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Xingde

    2005-07-01

    We report an approach to achieving continuous focus tracking and a depth-independent transverse resolution for real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Continuous real-time focus tracking is permitted by use of a lateral-priority image acquisition sequence in which the depth-scanning rate is equivalent to the imaging frame rate. Real-time OCT imaging with continuous focus tracking is performed at 1 frame/s by reciprocal translation of a rapid lateral-scanning miniature imaging probe (e.g., an endoscope). The optical path length in the reference arm is scanned synchronously to ensure that the coherence gate coincides with the imaging beam focus. The image quality improvement is experimentally demonstrated by imaging a tissue phantom embedded with polystyrene microspheres and rabbit esophageal tissues.

  20. Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state-space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than one cycle of the dominant dynamic mode, using no a priori information, with control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements and could be implemented

  1. Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight for indirect adaptive or reconfigurable control. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle HARV) were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than 1 cycle of the dominant dynamic mode natural frequencies, using control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  2. A framework for building real-time expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

  3. Building flexible real-time systems using the Flex language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Kevin B.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a real-time programming language called Flex, which is a derivative of C++, are presented. It is shown how different types of timing requirements might be expressed and enforced in Flex, how they might be fulfilled in a flexible way using different program models, and how the programming environment can help in making binding and scheduling decisions. The timing constraint primitives in Flex are easy to use yet powerful enough to define both independent and relative timing constraints. Program models like imprecise computation and performance polymorphism can carry out flexible real-time programs. In addition, programmers can use a performance measurement tool that produces statistically correct timing models to predict the expected execution time of a program and to help make binding decisions. A real-time programming environment is also presented.

  4. A real-time VLC to UART protocol conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian-zhi; Yao, Meng; Cheng, Xiao-hui; Deng, Zhuo-hong

    2016-07-01

    A real-time visible light communication (VLC) to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) conversion system is made up of a transmitter with a light emitting diode (LED) and a receiver with a photodiode (PD), by which a VLC system is connected to traditional communication modes, and the data are transferred by wireless visible light. UART packets are converted to light packets by the modulation of a 10 kHz on-off-keying (OOK) light signal, and the data losses in the transportation are avoided by the protection of a data buffer mechanism. The experimental results reveal that the real-time VLC to UART conversion system can provide a real-time VLC transmission way for two UART devices in not less than 10 m at a baud rate not less than 19 200 Bd with stable ambient lighting at the same time.

  5. Effective Product Recommendation using the Real-Time Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Sandra Garcia; O'Mahony, Michael P.; Smyth, Barry

    The so-called real-time web (RTW) is a web of opinions, comments, and personal viewpoints, often expressed in the form of short, 140-character text messages providing abbreviated and highly personalized commentary in real-time. Today, Twitter is undoubtedly the king of the RTW. It boasts 190 million users and generates in the region of 65m tweets per day1. This RTW data is far from the structured data (movie ratings, product features, etc.) that is familiar to recommender systems research but it is useful to consider its applicability to recommendation scenarios. In this paper we consider harnessing the real-time opinions of users, expressed through the Twitter-like short textual reviews available on the Blippr service (www.blippr.com). In particular we describe how users and products can be represented from the terms used in their associated reviews and describe experiments to highlight the recommendation potential of this RTW data-source and approach.

  6. Real-Time WINDMI Predictions of Geomagnetic Storm and Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. L.; Horton, W.; Spencer, E.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2008-12-01

    Real-Time WINMDI is plasma physics-based, nonlinear dynamical model of the coupled solar WIND Magentosphere-Ionosphere system. Using upstream solar wind particle and field data, a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically to describe the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The physics model WINMDI divides the incoming power into energy stored in multiple regions of M-I system and has been verified on GEM storm data in Spencer et al. (2007). The system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which describes energy transfer into, and between dominant components of the nightside magnetosphere and ionosphere, is solved numerically to determine the state of each component. The low-dimensional model characterizes the energy stored in the ring current and the region 1 field-aligned current which are use to compute model Dst and AL values. Real-time solar wind plasma parameters, available from ACE, are downloaded every 10 minutes to compute the input solar wind driving voltage for the model. Real-Time WINDMI computes model Dst and AL values about 1-2 hours before index data is available at the Kyoto WDC Quicklook website. Results are shown on the Real-Time WINDMI website. We present statistics for Real-Time WINDMI performance from 2006 to present and also compare the results for different input driving voltages. We plan to compare the database of Real-Time WINDMI Dst predictions with other ring current models which contain different loss and energization processes. The work is supported by NSF grant ATM-0638480.

  7. Realtime Space Weather Forecasts Via Android Phone App

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G.; Haacke, B.; Reynolds, A.

    2010-12-01

    For the past several years, ASTRA has run a first-principles global 3-D fully coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model in real-time for space weather applications. The model is the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM). ASTRA also runs the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) in real-time. Using AMIE to drive the high latitude inputs to the TIMEGCM produces high fidelity simulations of the global thermosphere and ionosphere. These simulations can be viewed on the Android Phone App developed by ASTRA. The SpaceWeather app for the Android operating system is free and can be downloaded from the Google Marketplace. We present the current status of realtime thermosphere-ionosphere space-weather forcasting and discuss the way forward. We explore some of the issues in maintaining real-time simulations with assimilative data feeds in a quasi-operational setting. We also discuss some of the challenges of presenting large amounts of data on a smartphone. The ASTRA SpaceWeather app includes the broadest and most unique range of space weather data yet to be found on a single smartphone app. This is a one-stop-shop for space weather and the only app where you can get access to ASTRA’s real-time predictions of the global thermosphere and ionosphere, high latitude convection and geomagnetic activity. Because of the phone's GPS capability, users can obtain location specific vertical profiles of electron density, temperature, and time-histories of various parameters from the models. The SpaceWeather app has over 9000 downloads, 30 reviews, and a following of active users. It is clear that real-time space weather on smartphones is here to stay, and must be included in planning for any transition to operational space-weather use.

  8. Geologic hazard monitoring with real-time GPS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Poland, M. P.; Hudnut, K. W.; Cervelli, P. F.; King, N. E.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Science Centers are developing a high-rate (1-s epoch), real-time ground deformation monitoring system using data streamed from continuously recording GPS stations. We began by evaluating the ability of GPS data reduction software to recover offsets in a displacement test data set generated by offsetting a GPS antenna by measured amounts. We found that offsets as large as several meters and as small as 1 cm could be reliably resolved. Our methods and initial results were summarized in USGS Open File Report 1235 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1235/of2006-1235.pdf). Further evaluation of GPS software using raw data from the report and real-time GPS data were conducted after publication of the report. Based upon these results, we selected software that could produce both double difference (baseline) and single difference (point positioning) solutions. Using this software, we are now running real-time, 1-s, fixed-ambiguity, double-difference solutions for USGS deformation monitoring networks in Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, Long Valley, and at several Cascades volcanoes. GPS data are streamed over the Internet to processing centers in Pasadena, CA, and Vancouver, WA. Solutions are generally reliable, but we note solution gaps caused by the breakdown in the GPS data streams and intervals when baseline ambiguities are not resolved in some of the longer (>50 km) baselines. We have not yet attempted real-time point-position solutions because we lack accurate real-time satellite clock corrections. We plan to implement this technique in the future by either calculating satellite clock corrections using a network of stations or by applying corrections produced by JPL. We currently generate alarms for data gaps in the real-time GPS solutions and plan to automate displacement anomaly detection using an algorithm that removes common-mode and multi-path noise.

  9. Real-time monitoring for low-level pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkovich, O.P.; Joffe, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Real-time monitors provide a valuable addition to the arsenal of air-sampling methods used for IAQ applications. They are accurate, dependable, flexible, and provide IAQ professionals with more detailed quantitative information. RTM improves efficiency of many IAQ sampling applications and, in some cases, cannot be matched by other sampling techniques. Adequate instrumentation for demanding IAQ applications is available today. Future needs are expanding the range of pollutants that can be monitored with real-time instruments, improving reliability and portability of monitoring instrumentation, and devising cost-effective multiplexing schemes for multi-point RTM sampling.

  10. Spectral decontamination of a real-time helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Nonlinear mathematical models of a rotor system, referred to as rotating blade-element models, produce steady-state, high-frequency harmonics of significant magnitude. In a discrete simulation model, certain of these harmonics may be incompatible with realistic real-time computational constraints because of their aliasing into the operational low-pass region. However, the energy is an aliased harmonic may be suppressed by increasing the computation rate of an isolated, causal nonlinearity and using an appropriate filter. This decontamination technique is applied to Sikorsky's real-time model of the Black Hawk helicopter, as supplied to NASA for handling-qualities investigations.

  11. Real-Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time multiprocessor programming language (RTMPL) has been developed to provide for high-order programming of real-time simulations on systems of distributed computers. RTMPL is a structured, engineering-oriented language. The RTMPL utility supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations and types by generating assembly language programs according to user-specified targeting information. Many programming functions are assumed by the utility (e.g., data transfer and scaling) to reduce the programming chore. This manual describes RTMPL from a user's viewpoint. Source generation, applications, utility operation, and utility output are detailed. An example simulation is generated to illustrate many RTMPL features.

  12. Handheld portable real-time tracking and communications device

    DOEpatents

    Wiseman, James M.; Riblett, Jr., Loren E.; Green, Karl L.; Hunter, John A.; Cook, III, Robert N.; Stevens, James R.

    2012-05-22

    Portable handheld real-time tracking and communications devices include; a controller module, communications module including global positioning and mesh network radio module, data transfer and storage module, and a user interface module enclosed in a water-resistant enclosure. Real-time tracking and communications devices can be used by protective force, security and first responder personnel to provide situational awareness allowing for enhance coordination and effectiveness in rapid response situations. Such devices communicate to other authorized devices via mobile ad-hoc wireless networks, and do not require fixed infrastructure for their operation.

  13. A heterogeneous hierarchical architecture for real-time computing

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, D.A.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The need for high-speed data acquisition and control algorithms has prompted continued research in the area of multiprocessor systems and related programming techniques. The result presented here is a unique hardware and software architecture for high-speed real-time computer systems. The implementation of a prototype of this architecture has required the integration of architecture, operating systems and programming languages into a cohesive unit. This report describes a Heterogeneous Hierarchial Architecture for Real-Time (H{sup 2} ART) and system software for program loading and interprocessor communication.

  14. Using Artificial Intelligence Technology in Failsafe Realtime Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejdl, Wolfgang; Neuhold, Erich J.; Theuretzbacher, Norbert

    1987-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the use of artificial intelligence technology to increase system safety in failsafe realtime systems. A safety module for a failsafe realtime system is specified which uses a production system to implement the necessary security checks. The task of this safety module is to guarantee the safety of the system. To implement the safety module production system the AI language OPS83 is used. A complete prototype for use in the Electronic Interlocking System "ELEKTRA" from ITT-Austria is being built comprising approximately 100 to 200 safety assertions in the form of production rules.

  15. Rapid Real-Time SpaceWire Emulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudie, Stephen; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The SpaceWire Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) test and development unit from STAR-Dundee can be used to very rapidly emulate real-time behaviour of SpaceWire equipment. The behaviour of the equipment to emulate is described in a script using a SpaceWire specific scripting language. Once configured the SpaceWire EGSE unit operates independent of software. This paper describes three camera emulation scripts to demonstrate the rapid real-time SpaceWire emulation possible using the SpaceWire EGSE.

  16. Real-time pseudocolor coding thermal ghost imaging.

    PubMed

    Duan, Deyang; Xia, Yunjie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a color ghost image of a black-and-white object is obtained by a real-time pseudocolor coding technique that includes equal spatial frequency pseudocolor coding and equal density pseudocolor coding. This method makes the black-and-white ghost image more conducive to observation. Furthermore, since the ghost imaging comes from the intensity cross-correlations of the two beams, ghost imaging with the real-time pseudocolor coding technique is better than classical optical imaging with the same technique in overcoming the effects of light interference. PMID:24561954

  17. A Real-Time Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D.; Chuan, Raymond L.

    1995-01-01

    New development and application of device described in "Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Microbalance," (LAR-14476). Active sensing element of Real-Time NVR Monitor comprises pair of piezoelectric surface-acoustic-wave resonators resonating at frequency of 200 MHz. Bare, uncoated resonator exposed to atmosphere and directly in contact with airborne volatile and nonvolatile materials leaving residues on surface. Resonant frequency of exposed resonator decreases with increasing mass of adsorbed residue; resulting beat frequency between two resonators increases with mass and serves as sensitive real-time indication of airborne contaminants or non-volatile residue.

  18. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  19. Real-time optical holographic tracking of multiple objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-01-01

    A coherent optical correlation technique for real-time simultaneous tracking of several different objects making independent movements is described, and experimental results are presented. An evaluation of this system compared with digital computing systems is made. The real-time processing capability is obtained through the use of a liquid crystal television spatial light modulator and a dichromated gelatin multifocus hololens. A coded reference beam is utilized in the separation of the output correlation plane associated with each input target so that independent tracking can be achieved.

  20. Principles of real-time sonography in modern obstetrics

    SciTech Connect

    Perone, N.

    1984-01-01

    Introductory chapters assist the obstetrician in establishing an office-based ultrasound facility and choosing real-time ultrasound equipment. The author then offers step-by-step, superbly illustrated instructions on evaluation of the fetus in utero. Special attention is devoted to use of ultrasound in early pregnancy, antenatal assessment of fetal growth, evaluation of the placenta, diagnosis of congenital defects, and monitoring of fetal activity. Also included are chapters on the use of real-time sonography in invasive procedures such as amniocentesis and on sonographic study of gallbladder function in pregnancy.

  1. SM4 Realtime {AT/FT} and Simulation Data Receipt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, George

    2009-07-01

    THIS IS NOT AN EXECUTABLE PROGRAM. It exists ONLY to handle the receipt and processing of science data commanded in realtime during the servicing mission {e.g. Functional Test}. During Servicing Missions new instruments are given aliveness and functional tests {AT/FT} while still in the shuttle bay. The FT usually consists of a small sampling of exposures commanded in realtime. Since the exposures are not SMS based the ground system has no knowledge of them and they cannot be received and processed by OPUS. This "dummy" proposal is used to make the ground system aware of the non-SMS based exposures hence allowing receipt and processing.

  2. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J

    1981-02-01

    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation. PMID:6781264

  3. Real-Time Holographic Image Correction Using Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1994-01-01

    We present experimental results of one-way coherent imaging through a thin phase-aberrating medium using a holographic technique with bacteriorhodopsin as a real-time holographic material. Bacteriorhodopsin is well suited for the application when the aberration is time varying because of its real-time writing and erasing characteristics, sensitivity, and spatial resolution. We show results with final image resolution of greater than 20 line pairs/mm and high signal-to-noise ratio using a polarization-holography approach.

  4. Processing system for real-time holographic video computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.; Watlington, John A.; Benton, Stephen A.

    1999-08-01

    This paper discusses the Chidi holographic video processing system (called Holo-Chidi) used for real-time computation of computer generated holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. Chidi is a reconfigurable multimedia processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time synthesis and analysis of multimedia data in general and digital video frames in particular. Holo-Chidi which is an adaptation of Chidi, comprises two main components: the sets of processor cards and the display interface cards.

  5. SpringNet: a network of multiprocessors for hard real-time. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stankovic, J.A.; Ramamritham, K.

    1988-10-01

    The Spring project has been very active in multiple areas of real-time computing. Significant results were developed in many aspects of real-time scheduling, in real-time operating system design, in real-time transactions, and in time-constrained communication protocols. We have also made progress in implementing a software (simulation) testbed, in developing a hardware operating system kernel testbed called SpringNet, and in implementing real-time transactions on a hardware testbed called CARAT. The authors also began a substantial research effort concerning dependable real-time systems, and provide a brief overview of the status and plans for the Spring project as a whole.

  6. Utilizing real-time and near real-time data in the iNtegrated Space Weather Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, M. M.; Mullinix, R. E.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Berrios, D.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Shim, J.; Bakshi, S. S.; Patel, K. D.; Jain, P.

    2010-12-01

    Access to near real-time and real-time space weather data is essential to accurately specifying and forecasting the space environment. The Space Weather Desk at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Weather Laboratory provides vital space weather forecasting services primarily to NASA robotic mission operators, as well as external space weather stakeholders including the Air Force Weather Agency. A key component in this activity is the iNtegrated Space Weather Analysis System which is a joint development project at NASA GSFC between the Space Weather Laboratory, Community Coordinated Modeling Center, Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate, and NASA HQ Office Of Chief Engineer. The iSWA system was developed to address technical challenges in acquiring and disseminating space weather environment information. A key design driver for the iSWA system was to generate and present vast amounts of space weather resources in an intuitive, user-configurable, and adaptable format - thus enabling users to respond to current and future space weather impacts as well as enabling post-impact analysis. Having access to near real-time and real-time data is essential to not only ensuring that relevant observational data is available for analysis - but also in ensuring that models can be driven with the requisite input parameters at proper and efficient temporal and spacial resolutions. The iSWA system currently manages over 250 unique near-real and real-time data feeds from various sources consisting of both observational and simulation data. A comprehensive suite of actionable space weather analysis tools and products are generated and provided utilizing a mixture of the ingested data - enabling new capabilities in quickly assessing past, present, and expected space weather effects. This paper will highlight current and future iSWA system capabilities and also discuss some of the challenges and lessons-learned in dealing with diverse real-time and near-real time space

  7. Multi-antigen CMV-MVA Triplex Vaccine in Reducing CMV Complications in Patients Previously Infected With CMV and Undergoing Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Cytomegaloviral Infection; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  8. Real-time Control and Modeling of Plasma Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfaty, M.; Baum, C.; Harper, M.; Hershkowitz, N.; Shohet, J. L.

    1997-10-01

    The relatively high process rates in high density plasma tools as well as the shrinking thickness of the films, require fast estimate of the process state in order to implement real-time advanced process control. The fast etch rate estimate, within one second, in a single spot size of 1-2 mm and the time averaged rates across the wafer are obtained by a combined use of an in-situ two-color laser interferometer and a full wafer image interferometer, respectively. The gas phase state is monitored by optical emission spectroscopy and a residual gas analyzer. The magnetically confined ICP tool state, including gas flow, pressure, and RF power to the antenna and the electrostatic chuck, is computer controlled and monitored. The absolute thickness of the film is determined during the process, thus providing an end-point prediction. The advantages of two-color laser interferometry for real-time process monitoring, development and control will be described. Langmuir kinetics modeling of the measured etch rates of polysilicon and SiO2 films in Cl2 and CF4 discharges using tool state parameters will be described. The etch rate model enabled us to develop a model-based real-time control algorithm. The achieved real-time control of plasma etch rates of un-patterned SiO2 and polysilicon films will be described. This work is funded by NSF grant No. EEC-8721545.

  9. Distributed simulation using a real-time shared memory network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Mattern, Duane L.; Wong, Edmond; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Control Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center performs research in the area of advanced digital controls for aeronautic and space propulsion systems. This work requires the real-time implementation of both control software and complex dynamical models of the propulsion system. We are implementing these systems in a distributed, multi-vendor computer environment. Therefore, a need exists for real-time communication and synchronization between the distributed multi-vendor computers. A shared memory network is a potential solution which offers several advantages over other real-time communication approaches. A candidate shared memory network was tested for basic performance. The shared memory network was then used to implement a distributed simulation of a ramjet engine. The accuracy and execution time of the distributed simulation was measured and compared to the performance of the non-partitioned simulation. The ease of partitioning the simulation, the minimal time required to develop for communication between the processors and the resulting execution time all indicate that the shared memory network is a real-time communication technique worthy of serious consideration.

  10. Real-time segmentation by Active Geometric Functions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D; Laine, Andrew F

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in 4D imaging and real-time imaging provide image data with clinically important cardiac dynamic information at high spatial or temporal resolution. However, the enormous amount of information contained in these data has also raised a challenge for traditional image analysis algorithms in terms of efficiency. In this paper, a novel deformable model framework, Active Geometric Functions (AGF), is introduced to tackle the real-time segmentation problem. As an implicit framework paralleling to level-set, AGF has mathematical advantages in efficiency and computational complexity as well as several flexible feature similar to level-set framework. AGF is demonstrated in two cardiac applications: endocardial segmentation in 4D ultrasound and myocardial segmentation in MRI with super high temporal resolution. In both applications, AGF can perform real-time segmentation in several milliseconds per frame, which was less than the acquisition time per frame. Segmentation results are compared to manual tracing with comparable performance with inter-observer variability. The ability of such real-time segmentation will not only facilitate the diagnoses and workflow, but also enables novel applications such as interventional guidance and interactive image acquisition with online segmentation. PMID:19800708

  11. Real-Time Capture of Student Reasoning While Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Scott V.; Hermsen, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, "S notation," is used to highlight significant…

  12. Improving performance of real-time multispectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time multispectral imaging system can be a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. For the implementation of this imaging system at commercial poultry processing plant, false positive errors must be removed. For doing this, we tested and imp...

  13. Leading the Charge for Real-Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Well before the idea of using data to manage schools gained prominence on the national stage, Oklahoma's Western Heights school district had made the ideal of real-time, data-driven decisionmaking a reality. Back in 2001, Superintendent Joe Kitchens was already being spotlighted for his focus on creating a longitudinal-data system that would give…

  14. Learning and Design with Online Real-Time Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of emerging Cloud technologies that support real-time online collaboration. It considers the extent to which these technologies can be leveraged to develop complex skillsets supporting interaction between multiple learners in online spaces. In a pilot study that closely examines how groups of learners translate two…

  15. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association. PMID:26704620

  16. ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME VEHICLE HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyses using real-time dynamometer test emissions data from 13 passenger cars to examine variations in emissions during different speeds or modes of travel. The resulting data provided a way to separately identify idle, cruise, acceleration, and dece...

  17. Compact real-time image processor for moving object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Noboru

    1996-03-01

    Latency time and hardware compactness are two important problems of real-time image processors for moving object tracking. We have developed a compact self-contained real-time image processor that is implemented on a single double-height VME board. The processor can execute major processing steps for moving object tacking during a single video field time. These steps are preprocessing, binarizing, labeling, feature extraction, and feature evaluation. We can obtain sorted feature vectors simultaneously when image data is read out from a sensor. Here a feature vector represents areas, centroid, and maximum intensity of each connected region in a binarized image. Some conventional image processors can execute the above steps individually in real-time and thread some steps in a pixel pipeline manner. However it is difficult to integrate feature extraction and feature evaluation in a pixel pipeline path. For real-time execution of all steps we focused on new architecture particularly for the latter three steps. To minimize the hardware we have developed three ASICs: labeler, feature accumulator, and sorter. To make our processor self-contained and scalable, it has an on- board micro processor, a digital video bus interface, and an RS232C port, and it is VME compatible in bus interface and mechanical dimension.

  18. Design Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szulewski, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Design-Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS) is a tool that assists in defining embedded computer systems through tree structured graphics, military standard documentation support, and various analyses including automated Software Science parameter counting and metrics calculation. These analyses provide both static and dynamic design quality feedback which can potentially aid in producing efficient, high quality software systems.

  19. Real-Time Case Method: Analysis of a Second Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theroux, James M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, M. Hopkins and J. Theroux implemented the second example of an experimental case study, at 11 business schools in the United States and Canada. The new type of case study, named the "real-time case (RTC) study," uses the Internet to bring business reality to business courses and to facilitate communication among faculty, students, and the…

  20. Real-time PCR: Advanced technologies and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book brings together contributions from 20 experts in the field of PCR, providing a broad perspective of the applications of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The editors state in the preface that the aim is to provide detailed insight into underlying principles and methods of qPCR to provide ...

  1. Real-Time Ocean Data in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura; Gibson, Deidre; Ward, Angela

    2008-01-01

    To apply students' savvy internet skills in the science classroom--as well as capture their interest in science and investigation, and provide opportunities for authentic research--introduce them to real-time data from ocean-observing systems. Students can use data from these ocean-observing systems to discover the winds and waves from storms or…

  2. REAL-TIME REMOTE MONITORING OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past eight years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has funded the testing and evaluation of various online "real-time" technologies for monitoring drinking water quality. The events of 9/11 and subsequent threats t...

  3. Real-time Java for flight applications: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, D.

    2003-01-01

    The RTSJ is a specification for supporting real-time execution in the Java programming language. The specification has been shaped by several guiding principles, particularly: predictable execution as the first priority in all tradeoffs, no syntactic extensions to Java, and backward compatibility.

  4. Real-time video compressing under DSP/BIOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiu-ping; Li, Gui-ju

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents real-time MPEG-4 Simple Profile video compressing based on the DSP processor. The programming framework of video compressing is constructed using TMS320C6416 Microprocessor, TDS510 simulator and PC. It uses embedded real-time operating system DSP/BIOS and the API functions to build periodic function, tasks and interruptions etcs. Realize real-time video compressing. To the questions of data transferring among the system. Based on the architecture of the C64x DSP, utilized double buffer switched and EDMA data transfer controller to transit data from external memory to internal, and realize data transition and processing at the same time; the architecture level optimizations are used to improve software pipeline. The system used DSP/BIOS to realize multi-thread scheduling. The whole system realizes high speed transition of a great deal of data. Experimental results show the encoder can realize real-time encoding of 768*576, 25 frame/s video images.

  5. Cooperative Real-Time Communication and Multimedia Management -- Release 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batatia, Hadj; Baurens, Benoit; Peled, Avi

    2007-01-01

    This document gives an overview of current needs expressed so far in the project for multimedia management and real-time communication services between groups of learners/workers and examine the kind of support that a standard-based technical solution "off-the-shelf" can help in solving main technical issues and in focusing on developments of…

  6. Real-time film recording from stroke-written CRT's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R.; Grunwald, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Real-time simulation studies often require motion-picture recording of events directly from stroke written cathode-ray tubes (CRT's). Difficulty presented is prevention of "flicker," which results from lack of synchronization between display sequence on CRT and shutter motion of camera. Programmable method has been devised for phasing display sequence to shutter motion, ensuring flicker-free recordings.

  7. Note: A real-time beam current density meter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Junliang; Yu Deyang; Ruan Fangfang; Xue Yingli; Wang Wei

    2013-03-15

    We have developed a real-time beam current density meter for charged particle beams. It measures the mean current density by collimating a uniform and large diameter primary beam. The suppression of the secondary electrons and the deflection of the beam were simulated, and it was tested with a 105 keV Ar{sup 7+} ion beam.

  8. Real-Time Confocal Imaging Of The Living Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, James V.; Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Essepian, John; Shields, William J.; Lemp, Michael A.

    1989-12-01

    In 1986, we adapted the Tandem Scanning Reflected Light Microscope of Petran and Hadraysky to permit non-invasive, confocal imaging of the living eye in real-time. We were first to obtain stable, confocal optical sections in vivo, from human and animal eyes. Using confocal imaging systems we have now studied living, normal volunteers, rabbits, cats and primates sequentially, non-invasively, and in real-time. The continued development of real-time confocal imaging systems will unlock the door to a new field of cell biology involving for the first time the study of dynamic cellular processes in living organ systems. Towards this end we have concentrated our initial studies on three areas (1) evaluation of confocal microscope systems for real-time image acquisition, (2) studies of the living normal cornea (epithelium, stroma, endothelium) in human and other species; and (3) sequential wound-healing responses in the cornea in single animals to lamellar-keratectomy injury (cellular migration, inflammation, scarring). We believe that this instrument represents an important, new paradigm for research in cell biology and pathology and that it will fundamentally alter all experimental and clinical approaches in future years.

  9. Development of a Real-Time Intelligent Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordonov, Anatoliy; Kress, Michael; Klibaner, Roberta

    This paper presents a model of an intelligent computer network that provides real-time evaluation of students' performance by incorporating intelligence into the application layer protocol. Specially designed drills allow students to independently solve a number of problems based on current lecture material; students are switched to the most…

  10. Computerized Systems for Collecting Real-Time Observational Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Iwata, Brian

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 15 developers of computerized real-time observation systems found many systems have incorporated laptop or handheld computers as well as bar-code scanners. Most systems used IBM-compatible software, and ranged from free to complete systems costing more than $1,500. Data analysis programs were included with most programs. (Author/CR)

  11. Real-Time, Sensor-Based Computing in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badmus, O. O.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of Real-Time, Sensor-Based (RTSB) computing and how it can be easily and effectively integrated into university student laboratories. Describes the experimental processes, the process instrumentation and process-computer interface, the computer and communications systems, and typical software. Provides much technical…

  12. Realtime capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citrin, Jonathan; Breton, Sarah; Felici, Federico; Imbeaux, Frederic; Redondo, Juan; Aniel, Thierry; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Baiocchi, Benedetta; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Camenen, Yann; Garcia, Jeronimo

    2015-11-01

    Transport in the tokamak core is dominated by turbulence driven by plasma microinstabilities. When calculating turbulent fluxes, maintaining both a first-principle-based model and computational tractability is a strong constraint. We present a pathway to circumvent this constraint by emulating quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output through a nonlinear regression using multilayer perceptron neural networks. This recovers the original code output, while accelerating the computing time by five orders of magnitude, allowing realtime applications. A proof-of-principle is presented based on the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model, using a training set of five input dimensions, relevant for ITG turbulence. The model is implemented in the RAPTOR real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. Progress in generalizing the emulation to include 12 input dimensions is presented. This opens up new possibilities for interpretation of present-day experiments, scenario preparation and open-loop optimization, realtime controller design, realtime discharge supervision, and closed-loop trajectory optimization.

  13. Our Experiment in Online, Real-Time Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Kelly

    2001-01-01

    Describes experiences in providing real-time online reference services to users with remote Web access at the Bowling Green State University library. Discusses the decision making process first used to select HumanClick software to communicate via chat; and the selection of a fee-based customer service product, Virtual Reference Desk. (LRW)

  14. Method for Real-Time Structure Shape-Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L. (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention is a method for obtaining the displacement of a flexible structure by using strain measurements obtained by stain sensor,. By obtaining the displacement of structures in this manner, one may construct the deformed shape of the structure and display said deformed shape in real-time, enabling active control of the structure shape if desired.

  15. Introducing Undergraduate Students to Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Funnell, Alister; Jack, Briony; Johnston, Jill

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is conducted, which in four 3 h laboratory sessions, introduces third year undergraduate Biochemistry students to the technique of real-time PCR in a biological context. The model used is a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL cells). These continuously cycling, immature red blood cells, arrested at an early stage in erythropoiesis,…

  16. Real-Time "Garbage Collection" for List Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed algorithmic techniques for list processing enable immediate identification of computer memory cells having become inactive through disconnection from active cells, together with addition of these inactive cells to pool of reusable cells. These two "garbage collection" techniques reduce memory requirements of list processors or increase their speed or both. With both techniques, processing continuity maintained, enabling real-time processing.

  17. BENEFITS OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM REAL-TIME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed computer-assisted management system for a specific urban sewerage network that is activated during a wet-weather flow event. Though uses of RTC systems had started in the mid 60s, recent developments in computers, telecommunication, in...

  18. REAL-TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed management program for a specific urban sewerage system during a wet-weather event. The function of RTC is to assure efficient operation of the sewerage system and maximum utilization of existing storage capacity, either to fully conta...

  19. "Real-Time" Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Shawn D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an activity that integrates theory and application by examining the multiple communication events affecting a single organization in "real time" over the course of an academic term. The "real-time" case study (RTCS) avails students of the opportunity to examine organizational communication events as they are occurring in…

  20. Real-time hierarchically distributed processing network interaction simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Telerobot Testbed is a hierarchically distributed processing system which is linked together through a standard, commercial Ethernet. Standard Ethernet systems are primarily designed to manage non-real-time information transfer. Therefore, collisions on the net (i.e., two or more sources attempting to send data at the same time) are managed by randomly rescheduling one of the sources to retransmit at a later time interval. Although acceptable for transmitting noncritical data such as mail, this particular feature is unacceptable for real-time hierarchical command and control systems such as the Telerobot. Data transfer and scheduling simulations, such as token ring, offer solutions to collision management, but do not appropriately characterize real-time data transfer/interactions for robotic systems. Therefore, models like these do not provide a viable simulation environment for understanding real-time network loading. A real-time network loading model is being developed which allows processor-to-processor interactions to be simulated, collisions (and respective probabilities) to be logged, collision-prone areas to be identified, and network control variable adjustments to be reentered as a means of examining and reducing collision-prone regimes that occur in the process of simulating a complete task sequence.

  1. Precise Real-Time Low Earth Orbitor Navigation With GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, W.; Haines, B.; Kuang, D.; Lough, M.; Lichten, S.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Vigue, Y.; Wu, S.

    1998-01-01

    Technology is currently available to support real-time on-board knowledge of the position of a low earth orbitor at the 5-15 meter level using the civilian broadcast GPS signal with sophisticated models and filtering techniques onboard the spacecraft.

  2. Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm

  3. Etch rate Modeling and Real-time Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Sarfaty, M.; Baum, C.; Harper, M.; Shohet, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The relatively high process rates in high density plasma tools as well as the shrinking thickness of the films, require fast estimate of the process state in order to implement real-time advanced process control. The fast etch rate estimate, within one second, in a spot size of 1-2 mm and the time averaged rates across the wafer are obtained by a combined use of an in-situ two-color laser interferometer and a full wafer image interferometer, respectively. The gas phase state is monitored by optical emission spectroscopy and a residual gas analyzer. The magnetically confined ICP tool state, including gas flow, pressure, and RF power to the antenna and the electrostatic chuck, is computer controlled and monitored. The absolute thickness of the film is determined during the process, thus providing an end-point prediction. Splitting the two-color laser beam to two spots on the wafer that are coated with different films provides real-time etch selectivity. The advantages of two-color laser interferometry for real-time process monitoring, development and control will be described. Langmuir kinetics modeling of the measured etch rates of polysilicon and SiO2 films in Cl2 and CF4 discharges using tool state parameters will be described. The etch rate model enabled us to develop a model-based real-time control algorithm. The achieved real-time control of plasma etch rates of un-patterned SiO2 and polysilicon films will be described. This work is funded by NSF grant No. EEC-8721545.

  4. IGS Real-time Resources Supporting Multi-GNSS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Georg; Mervart, Leos; Stöcker, Dirk; Neumaier, Peter; Söhne, Wolfgang; Stürze, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) recently started with a real-time service disseminating orbit and clock corrections over the Internet. It is mainly based on observations collected from the IGS real-time tracking network processed by a number for Analysis Centers. To support the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX), a growing number of involved stations also observe Galileo, QZSS and BeiDou in addition to GPS and GLONASS. The intention is to enable and further develop the real-time estimation of satellite orbits and clocks from all systems as well as using all of them in applications like real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP). Recently a new RTCM-3 standard has been recommended to transport streams carrying observations from (modernized) GPS, GLONASS and Galileo satellites. A stream format supporting QZSS and BeiDou has been drafted. A new RINEX-3 standard is under development which allows archiving all observation types from all the new systems for post processing purposes. This presentation focuses on IGS resources for real-time conversion of observations in proprietary raw formats to the new open RTCM-3 stream and RINEX-3 file standards. So-called High Precision Multiple Signal Message (HP MSM) streams are produced and disseminated via Ntrip broadcaster under the umbrella of IGS. A high-rate RINEX-3 archive saves 1 Hz observation files as converted from MSM streams. RINEX-3 file editing, concatenation and quality check is enabled with the BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) software developed under GNU GPL supporting GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS.

  5. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuations

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Zhang, Li; Mahmoud, Anas M.

    2010-01-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., a chemical processing facility explosion). For those cases, if an accident were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented, and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; an evacuation taking place in other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. In order to improve operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere, a system of sensors that uses newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and to detect incidents on the main evacuation routes is presented in this paper. A series of tests, both in a controlled environment and in the field, were conducted to study the feasibility of such a system of traffic sensors and to assess its ability to provide real-time traffic information during an emergency evacuation. The results of these tests indicated that the prototype sensors are reliable and accurate for the type of application that is the focus of this paper.

  6. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  7. Operational real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Johanson, I. A.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Moment magnitudes for large earthquakes (Mw≥7.0) derived in real time from near-field seismic data can be underestimated due to instrument limitations, ground tilting, and saturation of frequency/amplitude-magnitude relationships. Real-time high-rate GPS resolves the buildup of static surface displacements with the S wave arrival (assuming nonsupershear rupture), thus enabling the estimation of slip on a finite fault and the event's geodetic moment. Recently, a range of high-rate GPS strategies have been demonstrated on off-line data. Here we present the first operational system for real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning as implemented at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and currently analyzing real-time data for Northern California. The BSL generates real-time position estimates operationally using data from 62 GPS stations in Northern California. A fully triangulated network defines 170+ station pairs processed with the software trackRT. The BSL uses G-larmS, the Geodetic Alarm System, to analyze these positioning time series and determine static offsets and preevent quality parameters. G-larmS derives and broadcasts finite fault and magnitude information through least-squares inversion of the static offsets for slip based on a priori fault orientation and location information. This system tightly integrates seismic alarm systems (CISN-ShakeAlert, ElarmS-2) as it uses their P wave detections to trigger its processing; quality control runs continuously. We use a synthetic Hayward Fault earthquake scenario on real-time streams to demonstrate recovery of slip and magnitude. Reanalysis of the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake tests the impact of dynamic motions on offset estimation. Using these test cases, we explore sensitivities to disturbances of a priori constraints (origin time, location, and fault strike/dip).

  8. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  9. Capability of a Mobile Monitoring System to Provide Real-Time Data Broadcasting and Near Real-Time Source Attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, M.; Olaguer, J.; Wijesinghe, A.; Colvin, J.; Neish, B.; Williams, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand the emissions and health effects of industrial facilities. Many areas have no or limited sustained monitoring capabilities, making it difficult to quantify the major pollution sources affecting human health, especially in fence line communities. Developments in real-time monitoring and micro-scale modeling offer unique ways to tackle these complex issues. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of coupling real-time observations with micro-scale modeling to provide real-time information and near real-time source attribution. The Houston Advanced Research Center constructed the Mobile Acquisition of Real-time Concentrations (MARC) laboratory. MARC consists of a Ford E-350 passenger van outfitted with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and meteorological equipment. This allows for the fast measurement of various VOCs important to air quality. The data recorded from the van is uploaded to an off-site database and the information is broadcast to a website in real-time. This provides for off-site monitoring of MARC's observations, which allows off-site personnel to provide immediate input to the MARC operators on how to best achieve project objectives. The information stored in the database can also be used to provide near real-time source attribution. An inverse model has been used to ascertain the amount, location, and timing of emissions based on MARC measurements in the vicinity of industrial sites. The inverse model is based on a 3D micro-scale Eulerian forward and adjoint air quality model known as the HARC model. The HARC model uses output from the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) wind model and requires a 3D digital model of the monitored facility based on lidar or industrial permit data. MARC is one of the instrument platforms deployed during the 2014 Benzene and other Toxics Exposure Study (BEE-TEX) in Houston, TX. The main goal of the study is to quantify and explain the

  10. Real-time PCR as a tool to study weed biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) also known as quantitative PCR is used to determine relative gene expression or to quantify exact levels of mRNA in cells or tissues. Before the advent of Real-time PCR, the major difficulty associated with traditional quantitative or semi-quantita...

  11. The VLBA correlator: Real-time in the distributed era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The correlator is the signal processing engine of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Radio signals are recorded on special wideband (128 Mb/s) digital recorders at the 10 telescopes, with sampling times controlled by hydrogen maser clocks. The magnetic tapes are shipped to the Array Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, where they are played back simultaneously into the correlator. Real-time software and firmware controls the playback drives to achieve synchronization, compute models of the wavefront delay, control the numerous modules of the correlator, and record FITS files of the fringe visibilities at the back-end of the correlator. In addition to the more than 3000 custom VLSI chips which handle the massive data flow of the signal processing, the correlator contains a total of more than 100 programmable computers, 8-, 16- and 32-bit CPUs. Code is downloaded into front-end CPU's dependent on operating mode. Low-level code is assembly language, high-level code is C running under a RT OS. We use VxWorks on Motorola MVME147 CPU's. Code development is on a complex of SPARC workstations connected to the RT CPU's by Ethernet. The overall management of the correlation process is dependent on a database management system. We use Ingres running on a Sparcstation-2. We transfer logging information from the database of the VLBA Monitor and Control System to our database using Ingres/NET. Job scripts are computed and are transferred to the real-time computers using NFS, and correlation job execution logs and status flow back by the route. Operator status and control displays use windows on workstations, interfaced to the real-time processes by network protocols. The extensive network protocol support provided by VxWorks is invaluable. The VLBA Correlator's dependence on network protocols is an example of the radical transformation of the real-time world over the past five years. Real-time is becoming more like conventional computing. Paradoxically, 'conventional

  12. Real-Time GNSS Positioning Along Canada's Active Coastal Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-rate, low-latency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data are being refined for real-time applications to monitor and report motions related to large earthquakes in coastal British Columbia. Given the tectonic setting of Canada's west coast, specific goals for real-time regional geodetic monitoring are: (1) the collection of GNSS data with adequate station density to identify the deformation field for regional earthquakes with M>7.3; (2) the robust, continuous real-time analyses of GNSS data with a precision of 1-2 cm and a latency of less than 10s; and (3) the display of results with attending automated alarms and estimations of earthquake parameters. Megathrust earthquakes (M>8) are the primary targets for immediate identification, since the tsunamis they generate will strike the coast within 15 to 20 min. However, large (6.0real-time precise point positioning streams for regional sites received from the Canadian Geodetic Survey (CGS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The comparison of these various real-time solutions allows a realistic evaluation of day-to-day software performance especially when faced with adverse conditions such as data gaps or poor satellite geometry. Forward models for scenario earthquakes in this region are used to "fingerprint" the coseismic displacements expected from various offshore events which allows an evaluation of the effectiveness of the current regional coverage. The present distribution and density of real-time sites is largely sufficient for aiding the timely estimation of size, location

  13. Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time GNSS networks are making a significant impact on our ability to forecast, assess, and mitigate the effects of geological hazards. I describe the activities of the Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) working group. The group leverages 600+ real-time GPS stations in western North America operated by UNAVCO (PBO network), Central Washington University (PANGA), US Geological Survey & Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SCIGN project), UC Berkeley & US Geological Survey (BARD network), and the Pacific Geosciences Centre (WCDA project). Our goal is to demonstrate an earthquake and tsunami early warning system for western North America. Rapid response is particularly important for those coastal communities that are in the near-source region of large earthquakes and may have only minutes of warning time, and who today are not adequately covered by existing seismic and basin-wide ocean-buoy monitoring systems. The READI working group is performing comparisons of independent real time analyses of 1 Hz GPS data for station displacements and is participating in government-sponsored earthquake and tsunami exercises in the Western U.S. I describe a prototype seismogeodetic system using a cluster of southern California stations that includes GNSS tracking and collocation with MEMS accelerometers for real-time estimation of seismic velocity and displacement waveforms, which has advantages for improved earthquake early warning and tsunami forecasts compared to seismic-only or GPS-only methods. The READI working group's ultimate goal is to participate in an Indo-Pacific Tsunami early warning system that utilizes GNSS real-time displacements and ionospheric measurements along with seismic, near-shore buoys and ocean-bottom pressure sensors, where available, to rapidly estimate magnitude and finite fault slip models for large earthquakes, and then forecast tsunami source, energy scale, geographic extent, inundation and runup. This will require

  14. Overview of real-time computer systems technical analysis of the Modcomp implementation of a proprietary system MAX IV'' and real-time UNIX system REAL/IX''

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    There many applications throughout industry and government requiring real-time computing. Any application that monitors and/or controls a process would fit into this category. Some examples are: Nuclear power plants, Steel mills, Space program, etc. General Atomics uses eight real-time computer systems for control and high speed data acquisition required to run the nuclear fusion experiments. Real-Time computing can be defined as the ability to respond to asynchronous external events in a predictable (preferably fast) time frame. Real-Time computer systems are similar to other computers in many ways and may by used for general computing requirements such as Time-Sharing. However special hardware, operating systems and software had to be developed to meet the requirement for real-time computing. Traditionally, real-time computing has been a realm of proprietary operating systems with real-time applications written in FORTRAN and assembly language. In the past, these systems adequately served the needs of the real-time world. Many of these systems that were developed 15 years ago are still being used today. However the real-time world is now changing, demanding new systems to be developed. This paper gives a description of general real-time computer systems and how they differ from other systems. However, the main purpose of this paper is to give a detailed technical description of the hardware and operating systems of an existing proprietary system and a real-time UNIX system. The two real-time computer systems described in detail are Modcomp Classic III/95 with the MAX IV operating system and Modcomp TRI-D 9750 with the REAL/IX.2 operating system.

  15. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging. PMID:27032979

  16. Real-time detection of optical transients with RAPTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Brumby, Steven P.; Galassi, M. C.; McGowan, K. E.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P. R.; Wren, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fast variability of optical objects is an interesting though poorly explored subject in modern astronomy. Real-time data processing and identification of transient, celestial events in the images is very important, for such study as it allows rapid follow-up with more sensitive instruments, We discuss an approach which we have chosen for the RAPTOR project which is a pioneering close-loop system combining real-time transient detection with rapid follow-up. Our data processing pipeline is able to identify and localize an optical transient within seconds after the observation. We describe the challenges we met, solutions we found and some results obtained in our search for fast optical transients. The software pipeline we have developed for RAPTOR can easily be applied to the data from other experiments.

  17. Automated Test Environment for a Real-Time Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Ronald O.

    1994-01-01

    An automated environment with hardware-in-the-loop has been developed by Rocketdyne Huntsville for test of a real-time control system. The target system of application is the man-rated real-time system which controls the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The primary use of the environment is software verification and validation, but it is also useful for evaluation and analysis of SSME avionics hardware and mathematical engine models. It provides a test bed for the integration of software and hardware. The principles and skills upon which it operates may be applied to other target systems, such as those requiring hardware-in-the-loop simulation and control system development. Potential applications are in problem domains demanding highly reliable software systems requiring testing to formal requirements and verifying successful transition to/from off-nominal system states.

  18. Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

  19. Real-time landslide warning during heavy rainfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.; Wilson, R.C.; Mark, R.K.; Brabb, E.E.; Brown, W. M., III; Ellen, S.D.; Harp, E.L.; Wieczorek, G.F.; Alger, C.S.; Zatkin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A real-time system for issuing warnings of landslides during major storms is being developed for the San Francisco Bay region, California. The system is based on empirical and theoretical relations between rainfall and landslide initiation, geologic determination of areas susceptible to landslides, real-time monitoring of a regional network of telemetering rain gages, and National Weather Service precipitation forecasts. This system was used to issue warnings during the storms of 12 to 21 February 1986, which produced 800 millimeters of rainfall in the region. Although analysis after the storms suggests that modifications and additional developments are needed, the system successfully predicted the times of major landslide events. It could be used as a prototype for systems in other landslide-prone regions.

  20. A Formal Model for Real-Time Parallel Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2012-12-29

    The imposition of real-time constraints on a parallel computing environment--- specifically high-performance, cluster-computing systems--- introduces a variety of challenges with respect to the formal verification of the system's timing properties. In this paper, we briefly motivate the need for such a system, and we introduce an automaton-based method for performing such formal verification. We define the concept of a consistent parallel timing system: a hybrid system consisting of a set of timed automata (specifically, timed Buechi automata as well as a timed variant of standard finite automata), intended to model the timing properties of a well-behaved real-time parallel system. Finally, we give a brief case study to demonstrate the concepts in the paper: a parallel matrix multiplication kernel which operates within provable upper time bounds. We give the algorithm used, a corresponding consistent parallel timing system, and empirical results showing that the system operates under the specified timing constraints.