Science.gov

Sample records for abbott realtime hepatitis

  1. Analytical and clinical evaluation of the Abbott RealTime hepatitis B sequencing assay.

    PubMed

    Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Ji-Youn; Lee, Myoung-Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2016-12-01

    Long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) treatment leads to selection for drug-resistant mutations in patients undergoing hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy. The Abbott RealTime HBV Sequencing assay (Abbott assay; Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL, USA) targets the reverse transcriptase region of the polymerase gene and as such has the ability to detect NA resistance-associated mutations in HBV. We evaluated the analytical performance of the Abbott assay and compared its diagnostic performance to that of a laboratory-developed nested-PCR and sequencing method. The analytical sensitivity of the Abbott assay was determined using a serially-diluted WHO International Standard. To validate the clinical performances of the Abbott assay and the laboratory-developed assay, 89 clinical plasma samples with various levels of HBV DNA were tested using both assays. The limit of detection of the Abbott assay, was 210IU/ml and it successfully detected mutations when the mutant types were present at levels ≥20%. Among 89 clinical specimens, 43 and 42 were amplification positive in the Abbott and laboratory-developed assays, respectively, with 87.6% overall agreement (78/89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78.6-93.4). The Abbott assay failed to detect the minor mutant populations in two specimens, and therefore overall concordance was 85.3% (76/89), and the kappa value was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67-0.90). The Abbott assay showed comparable diagnostic performance to laboratory-developed nested PCR followed by direct sequencing, and may be useful as a routine method for detecting HBV NA resistance-associated mutations in clinical laboratory settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II for hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yong-Hak; Ko, Sun-Young; Kim, Myeong Hee; Oh, Heung-Bum

    2010-04-01

    The Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc.) for HCV genotyping, which uses real-time PCR technology, has recently been developed. Accuracy and sensitivity of detection were assessed using the HCV RNA PHW202 performance panel (SeraCare Life Sciences). Consistency with restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) data, cross-reactivity with other viruses, and the ability to detect minor strains in mixtures of genotypes 1 and 2 were evaluated using clinical samples. All performance panel viruses were correctly genotyped at levels of >500 IU/mL. Results were 100% concordant with RFMP genotypic data (66/66). However, 5% (3/66) of the samples examined displayed probable genotypic cross reactivity. No cross reactivity with other viruses was evident. Minor strains in the mixtures were not effectively distinguished, even at quantities higher than the detection limit. The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay was very accurate and yielded results consistent with RFMP data. Although the assay has the advantages of automation and short turnaround time, we suggest that further improvements are necessary before it is used routinely in clinical practice. Efforts are needed to decrease cross reactivity among genotypes and to improve the ability to detect minor genotypes in mixed infections.

  3. Performance Characteristics and Comparison of Abbott and artus Real-Time Systems for Hepatitis B Virus DNA Quantification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ashrafali M.; Sivakumar, Jayashree; Anantharam, Raghavendran; Dayalan, Sujitha; Samuel, Prasanna; Fletcher, Gnanadurai J.; Gnanamony, Manu; Abraham, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Virological monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is critical to the management of HBV infection. With several HBV DNA quantification assays available, it is important to use the most efficient testing system for virological monitoring. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics and comparability of three HBV DNA quantification systems: Abbott HBV real-time PCR (Abbott PCR), artus HBV real-time PCR with QIAamp DNA blood kit purification (artus-DB), and artus HBV real-time PCR with the QIAamp DSP virus kit purification (artus-DSP). The lower limits of detection of these systems were established against the WHO international standards for HBV DNA and were found to be 1.43, 82, and 9 IU/ml, respectively. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation of plasma samples (1 to 6 log10 IU/ml) ranged between 0.05 to 8.34% and 0.16 to 3.48% for the Abbott PCR, 1.53 to 26.85% and 0.50 to 12.89% for artus-DB, and 0.29 to 7.42% and 0.94 to 3.01% for artus-DSP, respectively. Ninety HBV clinical samples were used for comparison of assays, and paired quantitative results showed strong correlation by linear regression analysis (artus-DB with Abbott PCR, r = 0.95; Abbott PCR with artus-DSP, r = 0.97; and artus-DSP with artus-DB, r = 0.94). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement for Abbott PCR and artus-DSP, with a mean difference of 0.10 log10 IU/ml and limits of agreement of −0.91 to 1.11 log10 IU/ml. No genotype-specific bias was seen in all three systems for HBV genotypes A, C, and D, which are predominant in this region. This finding illustrates that the Abbott real-time HBV and artus-DSP systems show more comparable performance than the artus-DB system, meeting the current guidelines for assays to be used in the management of hepatitis B. PMID:21795507

  4. Performance characteristics and comparison of Abbott and artus real-time systems for hepatitis B virus DNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ashrafali M; Sivakumar, Jayashree; Anantharam, Raghavendran; Dayalan, Sujitha; Samuel, Prasanna; Fletcher, Gnanadurai J; Gnanamony, Manu; Abraham, Priya

    2011-09-01

    Virological monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is critical to the management of HBV infection. With several HBV DNA quantification assays available, it is important to use the most efficient testing system for virological monitoring. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics and comparability of three HBV DNA quantification systems: Abbott HBV real-time PCR (Abbott PCR), artus HBV real-time PCR with QIAamp DNA blood kit purification (artus-DB), and artus HBV real-time PCR with the QIAamp DSP virus kit purification (artus-DSP). The lower limits of detection of these systems were established against the WHO international standards for HBV DNA and were found to be 1.43, 82, and 9 IU/ml, respectively. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation of plasma samples (1 to 6 log(10) IU/ml) ranged between 0.05 to 8.34% and 0.16 to 3.48% for the Abbott PCR, 1.53 to 26.85% and 0.50 to 12.89% for artus-DB, and 0.29 to 7.42% and 0.94 to 3.01% for artus-DSP, respectively. Ninety HBV clinical samples were used for comparison of assays, and paired quantitative results showed strong correlation by linear regression analysis (artus-DB with Abbott PCR, r = 0.95; Abbott PCR with artus-DSP, r = 0.97; and artus-DSP with artus-DB, r = 0.94). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement for Abbott PCR and artus-DSP, with a mean difference of 0.10 log(10) IU/ml and limits of agreement of -0.91 to 1.11 log(10) IU/ml. No genotype-specific bias was seen in all three systems for HBV genotypes A, C, and D, which are predominant in this region. This finding illustrates that the Abbott real-time HBV and artus-DSP systems show more comparable performance than the artus-DB system, meeting the current guidelines for assays to be used in the management of hepatitis B.

  5. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-05-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV assay for quantitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Birgit D A; Muller, Zsofia; Stelzl, Evelyn; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H

    2007-02-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV assay for quantitative detection of HCV RNA has recently been introduced. In this study, the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV assay was evaluated and compared to the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV test. Accuracy, linearity, interassay and intra-assay variations were determined, and a total of 243 routine clinical samples were investigated. When accuracy of the new assay was tested, the majority of results were found to be within +/-0.5 log(10) unit of the results obtained by reference laboratories. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve up to 1.0 x 10(6)IU/ml. The interassay variation ranged from 15% to 32%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 5% to 8%. When clinical samples were tested by the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and the results were compared with those obtained by the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV test, the results for 93% of all samples with positive results by both tests were found to be within +/-1.0 log(10) unit. The viral loads for all patients measured by the Abbott and Roche assays showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.93); quantitative results obtained by the Abbott assay were found to be lower than those obtained by the Roche assay. The Abbott RealTime HCV assay proved to be suitable for use in the routine diagnostic laboratory. The time to results was similar for both of the assays.

  7. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Schutten, M; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-06-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMan assays. Two different protocols used during the testing period with and without a pre-m1000 RNA isolation spin were compared. The difference proved to be nonsignificant. A uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) contamination control option in the HCV test for previous Roche COBAS Amplicor users was evaluated. It proved to decrease amplicon carryover by 100-fold independent of the amplicon input concentration. The protocol including UNG proved to overcome problems with false-positive negative controls. Comparison with other assays revealed only minor differences. The largest difference was observed between the Abbott HCV RealTime assay and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HCV Monitor version 2.0 assay.

  8. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS Feature on Clinical Laboratory Efficiencies of Abbott RealTime Assays for Detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents. PMID:24088850

  9. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS feature on clinical laboratory efficiencies of abbott RealTime assays for detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents.

  10. Characterization of Samples Identified as Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 without Subtype by Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II Assay Using the New Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO Test.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Camelia; Ebel, Anne; Reinhardt, Birgit; Merlin, Sandra; Proust, Stéphanie; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping continues to be relevant for therapeutic strategies. Some samples are reported as genotype 1 (gt 1) without subtype by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (GT II) test. To characterize such samples further, the Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO (Plus) assay, which targets the core region for gt 1a, gt 1b, and gt 6 detection, was evaluated as a reflex test in reference to NS5B or 5'-untranslated region (UTR)/core region sequencing. Of 3,626 routine samples, results of gt 1 without subtype were received for 171 samples (4.7%), accounting for 11.5% of gt 1 specimens. The Plus assay and sequencing were applied to 98 of those samples. NS5B or 5'-UTR/core region sequencing was successful for 91/98 specimens (92.9%). Plus assay and sequencing results were concordant for 87.9% of specimens (80/91 samples). Sequencing confirmed Plus assay results for 82.6%, 85.7%, 100%, and 89.3% of gt 1a, gt 1b, gt 6, and non-gt 1a/1b/6 results, respectively. Notably, 12 gt 6 samples that had been identified previously as gt 1 without subtype were assigned correctly here; for 25/28 samples reported as "not detected" by the Plus assay, sequencing identified the samples as gt 1 with subtypes other than 1a/1b. The genetic variability of HCV continues to present challenges for the current genotyping platforms regardless of the applied methodology. Samples identified by the GT II assay as gt 1 without subtype can be further resolved and reliably characterized by the new Plus assay. Copyright © 2016 Mokhtari et al.

  11. Comparison of Abbott RealTime genotype II, GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr assays for hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Han, Mi-Soon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2017-07-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is a predictive marker for treatment response. We sequentially evaluated the performances of two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and one serology assay for HCV genotype: Abbott RealTime genotype II (RealTime II), GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP), and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr (HISCL Gr). We examined 281 clinical samples with three assays. The accuracy was assessed using the HCV Genotype Performance Panel PHW204 (SeraCare Life Sciences) for two NAATs. Discrepant cases were re-genotyped by the Versant HCV v.2.0 (line probe 2.0) assay. With the RealTime II assay, clinic samples were analyzed as follows: genotypes 1b (43.1%), 2 (40.2%), 1 subtypes other than 1a and 1b (12.5%), 3 (1.8%), 4 (1.4%), 1a (0.7%), 6 (0.4%), and mixed (1.1%). The RealTime II and RFMP assays showed a type concordance rate of 97.5% (274/281) (κ=0.80) and no significant discordance (p=0.25). Both assays accurately genotyped all samples in the Performance Panel by the subtype level. The HISCL Gr assay showed concordance rates of about 91% (κ<0.40) and statistically significant discordances with two NAATs (p<0.05). In confirmation tests, the results of RFMP assay were the most consistent with those of Versant 2.0 assay. The three HCV assays provided genotyping and serotyping results with good concordance rates. The two NAATs (RealTime II and RFMP) showed comparable performance and good agreement. However, the results of the HISCL Gr assay showed statistically significant differences with those of the NAATs.

  12. An OPTIMIZE study retrospective analysis for management of telaprevir-treated hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients by use of the Abbott RealTime HCV RNA assay.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Christoph; Dierynck, Inge; Cloherty, Gavin; Ghys, Anne; Janssen, Katrien; Luo, Donghan; Witek, James; Buti, Maria; Picchio, Gaston; De Meyer, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based response-guided triple therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are still widely used. Noncirrhotic treatment-naive and prior relapser patients receiving telaprevir-based treatment are eligible for shorter, 24-week total therapy if HCV RNA is undetectable at both weeks 4 and 12. In this study, the concordance in HCV RNA assessments between the Roche High Pure System/Cobas TaqMan and Abbott RealTime HCV RNA assays and the impacts of different HCV RNA cutoffs on treatment outcome were evaluated. A total of 2,629 samples from 663 HCV genotype 1 patients receiving telaprevir/pegylated interferon/ribavirin in OPTIMIZE were analyzed using the High Pure System and reanalyzed using Abbott RealTime (limits of detection, 15.1 IU/ml versus 8.3 IU/ml; limits of quantification, 25 IU/ml versus 12 IU/ml, respectively). Overall, good concordance was observed between the assays. Using undetectable HCV RNA at week 4, 34% of the patients would be eligible for shorter treatment duration with Abbott RealTime versus 72% with the High Pure System. However, using <12 IU/ml for Abbott RealTime, a similar proportion (74%) would be eligible. Of the patients receiving 24-week total therapy, 87% achieved a sustained virologic response with undetectable HCV RNA by the High Pure System or <12 IU/ml by Abbott RealTime; however, 92% of the patients with undetectable HCV RNA by Abbott RealTime achieved a sustained virologic response. Using undetectable HCV RNA as the cutoff, the more sensitive Abbott RealTime assay would identify fewer patients eligible for shorter treatment than the High Pure System. Our data confirm the <12-IU/ml cutoff, as previously established in other studies of the Abbott RealTime assay, to determine eligibility for shortened PI-based HCV treatment. (The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01241760.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Performance evaluation of the Aptima® HCV Quant Dx assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification in comparison to the Abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Bibbò, Angela; Sciamanna, Roberta; Pisciotta, Marina; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2017-07-01

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification assay CE-approved for the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Aptima's analytical performance was compared to the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (RealTime) in a clinical routine setting. Overall 295 clinical plasma samples (117 prospective/fresh; 178 retrospective/frozen) from HCV-infected patients were tested in Aptima and RealTime to determine concordance on qualitative and quantitative results. Linearity and precision at low viral loads (VLs; 0.8-3.3LogIU/mL) was tested using dilutions of the 5th WHO standard, in 10 and 20 replicates in the two assays, respectively. The ability to measure different HCV genotypes and accuracy were analyzed using the Seracare EQA panel. Inter-assay agreement for qualitative results (prospective samples) was 88% (kappa=0.78). For the 127 samples with quantitative results in both assays, Aptima yielded on average slightly higher values (by 0.24LogIU/mL; Bland-Altman method) than RealTime. Concordance between assay results was excellent (R=0.98). At low VLs (0.8-3.3LogIU/mL), Aptima demonstrated good linearity and precision, similar to RealTime. Aptima detected and accurately quantified all main HCV genotypes. Aptima demonstrated excellent precision, linearity, and accuracy in all genotypes tested. Good concordance was observed between Aptima and RealTime assays in clinical samples. The performance of the Aptima assay, on the fully automated Panther platform, makes it an excellent candidate for the detection and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Abbott and Da-an real-time PCR for quantitating serum HBV DNA.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ning; Li, Rui; Yu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Wei; An, Yong; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-09-07

    To compare the performance of the Da-an real-time hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA assay and Abbott RealTime HBV assay. HBV DNA standards as well as a total of 180 clinical serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B were measured using the Abbott and Da-an real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Correlation and Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to compare the performance of the Abbott and Da-an assays. The HBV DNA levels were logarithmically transformed for analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0. The correlation between the two assays was analyzed by Pearson's correlation and linear regression. The Bland-Altman plots were used for the analysis of agreement between the two assays. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The HBV DNA values measured by the Abbott or Da-an assay were significantly correlated with the expected values of HBV DNA standards (r = 0.999, for Abbott; r = 0.987, for Da-an, P < 0.001). A Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between these two assays in detecting HBV DNA standards. Among the 180 clinical serum samples, 126 were quantifiable by both assays. Fifty-two samples were detectable by the Abbott assay but below the detection limit of the Da-an assay. Moreover, HBV DNA levels measured by the Abbott assay were significantly higher than those of the Da-an assay (6.23 ± 1.76 log IU/mL vs 5.46 ± 1.55 log IU/mL, P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between HBV DNA concentrations determined by the two assays in 126 paired samples (r = 0.648, P < 0.001). One hundred and fifteen of 126 (91.3%) specimens tested with both assays were within mean difference ± 1.96 SD of HBV DNA levels. The Da-an assay presented lower sensitivity and a narrower linear range as compared to the Abbott assay, suggesting the need to be improved.

  15. Comparison of the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor, Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman and Abbott RealTime Test assays for quantification of hepatitis C virus and HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Dietmar; Gerritzen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of two newly developed automated real-time PCR assays, the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and the Abbott RealTime tests, in the quantification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. The widely used semi-automated COBAS Amplicor Monitor (CAM) assay served as the reference test. Several specimens were analyzed, including 102 plasma samples from HCV patients and 109 from HIV patients and 10 samples from negative donors, as well as Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) and National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls (NIBSC) proficiency program panels. Good correlation was observed among the three assays, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.8 (CAM-CAP/CTM), 0.89 (CAM-RealTime) and 0.91 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HCV and 0.83 (CAM-RealTime), 0.85 (CAM-CAP/CTM) and 0.89 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HIV. The overall concordance for negative/positive results was 100% for HCV and 98% for HIV. All assays were equally able to quantify HCV genotypes 1, 3, 5 and HIV group M (subtypes A-H) and N from QCMD and NIBSC panels. In terms of workflow, the RealTime assay requires more hands-on-time than the CAP/CTM assay. The results indicate that real-time PCR assays can improve the efficiency of end-point PCR tests by better covering viral dynamic ranges and providing higher throughput and automation.

  16. [Performance evaluation of Abbott RealTime HBV Quantification Kit for HBV viral load by real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong Hee; Cha, Choong Hwan; An, Dongheui; Choi, Sung Eun; Oh, Heung Bum

    2008-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA quantification is necessary for starting and monitoring of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This study was intended to assess the clinical performance of Abbott RealTime HBV Quantification kit (Abbott Laboratories, USA). The performance was evaluated in terms of precision, linearity, detection sensitivity, cross-reactivity, and carry-over. A correlation with the Real-Q HBV Quantification kit (BioSewoom Inc., Korea) was also examined using serum samples from 64 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and underwent lamivudine therapy in Asan Medical Center. We verified the trueness of the system by comparing the outputs with the assigned values of the BBI panel (BBI Diagnostics, USA). Within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) were 3.56-4.71% and 3.03-4.98%, respectively. Linearity was manifested ranging from 53 to 10(9)copies/mL and the detection sensitivity was verified to be 51 copies/mL. None of hepatitis C virus showed cross-reactivity. No cross-contamination occurred when negative and positive samples were alternatively placed in a row. It showed a good correlation with the Real-Q HBV (r(2)=0.9609) and the test results for the BBI panel were also well agreed to the assigned values (r(2)=0.9933). The performance of Abbott RealTime HBV Quantification kit was excellent; thus, it should be widely used in starting and monitoring of antiviral therapy in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  17. Utility of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype Plus RUO assay used in combination with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Germer, Jeffrey J; Ptacek, Elizabeth R; Bommersbach, Carl E; Mitchell, P Shawn; Yao, Joseph D C

    Hepatitis virus C (HCV) genotype (GT) determination and subtype (ST) differentiation (1a versus 1b) remain important for the selection of appropriate direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. This study is a retrospective comparison of HCV GT and ST result distribution when using the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (HCVGT II) alone and in combination with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype Plus RUO assay (HCVGT Plus) for routine testing of clinical serum specimens at a reference laboratory. HCVGT II results of specimens tested from June 2014 through January 2016 (period 1) were compared with combined results from HCVGT II and HCVGT Plus (HCVGT II/Plus) performed from January 2016 through January 2017 (period 2). A total of 44,127 and 25,361 specimens were tested during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Use of HCVGT II/Plus significantly reduced the frequency of GT 1 results without ST (0.4%) when compared to preliminary HCVGT II results during period 2 (5.3%; p < 0.01) and final HCVGT II results in period 1 (5.5%; p < 0.01). HCVGT II/Plus also resulted in GT 6 reactivity in 38 specimens with results of "HCV detected" (n = 17) or GT 1 (n = 21) following initial HCVGT II testing during period 2. When compared to the use of HCVGT II alone, HCVGT II/Plus significantly reduced the frequency of GT 1 without ST results observed in a large reference laboratory, while also enabling the identification of HCV GT 6. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Copan FLOQSwab for the molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Abbott RealTime CT PCR.

    PubMed

    Coorevits, L; Vanscheeuwijck, C; Traen, A; Bingé, L; Ryckaert, I; Padalko, E

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated Copan FLOQSwabs next to Abbott swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by Abbott RealTime PCR. We collected 1062 paired swabs from female sex workers. The study was divided in two arms, according to the order of swab collection. If the Abbott swab was collected first, 501 couples were concordant and two discordant (Abbott negative and Copan positive). If the Copan swab was collected first, 537 couples were concordant and 10 discordant (eight Abbott negative and Copan positive and two Abbott positive and Copan negative). All discordant samples contained low levels of C. trachomatis. Technical issues lead to retesting of 64 Copan and 21 Abbott swabs. Our results show that Copan FLOQSwabs can be used interchangeably with Abbott swabs. While appearing to have an advantage in detecting more positive samples, the use of Copan swabs led to a higher retesting rate due to technical errors.

  19. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required.

  20. HCV-RNA quantification in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, using the abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, FrancescoPaolo; Cento, Valeria; Sorbo, Maria Chiara; Manuelli, Matteo Ciancio; Lenci, Ilaria; Sforza, Daniele; Di Carlo, Domenico; Milana, Martina; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a rapid method to quantify HCV-RNA in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments, by using for the first time the Abbott RealTime HCV-assay. Non-tumoral (NT), tumoral (TT) liver samples, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid from patients undergoing orthotopic-liver-transplantation (N=18) or liver resection (N=4) were used for the HCV-RNA quantification; 5/22 patients were tested after or during direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment. Total RNA and DNA quantification from tissue-biopsies allowed normalization of HCV-RNA concentrations in IU/μg of total RNA and IU/10 6 liver-cells, respectively. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver biopsies, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid samples. Among the 17 untreated patients, a positive and significant HCV-RNA correlation between serum and NT liver-samples was observed (Pearson: rho=0.544, p=0.024). Three DAA-treated patients were HCV-RNA "undetectable" in serum, but still "detectable" in all tested liver-tissues. Differently, only one DAA-treated patient, tested after sustained-virological-response, showed HCV-RNA "undetectability" in liver-tissue. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, even when HCV-RNA was "undetectable" in serum. Abbott RealTime HCV-assay is a good diagnostic tool for HCV quantification in intra- and extra-hepatic compartments, whenever a bioptic sample is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by the New Automated Abbott RealTime MTB Assay.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yung-Chieh; Liao, I-Chuang; Chen, Hung-Mo; Yan, Jing-Jou

    2016-07-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay, launched in June 2014, has been shown to have a competitive performance in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in respiratory specimens. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay in the detection of MTB in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. A total of 96 FFPE specimens obtained from microbiologically proven MTB cases (N=60) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium cases (N=36) were analyzed. The performance of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay was compared with that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were 63.3% and 97.2%, respectively, compared with 11.7% and 100% for the Cobas assay. The detection rate of the Abbott assay was much higher among 37 acid-fast-positive specimens than among 23 acid-fast-negative specimens (89.3% versus 21.7%, respectively). The detection rate of the assay was higher among 29 resection specimens than among 31 small biopsy specimens (86.2% versus 41.9%, respectively). Our results suggest that the Abbott RealTime MTB assay can be used to differentiate MTB from nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in acid-fast-positive FFPE tissues. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays for Detection of HPV Infection.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yu, Shinae; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Various assays for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have been introduced recently, including the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay. We sought to compare the performance of Abbott PCR to Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of HR HPV. A total of 941 cervical swab specimens were obtained. We submitted all specimens for HR HPV detection with HC2 and Abbott PCR, and then additionally analyzed discordant and concordant positive results using restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) genotyping analysis. HC2 detected one of 13 HR HPV types in 12.3% (116/941) of cases, while Abbott PCR detected one of 14 detectable HR HPV types in 12.9% (121/941) of cases. The overall agreement rate was 97.3% with a kappa coefficient of 0.879. Discordant results between these two assays were observed in 25 cases. HC2 showed a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 95.9%, while Abbott PCR showed a sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 96.8% when using RFMP results as the gold standard. For HPV 16/18 detection, Abbott PCR showed 95.8%/88.9% sensitivity and 99.2%/99.8% specificity, respectively. The overall coinfection rate between HPV 16, 18 and non-16/18 was 9.9% (12/121) in Abbott PCR analysis. Considering its high agreement rate with HC2, higher sensitivity/specificity compared to HC2, and ability to differentiate HPV 16/18 from other HPV types, Abbott PCR could be a reliable laboratory testing method for the screening of HPV infections. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. [Analytical performances of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine].

    PubMed

    De Monte, Anne; Cannavo, Isabelle; Caramella, Anne; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause of sensoneurinal disability due to infectious congenital disease. The diagnosis of congenital CMV infection is based on the search of CMV in the urine within the first two weeks of life. Viral culture of urine is the gold standard. However, the PCR is highly sensitive and faster. It is becoming an alternative choice. The objective of this study is the validation of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine. Repeatability, reproducibility, detection limit and inter-sample contamination were evaluated. Urine samples from patients (n=141) were collected and analyzed simultaneously in culture and PCR in order to assess the correlation of these two methods. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR were also calculated. The Abbott RealTime CMV PCR in urine is an automated and sensitive method (detection limit 200 UI/mL). Fidelity is very good (standard deviation of repeatability: 0.08 to 0.15 LogUI/mL and reproducibility 0.18 LogUI/mL). We can note a good correlation between culture and Abbott RealTime CMV PCR (kappa 96%). When considering rapid culture as reference, real-time PCR was highly sensitive (100%) and specific (98.2%). The real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 is optimal for CMV detection in urine.

  4. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in respiratory specimen using Abbott Realtime MTB detection and RIF/INH resistance assay.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kingsley King-Gee; Leung, Kenneth Siu-Sing; To, Sabrina Wai-Chi; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Shek, Victor Chi-Man; Tse, Cindy Wing-Sze; Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yam, Wing-Cheong

    2017-10-01

    Abbott RealTime MTB (Abbott-RT) in conjunction with Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott-RIF/INH) is a new, high-throughput automated nucleic acid amplification platform (Abbott-MDR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the genotypic markers for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance directly from respiratory specimens. This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this new platform for MTBC and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 610 sputum specimens in a tuberculosis high-burden setting. Using conventional culture results and clinical background as reference standards, Abbott-RT exhibited an overall sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% and 99.8%, respectively. Genotypic RIF/INH resistance of 178 "MTB detected" specimens was subsequently analyzed by Abbott-RIF/INH. Compared to phenotypic drug susceptibility test results, Abbott-RIF/INH detected resistance genotypic markers in 84.6% MDR-TB, 80% mono-RIF-resistant and 66.7% mono-INH-resistant specimens. Two of the RIF-resistant specimens carried a novel single, nonsense mutation at rpoB Q513 and in silico simulation demonstrated that the truncated RpoB protein failed to bind with other subunits for transcription. Overall, Abbott-MDR platform provided high throughput and reliable diagnosis of MDR-TB within a TB high-burden region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV for carcinogenic HPV detection.

    PubMed

    Halfon, Philippe; Benmoura, Dominique; Agostini, Aubert; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Martineau, Agnes; Blanc, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Abbott RealTime (RT) High-Risk (HR) HPV assay is a new qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of 14 HR HPV DNA. The assay can differentiate between the infection by HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types through the distinct fluorescent labels on the type specific probes. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Abbott RT HR HPV test, in comparison with biopsy, Hybrid Capture II (HCII), and Linear Array (LA), for detection of high-grade disease (CIN2+). The study population consisted of 143 women who were included in three referral gynecology clinics in Marseilles (France) between March 2007 and June 2008. The clinical performance of the RT HR HPV assay, performed on the fully automated m2000 system, was compared with HCII and LA. HR HPV positivity rate was similar for all tests (Abbott RT HR HPV and HCII, 62%, and LA 63%). All tests had high sensitivities and negative predictive values for CIN2+ detection (>90%). The agreement between HCII and Abbott RT HR HPV, and between HCII and LA were 93% (k=0.85) and 96% (k=0.91) respectively. As expected, HPV16 or HPV18 positivity was greater in advanced grades of disease, especially in CIN2+ patients: 85% in CIN2+ vs. 33% in Abbott RT HR HPV assay is good and closely correlated with the two other assays. The automation and ability to identify type 16 and 18 make this a very attractive option for HPV testing in laboratories and potentially provides improved patient management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  7. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P; Welsch, J; Holden, J; Ho, S Y; Webb, E M; Anderson, C; Bertuzis, R; Zhang, L; Miller, T; Leckie, G; Abravaya, K; Robinson, J

    2010-09-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians.

  8. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C. A.; Cartwright, C. P.; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J.; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T.; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians. PMID:20668135

  9. Clinical evaluation of the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex from respiratory and non-respiratory samples.

    PubMed

    Hinić, Vladimira; Feuz, Kinga; Turan, Selda; Berini, Andrea; Frei, Reno; Pfeifer, Karin; Goldenberger, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Rapid and reliable diagnosis is crucial for correct management of tuberculosis. The Abbott RealTime MTB Assay represents a novel qualitative real-time PCR assay for direct detection of M. tuberculosis-complex (MTB) DNA from respiratory samples. The test targets two highly conserved sequences, the multi-copy insertion element IS6110 and the protein antigen B (PAB) gene of MTB, allowing even the detection of IS6610-deficient strains. We evaluated this commercial diagnostic test by analyzing 200 respiratory and, for the first time, 87 non-respiratory clinical specimens from our tertiary care institution and compared its results to our IS6110-based in-house real-time PCR for MTB as well as MTB culture. Overall sensitivity for Abbott RealTime MTB was 100% (19/19) in smear positive and 87.5% (7/8) in smear negative specimens, while the specificity of the assay was 100% (260/260). For both non-respiratory smear positive and smear negative specimens Abbott RealTime MTB tests showed 100% (8/8) sensitivity and 100% (8/8) specificity. Cycle threshold (Ct) value analysis of 16 MTB positive samples showed a slightly higher Ct value of the Abbott RealTime MTB test compared to our in-house MTB assay (mean delta Ct = 2.55). In conclusion, the performance of the new Abbott RealTime MTB Assay was highly similar to culture and in-house MTB PCR. We document successful analysis of 87 non-respiratory samples with the highly automated Abbott RealTime MTB test with no inhibition observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV-1 viral load measurement in venous blood and fingerprick blood using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 DBS assay.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Bagley, Zowie; Viana, Raquel; Lampinen, John; Leckie, Gregor; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; Wallis, Carole L

    2017-07-01

    HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood. To evaluate correlation, bias, and agreement, 497 HIV-1 positive adult clinical samples were collected from Ivory Coast, Uganda and South Africa. For each HIV-1 participant, DBS-fingerprick, DBS-venous and plasma sample results were compared. Correlation and bias values were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed at a threshold of 1000 HIV-1 copies/mL generated using the standard plasma protocol. The Abbott HIV-1 DBS protocol had an LOD of 839 copies/mL, a linear range from 500 to 1×10 7 copies/mL, an LLQ of 839 copies/mL, a ULQ of 1×10 7 copies/mL, and an inter-assay SD of ≤0.30 log copies/mL for all tested levels within this range. With clinical samples, the correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.896 between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and 0.901 between DBS-venous and plasma, and the bias was -0.07 log copies/mL between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and -0.02 log copies/mL between DBS-venous and plasma. The sensitivity of DBS-fingerprick and DBS-venous was 93%, while the specificity of both DBS methods was 95%. The results demonstrated that the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol is highly sensitive, specific and precise across a wide dynamic range and correlates well with plasma values. The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol provides an

  11. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test using urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off C T value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the C T threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off C T value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV

  12. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. PMID:26085611

  13. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Sample Inactivation Reagent in the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Wallis, Carole; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Ramdin, Neeshan; Viana, Raquel; Abravaya, Klara; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning

    2015-09-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay is a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. The sample inactivation procedure used in the assay, consisting of one part sample treated with 3 parts inactivation reagent for 60 min, effectively reduced viscosity and inactivated M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for measurement of HIV-1 plasma viral load on genetically diverse samples from Greece

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 is characterized by increased genetic heterogeneity which tends to hinder the reliability of detection and accuracy of HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays. Methods In this study, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (Abbott RealTime) assay was compared to the Roche Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 (Cobas TaqMan) and the Siemens Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA 3.0) assays, using clinical samples of various viral load levels and subtypes from Greece, where the recent epidemiology of HIV-1 infection has been characterized by increasing genetic diversity and a marked increase in subtype A genetic strains among newly diagnosed infections. Results A high correlation was observed between the quantitative results obtained by the Abbott RealTime and the Cobas TaqMan assays. Viral load values quantified by the Abbott RealTime were on average lower than those obtained by the Cobas TaqMan, with a mean (SD) difference of -0.206 (0.298) log10 copies/ml. The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for samples of subtype A, B, and non-A/non-B were 0.089, -0.262, and -0.298 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, differences were less than 0.5 log10 for 85% of the samples, and >1 log10 in only one subtype B sample. Similarly, Abbott RealTime and bDNA 3.0 assays yielded a very good correlation of quantitative results, whereas viral load values assessed by the Abbott RealTime were on average higher (mean (SD) difference: 0.160 (0.287) log10 copies/ml). The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for subtype A, B and non-A/non-B samples were 0.438, 0.105 and 0.191 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, the majority of samples (86%) differed by less than 0.5 log10, while none of the samples showed a deviation of more than 1.0 log10. Conclusions In an area of changing HIV-1 subtype pattern, the Abbott RealTime assay showed a high correlation and good agreement of results when compared both to the Cobas TaqMan and bDNA 3.0 assays, for all

  15. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the Abbott Architect i2000 assay, the Roche Modular Analytics E170 assay, and an immunoradiometric assay for serum hepatitis B virus markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kang, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2007-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers are the most important data for epidemiological screening and clinical diagnosis of HBV infection, especially in endemic areas. We compared the results of the Roche Modular Analytics E170 assay, the Abbott Architect i2000 assay, and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and anti-HBV e antigen (anti-HBe). A number of serum samples (264, 263, 224, and 202 for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe, respectively) were studied. For samples giving discrepant results for HBeAg between methods, real-time PCR assays were performed. The concordance rates among the three methods were high for HBsAg (100%) and HBeAg (94.6), but low for anti-HBs (91.6%) and anti-HBe (82.2%). For anti-HBs, which could be measured quantitatively by the Modular E170 and Architect i2000 procedures, discrepant results were observed at low levels of anti-HBs. For anti-HBe, the positive rate was highest with Modular E170 (60.9%) followed by the IRMA kit (54.1%) and Architect i2000 (51.0%). This study shows substantial differences between the assay results by the three methods, which should be taken into account in determinations of serum HBV markers.

  17. Fully Automated Quantification of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Whole Blood with the New Sensitive Abbott RealTime CMV Assay in the Era of the CMV International Standard

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, Nathalie; Scieux, Catherine; Resche-Riggon, Matthieu; Feghoul, Linda; Xhaard, Alienor; Gallien, Sébastien; Molina, Jean-Michel; Socié, Gérard; Viglietti, Denis; Simon, François; Mazeron, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Fully standardized reproducible and sensitive quantification assays for cytomegalovirus (CMV) are needed to better define thresholds for antiviral therapy initiation and interruption. We evaluated the newly released Abbott RealTime CMV assay for CMV quantification in whole blood (WB) that includes automated extraction and amplification (m2000 RealTime system). Sensitivity, accuracy, linearity, and intra- and interassay variability were validated in a WB matrix using Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) panels and the WHO international standard (IS). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 1.37% and 2.09% at 5 log10 copies/ml and 2.41% and 3.80% at 3 log10 copies/ml, respectively. According to expected values for the QCMD and Abbott RealTime CMV methods, the lower limits of quantification were 104 and <50 copies/ml, respectively. The conversion factor between international units and copies (2.18), determined from serial dilutions of the WHO IS in WB, was significantly different from the factor provided by the manufacturer (1.56) (P = 0.001). Results from 302 clinical samples were compared with those from the Qiagen artus CMV assay on the same m2000 RealTime system. The two assays provided highly concordant results (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.92), but the Abbott RealTime CMV assay detected and quantified, respectively, 20.6% and 47.8% more samples than the Qiagen/artus CMV assay. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the results, along with the automation, fulfilled the quality requirements for implementation of the Abbott RealTime CMV assay in clinical settings. Our results highlight the need for careful validation of conversion factors provided by the manufacturers for the WHO IS in WB to allow future comparison of results obtained with different assays. PMID:23616450

  18. An in-house assay for BK polyomavirus quantification using the Abbott m2000 RealTime system.

    PubMed

    Muldrew, Kenneth L; Lovett, Jennie L

    2013-11-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) quantification is useful for monitoring renal transplant patient response to therapy. The Abbott m2000 RealTime System employed by some clinical laboratories to perform US Food and Drug Administration-approved assays can also be used to develop in-house assays such as the one presented here. This study aimed to validate an in-house quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the BKPyV major capsid VP1 gene for assessment of viral load using the Abbott m2000 RealTime System. BKPyV load was measured in 95 urine and plasma samples previously tested for BKPyV by one of three laboratories (46 BKPyV-positive samples consisting of 35 plasma and 11 urine samples; 49 samples negative for BKPyV consisting of 47 plasma and two urine samples). Two additional plasma specimens from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing survey were also analysed. Precision studies were performed by diluting a high-viral-titre patient sample into BKPyV-negative pooled plasma to create high-positive (6.16 log10 copies ml(-1)) and low-positive (3.16 log10 copies ml(-1)) samples. For precision studies of inter-assay variability, a high-positive (7.0 log10 copies ml(-1)) and a low-positive (3.0 log10 copies ml(-1)) sample were measured in 20 separate runs. The assay's limit of quantification and limit of detection were 2.70 and 2.25 log10 copies ml(-1), respectively. The assay was linear from 2.70 to 9.26 log10 copies ml(-1). Of the 48 known positives, 43 were detected as positive, with three reported by the reference laboratory as values lower than the limit of detection. Two known positives at 3.27 and 3.80 log10 copies ml(-1) tested negative by the m2000 BKPyV assay. Of the 49 known negative samples, 48 were negative by the m2000 BKPyV load assay, with one sample confirmed positive by a reference laboratory. Qualitative analysis prior to discrepancy testing demonstrated a sensitivity of 89.58 % and a specificity of 97.96 %. Precision studies

  19. An improved Abbott ARCHITECT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg).

    PubMed

    Lou, Sheng C; Pearce, Sandra K; Lukaszewska, Teresa X; Taylor, Russell E; Williams, Gregg T; Leary, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    The sensitive and accurate detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is critical to the identification of infection and the prevention of transfusion transmitted disease. Improvement in HBsAg assay sensitivity is essential to reduce the window to detect an acute HBV infection. Additionally, the sensitive detection of HBsAg mutants that continue to evolve due to vaccine escape, immune selection and an error prone reverse transcriptase is a necessity. A fully automated HBsAg prototype assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT instrument was developed to improve sensitivity and mutant detection. This magnetic microparticle-based assay utilizes anti-HBsAg monoclonal antibodies to capture antigen present in serum or plasma. Captured antigen is then detected using anti-HBsAg antibody conjugated with the chemiluminescent compound, acridinium. The sensitivity of the ARCHITECT HBsAg prototype assay was improved as compared to the current ARCHITECT, PRISM, and competitor HBsAg assays. The enhancement in assay sensitivity was demonstrated by the use of commercially available HBV seroconversion panels. The prototype assay detected more panel members (185 of 383) vs. the current ARCHITECT (171), PRISM (181), or competitor HBsAg assays (73/140 vs. 62/140, respectively). The ARCHITECT prototype assay also efficiently detected all mutants evaluated. Finally, the sensitivity improvement did not compromise the specificity of the assay (99.94%). An improved Abbott ARCHITECT HBsAg prototype assay with enhanced detection of HBsAg and HBsAg mutants, as well as equivalent specificity was developed for the detection, diagnosis, and management of HBV infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An automated real-time free phenytoin assay to replace the obsolete Abbott TDx method.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher; Jones, Richard; Akl, Pascale; Blick, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Phenytoin is a commonly used anticonvulsant that is highly protein bound with a narrow therapeutic range. The unbound fraction, free phenytoin (FP), is responsible for pharmacologic effects; therefore, it is essential to measure both FP and total serum phenytoin levels. Historically, the Abbott TDx method has been widely used for the measurement of FP and was the method used in our laboratory. However, the FP TDx assay was recently discontinued by the manufacturer, so we had to develop an alternative methodology. We evaluated the Beckman-Coulter DxC800 based FP method for linearity, analytical sensitivity, and precision. The analytical measurement range of the method was 0.41 to 5.30 microg/mL. Within-run and between-run precision studies yielded CVs of 3.8% and 5.5%, respectively. The method compared favorably with the TDx method, yielding the following regression equation: DxC800 = 0.9**TDx + 0.10; r2 = 0.97 (n = 97). The new FP assay appears to be an acceptable alternative to the TDx method.

  1. Performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Viral Load Assay Is Not Impacted by Integrase Inhibitor Resistance-Associated Mutations▿

    PubMed Central

    Young, Thomas P.; Cloherty, Gavin; Fransen, Signe; Napolitano, Laura; Swanson, Priscilla; Herman, Christine; Parkin, Neil T.; Hackett, John

    2011-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 viral load assay uses primers and probes targeted to integrase, which is also the target of integrase inhibitors such as raltegravir. Viral loads of 42 raltegravir-susceptible and 40 raltegravir-resistant specimens were determined using RealTime HIV-1 and Roche Monitor (v1.5). The differences in viral load measurements between assays were comparable in the two groups, demonstrating that the RealTime HIV-1 assay can tolerate raltegravir-selected mutations. PMID:21289145

  2. Comparison of the AdvanSure human papillomavirus screening real-time PCR, the Abbott RealTime High Risk human papillomavirus test, and the Hybrid Capture human papillomavirus DNA test for the detection of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yusun; Lee, Miae

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the performance of various commercial assays for the molecular detection of human papillomavirus (HPV); the recently developed AdvanSure HPV Screening real-time PCR assay (AdvanSure PCR) and the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV PCR assay (Abbott PCR) were compared with the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). All 3 tests were performed on 177 samples, and any sample that showed a discrepancy in any of the 3 tests was genotyped using INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping and/or sequencing. On the basis of these results, we obtained a consensus HPV result, and the performance of each test was evaluated. We also evaluated high-risk HPV 16/18 detection by using the 2 real-time PCR assays. Among the 177 samples, 65 were negative and 75 were positive in all 3 assays; however, the results of the 3 assays with 37 samples were discrepant. Compared with the consensus HPV result, the sensitivities and specificities of HC2, AdvanSure PCR, and Abbott PCR were 97.6%, 91.7%, and 86.9% and 83.9%, 98.8%, and 100.0%, respectively. For HPV type 16/18 detection, the concordance rate between the AdvanSure PCR and Abbott PCR assays was 98.3%; however, 3 samples were discrepant (positive in AdvanSure PCR and negative in Abbott PCR) and were confirmed as HPV type 16 by INNO-LiPA genotyping and/or sequencing. For HPV detection, the AdvanSure HPV Screening real-time PCR assay and the Abbott PCR assay are less sensitive but more specific than the HC2 assay, but can simultaneously differentiate type 16/18 HPV from other types.

  3. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 HIV-1 Real-Time and Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 HIV-1 assays on plasma specimens from Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssebugenyi, I; Kizza, A; Mpoza, B; Aluma, G; Boaz, I; Newell, K; Laeyendecker, O; Shott, J P; Serwadda, D; Reynolds, S J

    2011-07-01

    The need for viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings (RLS) has become apparent with studies showing the limitations of immunological monitoring. We compared the Abbott m2000 Real-Time (Abbott) HIV-1 assay with the Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 (Roche) HIV-1 assay over a range of VL concentrations. Three hundred and eleven plasma samples were tested, including 164 samples from patients on ART ≥ six months and 147 from ART-naïve patients. The Roche assay detected ≥400 copies/mL in 158 (50.8%) samples. Of these, Abbott produced 145 (91.8%) detectable results ≥400 copies/mL; 13 (8.2%) samples produced discrepant results. Concordance between the assays for detecting HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL was 95.8% (298/311). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Abbott to detect HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL were 91.8%, 100%, 100% and 92.2%, respectively. For the 151 samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL for both assays, a good linear correlation was found (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001; mean difference, 0.05). The limits of agreement were -0.97 and 1.07 log(10) copies/mL (mean ± 2 SD). The Abbott assay performed well in our setting, offering an alternative methodology for HIV-1 VL for laboratories with realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) capacity.

  4. Comparison of the Chiron Quantiplex branched DNA (bDNA) assay and the Abbott Genostics solution hybridization assay for quantification of hepatitis B viral DNA.

    PubMed

    Kapke, G E; Watson, G; Sheffler, S; Hunt, D; Frederick, C

    1997-01-01

    Several assays for quantification of DNA have been developed and are currently used in research and clinical laboratories. However, comparison of assay results has been difficult owing to the use of different standards and units of measurements as well as differences between assays in dynamic range and quantification limits. Although a few studies have compared results generated by different assays, there has been no consensus on conversion factors and thorough analysis has been precluded by small sample size and limited dynamic range studied. In this study, we have compared the Chiron branched DNA (bDNA) and Abbott liquid hybridization assays for quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in clinical specimens and have derived conversion factors to facilitate comparison of assay results. Additivity and variance stabilizing (AVAS) regression, a form of non-linear regression analysis, was performed on assay results for specimens from HBV clinical trials. Our results show that there is a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.96) between log Chiron and log Abbott assay results. Conversion factors derived from regression analyses were found to be non-constant and ranged from 6-40. Analysis of paired assay results below and above each assay's limit of quantification (LOQ) indicated that a significantly (P < 0.01) larger proportion of observations were below the Abbott assay LOQ but above the Chiron assay LOQ, indicating that the Chiron assay is significantly more sensitive than the Abbott assay. Testing of replicate specimens showed that the Chiron assay consistently yielded lower per cent coefficients of variance (% CVs) than the Abbott assay, indicating that the Chiron assay provides superior precision.

  5. Performance evaluation of the QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit with Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HBV and HCV assays.

    PubMed

    Schneider, George J; Kuper, Kevin G; Abravaya, Klara; Mullen, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Marion; Bunse-Grassmann, Astrid; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Automated sample preparation systems must meet the demands of routine diagnostics laboratories with regard to performance characteristics and compatibility with downstream assays. In this study, the performance of QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit on the BioRobot EZ1 DSP was evaluated in combination with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HCV, and HBV assays, followed by thermalcycling and detection on the Abbott m2000rt platform. The following performance characteristics were evaluated: linear range and precision, sensitivity, cross-contamination, effects of interfering substances and correlation. Linearity was observed within the tested ranges (for HIV-1: 2.0-6.0 log copies/ml, HCV: 1.3-6.9 log IU/ml, HBV: 1.6-7.6 log copies/ml). Excellent precision was obtained (inter-assay standard deviation for HIV-1: 0.06-0.17 log copies/ml (>2.17 log copies/ml), HCV: 0.05-0.11 log IU/ml (>2.09 log IU/ml), HBV: 0.03-0.07 log copies/ml (>2.55 log copies/ml)), with good sensitivity (95% hit rates for HIV-1: 50 copies/ml, HCV: 12.5 IU/ml, HBV: 10 IU/ml). No cross-contamination was observed, as well as no negative impact of elevated levels of various interfering substances. In addition, HCV and HBV viral load measurements after BioRobot EZ1 DSP extraction correlated well with those obtained after Abbott m2000sp extraction. This evaluation demonstrates that the QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit provides an attractive solution for fully automated, low throughput sample preparation for use with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HCV, and HBV assays.

  6. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance, an assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary specimens.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning; Lampinen, John; Szostak, Magdalena; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients continues to present significant challenges to global health. To tackle these challenges, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was developed to accelerate the diagnosis of rifampicin and/or isoniazid resistant tuberculosis to within a day. This article summarizes the performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay; including reliability, analytical sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity/specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF version 1.0 and Hain MTBDRplus version 2.0. The limit of detection (LOD) of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was determined to be 32 colony forming units/milliliter (cfu/mL) using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv cell line. For rifampicin resistance detection, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For isoniazid resistance detection, the assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Hain MTBDRplus. The performance data presented herein demonstrate that the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay is a sensitive, robust, and reliable test for realtime simultaneous detection of first line anti-tuberculosis antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid in patient specimens. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of DRY and WET vaginal swabs with cervical specimens in Roche Cobas 4800 HPV and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV tests.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Lim, Myong Cheol; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Hye Young; Hwang, Na Rae; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Self-collected vaginal swab samples have been proposed as an alternative specimen collection method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Two vaginal swabs (a cone-shaped flocked swab (DRY) and a L-shape FLOQSwab with 2mL eNAT transport medium (WET)) were compared to standard cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Additionally, they were also compared by using Roche Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche_HPV) and Abbott Real-time High Risk HPV (Abbott_HPV) tests. Ninety-six women were prospectively enrolled from the National Cancer Center in Korea between June and August 2015. WET and DRY vaginal swabs and cervical specimens were collected. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests were performed. The Roche_HPV test on cervical specimens was used as reference. The observed agreements (kappa) of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV between WET and DRY swabs were 89.6% (0.790, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.667-0.913) and 91.7% (0.833, 95%CI: 0.723-0.943), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between WET and DRY swabs (p>0.05 for all comparisons). For HPV16/18, the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET samples presented 93.8%/96.3% and 87.5%/97.5%, respectively. For other High Risk HPV (hrHPV), the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs presented 91.9%/91.5% and 97.3%/98.3, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of the Abbott_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs were 93.8%/98.8%, 87.5%/98.8% for HPV16/18, and 91.9%/93.2%, 100.0%/93.2% for other hrHPV, respectively. HPV tests performed similarly when using vaginal DRY and WET swab samples. Using DRY and WET swabs to collect vaginal specimens could be an alternative to collecting cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH resistance assay when used to test Mycobacterium tuberculosis specimens from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance Assay (RT MTB RIF/INH) is an assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF)- and/or isoniazid (INH)-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The assay can be used to test sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage, and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NALC)/NaOH pellets prepared from these samples. The assay can be used in direct testing mode, or in reflex mode following a MTB positive result produced by its companion assay, Abbott RT MTB. In this study, the direct testing mode was used to test paired sputum and NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from sputum collected from Bangladesh TB patients. One hundred and thirty two paired samples were tested. The RT MTB RIF/INH inhibition rate was 0%. One hundred and twenty-two paired samples had results above the assay limit of detection and were analyzed by comparing with results from phenotypic drug sensitivity testing, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and MTBDR plus (Hain). RT MTB RIF/INH results were in good agreement with those of GeneXpert and Hain. The ability of this assay to detect RIF and INH resistance may contribute to the global control of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

  9. Measure of viral load by using the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay on dried blood and plasma spot specimens collected in 2 rural dispensaries in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbida, André Dieudonné; Sosso, Samuel; Flori, Pierre; Saoudin, Henia; Lawrence, Philip; Monny-Lobé, Marcel; Oyono, Yves; Ndzi, Edward; Cappelli, Giulia; Lucht, Frédéric; Pozzetto, Bruno; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Bourlet, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) locally collected in 2 rural dispensaries in Cameroon for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA. Forty-one subjects were sampled and spots of whole blood and plasma were deposited onto Whatman 903 cards and dried at ambient temperature under local conditions. Two sets of DBS and DPS cards were done per patient. The rest of the liquid plasma (LP) was frozen until use. LPs were tested at the "Chantal Biya" International Reference Centre (Yaoundé, Cameroon) by the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany). One series of DBS and DPS was transported and tested between 2 and 6 weeks later at the Virology Laboratory of Saint-Etienne (France). The second series was routed by mail and tested after up to 3 months of storage at ambient temperature. From the first series, the correlation rate between viral loads obtained from LP and DBS, and from LP and DPS, was 0.98 and 0.99, respectively; specificity of DBS and DPS results was 100%. The results obtained from the second series indicate a great stability of DBS after long-term storage. This study demonstrates that DBSs collected under local conditions in resource-limited settings are suitable for the differed quantification of HIV-1 RNA.

  10. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for specimens yielding "target not detected" results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test.

    PubMed

    Babady, N Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J; Yao, Joseph D C

    2010-03-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding "target not detected" results by CTM.

  11. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay: analysis of borderline reactive sera.

    PubMed

    Ollier, Laurence; Laffont, Catherine; Kechkekian, Aurore; Doglio, Alain; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    Routine use of the automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc for diagnosis of hepatitis B is limited in case of borderline reactive sera with low signal close to the cut-off index. In order to determine the significance of anti-HBc detection when borderline reactivity occurs using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay, a comparative study was designed. 3540 serum samples collected over a 2-month period in the hospital of Nice were examined for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). One hundred seven samples with sufficient volume and with borderline reactivity by the ARCHITECT assay were tested by two other anti-HBc assays, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA, AxSYM Core, Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) and an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA, VIDAS Anti-HBc Total II, bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Only 46 samples were confirmed by the AxSYM and the VIDAS assays. Additional serological information linked to patient history showed that the remaining samples (61) were false positives (11), had low titer of anti-HBc antibodies (13), or were inconclusive (37). This comparative study highlighted the existence of a grey zone around the cut-off index. Confirmative results through a different immunoassay are needed to confirm the diagnosis of HBV on borderline reactive sera using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay.

  12. Comparison of the analytical and clinical performances of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Hybrid Capture 2, and DNA Chip assays in gynecology patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungman; Kang, Youjin; Kim, Dong Geun; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2013-08-01

    The detection of high-risk (HR) HPV in cervical cancer screening is important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of 3 HR HPV assays in Gynecology patients. A total of 991 specimens were included in this study: 787 specimens for use with a Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and 204 specimens for a HPV DNA microarray (DNA Chip). All specimens were tested using an Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Real-time HR), PGMY PCR, and sequence analysis. Clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal cytology (severe than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) were 81.8% for Real-time HR, 77.3% for HC2, and 66.7% for DNA Chip, and clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal histology (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+) were 91.7% for HC2, 87.5% for Real-time HR, and 73.3% for DNA Chip. As compared to results of the sequence analysis, HC2, Real-time HR, and DNA Chip showed concordance rates of 94.3% (115/122), 90.0% (117/130), and 61.5% (16/26), respectively. The HC2 assay and Real-time HR assay showed comparable results to each other in both clinical and analytical performances, while the DNA Chip assay showed poor clinical and analytical performances. The Real-time HR assay can be a good alternative option for HR HPV testing with advantages of allowing full automation and simultaneous genotyping of HR types 16 and 18. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of clinical and analytical performance of the Abbott Realtime High Risk HPV test to the performance of hybrid capture 2 in population-based cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Ostrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja; Ucakar, Veronika; Hillemanns, Peter; Bokal, Eda Vrtacnik; Jancar, Nina; Klavs, Irena

    2011-05-01

    The clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV (human papillomavirus) test (RealTime) and that of the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (hc2) were prospectively compared in the population-based cervical cancer screening setting. In women >30 years old (n = 3,129), the clinical sensitivity of RealTime for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 (CIN2) or worse (38 cases) and its clinical specificity for lesions of less than CIN2 (3,091 controls) were 100% and 93.3%, respectively, and those of hc2 were 97.4% and 91.8%, respectively. A noninferiority score test showed that the clinical specificity (P < 0.0001) and clinical sensitivity (P = 0.011) of RealTime were noninferior to those of hc2 at the recommended thresholds of 98% and 90%. In the total study population (women 20 to 64 years old; n = 4,432; 57 cases, 4,375 controls), the clinical sensitivity and specificity of RealTime were 98.2% and 89.5%, and those of hc2 were 94.7% and 87.7%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity and analytical specificity of RealTime in detecting targeted HPV types evaluated with the largest sample collection to date (4,479 samples) were 94.8% and 99.8%, and those of hc2 were 93.4% and 97.8%, respectively. Excellent analytical agreement between the two assays was obtained (kappa value, 0.84), while the analytical accuracy of RealTime was significantly higher than that of hc2. RealTime demonstrated high intralaboratory reproducibility and interlaboratory agreement with 500 samples retested 61 to 226 days after initial testing in two different laboratories. RealTime can be considered to be a reliable and robust HPV assay clinically comparable to hc2 for the detection of CIN2+ lesions in a population-based cervical cancer screening setting.

  14. Evaluation of a new automated Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH assay for qualitative detection of rifampicin/isoniazid resistance in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pilar; Causse, Manuel; Vaquero, Manuel; Gutierrez, Juan Bautista; Casal, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    A new automated real-time PCR assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was evaluated. A total of 163 clinical samples (128 pulmonary and 35 extra-pulmonary) were processed using four PCR assay kits: Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH, Genotype MTBDRplus, Xpert/MTB RIF, and Anyplex MTB/MDR. The results of phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing using BACTECMGIT 960 were used as reference. The sensitivity and specificity of the new Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH assay in comparison with phenotypic testing was 96.3% (95%CI 87.32%-100%) for RIF and 100% (95%CI 99.3%-100%) for INH; the sensitivity was 78.8% (95%CI 66.8%-90.9%) and the specificity was 100% (95%CI 98.9%-100%). The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH test could be a valid method for detecting the most common mutations in strains resistant to RIF and INH.

  15. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB and MTB RIF/INH Assays in a Setting of High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    David, Anura; Noble, Lara; Nduna, Matilda; Da Silva, Pedro; Black, Andrew; Venter, Francois; Stevens, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for the initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV load. The latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime (RT) MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first-line drug resistance screening but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection. A prospective clinical validation study was conducted at a community health center in Johannesburg, South Africa, and consenting individuals with presumptive pulmonary TB were enrolled. The performance of the Abbott assays was compared with those of the Xpert MTB/RIF, liquid culture, drug susceptibility testing, and clinical case definitions. A statistical analysis was performed on 206 individuals (73% were HIV positive). The sensitivity and specificity of the RT MTB were 82.5% (confidence interval [CI], 67.2 to 92.7) and 93.1% (CI, 86.2 to 97.2) on raw sputum and 77.5% (CI, 61.5 to 89.2) and 95.1% (CI, 88.9 to 98.4) on concentrated sputum, respectively, compared with those from liquid culture. The RT MTB correctly identified 17/35 more smear-negative culture-positive specimens than the Xpert MTB/RIF. Both the RT MTB and the Xpert MTB/RIF displayed sensitivities >70% and specificities >90% in HIV-positive individuals. The available drug resistance results concurred with MTBDRplus and drug susceptibility profiles. The RT MTB assay has similar diagnostic performance to the Xpert MTB/RIF and is suited to testing presumptive TB patients coinfected with HIV. The existing laboratory information system connectivity, training, and technical support make this a viable polyvalent option to scale up TB alongside HIV laboratory testing services in South Africa. PMID

  16. Evaluation of the Abbott realtime HCV genotype II RUO (GT II) assay with reference to 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela X; Sears, Mitchell T; Cloherty, Gavin A; Hillyard, David R

    2014-05-01

    HCV genotyping is a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. To evaluate the concordance between the Abbott GT II assay and genotyping by sequencing subregions of the HCV 5'UTR, core and NS5B. The Abbott assay was used to genotype 127 routine patient specimens and 35 patient specimens with unusual subtypes and mixed infection. Abbott results were compared to genotyping by 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing. Sequences were genotyped using the NCBI non-redundant database and the online genotyping tool COMET. Among routine specimens, core/NS5B sequencing identified 93 genotype 1s, 13 genotype 2s, 15 genotype 3s, three genotype 4s, two genotype 6s and one recombinant specimen. Genotype calls by 5'UTR, core, NS5B sequencing and the Abbott assay were 97.6% concordant. Core/NS5B sequencing identified two discrepant samples as genotype 6 (subtypes 6l and 6u) while Abbott and 5'UTR sequencing identified these samples as genotype 1 with no subtype. The Abbott assay subtyped 91.4% of genotype 1 specimens. Among the 35 rare specimens, the Abbott assay inaccurately genotyped 3k, 6e, 6o, 6q and one genotype 4 variant; gave indeterminate results for 3g, 3h, 4r, 6m, 6n, and 6q specimens; and agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for mixed specimens. The Abbott assay is an automated HCV genotyping method with improved accuracy over 5'UTR sequencing. Samples identified by the Abbott assay as genotype 1 with no subtype may be rare subtypes of other genotypes and thus require confirmation by another method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of clinical application of the Abbott HBV PCR kit and the VERSANT HBV DNA 3.0 test to measure serum hepatitis B virus DNA in Taiwanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Ya-Yun; Huang, Jee-Fu; Liu, Shu-Fen; Chu, Pei-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Wang, Liang-Yen; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2009-08-01

    With an estimated 350-400 million people worldwide chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the subsequent serious complications caused by liver damage including cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma, HBV infection remains a global health issue, particularly in Taiwan, an HBV-hyperendemic area. Sensitive and accurate quantification of HBV DNA is necessary to monitor patients with chronic hepatitis B who are receiving antiviral therapy to determine treatment response and adapt therapy. We evaluated and compared the clinical performance of two HBV DNA assays based on different technologies: the RealArt HBV PCR Kit (Abbott HBV DNA PCR kit, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, detection limit: 27 IU/mL) and the VERSANT bDNA 3.0 assay (Bayer, branched DNA signal amplification assay, detection limit: 357 IU/mL). Serum levels of HBV DNA in 173 chronic HBV carriers were determined using both the RealArt HBV PCR Kit and the VERSANT bDNA 3.0 test. Of the 173 samples analyzed for baseline viral load detection, HBV DNA was quantifiable in 147 patients (82.1%) by the RealArt HBV PCR Kit, which was significantly higher than the 92 (53.2%) samples quantified by the VERSANT bDNA 3.0 assay. A total of 86 (49.7%) samples were quantifiable by both assays, whereas 25 (14.5%) were below the detection limit of both assays. The HBV DNA quantification values measured by the RealArt HBV PCR Kit and the VERSANT bDNA 3.0 assay were positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.932, p < 0.001). On average, the results derived from the RealArt HBV PCR Kit were 0.67 log lower than those of the VERSANT bDNA 3.0 assay. HBV DNA concentrations were significantly higher in 63 HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-seropositive patients than in 110 HBeAg-seronegative patients (5.42 +/- 2.34 logs vs. 3.21 +/- 2.27 logs, p < 0.001). The RealArt HBV PCR Kit is more sensitive and has a wider dynamic range than the VERSANT bDNA 3.0 assay in the clinical setting

  18. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HCV assays for the monitoring of sofosbuvir-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Shimizu, Motohiro; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    On-treatment HCV kinetics play an invaluable role in evaluating the efficacy of interferon-based therapies. However, the importance of HCV RNA monitoring has not been well discussed concerning treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens, especially for the utility of the Abbott RealTime HCV (ART) assay. This study consisted of 151 patients infected with HCV genotype-1 or -2, including patients with prior treatment-experience or cirrhosis. HCV genotype-1 patients were treated with SOF/ledipasvir and genotype-2 patients with SOF/ribavirin, both for 12 weeks. Serial measurements of HCV RNA were performed with both the ART and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan v2.0 (CAP/CTM) assays simultaneously at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 of treatment. The rates of HCV RNA target not detected (TND) by ART were significantly lower than those by CAP/CTM between weeks 2 and 12 (end of treatment [EOT]), irrespective of prior treatment-experience or cirrhosis. 11 (11.6%) genotype-1 and 8 (14.3%) genotype-2 patients did not achieve HCV RNA TND by ART at EOT, in contrast to all having HCV RNA TND by CAP/CTM; however, all achieved sustained virological response. The time at which HCV RNA became TND or unquantifiable was not associated with treatment outcome by either the ART or CAP/CTM assay. Over 10% of the patients continued to have detectable HCV RNA by ART at EOT, irrespective of HCV genotype, prior treatment-experience and/or cirrhosis. However, prolonged residual HCV RNA was not associated with treatment failure.

  19. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II plus RUO (PLUS) assay with reference to core and NS5B sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela; Ebbert, Mark T W; Cloherty, Gavin A; Toolsie, Dan; Hillyard, David R

    2017-05-01

    HCV genotyping remains a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. Current commercial genotyping assays may have difficulty identifying 1a, 1b and genotype 6. To evaluate the concordance for identifying 1a, 1b, and genotype 6 between two methods: the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing. This study included 236 plasma and serum samples previously genotyped by core/NS5B sequencing. Of these, 25 samples were also previously tested by the Abbott RealTime HCV GT II Research Use Only (RUO) assay and yielded ambiguous results. The remaining 211 samples were routine genotype 1 (n=169) and genotype 6 (n=42). Genotypes obtained from sequence data were determined using a laboratory-developed HCV sequence analysis tool and the NCBI non-redundant database. Agreement between the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing for genotype 1 samples was 95.8% (162/169), with 96% (127/132) and 95% (35/37) agreement for 1a and 1b samples respectively. PLUS results agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for 83% (35/42) of unselected genotype 6 samples, with the remaining seven "not detected" by the PLUS assay. Among the 25 samples with ambiguous GT II results, 15 were concordant by PLUS and core/NS5B sequencing, nine were not detected by PLUS, and one sample had an internal control failure. The PLUS assay is an automated method that identifies 1a, 1b and genotype 6 with good agreement with gold-standard core/NS5B sequencing and can aid in the resolution of certain genotype samples with ambiguous GT II results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Standardization and performance evaluation of "modified" and "ultrasensitive" versions of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay, adapted to quantify minimal residual viremia.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Bloisi, Maria; Marsella, Patrizia; Sabatini, Rosella; Bibbò, Angela; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies investigating clinical significance of HIV-1 minimal residual viremia (MRV) suggest potential utility of assays more sensitive than those routinely used to monitor viral suppression. However currently available methods, based on different technologies, show great variation in detection limit and input plasma volume, and generally suffer from lack of standardization. In order to establish new tools suitable for routine quantification of minimal residual viremia in patients under virological suppression, some modifications were introduced into standard procedure of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay leading to a "modified" and an "ultrasensitive" protocols. The following modifications were introduced: calibration curve extended towards low HIV-1 RNA concentration; 4 fold increased sample volume by concentrating starting material; reduced volume of internal control; adoption of "open-mode" software for quantification. Analytical performances were evaluated using the HIV-1 RNA Working Reagent 1 for NAT assays (NIBSC). Both tests were applied to clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients. The "modified" and the "ultrasensitive" configurations of the assay reached a limit of detection of 18.8 (95% CI: 11.1-51.0 cp/mL) and 4.8 cp/mL (95% CI: 2.6-9.1 cp/mL), respectively, with high precision and accuracy. In clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients, "modified" and "ultrasensitive" protocols allowed to detect and quantify HIV RNA in 12.7% and 46.6%, respectively, of samples resulted "not-detectable", and in 70.0% and 69.5%, respectively, of samples "detected <40 cp/mL" in the standard assay. The "modified" and "ultrasensitive" assays are precise and accurate, and easily adoptable in routine diagnostic laboratories for measuring MRV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB INH/RIF Assays for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Resistance Markers in Respiratory and Extrapulmonary Specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Thiel, Sabine; Molodtsov, Nikolay; Antonenka, Uladzimir; Hoffmann, Harald

    2016-12-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB (RT MTB) assay is a new automated nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. In combination with the RealTime MTB INH/RIF (RT MTB INH/RIF) resistance assay, which can be applied to RT MTB-positive specimens as an add-on assay, the tests also indicate the genetic markers of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT MTB using different types of respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens and to compare performance characteristics directly with those of the FluoroType MTB assay. The resistance results obtained by RT MTB INH/RIF were compared to those from the GenoType MTBDRplus and from phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. A total of 715 clinical specimens were analyzed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of RT MTB was 92.1%; the sensitivity rates for smear-positive and smear-negative samples were 100% and 76.2%, respectively. The sensitivities of smear-negative specimens were almost identical for respiratory (76.3%) and extrapulmonary (76%) specimens. Specificity rates were 100% and 95.8% for culture-negative specimens and those that grew nontuberculous mycobacteria, respectively. RT MTB INH/RIF was applied to 233 RT MTB-positive samples and identified resistance markers in 7.7% of samples. Agreement with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing was 99.5%. In conclusion, RT MTB and RT MTB INH/RIF allow for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in different types of specimens and reliably indicate resistance markers. The strengths of this system are the comparably high sensitivity with paucibacillary specimens, its ability to detect INH and RIF resistance, and its high-throughput capacities. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  3. Development of the Abbott RealTime ZIKA assay for the qualitative detection of Zika virus RNA from serum, plasma, urine, and whole blood specimens using the m2000 system.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Pandya, Kinnari; Gersch, Jeffrey; Siddiqui, Sarah; Schneider, George J

    2017-08-01

    Zika virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that has rapidly developed into a world-wide concern. Discovered in 1947, the virus was relatively obscure until an outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap islands and spread eventually to the Americas in 2015. Only 20% of patients infected with Zika virus develop symptoms. However, there can be serious consequences of infection including birth defects in developing fetuses and links to Guillain-Barré syndrome. The swift rise in infections has necessitated the development of diagnostic tests for both the detection of viral RNA and the presence of virus-specific antibodies. Abbott has developed a dual target RT-PCR assay for the detection of Zika virus RNA within serum, plasma, whole blood, and urine using the automated m2000 system for sample extraction to result reporting. The Abbott RealTime ZIKA assay has a limit of detection of 30 copies per mL in serum, 40 copies per mL in plasma and urine, and 120 copies per mL in whole blood and demonstrates high specificity against challenges from closely related infectious agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical characteristics and comparative evaluation of Aptima HCV quant Dx assay with the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV quantitative test v2.0.

    PubMed

    Worlock, A; Blair, D; Hunsicker, M; Le-Nguyen, T; Motta, C; Nguyen, C; Papachristou, E; Pham, J; Williams, A; Vi, M; Vinluan, B; Hatzakis, A

    2017-04-04

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima assay) is a fully automated quantitative assay on the Panther® system. This assay is intended for confirmation of diagnosis and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum specimens. The purpose of the testing described in this paper was to evaluate the performance of the Aptima assay. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision, and linearity of the Aptima assay were assessed. The performance of the Aptima assay was compared to two commercially available HCV assays; the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (Abbott assay, Abbott Labs Illinois, USA) and the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman HCV Quantitative Test v2.0 (Roche Assay, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton CA, USA). The 95% Lower Limit of Detection (LoD) of the assay was determined from dilutions of the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) and HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Probit analysis was performed to generate the 95% predicted detection limits. The Lower Limit of Quantitation (LLoQ) was established for each genotype by diluting clinical specimens and the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Specificity was determined using 200 fresh and 536 frozen HCV RNA negative clinical specimens including 370 plasma specimens and 366 serum specimens. Linearity for genotypes 1 to 6 was established by diluting armored RNA or HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative serum or plasma from 8.08 log IU/mL to below 1 log IU/mL. Precision was tested using a 10 member panel made by diluting HCV positive clinical specimens or spiking armored RNA into HCV negative plasma and serum. A method comparison was conducted against the Abbott assay using 1058 clinical specimens and against the Roche assay using 608 clinical specimens from HCV infected patients. In addition, agreement between the Roche assay and the Aptima assay using specimens with low

  5. ABT-773 (Abbott Laboratories).

    PubMed

    Lawrence, L E

    2001-06-01

    ABT-773 is a macrolide antibacterial agent under development by Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical Co Ltd for the potential treatment of bacterial infection [266579]. As of February 2001, ABT-773 had entered phase III trials in the US [398274]. Japanese phase II trials were expected to commence in June 2000 and a phase II trial is being designed for respiratory infections, with Abbott expecting filing in March 2002 [360455]. The bioavailability of ABT-773 in humans is unaffected by food [383228] and in a phase I, randomized, double-blind trial in healthy males only mild adverse effects, usually affecting the gastrointestinal system, were observed [383208]. Under an agreement, Abbott and Taisho are conducting joint research to discover new compounds; Abbott will have worldwide marketing, manufacturing and supply rights (except in Japan), and Taisho will receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the companies will co-market any resulting compounds [266579]. ABT-773 demonstrated good activity in vitro and in vivo against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus [383229], [383231], and was highly potent even against macrolide-resistant [382149], [382150] and invasive [383782] S pneumoniae.

  6. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB and MTB RIF/INH Assays in a Setting of High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley; David, Anura; Noble, Lara; Nduna, Matilda; Da Silva, Pedro; Black, Andrew; Venter, Francois; Stevens, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for the initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m 2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV load. The latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTi m e (RT) MTB and RealTi m e MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first-line drug resistance screening but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection. A prospective clinical validation study was conducted at a community health center in Johannesburg, South Africa, and consenting individuals with presumptive pulmonary TB were enrolled. The performance of the Abbott assays was compared with those of the Xpert MTB/RIF, liquid culture, drug susceptibility testing, and clinical case definitions. A statistical analysis was performed on 206 individuals (73% were HIV positive). The sensitivity and specificity of the RT MTB were 82.5% (confidence interval [CI], 67.2 to 92.7) and 93.1% (CI, 86.2 to 97.2) on raw sputum and 77.5% (CI, 61.5 to 89.2) and 95.1% (CI, 88.9 to 98.4) on concentrated sputum, respectively, compared with those from liquid culture. The RT MTB correctly identified 17/35 more smear-negative culture-positive specimens than the Xpert MTB/RIF. Both the RT MTB and the Xpert MTB/RIF displayed sensitivities >70% and specificities >90% in HIV-positive individuals. The available drug resistance results concurred with MTBDR plus and drug susceptibility profiles. The RT MTB assay has similar diagnostic performance to the Xpert MTB/RIF and is suited to testing presumptive TB patients coinfected with HIV. The existing laboratory information system connectivity, training, and technical support make this a viable polyvalent option to scale up TB alongside HIV laboratory testing services in South Africa. Copyright

  7. Multiplex hydrolysis probe real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Cao, Jingyuan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Bi, Shengli

    2014-05-30

    Detection of hepatitis viral infections has traditionally relied on the circulating antibody test using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, multiplex real-time PCR has been increasingly used for a variety of viral nucleic acid detections and has proven to be superior to traditional methods. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the major causes of acute hepatitis worldwide; both HAV and HEV infection are a main public health problem. In the present study, a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay using hydrolysis probes was developed for simultaneously detecting HAV and HEV. This novel detection system proved specific to the target viruses, to be highly sensitive and to be applicable to clinical sera samples, making it useful for rapid, accurate and feasible identification of HAV and HEV.

  8. Multiplex Hydrolysis Probe Real-Time PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feng; Cao, Jingyuan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Bi, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Detection of hepatitis viral infections has traditionally relied on the circulating antibody test using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, multiplex real-time PCR has been increasingly used for a variety of viral nucleic acid detections and has proven to be superior to traditional methods. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the major causes of acute hepatitis worldwide; both HAV and HEV infection are a main public health problem. In the present study, a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay using hydrolysis probes was developed for simultaneously detecting HAV and HEV. This novel detection system proved specific to the target viruses, to be highly sensitive and to be applicable to clinical sera samples, making it useful for rapid, accurate and feasible identification of HAV and HEV. PMID:24886818

  9. Human papillomavirus detection using the Abbott RealTime high-risk HPV tests compared with conventional nested PCR coupled to high-throughput sequencing of amplification products in cervical smear specimens from a Gabonese female population.

    PubMed

    Moussavou-Boundzanga, Pamela; Koumakpayi, Ismaël Hervé; Labouba, Ingrid; Leroy, Eric M; Belembaogo, Ernest; Berthet, Nicolas

    2017-12-21

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. However, screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular tests holds promise for reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. The performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV test (AbRT) was evaluated in 83 cervical smear specimens and compared with a conventional nested PCR coupled to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to identify the amplicons. The AbRT assay detected at least one HPV genotype in 44.57% of women regardless of the grade of cervical abnormalities. Except for one case, good concordance was observed for the genotypes detected with the AbRT assay in the high-risk HPV category determined with HTS of the amplicon generated by conventional nested PCR. The AbRT test is an easy and reliable molecular tool and was as sensitive as conventional nested PCR in cervical smear specimens for detection HPVs associated with high-grade lesions. Moreover, sequencing amplicons using an HTS approach effectively identified the genotype of the hrHPV identified with the AbRT test.

  10. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The New Aptima HCV Quant Dx Real-time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-6 RNA.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Dubernet, Fabienne; Dauvillier, Claude; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Sensitive and accurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification is essential for the management of chronic hepatitis C therapy. Currently available platforms and assays are usually batched and require at least 5hours of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay that eliminates the need for batch processing and automates all aspects of nucleic acid testing in a single step, to accurately detect and quantify HCV RNA in a large series of patients infected with different HCV genotypes. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.3 IU/mL. The specificity of the assay was 98.6% (95% confidence interval: 96.1%-99.5%). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.09% to 5.61%, and 1.05% to 3.65%, respectively. The study of serum specimens from patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 to 6 showed a satisfactory relationship between HCV RNA levels measured by the Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay, and both real-time PCR comparators (Abbott RealTime HCV and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0, assays). the new Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay is rapid, sensitive, reasonably specific and reproducible and accurately quantifies HCV RNA in serum samples from patients with chronic HCV infection, including patients on antiviral treatment. The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay can thus be confidently used to detect and quantify HCV RNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HCV drugs and clinical practice in Europe and the US. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HBV viral loads between VERIS HBV assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HBV test, Abbott RealTime HBV assay, Siemens VERSANT HBV assay, and Qiagen artus HBV RG kit.

    PubMed

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Izopet, Jacques; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, MaAngeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Hepatitis B viral load testing is essential to treatment and monitoring decisions in patients with chronic Hepatitis B. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay (Veris) for use on the fully automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. 1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Veris HBV Assay at multiple EU laboratories STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison was performed with a total of 344 plasma specimens from HBV infected patients tested with Veris and COBAS ® TaqMan ® HBV Test (Cobas), 207 specimens tested with Veris and RealTime HBV Assay (RealTime), 86 specimens tested with Veris and VERSANT ® HBV Assay (Versant), and 74 specimens tested with Veris and artus ® HBV RG PCR kit (artus). Bland-Altman analysis showed average bias of -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Cobas, -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and RealTime, -0.36 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Versant, and -0.12 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and artus. Bias was consistent across the assay range. Patient monitoring results using Veris demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to Cobas, RealTime, and artus. The VERIS HBV Assay demonstrated comparable clinical performance, with varying degrees of negative bias, compared to other currently marketed assays for HBV DNA monitoring. This negative bias should be taken into consideration if switching monitoring methods to Veris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Abbott Opinions #1-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    This document contains the following "Abbott Opinions": (1) "Early Childhood Education"; (2) "Adequate School Facilities"; (3) "Supplemental Programs and Whole School Reform in Elementary Schools"; (4) "Supplemental Programs in Middle and High Schools"; and (5) "Planning Programs and Budgets…

  14. Evaluation of performance across the dynamic range of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay as compared to VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 and AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5 using serial dilutions of 39 group M and O viruses.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Priscilla; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent; Devare, Sushil G; Hackett, John

    2007-04-01

    Performance of the Abbott m2000 instrument system and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay was evaluated using a panel of 37 group M (subtypes A-D, F, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG and unique recombinant forms) and 2 group O virus isolates. Testing was performed on 273 sample dilutions and compared to VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA) and AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5 (Monitor v1.5) test results. RealTime HIV-1, bDNA, and Monitor v1.5 tests quantified 87%, 78%, and 81% of samples, respectively. RealTime HIV-1 detected an additional 31 samples at < 40 copies/mL. For group M, RealTime HIV-1 dilution profiles and viral loads were highly correlated with bDNA and Monitor v1.5 values; 87% and 89% of values were within 0.5 log(10) copies/mL. In contrast, the group O viruses were not detected by Monitor v1.5 and were substantially underquantified by approximately 2 log(10) copies/mL in bDNA relative to the RealTime HIV-1 assay. Sequence analysis revealed that RealTime HIV-1 primer/probe binding sites are highly conserved and exhibit fewer nucleotide mismatches relative to Monitor v1.5. The automated m2000 system and RealTime HIV-1 assay offer the advantages of efficient sample processing and throughput with reduced "hands-on" time while providing improved sensitivity, expanded dynamic range and reliable quantification of genetically diverse HIV-1 strains.

  15. The New Aptima HBV Quant Real-Time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis B Virus DNA from Genotypes A to F

    PubMed Central

    Dauvillier, Claude; Dubernet, Fabienne; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Laperche, Syria; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sensitive and accurate hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection and quantification are essential to diagnose HBV infection, establish the prognosis of HBV-related liver disease, and guide the decision to treat and monitor the virological response to antiviral treatment and the emergence of resistance. Currently available HBV DNA platforms and assays are generally designed for batching multiple specimens within an individual run and require at least one full day of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed, fully automated, one-step Aptima HBV Quant assay to accurately detect and quantify HBV DNA in a large series of patients infected with different HBV genotypes. The limit of detection of the assay was estimated to be 4.5 IU/ml. The specificity of the assay was 100%. Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.29% to 5.07% and 4.90% to 6.85%, respectively. HBV DNA levels from patients infected with HBV genotypes A to F measured with the Aptima HBV Quant assay strongly correlated with those measured by two commercial real-time PCR comparators (Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test, version 2.0, and Abbott RealTime HBV test). In conclusion, the Aptima HBV Quant assay is sensitive, specific, and reproducible and accurately quantifies HBV DNA in plasma samples from patients with chronic HBV infections of all genotypes, including patients on antiviral treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. The Aptima HBV Quant assay can thus confidently be used to detect and quantify HBV DNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HBV drugs and clinical practice. PMID:28202793

  16. Machine-learning-based classification of real-time tissue elastography for hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Luo, Yan; Huang, Wei; Hu, Die; Zheng, Rong-Qin; Cong, Shu-Zhen; Meng, Fan-Kun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Hong-Jun; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiu-Yan; Wu, Tao; Ren, Jie; Pei, Shu-Fang; Zheng, Ying; He, Yun; Hu, Yu; Yang, Na; Yan, Hongmei

    2017-10-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a common middle stage of the pathological processes of chronic liver diseases. Clinical intervention during the early stages of hepatic fibrosis can slow the development of liver cirrhosis and reduce the risk of developing liver cancer. Performing a liver biopsy, the gold standard for viral liver disease management, has drawbacks such as invasiveness and a relatively high sampling error rate. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE), one of the most recently developed technologies, might be promising imaging technology because it is both noninvasive and provides accurate assessments of hepatic fibrosis. However, determining the stage of liver fibrosis from RTE images in a clinic is a challenging task. In this study, in contrast to the previous liver fibrosis index (LFI) method, which predicts the stage of diagnosis using RTE images and multiple regression analysis, we employed four classical classifiers (i.e., Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and K-Nearest Neighbor) to build a decision-support system to improve the hepatitis B stage diagnosis performance. Eleven RTE image features were obtained from 513 subjects who underwent liver biopsies in this multicenter collaborative research. The experimental results showed that the adopted classifiers significantly outperformed the LFI method and that the Random Forest(RF) classifier provided the highest average accuracy among the four machine algorithms. This result suggests that sophisticated machine-learning methods can be powerful tools for evaluating the stage of hepatic fibrosis and show promise for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The New Aptima HBV Quant Real-Time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis B Virus DNA from Genotypes A to F.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Dauvillier, Claude; Dubernet, Fabienne; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Laperche, Syria; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive and accurate hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection and quantification are essential to diagnose HBV infection, establish the prognosis of HBV-related liver disease, and guide the decision to treat and monitor the virological response to antiviral treatment and the emergence of resistance. Currently available HBV DNA platforms and assays are generally designed for batching multiple specimens within an individual run and require at least one full day of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed, fully automated, one-step Aptima HBV Quant assay to accurately detect and quantify HBV DNA in a large series of patients infected with different HBV genotypes. The limit of detection of the assay was estimated to be 4.5 IU/ml. The specificity of the assay was 100%. Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.29% to 5.07% and 4.90% to 6.85%, respectively. HBV DNA levels from patients infected with HBV genotypes A to F measured with the Aptima HBV Quant assay strongly correlated with those measured by two commercial real-time PCR comparators (Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test, version 2.0, and Abbott RealTi m e HBV test). In conclusion, the Aptima HBV Quant assay is sensitive, specific, and reproducible and accurately quantifies HBV DNA in plasma samples from patients with chronic HBV infections of all genotypes, including patients on antiviral treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. The Aptima HBV Quant assay can thus confidently be used to detect and quantify HBV DNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HBV drugs and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Improving clinical laboratory efficiency: a time-motion evaluation of the Abbott m2000 RealTime and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan PCR systems for the simultaneous quantitation of HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Coen, Sabrina; Belladonna, Stefano; Pulvirenti, F Renato; Clemens, John M; Capobianchi, M Rosaria

    2011-08-01

    Diagnostic laboratories need automation that facilitates efficient processing and workflow management to meet today's challenges for expanding services and reducing cost, yet maintaining the highest levels of quality. Processing efficiency of two commercially available automated systems for quantifying HIV-1 and HCV RNA, Abbott m2000 system and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan 96 (docked) systems (CAP/CTM), was evaluated in a mid/high throughput workflow laboratory using a representative daily workload of 24 HCV and 72 HIV samples. Three test scenarios were evaluated: A) one run with four batches on the CAP/CTM system, B) two runs on the Abbott m2000 and C) one run using the Abbott m2000 maxCycle feature (maxCycle) for co-processing these assays. Cycle times for processing, throughput and hands-on time were evaluated. Overall processing cycle time was 10.3, 9.1 and 7.6 h for Scenarios A), B) and C), respectively. Total hands-on time for each scenario was, in order, 100.0 (A), 90.3 (B) and 61.4 min (C). The interface of an automated analyzer to the laboratory workflow, notably system set up for samples and reagents and clean up functions, are as important as the automation capability of the analyzer for the overall impact to processing efficiency and operator hands-on time.

  19. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is an ...

  20. [Contribution of HCV core antigen testing in HCV diagnosis by test from the company Abbott Laboratories].

    PubMed

    Trbusek, J

    2009-11-01

    Detection of HCV core antigen as direct marker of hepatitis C infection clearly improves diagnosis of this disease (especially reduction of window period) and brings broad clinical utilization. The company Abbott Laboratories offers fully automated laboratory test for measurement of HCV core antigen on ARCHITECT analyzers.

  1. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol ... not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  2. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Hepatitis What's in this article? ... have liver damage because of it. What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  3. Technology evaluation: adalimumab, Abbott laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Hanns M

    2002-04-01

    Adalimumab (D2E7), a human monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralizes TNFa, is being developed by Abbott (formerly Knoll), under license from Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT), for the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease. It is also being investigated for the potential treatment of coronary heart disease. Phase II studies for Crohn's disease and phase III for RA were ongoing throughout 2001. Limited data are only available for RA. In January 2002, it was reported that phase III trials of adalimumab for RA had been completed, but details have not been published in the primary literature so far. At this time CAT and Abbott expected to file for US approval in the second quarter of 2002 with a launch date anticipated for 2003. Phase III data are expected to be presented at the European League Against Rheumatism meeting in June 2002. In November 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted a US launch in June 2002 with peak US sales of $600 million in 2007 and a launch in non-US markets in 2003 with peak sales in these markets of $300 million in 2008. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted regulatory clearance in the second half of 2003. The probability of adalimumab reaching the market is estimated to be 70%. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted a 2003 launch, with estimated sales of pounds sterling 3.65 million in that year rising to pounds sterling 30.14 million in 2010. In March 2001, ABN AMRO predicted sales of $73 million in 2003 rising to $392 million in 2007.

  4. QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

  5. An illness in the family: Dr. Maude Abbott and her sister, Alice Abbott.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Maude Abbott's internationally significant career in medicine and her parallel commitment to caring for her sister, Alice Abbott. An examination of Abbott's life reveals the difficulties faced by an ambitious Canadian woman in medicine from the 1890s to the 1920s; difficulties compounded by caring for a sister with a mental illness. The Abbott archive suggests that it was far more difficult for a woman doctor to make the kind of sharp distinction between public and private life that might be expected of professional men.

  6. Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth

    2009-06-01

    Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.

  7. Real-time elastography as a noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mobarak, Lamiaa; Nabeel, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Ehsan; Omran, Dalia; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus is a worldwide problem. Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis assessment as ultrasound-based approaches have emerged to replace liver biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time elastography (RTE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), compared with transient elastography and liver biopsy. Methods RTE, FibroScan and liver biopsy were performed in 50 CHC patients. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and routine laboratory values were included in the analysis. Results RTE was able to diagnose significant hepatic fibrosis (F ≥2) according to METAVIR scoring system at cut-off value of 2.49 with sensitivity 100%, specificity 66%, and area under the receiver-operating characteristics (AUROC) 0.8. FibroScan was able to predict significant fibrosis at cut-off value 7.5 KPa with sensitivity 88%, specificity 100%, and AUROC 0.94.APRI was able to predict significant hepatic fibrosis (F ≥2) with sensitivity 54%, specificity 80%, and AUROC 0.69. There was a significant positive correlation between the FibroScan score and RTE score (r=0.6, P=0.001). Conclusions Although FibroScan is superior in determining significant hepatic fibrosis, our data suggest that RTE may be a useful and promising noninvasive method for liver fibrosis assessment in CHC patients especially in cases with technical limitations for FibroScan. PMID:27366038

  8. Real-time elastography as a noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, Lamiaa; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Hassan, Ehsan; Omran, Dalia; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a worldwide problem. Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis assessment as ultrasound-based approaches have emerged to replace liver biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time elastography (RTE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), compared with transient elastography and liver biopsy. RTE, FibroScan and liver biopsy were performed in 50 CHC patients. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and routine laboratory values were included in the analysis. RTE was able to diagnose significant hepatic fibrosis (F ≥2) according to METAVIR scoring system at cut-off value of 2.49 with sensitivity 100%, specificity 66%, and area under the receiver-operating characteristics (AUROC) 0.8. FibroScan was able to predict significant fibrosis at cut-off value 7.5 KPa with sensitivity 88%, specificity 100%, and AUROC 0.94.APRI was able to predict significant hepatic fibrosis (F ≥2) with sensitivity 54%, specificity 80%, and AUROC 0.69. There was a significant positive correlation between the FibroScan score and RTE score (r=0.6, P=0.001). Although FibroScan is superior in determining significant hepatic fibrosis, our data suggest that RTE may be a useful and promising noninvasive method for liver fibrosis assessment in CHC patients especially in cases with technical limitations for FibroScan.

  9. A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the concurrent detection of hepatitis A, B and C viruses in patients with acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongjung; Kim, Beom Seok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-01

    A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for concurrent detection of hepatitis viruses was evaluated for its clinical performance in screening patients with acute hepatitis. A total of 648 serum samples were collected from patients with acute symptoms of hepatitis. Concurrent detection of nucleic acids of HAV, HBV and HCV was performed using the Magicplex™ HepaTrio Real-time Detection test. Serum nucleic acid levels of HBV and HCV were also quantified by the Cobas® AmpliPrep/Cobas® TaqMan® (CAP/CTM) HBV and HCV tests. Patients' medical records were also reviewed. Concordance rates between the results from the HepaTrio and the CAP/CTM tests for the detection of HBV and HCV were 94.9% (k = 0.88) and 99.2% (k = 0.98), respectively. The cycle threshold values with the HepaTrio test were also correlated well with the levels of HBV DNA (r = -0.9230) and HCV RNA (r = -0.8458). The sensitivity and specificity of the HepaTrio test were 93.8% and 98.2%, respectively, for detecting HBV infection, and 99.1% and 100.0%, respectively, for HCV infection. For the HepaTrio test, 21 (3.2%) cases were positive for both HBV and HCV. Among the positive cases, 6 (0.9%) were true coinfections. This test also detected 18 (2.8%) HAV positives. The HepaTrio test demonstrated good clinical performance and produced results that agreed well with those of the CAP/CTM assays, especially for the detection of HCV. This assay was also able to detect HAV RNA from anti-HAV IgM-positive individuals. Therefore, this new multiplex PCR assay could be useful for the concurrent detection of the three hepatitis viruses.

  10. Implementing "Abbott v. Burke": A Guide to the 2006 K-12 Abbott Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Except for school construction, there is no legislation to guide implementation of the programs and reforms ordered by the New Jersey Supreme Court in the landmark "Abbott v. Burke" case. Instead, in its 1998 "Abbott V decision," the Supreme Court directed the Commissioner of Education to provide standards and procedures to…

  11. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HIV-1 viral loads between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HIV-1 test, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 Assay.

    PubMed

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be <0.3 log 10 cp/mL for VERIS HIV-1 Assay versus COBAS HIV-1 Test and RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and <0.5 log 10 cp/mL versus VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Analysis on 174 specimens tested with the 0.175mL volume VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test showed average bias of 0.39 log 10 cp/mL. Patient monitoring results using VERIS HIV-1 Assay demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to all comparators. The VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... FDA-2012-F-0138] Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug... that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories, 3300 Stelzer Rd...

  13. Imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipomas on real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Xu, H-X; Xie, X-Y; Xie, X-H; Kuang, M; Xu, Z-F; Liu, G-J; Chen, L-D; Lin, M-X; Lu, M-D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The imaging features of 12 pathologically proven hepatic AML lesions in 10 patients who had undergone baseline ultrasound (BUS) and CEUS examinations were evaluated retrospectively. The enhancement extent, pattern and dynamic change, along with the enhancement process, on CEUS were analysed. The diagnostic results of BUS and CEUS before pathological examination were also recorded. The results showed that 75% (9/12) of the AML lesions exhibited mixed echogenicity on BUS and most showed remarkable hyperechogenicity in combination with a hypoechoic or anechoic portion. Arterial flow signals were detected in 75% (9/12) of the lesions on colour Doppler imaging. On CEUS, 66.7% (n = 8) of the 12 lesions exhibited hyperenhancement in the arterial phase, slight hyperenhancement (n = 2) or isoenhancement (n = 6) in the portal phase, and slight hyperenhancement (n = 1) or isoenhancement (n = 7) in the late phase. Three (25%) lesions exhibited hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement in both portal and late phases. One (8.3%) lesion exhibited hypoenhancement throughout the CEUS process. Before pathological examination with BUS, only 3 (25%) lesions were correctly diagnosed as hepatic AML. Conversely, on CEUS, correct diagnoses were made for 66.8% (8/12) of hepatic AMLs. Therefore, arterial hyperenhancement and subsequent sustained enhancement on CEUS were found in the majority of hepatic AMLs. The combination of BUS and CEUS leads to the correct diagnosis in the majority of hepatic AMLs, and is higher than the success rate achieved by BUS alone. PMID:19723766

  14. Comparative evaluation of new TaqMan real-time assays for the detection of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Houde, Alain; Guévremont, Evelyne; Poitras, Elyse; Leblanc, Danielle; Ward, Pierre; Simard, Carole; Trottier, Yvon-Louis

    2007-03-01

    Three novel real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assays targeting the 5'-UTR, the viral protease and the viral polymerase regions of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) were developed, evaluated and compared against a new published 5'-UTR TaqMan assay (JN) and a widely used conventional RT-PCR assay (HAVc). All conventional RT-PCR (HAV, SH-Prot and SH-Poly systems) and TaqMan (SH-Prot, SH-Poly, JN and SH-5U systems) assays evaluated were consistent for the detection of the three different HAV strains (HM-175, HAS-15 and LSH/S) used and reproducible for both RNA duplicates with the exception of two reproducibility discrepancies observed with both 5'-UTR real-time systems (JN and SH-5U). Limits of detection for conventional HAV, SH-Prot and SH-Poly RT-PCR systems were found to be equivalent when tested with serially diluted suspensions of the HM-175 strain. Although the four real-time RT-PCR TaqMan assays evaluated herein produced similar and consistent quantification data down to the level of one genomic equivalent copy with their respectively cloned amplicons, significant and important differences were observed for the detection of HAV genomic RNA. Results showed that the new real-time TaqMan SH-Poly and SH-Prot primer and probe systems were more consistent and sensitive by 5 logs as compared to both 5'-UTR designs (JN and SH-5U) used for the detection of HAV genomic RNA as well as for the detection in cell culture by cytopathic effect. Considering their higher analytical sensitivity, the proposed SH-Poly and SH-Prot amplification systems could therefore represent valuable tools for the detection of HAV in clinical, environmental and food samples.

  15. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus from Green Onion and Strawberry Rinses by Use of Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Shan, X. C.; Wolffs, P.; Griffiths, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, an immunomagnetic capture method and a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay were used to quantify hepatitis A virus (HAV) in green onion and strawberry rinses. This combined protocol detected as low as 0.5 PFU HAV in produce rinses and concentrated HAV levels up to 20-fold. PMID:16151164

  16. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine.These symptoms can last up to five ... of hepatitis A cases require hospitalization. Swallowing fecal matter, even in microscopic quantities. Infection occurs most often ...

  17. Accuracy of real-time shear wave elastography for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zicchetti, Mabel; Filice, Gaetano; Filice, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) is a novel, noninvasive method to assess liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness. This single-center study was conducted to assess the accuracy of SWE in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), in comparison with transient elastography (TE), by using liver biopsy (LB) as the reference standard. Consecutive patients with CHC scheduled for LB by referring physicians were studied. One hundred and twenty-one patients met inclusion criteria. On the same day, real-time SWE using the ultrasound (US) system, Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine S.A., Aix-en-Provence, France), TE using FibroScan (Echosens, Paris, France), and US-assisted LB were consecutively performed. Fibrosis was staged according to the METAVIR scoring system. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to calculate optimal area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for F0-F1 versus F2-F4, F0- F2 versus F3-F4, and F0-F3 versus F4 for both real-time SWE and TE. Liver stiffness values increased in parallel with degree of liver fibrosis, both with SWE and TE. AUROCs were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-0.96) for SWE and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) for TE (P = 0.002), 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00) for SWE and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90-0.99) for TE (P = 0.14), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.00) for SWE and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.91-0.99) for TE (P = 0.48), when comparing F0-F1 versus F2- F4, F0- F2 versus F3-F4, and F0 -F3 versus F4, respectively. The results of this study show that real-time SWE is more accurate than TE in assessing significant fibrosis (≥ F2). With respect to TE, SWE has the advantage of imaging liver stiffness in real time while guided by a B-mode image. Thus, the region of measurement can be guided with both anatomical and tissue stiffness information. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in…

  19. Product development: the making of the Abbott ARCHITECT.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1997-01-01

    Many laboratorians have a limited perspective on what is involved in developing an instrument and bringing it to market. This article traces the product development process used by Abbott Diagnostics Division that resulted in Abbott being named the 1996 Concurrent Engineering Company of the Year for the design of the ARCHITECT.

  20. Impact of Storage Time on Hepatitis B Virus DNA Stability in Clinical Specimens Determined by Quantitative Real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolian; Yang, Dongmei; Lu, Yu; Lao, Xianjun; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Detecting blood levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA must be accurate and credible. Shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples affect the quality of nucleic acids and can interfere with HBV DNA analysis. The aim of our study was to compare HBV DNA stability in plasma specimens at 4 degrees C for different storage periods. Blood samples from 30 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients were collected in tubes containing EDTA-K2. Each sample was divided into eight aliquots, one of which was measured immediately for the initial viral load. The remaining aliquots were then stored at 4 degrees C and assessed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days of storage. Quantification of HBV DNA was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the difference in HBV DNA concentrations between two different time points was analysed with a paired-samples t-test. HBV DNA was measured in a range of 2.00 - 8.00 IU/mL, with low within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (< 10%). Storing plasma for one month at 4 degrees C revealed no significant decrease in HBV DNA level (p = 0.231), and no trend was evident to indicate continued reduction over a 3-week storage period. Based on the results of this study, storing plasma for up to one month at 4 degrees C does not affect the stability of HBV DNA, regardless of the initial viral load.

  1. "A Prairie Childhood" by Edith Abbott: An Excerpt from "The Children's Champion," a Biography of Grace Abbott

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John

    2003-01-01

    Grace Abbott's courageous struggles--to protect the rights of immigrants, to increase the role of women in government, and to improve the lives of all children--are filled with adventurous tales of the remarkable human ability to seek out suffering and to do something about it. "A Prairie Childhood" is an excerpt from the Grace Abbott biography…

  2. Detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen by phage display mediated TaqMan real-time immuno-PCR.

    PubMed

    Monjezi, Razieh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tey, Beng Ti; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Wen Siang

    2013-01-01

    The core antigen (HBcAg) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the markers for the identification of the viral infection. The main purpose of this study was to develop a TaqMan real-time detection assay based on the concept of phage display mediated immuno-PCR (PD-IPCR) for the detection of HBcAg. PD-IPCR combines the advantages of immuno-PCR (IPCR) and phage display technology. IPCR integrates the versatility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the sensitivity and signal generation power of PCR. Whereas, phage display technology exploits the physical association between the displayed peptide and the encoding DNA within the same phage particle. In this study, a constrained peptide displayed on the surface of an M13 recombinant bacteriophage that interacts tightly with HBcAg was applied as a diagnostic reagent in IPCR. The phage displayed peptide and its encoding DNA can be used to replace monoclonal antibody (mAb) and chemically bound DNA, respectively. This method is able to detect as low as 10ng of HBcAg with 10(8)pfu/ml of the recombinant phage which is about 10,000 times more sensitive than the phage-ELISA. The PD-IPCR provides an alternative means for the detection of HBcAg in human serum samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitation of hepatitis B virus DNA in plasma using a sensitive cost-effective "in-house" real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Hubert Darius J; Fletcher, John G; Chandy, George M; Abraham, Priya

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive nucleic acid testing for the detection and accurate quantitation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is necessary to reduce transmission through blood and blood products and for monitoring patients on antiviral therapy. The aim of this study is to standardize an "in-house" real-time HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for accurate quantitation and screening of HBV. The "in-house" real-time assay was compared with a commercial assay using 30 chronically infected individuals and 70 blood donors who are negative for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody. Further, 30 HBV-genotyped samples were tested to evaluate the "in-house" assay's capacity to detect genotypes prevalent among individuals attending this tertiary care hospital. The lower limit of detection of this "in-house" HBV real-time PCR was assessed against the WHO international standard and found to be 50 IU/mL. The interassay and intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of this "in-house" assay ranged from 1.4% to 9.4% and 0.0% to 2.3%, respectively. Virus loads as estimated with this "in-house" HBV real-time assay correlated well with the commercial artus HBV RG PCR assay ( r = 0.95, P < 0.0001). This assay can be used for the detection and accurate quantitation of HBV viral loads in plasma samples. This assay can be employed for the screening of blood donations and can potentially be adapted to a multiplex format for simultaneous detection of HBV, HIV and HCV to reduce the cost of testing in blood banks.

  4. Clinical performances of two real-time PCR assays and bDNA/TMA to early monitor treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Khiri, Hacène; Leclere, Laurence; Maylin, Sarah; Marcellin, Patrick; Halfon, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Early viral monitoring is essential for the management of treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A variety of commercially available assays are now available to quantify HCV-RNA in routine clinical practice. Compare the clinical results of 3 commercially available assays to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of rapid virological response (RVR) at week 4 and early virological response (EVR) at week 12. 287 patients treated with standard care regimen combination therapy were studied. HCV-RNA values measured at baseline, week 4, week 12 with VERSANT HCV 3.0 Assay (bDNA), and VERSANT HCV-RNA Qualitative Assay (TMA) (bDNA/TMA); COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS/TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000sp extraction/m2000rt amplification system (ART). RVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA and EVR as a > OR =2 log decline in baseline viral load (BLV). Median (range) BVLs were: 5.585(2.585-6.816), 5.189(2.792-7.747) and 4.804(2.380-6.580) log(10)IU/ml, with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p<0.01); RVR was observed in 22%, 30% and 27% of the patients and PPVs were 97%, 91% and 94% with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p=0.317). EVR was observed in 76%, 73% and 67% of the patients and NPVs were 93%, 83% and 79% with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p=0.09). Treatment monitoring should include both detection of serum HCV-RNA at week 4 to predict SVR and at week 12 to predict non-SVR. The value of all 3 assays was similar for evaluating RVR or EVR. Because of viral load discrepancies the same assay should be used throughout patient treatment follow-up.

  5. Assessment of Liver Fibrosis Using Real-time Shear-wave Elastography for Patients with Hepatitis B e Antigen-negative Chronic Hepatitis B and Alanine Transaminase <2 Times the Upper Limit of Normal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Hua; Zou, Yu; Chang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Zou, Yu; Xie, Yu-Chen; Lu, Yong-Ping; Wei, Jia

    2017-01-01

    We assessed liver fibrosis using real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) combined with liver biopsy (LB) for patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and alanine transaminase < 2 times the upper limit of normal and hepatitis B virus DNA < 2000 IU/ml. A total of 107 patients met the inclusion criteria. Real- ime SWE and ultrasoundassisted liver biopsies were consecutively performed. Fibrosis was staged according to the METAVIR scoring system. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic curve were performed to calculate the optimal area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for F0-F1 versus F2-F4, F0-F2 versus F3-F4, and F0-F3 versus F4 for real-time SWE. The most concurrent liver fibrosis degrees were between F1 and F2 for these HBeAg-negative CHB patients. Liver stiffness increased in parallel with the degree of liver fibrosis using SWE measurements. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.881 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.704-1.000) for SWE (p = 0.004); 0.912 (95% CI: 0.836-0.987) for SWE (p = 0.000); 0.981 (95% CI: 0.956-1.000) for SWE (p = 0.000); 0.974 (95% CI: 0.936-1.000) for SWE (p = 0.000) when comparing F0 versus F1-F4, F0-F1 versus F2-F4, F0-F2 versus F3-F4, and F0-F3 versus F4, respectively. SWE has the advantage of providing an image of liver stiffness in real-time. As an alternative to LB, the development of all these noninvasive methods for dynamic evaluation of liver fibrosis will decrease the need for LB, making clinical care safer and more convenient for patients with liver diseases.

  6. Performance of real-time strain elastography, transient elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index in the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Malfitano, Antonello; Dal Bello, Barbara; Filice, Gaetano; Filice, Carlo; Above, Elisabetta; Barbarini, Giorgio; Brunetti, Enrico; Calderon, Willy; Di Gregorio, Marta; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Ludovisi, Serena; Maiocchi, Laura; Michelone, Giuseppe; Mondelli, Mario; Patruno, Savino F A; Perretti, Alessandro; Poma, Gianluigi; Sacchi, Paolo; Zaramella, Marco; Zicchetti, Mabel

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index in assessing fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C by using histologic Metavir scores as reference standard. Consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C scheduled for liver biopsy were enrolled. Liver biopsy was performed on the same day as transient elastography and real-time strain elastography. Transient elastography and real-time strain elastography were performed in the same patient encounter by a single investigator using a medical device based on elastometry and an ultrasound machine, respectively. Diagnostic performance was assessed by using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. One hundred thirty patients (91 men and 39 women) were analyzed. The cutoff values for transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index were 6.9 kPa, 1.82, and 0.37, respectively, for fibrosis score of 2 or higher; 7.3 kPa, 1.86, and 0.70, respectively, for fibrosis score of 3 or higher; and 9.3 kPa, 2.33, and 0.70, respectively, for fibrosis score of 4. AUC values of transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, aspartate-to-platelet ratio index were 0.88, 0.74, and 0.86, respectively, for fibrosis score of 2 or higher; 0.95, 0.80, and 0.89, respectively, for fibrosis score of 3 or higher; and 0.97, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively, for fibrosis score of 4. A combination of the three methods, when two of three were in agreement, showed AUC curves of 0.93, 0.95, and 0.95 for fibrosis scores of 2 or higher, 3 or higher, and 4, respectively. Transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index values were correlated with histologic stages of fibrosis. Transient elastography offered excellent diagnostic performance in assessing severe fibrosis and

  7. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, Narayanan; Cromeans, Theresa L; Robertson, Betty H; Meng, X J; Hill, Vincent R

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes sporadic and epidemic forms of acute hepatitis. Large waterborne HEV epidemics have been documented exclusively in developing countries. At least four major genotypes of HEV have been reported worldwide: genotype 1 (found primarily in Asian countries), genotype 2 (isolated from a single outbreak in Mexico), genotype 3 (identified in swine and humans in the United States and many other countries), and genotype 4 (identified in humans, swine and other animals in Asia). To better detect and quantitate different HEV strains that may be present in clinical and environmental samples, we developed a rapid and sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of HEV RNA. Primers and probes for the real-time RT-PCR were selected based on the multiple sequence alignments of 27 sequences of the ORF3 region. Thirteen HEV isolates representing genotypes 1-4 were used to standardize the real-time RT-PCR assay. The TaqMan assay detected as few as four genome equivalent (GE) copies of HEV plasmid DNA and detected as low as 0.12 50% pig infectious dose (PID50) of swine HEV. Different concentrations of swine HEV (120-1.2PID50) spiked into a surface water concentrate were detected in the real-time RT-PCR assay. This is the first reporting of a broadly reactive TaqMan RT-PCR assay for the detection of HEV in clinical and environmental samples.

  8. A novel duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of hepatitis C viral RNA with armored RNA as internal control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome is extremely heterogeneous. Several HCV infections can not be detected using currently available commercial assays, probably because of mismatches between the template and primers/probes. By aligning the HCV sequences, we developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using 2 sets of primers/probes and a specific armored RNA as internal control. The 2 detection probes were labelled with the same fluorophore, namely, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), at the 5' end; these probes could mutually combine, improving the power of the test. Results The limit of detection of the duplex primer/probe assay was 38.99 IU/ml. The sensitivity of the assay improved significantly, while the specificity was not affected. All HCV genotypes in the HCV RNA Genotype Panel for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques could be detected. In the testing of 109 serum samples, the performance of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was identical to that of the COBAS AmpliPrep (CAP)/COBAS TaqMan (CTM) assay and superior to 2 commercial HCV assay kits. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is an efficient and effective viral assay. It is comparable with the CAP/CTM assay with regard to the power of the test and is appropriate for blood-donor screening and laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection. PMID:20529244

  9. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside... of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites 11-13 of FTZ 153, located in Riverside County... behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register...

  10. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  11. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  12. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  13. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Summary Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  14. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report: Union City, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite-Coney, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Union City is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Union City receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Union City Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of…

  15. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by…

  16. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Camden, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Camden is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Camden receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Camden Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  17. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report--Trenton, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Trenton is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Trenton receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Trenton Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  18. Tracking Progress, Engaging Communities: Abbott Indicators Technical Report-- Newark, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley; Applewhite-Coney, Erain

    2005-01-01

    Newark is one of 31 urban school districts in New Jersey known as Abbott districts. As an Abbott district, Newark receives funding to equalize its per student general education budget with the most successful suburban districts in the state. Through a series of indicators, the Newark Abbott Indicators Report presents the status of educational…

  19. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,201] Abbott Laboratories..., applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, including on-site leased workers from... (clerical) were employed on-site at the Irving, Texas location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division...

  20. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,379] Abbott Laboratories... February 22, 2013, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including... Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology Division. The Department has...

  1. Women in History--Grace Abbott: A Leader in Social Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari Cole

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Grace Abbott, one of the earlier 20th century American women leaders in Progressivism. Abbott's heritage influenced her lifetime commitment to social improvement. She was born on November 17, 1878 in Grand Island, Nebraska into a family of activists. Her Quaker mother, Elizabeth Griffin Abbott, came from an abolitionist…

  2. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. The Instructional Guide for Abbott Skills Enhancement Classes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Ronda; Gee, Mary Kay

    This guide, which integrates adult basic education (ABE) curriculum, job skills for Abbott Laboratories, and work-related foundation skills, is designed for an instructional program in the skill areas of reading, writing, oral communications, mathematics, and problem solving. In addition to creating a uniform process and product to promote…

  4. Integrating Students of Limited English Proficiency into Standards-Based Reform in the Abbott Districts. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Tamara; Villegas, Ana Maria

    2004-01-01

    In 1999-2000, over one-third of all students in the 30 Abbott districts spoke a native language other than English, and more than one-tenth were considered limited English proficient (LEP). The proportions of LEP students varied considerably across the districts, but they comprised between 5% and 29% of total enrollments in 18 of the districts.…

  5. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Method Based on a New Primer Design Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lida; Li, Wenli; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Tian; Hao, Mingju; Jia, Tingting; Sun, Yu; Lin, Guigao; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Viral nucleic acids are unstable when improperly collected, handled, and stored, resulting in decreased sensitivity of currently available commercial quantitative nucleic acid testing kits. Using known unstable hepatitis C virus RNA, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR method based on a new primer design strategy to reduce the impact of nucleic acid instability on nucleic acid testing. The performance of the method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, precision, specificity, and agreement with commercial hepatitis C virus assays. Its clinical application was compared to that of two commercial kits--Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Kehua. The quantitative RT-PCR method delivered a good performance, with a linearity of R(2) = 0.99, a total limit of detection (genotypes 1 to 6) of 42.6 IU/mL (95% CI, 32.84 to 67.76 IU/mL), a CV of 1.06% to 3.34%, a specificity of 100%, and a high concordance with the CAP/CTM assay (R(2) = 0.97), with a means ± SD value of -0.06 ± 1.96 log IU/mL (range, -0.38 to 0.25 log IU/mL). The method was superior to commercial assays in detecting unstable hepatitis C virus RNA (P < 0.05). This quantitative RT-PCR method can effectively eliminate the influence of RNA instability on nucleic acid testing. The principle of primer design strategy may be applied to the detection of other RNA or DNA viruses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting the unmet medical need: the Abbott Laboratories oncology approach.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn M; Steinberg, Joyce L; Gordon, Gary

    2005-09-01

    While significant advances in the treatment of cancer occured during the last half of the twentieth century, parallel decreases in overall cancer death rates were not observed. Cancer therapy remains an area of significant unmet medical need. Abbott's oncology research programs are focused on pioneering trageted, less toxic therapies, aimed at different aspects of tumor growth and development. Oncology drugs in development at Abbott target several mechanisms of cancer progression by interfering with multiple processes necessary for tumor growth: recruitment of a blood supply, cell proliferation, and the development of metastases. They include a selective endothelin A-receptor antagonist (atrasentan/Xinlay), 3 angiogenesis inhibitors (ABT 510, a thrombospondin mimetic: ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; and ABT 828, recombinant human plasminogen kringle 5), a cell proliferation inhibitor (ABT-751, an antimitotic agent), an apoptosis inducer (ABT 737, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor), and a poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor.

  7. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    PubMed

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products.

  8. Evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay.

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Eva; Braun, Hans-Bertram; Praast, Gerald; Stieler, Myriam; Gundlach, Cordelia; Birkenbach, Claudia; Prostko, John; Palafox, Mary Ann; Frias, Edwin; Hsu, Stephen; Matias, Matthew; Pucci, Dominick; Hausmann, Michael; Sagel, Ulrich; Smith, Darwin

    2009-07-01

    Development of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay has been done to assist the clinician in acute Toxoplasma gondii infection detection, especially in pregnant women. Its use, in conjunction with ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and Toxo Avidity assays, will provide an array of assays particularly useful in the monitoring of pregnant females to determine the risk of maternal transmission of the parasite. Specificity results from 2 testing sites, using populations of pregnant females, hospital patients, and blood donors, demonstrated that the assay has an overall resolved relative specificity of 99.89% (confidence interval, 99.68-99.98%). Relative specificity for pregnant female specimens was 99.95% (n = 2031). Excellent seroconversion sensitivity was observed for the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay, which was similar to the Abbott AxSYM Toxo IgM assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). In more than 90% of the panels tested, the 1st bleed detected in the serial bleeds was the same for both assays.

  9. A prospective comparison between auto-registration and manual registration of real-time ultrasound with MR images for percutaneous ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong Ik; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Oh, Young-Taek; Jeong, Ja-Yeon; Chang, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Jiwon; Lee, Kyong Joon; Kim, Jaeil; Bang, Won-Chul; Shin, Dong Kuk; Choi, Sung Jin; Koh, Dalkwon; Seo, Bong Koo; Kim, Kyunga

    2017-06-01

    To compare the accuracy and required time for image fusion of real-time ultrasound (US) with pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) images between positioning auto-registration and manual registration for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and all patients gave written informed consent. Twenty-two patients (male/female, n = 18/n = 4; age, 61.0 ± 7.7 years) who were referred for planning US to assess the feasibility of radiofrequency ablation (n = 21) or biopsy (n = 1) for focal hepatic lesions were included. One experienced radiologist performed the two types of image fusion methods in each patient. The performance of auto-registration and manual registration was evaluated. The accuracy of the two methods, based on measuring registration error, and the time required for image fusion for both methods were recorded using in-house software and respectively compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Image fusion was successful in all patients. The registration error was not significantly different between the two methods (auto-registration: median, 3.75 mm; range, 1.0-15.8 mm vs. manual registration: median, 2.95 mm; range, 1.2-12.5 mm, p = 0.242). The time required for image fusion was significantly shorter with auto-registration than with manual registration (median, 28.5 s; range, 18-47 s, vs. median, 36.5 s; range, 14-105 s, p = 0.026). Positioning auto-registration showed promising results compared with manual registration, with similar accuracy and even shorter registration time.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Detection and Quantification by a Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Calibrated to the World Health Organization Standard for HEV RNA.

    PubMed

    Germer, Jeffrey J; Ankoudinova, Irina; Belousov, Yevgeniy S; Mahoney, Walt; Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically infected patients. A real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for the simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on an adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame 2/3 (ORF2/3) nucleotide sequence of HEV. A chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus construct containing an HEV RNA insert (SynTura HEV) was developed, value assigned with the first World Health Organization (WHO) international standard for HEV RNA (code 6329/10), and used to prepare working assay calibrators and controls, which supported an assay quantification range of 100 to 5,000,000 IU/ml. The analytical sensitivity (95% detection rate) of this assay was 25.2 IU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.2 to 44.1 IU/ml). The assay successfully amplified 16 different HEV sequences with significant nucleotide mismatching in primer/probe binding regions, while evaluation of a WHO international reference panel for HEV genotypes (code 8578/13) showed viral load results falling within the result ranges generated by WHO collaborative study participants for all panel members (genotypes 1 to 4). Broadly reactive RT-qPCR primers targeting HEV ORF2/3 were successfully adapted for use in an assay based on Pleiades probe chemistry. The availability of secondary standards calibrated to the WHO HEV international standard can improve the standardization and performance of assays for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Detection and Quantification by a Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Calibrated to the World Health Organization Standard for HEV RNA

    PubMed Central

    Germer, Jeffrey J.; Ankoudinova, Irina; Belousov, Yevgeniy S.; Mahoney, Walt; Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically infected patients. A real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for the simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on an adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame 2/3 (ORF2/3) nucleotide sequence of HEV. A chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus construct containing an HEV RNA insert (SynTura HEV) was developed, value assigned with the first World Health Organization (WHO) international standard for HEV RNA (code 6329/10), and used to prepare working assay calibrators and controls, which supported an assay quantification range of 100 to 5,000,000 IU/ml. The analytical sensitivity (95% detection rate) of this assay was 25.2 IU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.2 to 44.1 IU/ml). The assay successfully amplified 16 different HEV sequences with significant nucleotide mismatching in primer/probe binding regions, while evaluation of a WHO international reference panel for HEV genotypes (code 8578/13) showed viral load results falling within the result ranges generated by WHO collaborative study participants for all panel members (genotypes 1 to 4). Broadly reactive RT-qPCR primers targeting HEV ORF2/3 were successfully adapted for use in an assay based on Pleiades probe chemistry. The availability of secondary standards calibrated to the WHO HEV international standard can improve the standardization and performance of assays for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA. PMID:28228493

  12. Detection of hepatitis C virus subtypes 6a, 6n, 6w and mixed infections using a modified multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan-Ming; Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Cheng-Ming; Kuo, Lou-Hui; Wong, Wing-Wai; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2011-12-01

    In the past few years, many new subtypes in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 have been identified. The aim of this study was to modify the multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol and use it to determine the HCV subtypes of a group of Taiwanese injection drug users (IDUs). We used 76 serum specimens collected in northern Taiwan in 2008. Multiplex RT-PCR was used for HCV subtyping among those serum samples having anti-HCV antibodies. Twenty cases were randomly selected for comparison with subtyping results from Inno-LiPa II tests and phylogenetic tree analysis using NS5B sequences. Multiplex RT-PCR assays showed that 60.5% (46/76) of IDUs had single HCV infection. Three out of 76 (3.9%) had double HCV infection (1b/6a, 2a/2b and 2b/6a). Besides this, 27.6% (21/76) had no HCV signal. One IDU had subtype 6n and two had subtype 6w infection. Inno-LiPa II tests misclassified all 6n and 6w cases as 1b subtype. Our modified multiplex RT-PCR protocol can be used to support molecular epidemiological studies and laboratory diagnoses of different HCV subtypes including genotype 6. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Factors Affecting Detection of Hepatitis E Virus on Canadian Retail Pork Chops and Pork Livers Assayed Using Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, B J; Leblanc, D; Avery, B; Pearl, D L; Houde, A; Rajić, A; McEwen, S A

    2016-03-01

    We collected 599 Canadian retail pork chops and 283 pork livers routinely (usually weekly) from April 2011 to March 2012 using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) retail sampling platform. Samples were assayed using validated real-time (q) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested classical RT-PCR for the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) and rotavirus (RV). The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was measured on a subset of our samples. Exact logistic regression models were fitted for predictors for HEV detection, for each assay. For both assays, sample type (pork chop versus liver) was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection. For nested classical RT-PCR but not qRT-PCR, region of sample collection was a significant predictor (P = 0.008) of HEV detection. Odds of HEV detection were greatest in spring relative to other seasons. E. coli was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection using the qRT-PCR (P = 0.03). Overall, the prevalence of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was significantly greater than HEV, PEC or RV on our retail pork samples. Our sparse data set for the detection of PEC and RV precluded modelling of risk factors for the detection of these viruses. © 2015 Zoonoses and Public Health © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  14. Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study: Fifth Grade Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Youn, Min-Jong; Frede, Ellen C.

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey's Abbott Preschool program is of broad national and international interest because the Abbott program provides a model for building a high-quality system of universal pre-K through public-private partnerships that transform the existing system. The program offers high-quality pre-K to all children in 31 New Jersey communities with high…

  15. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1654] Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area... manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Molecular, Inc., within FTZ 22F in Des Plaines and Elk Grove Village...

  16. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-91-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc...

  17. The Abbott Preschool Program: Fifth Year Report on Enrollment and Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Supreme Court's 1998 ruling in Abbott v. Burke represents the first judicial directive in the nation that public education must include a high-quality, well-planned preschool program starting at age three. This decision applies to 30 urban school districts, known as the Abbott districts, that serve approximately 25 percent of the…

  18. Automated quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus in whole blood of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients using the Abbott m2000 system.

    PubMed

    Salmona, Maud; Fourati, Slim; Feghoul, Linda; Scieux, Catherine; Thiriez, Aline; Simon, François; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; LeGoff, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    Accurate quantification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in blood is essential for the management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. The automation of DNA extraction and amplification may improve accuracy and reproducibility. We evaluated the EBV PCR Kit V1 with fully automated DNA extraction and amplification on the m2000 system (Abbott assay). Conversion factor between copies and international units (IU), lower limit of quantification, imprecision and linearity were determined in a whole blood (WB) matrix. Results from 339 clinical WB specimens were compared with a home-brew real-time PCR assay used in our laboratory (in-house assay). The conversion factor between copies and IU was 3.22 copies/IU. The lower limit of quantification (LLQ) was 1000 copies/mL. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 3.1% and 7.9% respectively for samples with EBV load higher than the LLQ. The comparison between Abbott assay and in-house assay showed a good concordance (kappa = 0.77). Loads were higher with the Abbott assay (mean difference = 0.62 log10 copies/mL). The EBV PCR Kit V1 assay on the m2000 system provides a reliable and easy-to-use method for quantification of EBV DNA in WB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical utility of the ARCHITECT HCV Ag assay for early treatment monitoring in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Johannes; Susser, Simone; Berger, Annemarie; Perner, Dany; Peiffer, Kai-Henrik; Allwinn, Regina; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    Virologic response-monitoring is essential for determining therapy duration in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This is usually performed using highly sensitive HCV-RNA assays. However, HCV-RNA assays are time-consuming, expensive and require highly trained personnel. Quantitative determination of HCV core-antigen (HCVAg) levels may be used to supplement treatment monitoring. The clinical utility of the ARCHITECT HCV Ag assay (Abbott Diagnostics) for response-guided therapy was investigated. We analyzed serum from 160 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had been treated with peg-interferon alfa-2b/ribavirin. HCVAg levels were determined at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12. HCVAg levels were compared to those obtained with HCV-RNA assays: VERSANT HCV Quantitative 3.0 (bDNA) and Qualitative (TMA, both Siemens Healthcare) assay and the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (ART; Abbott Diagnostics). Baseline HCVAg levels correlated well with HCV-RNA as assessed by bDNA (r=0.91; p<0.0001) and ART (r=0.92; p<0.0001), respectively. Patients with undetectable HCVAg levels at week 1 had a 90.9% probability (positive predictive value) to achieve a rapid virologic response (HCV-RNA undetectable at week 4) based on TMA and 86.4% based on ART, respectively. Patients with less than 1 log(10) reduction in HCVAg between baseline and week 12 had a 90% probability (negative predictive value) to achieve a nonresponse (<2 log(10) decline in HCV-RNA between baseline and week 12) based on bDNA and 100% based on ART, respectively. Determination of HCVAg may be useful for antiviral response-monitoring in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alchemy: A Web 2.0 Real-time Quality Assurance Platform for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and BK Virus Quantitation Assays.

    PubMed

    Agosto-Arroyo, Emmanuel; Coshatt, Gina M; Winokur, Thomas S; Harada, Shuko; Park, Seung L

    2017-01-01

    The molecular diagnostics laboratory faces the challenge of improving test turnaround time (TAT). Low and consistent TATs are of great clinical and regulatory importance, especially for molecular virology tests. Laboratory information systems (LISs) contain all the data elements necessary to do accurate quality assurance (QA) reporting of TAT and other measures, but these reports are in most cases still performed manually: a time-consuming and error-prone task. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based real-time QA platform that would automate QA reporting in the molecular diagnostics laboratory at our institution, and minimize the time expended in preparing these reports. Using a standard Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, PHP stack virtual machine running atop a Dell Precision 5810, we designed and built a web-based QA platform, code-named Alchemy. Data files pulled periodically from the LIS in comma-separated value format were used to autogenerate QA reports for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) quantitation, hepatitis C virus (HCV) quantitation, and BK virus (BKV) quantitation. Alchemy allowed the user to select a specific timeframe to be analyzed and calculated key QA statistics in real-time, including the average TAT in days, tests falling outside the expected TAT ranges, and test result ranges. Before implementing Alchemy, reporting QA for the HIV, HCV, and BKV quantitation assays took 45-60 min of personnel time per test every month. With Alchemy, that time has decreased to 15 min total per month. Alchemy allowed the user to select specific periods of time and analyzed the TAT data in-depth without the need of extensive manual calculations. Alchemy has significantly decreased the time and the human error associated with QA report generation in our molecular diagnostics laboratory. Other tests will be added to this web-based platform in future updates. This effort shows the utility of informatician-supervised resident/fellow programming projects as learning

  1. Alchemy: A Web 2.0 Real-time Quality Assurance Platform for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and BK Virus Quantitation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Agosto-Arroyo, Emmanuel; Coshatt, Gina M.; Winokur, Thomas S.; Harada, Shuko; Park, Seung L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The molecular diagnostics laboratory faces the challenge of improving test turnaround time (TAT). Low and consistent TATs are of great clinical and regulatory importance, especially for molecular virology tests. Laboratory information systems (LISs) contain all the data elements necessary to do accurate quality assurance (QA) reporting of TAT and other measures, but these reports are in most cases still performed manually: a time-consuming and error-prone task. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based real-time QA platform that would automate QA reporting in the molecular diagnostics laboratory at our institution, and minimize the time expended in preparing these reports. Methods: Using a standard Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, PHP stack virtual machine running atop a Dell Precision 5810, we designed and built a web-based QA platform, code-named Alchemy. Data files pulled periodically from the LIS in comma-separated value format were used to autogenerate QA reports for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) quantitation, hepatitis C virus (HCV) quantitation, and BK virus (BKV) quantitation. Alchemy allowed the user to select a specific timeframe to be analyzed and calculated key QA statistics in real-time, including the average TAT in days, tests falling outside the expected TAT ranges, and test result ranges. Results: Before implementing Alchemy, reporting QA for the HIV, HCV, and BKV quantitation assays took 45–60 min of personnel time per test every month. With Alchemy, that time has decreased to 15 min total per month. Alchemy allowed the user to select specific periods of time and analyzed the TAT data in-depth without the need of extensive manual calculations. Conclusions: Alchemy has significantly decreased the time and the human error associated with QA report generation in our molecular diagnostics laboratory. Other tests will be added to this web-based platform in future updates. This effort shows the utility of informatician

  2. Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Son, Na Ry; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Sheungwoo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Lee, Jeong-Su; Joo, In-Sun; Hwang, In-Gyun; Choi, Changsun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, Soraya E; Yepes, Jayr A; Anzola, Irina; Aponte, Hernán; Llerena-Polo, Claudia R

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert ® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis B What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a viral infection that ... to prevent spreading hepatitis B to others . Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis B is a short-term ...

  5. Quantitative Real-Time Fluoroscopy Analysis on Measurement of the Hepatic Arterial Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Comparison with Quantitative Digital Subtraction Angiography Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Yang; Lee, Rheun-Chuan, E-mail: rclee@vghtpe.gov.tw; Guo, Wan-Yuo, E-mail: wyguo@vghtpe.gov.tw

    PurposeTo quantify the arterial flow change during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using digital subtraction angiography, quantitative color-coding analysis (d-QCA), and real-time subtraction fluoroscopy QCA (f-QCA).Materials and MethodsThis prospective study enrolled 20 consecutive patients with HCC who had undergone TACE via a subsegmental approach between February 2014 and April 2015. The TACE endpoint was a sluggish antegrade tumor-feeding arterial flow. d-QCA and f-QCA were used for determining the relative maximal density time (rT{sub max}) of the selected arteries. The rT{sub max} of the selected arteries was analyzed in d-QCA and f-QCA before and after TACE, and itsmore » correlation in both analyses was evaluated.ResultsThe pre- and post-TACE rT{sub max} of the embolized segmental artery in d-QCA and f-QCA were 1.59 ± 0.81 and 2.97 ± 1.80 s (P < 0.001) and 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.28 ± 1.02 s (P < 0.01), respectively. The rT{sub max} of the proximal hepatic artery did not significantly change during TACE in d-QCA and f-QCA. The Spearman correlation coefficients of the pre- and post-TACE rT{sub max} of the embolized segmental artery between d-QCA and f-QCA were 0.46 (P < 0.05) and 0.80 (P < 0.001). Radiation doses in one series of d-QCA and f-QCA were 140.7 ± 51.5 milligray (mGy) and 2.5 ± 0.7 mGy, respectively.Conclusionsf-QCA can quantify arterial flow changes with a higher temporal resolution and lower radiation dose. Flow quantification of the embolized segmental artery using f-QCA and d-QCA is highly correlated.« less

  6. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Envelope Diversification from Acute to Chronic Infection within a Sexually Transmitted HCV Cluster by Using Single-Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cynthia K. Y.; Raghwani, Jayna; Koekkoek, Sylvie; Liang, Richard H.; Van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Van Der Valk, Marc; De Jong, Menno; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In contrast to other available next-generation sequencing platforms, PacBio single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing has the advantage of generating long reads albeit with a relatively higher error rate in unprocessed data. Using this platform, we longitudinally sampled and sequenced the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope genome region (1,680 nucleotides [nt]) from individuals belonging to a cluster of sexually transmitted cases. All five subjects were coinfected with HIV-1 and a closely related strain of HCV genotype 4d. In total, 50 samples were analyzed by using SMRT sequencing. By using 7 passes of circular consensus sequencing, the error rate was reduced to 0.37%, and the median number of sequences was 612 per sample. A further reduction of insertions was achieved by alignment against a sample-specific reference sequence. However, in vitro recombination during PCR amplification could not be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis supported close relationships among HCV sequences from the four male subjects and subsequent transmission from one subject to his female partner. Transmission was characterized by a strong genetic bottleneck. Viral genetic diversity was low during acute infection and increased upon progression to chronicity but subsequently fluctuated during chronic infection, caused by the alternate detection of distinct coexisting lineages. SMRT sequencing combines long reads with sufficient depth for many phylogenetic analyses and can therefore provide insights into within-host HCV evolutionary dynamics without the need for haplotype reconstruction using statistical algorithms. IMPORTANCE Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the study of genetically variable RNA virus populations, but for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses, longer sequences than those generated by most available platforms, while minimizing the intrinsic error rate, are desired. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that PacBio SMRT sequencing technology can be

  7. A checklist of the vascular plants in Abbott Creek Research Natural Area, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Rod Mitchell

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a checklist of 277 vascular plant taxa that have been collected or encountered in Abbott Creek Research Natural Area, Oregon; a brief description of five forested and two nonforested vegetation types is included.

  8. Maude Abbott and the Origin and Mysterious Disappearance of the Canadian Medical War Museum.

    PubMed

    Wright, James R; Alberti, Samuel J M M; Lyons, Christopher; Fraser, Richard S

    2018-05-07

    - In the early 1900s, it was common practice to retain, prepare, and display instructive pathologic specimens to teach pathology to medical trainees and practitioners; these collections were called medical museums. Maude Abbott established her reputation by developing expertise in all aspects of medical museum work. She was a founder of the International Association of Medical Museums (later renamed the International Academy of Pathology) and became an internationally renowned expert on congenital heart disease. Her involvement in the Canadian Medical War Museum (CMWM) is less well known. - To explore Abbott's role in the development of the CMWM during and after World War I and to trace its history. - Available primary and secondary historical sources were reviewed. - Instructive pathologic specimens derived from Canadian soldiers dying during World War I were shipped to the Royal College of Surgeons in London, which served as a clearinghouse for museum specimens from Dominion forces. The Canadian specimens were repatriated to Canada, prepared by Abbott, and displayed at several medical meetings. Abbott, because she was a woman, could not enlist and so she reported to a series of enlisted physicians with no expertise in museology. Plans for a permanent CMWM building in Ottawa eventually failed and Abbott maintained the collection at McGill (Montreal, Quebec, Canada) until her death in 1940. We trace the CMWM after her death. - Sadly, after Abbott had meticulously prepared these precious teaching specimens so that their previous owners' ultimate sacrifice would continue to help their military brethren, the relics were bureaucratically lost.

  9. Prevalence, risk factors, and impact of isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khamduang, Woottichai; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Jourdain, Gonzague; Suwankornsakul, Weerapong; Jarupanich, Tapnarong; Chalermpolprapa, Veeradate; Nanta, Sirisak; Puarattana-Aroonkorn, Noossara; Tonmat, Sakchai; Lallemant, Marc; Goudeau, Alain; Sirirungsi, Wasna

    2013-06-01

    Prevalence and risk factors for isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well known in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected pregnant women. It is unclear if women with occult infections are at risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. HIV-1-infected and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative pregnant women were tested for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc using enzyme immunoassay. Women with isolated anti-HBc were assessed for occult HBV infection, defined as HBV DNA levels >15 IU/mL, using the Abbott RealTime HBV DNA assay. Infants born to women with isolated anti-HBc and detectable HBV DNA were tested at 4 months of age for HBV DNA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection. Among 1812 HIV-infected pregnant women, 1682 were HBsAg negative. Fourteen percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-15%) of HBsAg-negative women had an isolated anti-HBc that was independently associated with low CD4 count, age >35 years, birth in northern Thailand, and positive anti-hepatitis C virus serology. Occult HBV infection was identified in 24% (95% CI, 18%-30%) of women with isolated anti-HBc, representing 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.5%) of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, and was inversely associated with HIV RNA levels. None of the women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection transmitted HBV to their infants. HIV-1-infected pregnant women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection have very low HBV DNA levels and are thus at very low risk to transmit HBV to their infants.

  10. Comparison of Two Commercial Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction and Integrated Quantitation Real-Time PCR Platforms for the Detection of Cytomegalovirus in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Tsai, You-Yuan; Lin, I-Ting; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Chang, Kung-Chao; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load in the transplant patients has become a standard practice for monitoring the response to antiviral therapy. The cut-off values of CMV viral load assays for preemptive therapy are different due to the various assay designs employed. To establish a sensitive and reliable diagnostic assay for preemptive therapy of CMV infection, two commercial automated platforms including m2000sp extraction system integrated the Abbott RealTime (m2000rt) and the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep for extraction integrated COBAS Taqman (CAP/CTM) were evaluated using WHO international CMV standards and 110 plasma specimens from transplant patients. The performance characteristics, correlation, and workflow of the two platforms were investigated. The Abbott RealTime assay correlated well with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (R2 = 0.9379, P<0.01). The Abbott RealTime assay exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of CMV viral load, and viral load values measured with Abbott RealTime assay were on average 0.76 log10 IU/mL higher than those measured with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (P<0.0001). Workflow analysis on a small batch size at one time, using the Roche CAP/CTM platform had a shorter hands-on time than the Abbott RealTime platform. In conclusion, these two assays can provide reliable data for different purpose in a clinical virology laboratory setting. PMID:27494707

  11. [Evaluation of the Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer].

    PubMed

    Park, Younhee; Song, Jaewoo; Song, Sungwook; Song, Kyung Soon; Ahn, Mee Suk; Yang, Mi-Sook; Kim, Il; Choi, Jong Rak

    2007-06-01

    The performance of Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostic, USA) was compared to the Bayer Advia 2120 (Bayer Diagnostics, USA), Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex Corporation, Japan), and reference microscopy. Three hundred samples for routine CBC and WBC differentials were randomly chosen for a comparison analysis. The Cell-Dyn Sapphire system was evaluated according to the linearity, imprecision, inter-instrument correlations, and white blood cell differential. The CBC parameters (WBC, RBC, hemoglobin and platelet) showed a significant linearity with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 (P<0.0001). Coefficients of variation (CV) for within-run and differential count of WBC were less than 5% except for Total CV for monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and within-run CV for low valued eosinophils. The correlation coefficients with manual count were lower in monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils than in neutrophils and lymphocytes. The correlation with other hematology anlayzers was significant exclusive of basophils. These results demonstrate that the Cell-Dyn Sapphire has a good linearity, an acceptable reproducibility, a minimal carryover, and a comparable performance with the sysmex XE-2100 and Advia 2120.

  12. Routine screening of blood donations at Qingdao central blood bank, China, for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with a real-time, multiplex nucleic acid test for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongsi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Li; Feng, Qiuxia; Zhang, Longmu; Ma, Weijuan; Saldanha, John; Wang, Mingmin; Zhao, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test was used to evaluate the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations that were hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA reactive from June 2010 to January 2011 in Qingdao, China. HBsAg-negative samples from 65,800 voluntary blood donors were tested with the cobas TaqScreen MPX test in pools of 6 on the Roche cobas s 201 blood screening platform. Samples positive for HBV DNA and negative for HBsAg were quantitated with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test. In addition, serologic tests for HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody, anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), anti-hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe) were done using the Roche electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 80 nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) test-reactive pools were identified and 59 pools (74%) resolved to a reactive sample. All samples were HBV DNA reactive and the viral load in each sample was quantitated. The viral loads of the samples ranged from less than 20 to 34,600 IU/mL; 13 samples (22%) had viral loads of more than 20 IU/mL, 27 samples (45.8%) had viral loads of less than 20 IU/mL, and 19 samples (32.2%) had undetectable viral loads. Of the 59 NAT-reactive samples, 40 (67.8%) were anti-HBc positive. Fifteen of the 59 samples could not be confirmed as NAT reactive either by an alternative NAT test or by serology. The HBV NAT yield in blood donors in Qingdao is 0.06% (38/65,800). This study confirmed the value of NAT for interdicting HBV-positive donations and preventing transfusion-transmitted HBV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Multisite analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT cyclosporine assay.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Maine, Gregory T; Berg, Keith; Rosiere, Thomas; Marquet, Pierre; Aimo, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Young, Julianna; Wonigeit, Kurt; Kretschmer, Robert; Wermuth, Bendicht; Schmid, Rainer W

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Cyclosporine (CsA) immunoassay in 7 clinical laboratories in comparison to liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), Abbott TDx, Cobas Integra 800, and the Dade Dimension Xpand immunoassay. The ARCHITECT assay uses a whole blood specimen, a pretreatment step with organic reagents to precipitate proteins and extract the drug, followed by a 2-step automated immunoassay with magnetic microparticles coated with anti-CsA antibody and an acridinium-CsA tracer. Imprecision testing at the 7 evaluation sites gave a range of total % coefficient of variations of 7.5%-12.2% at 87.5 ng/mL, 6.6%-14.3% at 411 ng/mL, and 5.2%-10.7% at 916 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification ranged from 12 to 20 ng/mL. Purified CsA metabolites AM1, AM1c, AM4N, AM9, and AM19 were tested in whole blood by the ARCHITECT assay and showed minimal cross-reactivity at all 7 sites. In particular, AM1 and AM9 cross-reactivity in the ARCHITECT assay, ranged from -2.5% to 0.2% and -0.8% to 2.2%, respectively, and was significantly lower than for the TDx assay, in which the values were 3.2% and 16.1%, respectively. Comparable testing of metabolites in the Dade Dimension Xpand assay at 2 evaluation sites showed cross-reactivity to AM4N (6.4% and 6.8%) and AM9 (2.6% and 3.6%) and testing on the Roche Integra 800 showed cross-reactivity to AM1c (2.4%), AM9 (10.7%), and AM19 (2.8%). Cyclosporine International Proficiency Testing Scheme samples, consisting of both pooled specimens from patients receiving CsA therapy as well as whole-blood specimens supplemented with CsA, were tested by the ARCHITECT assay at 6 sites and showed an average bias of -24 to -58 ng/mL versus LC/MSMS CsA and -2 to -37 ng/mL versus AxSYM CsA. Studies were performed with the ARCHITECT CsA assay on patient specimens with the following results: ARCHITECT CsA assay versus LC/MSMS, average bias of 31 ng/mL; ARCHITECT versus the

  14. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used

  15. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests ...

  16. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver, and taking certain medicines can also cause hepatitis. Less commonly, viral infections such as mononucleosis or cytomegalovirus can cause ... months, the person has chronic hepatitis. What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is liver inflammation caused by the ...

  17. Partnering for Preschool: A Study of Center Directors in New Jersey's Mixed-Delivery Abbott Program. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Ryan, Sharon; Kipnis, Fran; Sakai, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In a series of New Jersey Supreme Court decisions known as Abbott v. Burke, the 28 (now 31) urban school districts serving the state's poorest students were ordered to create systems of high-quality preschool for all three- and four-year-old children, beginning in the 1999-2000 school year. The Abbott Preschool Program now serves approximately…

  18. Fulfilling the Promise of Abbott: The Lighthouse Assessment Process--Improving Programs through Measured Outcomes. Policy Progress, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to better prepare young children for the challenges of kindergarten and first grade, the Supreme Court of New Jersey, in its 1998 landmark decision of "Abbott v. Burke" (Abbott V), required the State's poorest school districts to implement high quality, intensive preschool for all 3-and 4-year old children. To take…

  19. Abbott prism: a multichannel heterogeneous chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer.

    PubMed

    Khalil, O S; Zurek, T F; Tryba, J; Hanna, C F; Hollar, R; Pepe, C; Genger, K; Brentz, C; Murphy, B; Abunimeh, N

    1991-09-01

    We describe a multichannel heterogeneous immunoassay analyzer in which a sample is split between disposable reaction trays in a group of linear tracks. The system's pipettor uses noninvasive sensing of the sample volume and disposable pipet tips. Each assay track has (a) a conveyor belt for moving reaction trays to predetermined functional stations, (b) temperature-controlled tunnels, (c) noncontact transfer of the reaction mixture between incubation and detection wells, and (d) single-photon counting to detect a chemiluminescence (CL) signal from the captured immunochemical product. A novel disposable reaction tray, with separate reaction and detection wells and self-contained fluid removal, is used in conjunction with the transfer device on the track to produce a carryover-free system. The linear immunoassay track has nine predetermined positions for performing individual assay steps. Assay step sequence and timing is selected by changing the location of the assay modules between these predetermined positions. The assay methodology, a combination of microparticle capture and direct detection of a CL signal on a porous matrix, offers excellent sensitivity, specificity, and ease of automation. Immunoassay configurations have been tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus I and II, and human T-cell leukemia virus I and II.

  20. Fully automated, internally controlled quantification of hepatitis B Virus DNA by real-time PCR by use of the MagNA Pure LC and LightCycler instruments.

    PubMed

    Leb, Victoria; Stöcher, Markus; Valentine-Thon, Elizabeth; Hölzl, Gabriele; Kessler, Harald; Stekel, Herbert; Berg, Jörg

    2004-02-01

    We report on the development of a fully automated real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in plasma with EDTA (EDTA plasma). The MagNA Pure LC instrument was used for automated DNA purification and automated preparation of PCR mixtures. Real-time PCR was performed on the LightCycler instrument. An internal amplification control was devised as a PCR competitor and was introduced into the assay at the stage of DNA purification to permit monitoring for sample adequacy. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 200 HBV DNA copies/ml, with a linear dynamic range of 8 orders of magnitude. When samples from the European Union Quality Control Concerted Action HBV Proficiency Panel 1999 were examined, the results were found to be in acceptable agreement with the HBV DNA concentrations of the panel members. In a clinical laboratory evaluation of 123 EDTA plasma samples, a significant correlation was found with the results obtained by the Roche HBV Monitor test on the Cobas Amplicor analyzer within the dynamic range of that system. In conclusion, the newly developed assay has a markedly reduced hands-on time, permits monitoring for sample adequacy, and is suitable for the quantitative detection of HBV DNA in plasma in a routine clinical laboratory.

  1. Biochip for Real-Time Monitoring of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) by Combined Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Solution-Phase Electrochemical Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Bui Quang; Ngoc, Nguyen Thy; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2017-06-01

    Accurate in situ diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and control of most infectious diseases. To achieve this, use of handheld biochips that implement sample handling, sample analysis, and result readout together is an ideal approach. We present herein a fluid-handling biochip for real-time electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid amplification based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification and real-time electrochemical detection on a microfluidic platform. Intercalation between amplifying DNA and free redox probe in solution phase was used to monitor the number of DNA copies. The whole diagnostic process is completed within 70 min. Our platform offers a fast and easy tool for quantification of viral pathogens in shorter time and with limited risk of all potential forms of cross-contamination. Such diagnostic tools have potential to make a huge difference to the lives of millions of people worldwide.

  2. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  3. Breaking Ground: Rebuilding New Jersey's Urban Schools. The Abbott School Construction Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponessa, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a brief history of the Abbott School Construction Program, describes the implementation to date, lays out some current challenges, and outlines lessons learned from the process so far--what is known now about how such an initiative should be planned and carried out. The report is intended to illuminate the complex process of…

  4. Engaging Parents, Families and the Community to Improve Student Achievement. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, a statewide committee of representative educational stakeholders on "cooperative rulemaking" was convened jointly by the Department of Education and the Education Law Center. The Supreme Court in "Abbott X" had directed the establishment of this committee to develop new regulations more consistent…

  5. Early Childhood Education: The Sustainability of the Benefits of Preschool Participation in Abbott Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The landmark New Jersey Supreme Court school funding case, "Abbott v. Burke", established the availability of preschool for all three- and four-year-olds living within the state's thirty-one poorest districts as a means of eradicating the effects of poverty. Longitudinal studies have shown the value of high quality preschool programs for…

  6. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral... requested that Abbott voluntarily withdraw MERIDIA (sibutramine HCl) oral capsules from the market, based on FDA's recent analysis of clinical trial data from the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (SCOUT...

  7. Decentralization and Participatory Decision-Making: Implementing School-Based Management in the Abbott Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine M.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined issues faced during implementation of school-based management (SBM) in New Jersey's special needs or Abbott districts, using a literature review, surveys of K-12 schools, and focus groups with central office administrators. The study examined forms of SBM, team operations, local autonomy versus state power, skills required to…

  8. AUTOMATED BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL FISH PATHOGENS USING THE ABBOTT QUANTUM II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quantum II, originally designed by Abbott Diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of Enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. he instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. ample cartri...

  9. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible to the effects of toxins. Having hepatitis. Chronic infection with a hepatitis virus (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or one of the other — extremely rare — hepatitis viruses that may persist in the body) makes your liver more vulnerable. Aging. As you age, your liver breaks down harmful ...

  10. Liver and spleen stiffness and their ratio assessed by real-time two dimensional-shear wave elastography in patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Ivica; Puljiz, Zeljko; Brnic, Darko; Bokun, Tomislav; Heinzl, Renata; Lukic, Anita; Luksic, Boris; Kujundzic, Milan; Brkljacic, Boris

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the performance of real-time 2D shear wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE) for non-invasive staging of liver disease in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH). Naive CVH patients underwent liver (LS) and spleen stiffness (SS) measurements by an intercostal approach. Patients with ALT >3× upper limit of normal, cholestasis as revealed by dilated intrahepatic biliary tree, and liver congestion were excluded. Results were expressed in kPa and compared to histological stage (Ishak) of liver fibrosis (LF). Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) were diagnosed using standard clinical, ultrasound, and endoscopic criteria. Of 123 patients, LS was successfully measured in 79.7% and SS in 53.7%. LS accurately differentiated between liver disease stages, with cut-off values of 8.1 (AUC 0.991) for F ≥ 3, 10.8 kPa (AUC 0.954) for F ≥ 5, and 27 kPa (AUC 0.961) for decompensated LC. SS was significantly different between non-cirrhotic stages (F0-4) and LC (cut-off 24 kPa; AUC 0.821). While both LS and SS increased with liver disease progression, the difference between them decreased, as reflected by the stiffness ratio index. RT 2D-SWE can accurately differentiate between the stages of LF, and can distinguish LF from LC and compensated from decompensated LC. • RT 2D-SWE is an accurate method for assessment of liver fibrosis. • RT 2D-SWE is applicable in 80% of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. • RT 2D-SWE accurately differentiates compensated from decompensated liver cirrhosis. • Both liver and spleen stiffness increase with progression of liver fibrosis. • In cirrhosis, the difference between liver and spleen stiffness decreases.

  11. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery to the liver (hepatic artery) after a liver transplant Swelling of blood vessels leading to reduced blood ... the illness causing hepatic ischemia can be treated. Death from liver failure due to hepatic ischemia is ...

  12. The Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0, real-time PCR assay accurately quantifies hepatitis C virus genotype 4 RNA.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Rodriguez, Christophe; Soulier, Alexandre; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-01

    Accurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantification is mandatory for the management of chronic hepatitis C therapy. The first-generation Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (CAP/CTM HCV) underestimated HCV RNA levels by >1-log10 international units/ml in a number of patients infected with HCV genotype 4 and occasionally failed to detect it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV v2.0), to accurately quantify HCV RNA in a large series of patients infected with different subtypes of HCV genotype 4. Group A comprised 122 patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection, and group B comprised 4 patients with HCV genotype 4 in whom HCV RNA was undetectable using the CAP/CTM HCV. Each specimen was tested with the third-generation branched DNA (bDNA) assay, CAP/CTM HCV, and CAP/CTM HCV v2.0. The HCV RNA level was lower in CAP/CTM HCV than in bDNA in 76.2% of cases, regardless of the HCV genotype 4 subtype. In contrast, the correlation between bDNA and CAP/CTM HCV v2.0 values was excellent. CAP/CTM HCV v2.0 accurately quantified HCV RNA levels in the presence of an A-to-T substitution at position 165 alone or combined with a G-to-A substitution at position 145 of the 5' untranslated region of HCV genome. In conclusion, CAP/CTM HCV v2.0 accurately quantifies HCV RNA in genotype 4 clinical specimens, regardless of the subtype, and can be confidently used in clinical trials and clinical practice with this genotype.

  13. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting.

    PubMed

    Rashed-Ul Islam, S M; Jahan, Munira; Tabassum, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 10 3 lU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 10 3 lU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p < 0.0001). Both methods showed good agreement at Bland-Altman plot, with a mean difference of 0.61 log 10 IU/ml and limits of agreement of -1.82 to 3.03 log 10 IU/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation (CV%) of plasma samples (4-7 log 10 IU/ml) for the one-step PCR method ranged between 0.33 to 0.59 and 0.28 to 0.48 respectively, thus demonstrating a high level of concordance between the two methods. Moreover, elimination of the DNA extraction step in the one-step PCR kit allowed time-efficient and significant labor and cost savings for the quantification of HBV DNA in a resource limited setting. Rashed-Ul Islam SM, Jahan M, Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15.

  14. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Munira; Tabassum, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 103 lU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 103 lU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p < 0.0001). Both methods showed good agreement at Bland-Altman plot, with a mean difference of 0.61 log10 IU/ml and limits of agreement of -1.82 to 3.03 log10 IU/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation (CV%) of plasma samples (4-7 log10 IU/ml) for the one-step PCR method ranged between 0.33 to 0.59 and 0.28 to 0.48 respectively, thus demonstrating a high level of concordance between the two methods. Moreover, elimination of the DNA extraction step in the one-step PCR kit allowed time-efficient and significant labor and cost savings for the quantification of HBV DNA in a resource limited setting. How to cite this article Rashed-Ul Islam SM, Jahan M, Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15. PMID:29201678

  15. The Performance of the Abbott i2000 for Measuring Serum Markers of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linchuan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To date, there is a trend that the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays (CMIA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECIA) technology gradually replacing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). But the performance such as the limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, linear range of CMIA, or ECIA for serum markers of infectious diseases has rarely been reported. Using proficiency testing samples and standard materials, we confirmed the LOQ of the ELISA and the precision, linear range, LOQ, and instrument biases of the Abbott i2000 for eight serum markers. We used the Abbott i2000 and ELISAs to assess five HIV samples; the researchers were blinded to the true status of the samples. For the Abbott i2000, the coefficients of variation (CV) for the low, medium, and high concentration samples ranged from 1.06 to 12.74%, which were less than the allowable error; the linear ranges of HBsAg and HBsAb were 0.66-304.11 IU/ml and 8.16-1205.9 mIU/ml, respectively. For the Abbott i2000, the LOQs of HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb, anti-HCV, anti-TP, and anti-HIV were 0.026 IU/ml, 4 mIU/ml, 0.14 NCU/ml, 0.56 NCU/ml, 0.99 NCU/ml, 0.5 NCU/ml, 8.8 mIU/ml, and 1.92 NCU/ml, respectively, and these values were 0.16 IU/ml, 6.97 mIU/ml, 1.16 NCU/ml, 1.63 NCU/ml, 1.79 NCU/ml, 1.03 NCU/ml, 8.33 mIU/ml, and 1.3 NCU/ml, respectively, for the ELISA. When five HIV samples were blindly assessed, two cases were missed by the Abbott i2000 and the ELISA results were consistent with the expected results. The Abbott i2000 performed significantly better than the ELISA on HBV and HCV screening; however, for anti-TP and anti-HIV, the ELISA remained the preferred method. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Use of the MagNA Pure LC Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System followed by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR for Ultrasensitive Quantitation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Linda; Ng, Ka-Wing; Bagabag, Arthur; Corey, Lawrence; Jerome, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an increasing health problem worldwide. Quantitative assays for HCV viral load are valuable in predicting response to therapy and for following treatment efficacy. Unfortunately, most quantitative tests for HCV RNA are limited by poor sensitivity. We have developed a convenient, highly sensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for HCV RNA. The assay amplifies a portion of the 5′ untranslated region of HCV, which is then quantitated using the TaqMan 7700 detection system. Extraction of viral RNA for our assay is fully automated with the MagNA Pure LC extraction system (Roche). Our assay has a 100% detection rate for samples containing 50 IU of HCV RNA/ml and is linear up to viral loads of at least 109 IU/ml. The assay detects genotypes 1a, 2a, and 3a with equal efficiency. Quantitative results by our assay correlate well with HCV viral load as determined by the Bayer VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0 bDNA assay. In clinical use, our assay is highly reproducible, with high and low control specimens showing a coefficient of variation for the logarithmic result of 2.8 and 7.0%, respectively. The combination of reproducibility, extreme sensitivity, and ease of performance makes this assay an attractive option for routine HCV viral load testing. PMID:15365000

  17. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  18. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application: Hemken - Abbott (2015) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The aim for this testing is to find a small panel of biomarkers (n=2-5) that can be tested on the Abbott ARCHITECT automated immunoassay platform for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This panel of biomarkers should perform significantly better than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) alone based on multivariate statistical analysis. This testing of the EDRN reference set will help expedite the selection of a small panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. The panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers Abbott plans to test include: AFP, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), golgi protein 73 (GP73), hepatocellular growth factor (HGF), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4/seprase (surface expressed protease) heterodimer hybrid. PIVKA-II is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin (DCP) present in vitamin K deficiency.

  19. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  20. BRSCW Reference Set Application: Karen Abbott -University of Arkansas (2014) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our earlier glycoproteomic studies have identified bisecting glycoslyation and core fucosylation changes on particular glycoproteins in endometrioid ovarian cancer tissues and plasma (Abbott et al, 2010, Proteomics). We have validated that these glycan changes occur on the same glycoproteins in serous ovarian cancer plasma using a lectin-pull down western blot assays. We would like to used pooled reference samples to develop a sensitive magnetic bead-based assay to detect these glycoproteins with bisecting and core fucosylation changes.

  1. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing. PMID:19000975

  2. Verification of Abbott 25-OH-vitamin D assay on the architect system.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Katrina; Healy, Martin; Crowley, Vivion; Louw, Michael; Rochev, Yury

    2017-04-01

    Analytical and clinical verification of both old and new generations of the Abbott total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) assays, and an examination of reference Intervals. Determination of between-run precision, and Deming comparison between patient sample results for 25OHD on the Abbott Architect, DiaSorin Liaison and AB SCIEX API 4000 (LC-MS/MS). Establishment of uncertainty of measurement for 25OHD Architect methods using old and new generations of the reagents, and estimation of reference interval in healthy Irish population. For between-run precision the manufacturer claims 2.8% coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.8% and 4.6% for their high and low controls, respectively. Our instrument showed CVs between 4% and 6.2% for all levels of the controls on both generations of the Abbott reagents. The between-run uncertainties were 0.28 and 0.36, with expanded uncertainties 0.87 and 0.98 for the old and the new generations of reagent, respectively. The difference between all methods used for patients' samples was within total allowable error, and the instruments produced clinically equivalent results. The results covered the medical decision points of 30, 40, 50 and 125 nmol/L. The reference interval for total 25OHD in our healthy Irish subjects was lower than recommended levels (24-111 nmol/L). In a clinical laboratory Abbott 25OHD immunoassays are a useful, rapid and accurate method for measuring total 25OHD. The new generation of the assay was confirmed to be reliable, accurate, and a good indicator for 25OHD measurement. More study is needed to establish reference intervals that correctly represent the healthy population in Ireland.

  3. Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT)--a unified approach to HTS triage.

    PubMed

    Cox, Philip B; Gregg, Robert J; Vasudevan, Anil

    2012-07-15

    The selection of the highest quality chemical matter from high throughput screening (HTS) is the ultimate aim of any triage process. Typically there are many hundreds or thousands of hits capable of modulating a given biological target in HTS with a wide range of physicochemical properties that should be taken into consideration during triage. Given the multitude of physicochemical properties that define drug-like space, a system needs to be in place that allows for a rapid selection of chemical matter based on a prioritized range of these properties. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, coined Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT) that enables hit prioritization based on ranges of these important physicochemical properties. This tool is now used routinely at Abbott to help prioritize hits out of HTS during the triage process. Herein we describe how this tool was developed and validated using Abbott internal high throughput ADME data (HT-ADME). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  5. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  6. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  9. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood. Until recently, hepatitis C treatment required weekly injections and oral medications that many ... have varied from 14 to 50 percent. Acute hepatitis C also responds well to antiviral therapy. Causes Hepatitis C infection is caused by the ...

  10. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  11. Clinical utility of Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® ketone meter in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie; Agus, Michael; Kellogg, Mark D

    2011-11-01

    Diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often rely on the measurement of urine ketones along with blood glucose, anion gap, and pH. These values, however, do not reliably reflect the severity of ketoacidosis. The Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® meter is an FDA-approved device that quantitatively measures β-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) in whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ketone meter meets the analytical criteria to aid DKA diagnosis and management in the hospital. 54 heparinized venous whole blood BOH concentrations from 27 diabetic patients were measured by the Abbott meter, and compared with the plasma BOH concentrations measured with Stanbio reagent (reference method). Measurements were done in the hospital central laboratory. Of the 54 pairs of specimens analyzed, 17 pairs displayed a difference of >15% between the two methods. Nearly all discrepant points occurred when BOH >5 mmol/L (reference method). Linearity evaluation revealed that the meter is not linear from 0.0 to 8.0 mmol/L, contrary to the claim by the manufacturer. Further, we identified acetoacetate, a metabolite commonly present in DKA patients, as a potential interfering substance for the meter BOH measurement. BOH measurements by the Abbott meter up to 3 mmol/L correlate well with the reference method, but become discrepant above that point. While this characteristic may be useful in the diagnosis of DKA, it may not allow clinicians to serially follow the response to therapy in hospitalized DKA patients with BOH values greater than 5 mmol/L (reference method). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Portland Retail Druggists Association vs Abbott Laboratories et al, part 1.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R B

    1976-06-01

    The findings of the U.S. Supreme Court, in its March 24, 1976, decision in the case of Portland Retail Druggists vs Abbott Laboratories et al, are presented. The case deals with price differentials offered to nonprofit hospitals by pharmaceutical manufacturers. Historical background leading to the case, and early rulings of a federal district court and a court of appeals, are discussed. The Supreme Court decision appears to reflect favorably on current hospital policies and procedures for drug purchasing and ambulatory care. Issues that require further clarification will be discussed in Part 2.

  13. Evaluation of the VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay for Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jungwon; Ko, Dae Hyun; Kang, Hee Jung; Whang, Dong Hee; Cha, Young Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2016-11-01

    Anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays are recommended for screening HCV-infected persons. The VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay (bioMérieux, France), based on the enzyme-linked fluorescence test principle, was recently introduced in Korea. We evaluated the clinical performance of the VIDAS assay. One hundred HCV-positive and 1,002 HCV-negative blood samples confirmed by Architect anti-HCV (Abbott Laboratories, USA) and COBAS TaqMan HCV real-time PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) or the Procleix Ultrio Plus Assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated, USA) were obtained from the Human Serum Bank (HSB) and tested by VIDAS. In case of discrepant results, we conducted a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). The agreement rates for known HCV-positive and HCV-negative samples between the VIDAS assay and the HSB testing were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.4-100%) and 99.5% (95% CI: 98.8-99.8%), respectively. One of the five discrepant samples was positive for Core 2+ and NS3-2 2+ reactivity, two samples were negative, and the other two were indeterminate regarding NS4 2+ reactivity in RIBA. We observed a significant but weak positive correlation between the titers of VIDAS and Architect assays (r=0.315, P<0.001). The VIDAS anti-HCV assay, developed on the VIDAS automated immunoassay platform based on the ready-to-use, single-sample test concept may be useful in small-to-medium-sized laboratories. It showed good agreement with Architect anti-HCV and COBAS PCR assays and is therefore useful for detection of HCV infection. Weakly test-positive (ambiguous) samples require additional testing by another anti-HCV, RIBA, or HCV RNA assay.

  14. Evaluation of the VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay for Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jungwon; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Hee Jung; Whang, Dong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays are recommended for screening HCV-infected persons. The VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay (bioMérieux, France), based on the enzyme-linked fluorescence test principle, was recently introduced in Korea. We evaluated the clinical performance of the VIDAS assay. Methods One hundred HCV-positive and 1,002 HCV-negative blood samples confirmed by Architect anti-HCV (Abbott Laboratories, USA) and COBAS TaqMan HCV real-time PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) or the Procleix Ultrio Plus Assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated, USA) were obtained from the Human Serum Bank (HSB) and tested by VIDAS. In case of discrepant results, we conducted a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Results The agreement rates for known HCV-positive and HCV-negative samples between the VIDAS assay and the HSB testing were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.4-100%) and 99.5% (95% CI: 98.8-99.8%), respectively. One of the five discrepant samples was positive for Core 2+ and NS3-2 2+ reactivity, two samples were negative, and the other two were indeterminate regarding NS4 2+ reactivity in RIBA. We observed a significant but weak positive correlation between the titers of VIDAS and Architect assays (r=0.315, P<0.001). Conclusions The VIDAS anti-HCV assay, developed on the VIDAS automated immunoassay platform based on the ready-to-use, single-sample test concept may be useful in small-to-medium-sized laboratories. It showed good agreement with Architect anti-HCV and COBAS PCR assays and is therefore useful for detection of HCV infection. Weakly test-positive (ambiguous) samples require additional testing by another anti-HCV, RIBA, or HCV RNA assay. PMID:27578508

  15. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  16. Abbott ARCHITECT iPhenytoin assay versus similar assays for measuring free phenytoin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tacker, Danyel Hermes; Robinson, Randy; Perrotta, Peter L

    2014-01-01

    To measure free phenytoin (FP) concentrations in filtered specimens using the Abbott ARCHITECT iPhenytoin assay and to compare results from this method with results from the Abbott TDx/FLx assays. We verified accuracy, analytic measurement range, and precision for FP measurements. For correlation and therapeutic interval studies, we used filtered calibrators, controls, proficiency-testing materials, and surplus clinical samples. After implementation, we determined proficiency testing results. The analytic measurement range was 2.0 to 25.0 micromol/L. Quality control materials (6.1, 12.6, and 20.1 micromol/L) provided mean (SD) recoveries of 96.1 (5.0%), 99.2 (5.0%), and 99.3 (5.7%), respectively, and coefficients of variation of 5.2%, 5.0%, and 5.8%, respectively. Clinical specimens produced mean (SD) FP recovery levels of 103.7 (10.6%) (bias, 0.1 [0.3] micromol/L). Altering the FP therapeutic range (4.0-8.0 micromol/L) was unnecessary. Proficiency testing yielded consistently acceptable results. Our accuracy, precision, and correlation results were similar for the TDx/FLx and ARCHITECT assays, which demonstrates that the ARCHITECT iPhenytoin assay is acceptable for clinical FP measurements.

  17. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  18. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  19. Development of a model based on biochemical, real-time tissue elastography and ultrasound data for the staging of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shi-Hao; Li, Qiao; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Ying, Li

    2016-01-01

    The liver fibrosis index (LFI), based on real-time tissue elastography (RTE), is a method currently used to assess liver fibrosis. However, this method may not consistently distinguish between the different stages of fibrosis, which limits its accuracy. The aim of the present study was to develop novel models based on biochemical, RTE and ultrasound data for predicting significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. A total of 85 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were prospectively enrolled and underwent a liver biopsy and RTE. The parameters for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were determined by conducting multivariate analyses. The splenoportal index (SPI; P=0.002) and LFI (P=0.023) were confirmed as independent predictors of significant fibrosis. Using multivariate analyses for identifying parameters that predict cirrhosis, significant differences in γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT; P=0.049), SPI (P=0.002) and LFI (P=0.001) were observed. Based on these observations, the novel model LFI-SPI score (LSPS) was developed to predict the occurrence of significant liver fibrosis, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.87. The diagnostic accuracy of the LSPS model was superior to that of the LFI (AUROC=0.76; P=0.0109), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI; AUROC=0.64; P=0.0031), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4; AUROC= 0.67; P= 0.0044) and FibroScan (AUROC=0.68; P=0.0021) models. In addition, the LFI-SPI-GGT score (LSPGS) was developed for the purposes of predicting liver cirrhosis, demonstrating an AUROC value of 0.93. The accuracy of LSPGS was similar to that of FibroScan (AUROC=0.85; P=0.134), but was superior to LFI (AUROC= 0.81; P= 0.0113), APRI (AUROC= 0.67; P<0.0001) and FIB-4 (AUROC=0.719; P=0.0005). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the use of LSPS and LSPGS may complement current methods of diagnosing significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with CHB

  20. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  1. Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a disease of worldwide distribution which occurs in endemic and epidemic form and is transmitted primarily by person-to-person contact through the fecal-oral route. Common source epidemics due to contamination of food are relatively common, and water-borne epidemics have been described less frequently. The presumed etiologic agent of hepatitis A has now been visualized by immune electron microscopic (IEM) techniques in early acute-illness-phase stools of humans with hepatitis A as well as in chimpanzees experimentally infected with material known to contain hepatitis A virus. In addition, several new serologic tests for the detection of antibody against hepatitis A virus have been described. These include complement fixation and immune adherence techniques. Current data suggest that hepatitis A is caused by a single viral agent lacking the morphologic heterogeneity of hepatitis B viral components and that there may be relative antigenic homogeneity between strains of virus recovered from various parts of the world. Serologic studies to date also indicate that hepatitis A virus is not a major contributing cause in post-transfusion hepatitis. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:183390

  2. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  3. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  4. Traceability Assessment and Performance Evaluation of Results for Measurement of Abbott Clinical Chemistry Assays on 4 Chemistry Analyzers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinsook; Song, Kyung Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kwon, Gye Choel

    2016-05-01

    -The traceability of clinical results to internationally recognized and accepted reference materials and reference measurement procedures has become increasingly important. Therefore, the establishment of traceability has become a mandatory requirement for all in vitro diagnostics devices. -To evaluate the traceability of the Abbott Architect c8000 system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois), consisting of calibrators and reagents, across 4 different chemistry analyzers, and to evaluate its general performance on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara-shi, Tochigi-ken, Japan). -For assessment of traceability, secondary reference materials were evaluated 5 times, and then bias was calculated. Precision, linearity, and carryover were determined according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, Pennsylvania). -The biases from 4 different analyzers ranged from -2.33% to 2.70% on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO, -2.33% to 5.12% on the Roche Hitachi 7600 (Roche Diagnostics International, Basel, Switzerland), -0.93% to 2.87% on the Roche Modular, and -2.16% to 2.86% on the Abbott Architect c16000. The total coefficients of variance of all analytes were less than 5%. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were more than 0.9900. The carryover rate ranged from -0.54% to 0.17%. -Abbott clinical chemistry assays met the performance criteria based on desirable biological variation for precision, bias, and total error. They also showed excellent linearity and carryover. Therefore, these clinical chemistry assays were found to be accurate and reliable and are readily applicable on the various platforms used in this study.

  5. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccines protect you? During your lifetime, you need: One series of the hepatitis A vaccine (two shots given at least 6 months apart) One series of the hepatitis B vaccine (three or four shots given over a 6-month period) Most people ...

  6. Fully automated assay of glycohemoglobin with the Abbott IMx analyzer: novel approaches for separation and detection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D H; Bogacz, J P; Forsythe, C M; Turk, P J; Lane, T L; Gates, R C; Brandt, D R

    1993-10-01

    We describe a novel assay for measuring glycohemoglobin directly from anticoagulated whole blood with the Abbott IMx analyzer. The glycohemoglobin is labeled with a soluble polyanionic affinity reagent and the anionic complex is then captured with a cationic solid-phase matrix. Glycohemoglobin is quantified by measuring the quenching by heme of the static fluorescence from an added fluorophore. The assay is standardized to report both percent total glycohemoglobin (%GHb) and percent hemoglobin A1c (%HbA1c). Glucose, bilirubin, triglycerides, labile fraction, and hemoglobin variants do not interfere in the assay. Within- and between-run CVs are approximately 4-5%, with total CVs of approximately 6.5%. Highly significant linear correlations (r > 0.97) were obtained in comparison studies with two major assay methodologies. The time to obtain one result is approximately 10 min (including assay of a control), 56 min for 22 results. We describe the development, standardization, and validation of this new method.

  7. The evolution of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor drug discovery program at abbott laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wada, Carol K

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in several pathologies. At Abbott Laboratories, the matrix metalloproteinases inhibitor drug discovery program has focused on the discovery of a potent, selective, orally bioavailable MMP inhibitor for the treatment of cancer. The program evolved from early succinate-based inhibitors to utilizing in-house technology such as SAR by NMR to develop a novel class of biaryl hydroxamate MMP inhibitors. The metabolic instability of the biaryl hydroxamates led to the discovery of a new class of N-formylhydroxylamine (retrohydroxamate) biaryl ethers, exemplified by ABT-770 (16). Toxicity issues with this pre-clinical candidate led to the discovery of another novel class of retrohydroxamate MMP inhibitors, the phenoxyphenyl sulfones such as ABT-518 (19j). ABT-518 is a potent, orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of MMP-2 and 9 over MMP-1 that has been evaluated in Phase I clinical trials in cancer patients.

  8. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity.

  9. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  10. Reference ranges for serum total and monomeric prolactin for the current generation Abbott Architect assay.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, S J; Cornes, M P; Ford, C; Gama, R

    2015-01-01

    Exclusion of macroprolactinaemia, a well-recognised interference, as the cause of hyperprolactinaemia is essential to avoid potential misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients. We have derived gender-specific serum total and post-polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation monomeric reference ranges for the recently re-standardised Abbott Architect prolactin assay. Prolactin was measured in serum samples obtained from males (n=49) and females (n=52) using the current Abbott Architect immunoassay pre- and post-PEG precipitation. Gender-specific reference ranges were derived for total and monomeric (post-PEG) prolactin. Routine patients' samples (n=175) with a serum total prolactin >700 mIU/L were screened for macroprolactinaemia to assess classification compared with our previous post-PEG precipitation percentage recovery-based approach. Reference ranges for serum total prolactin were 58-419 mIU/L (male) and 63-561 mIU/L (female). Male and female monomeric prolactin reference ranges were 32-309 mIU/L and 39-422 mIU/L, respectively. Mean (SD) post-PEG percentage recovery of the IS 84/500 prolactin standard was 80 (2.3)%. Of 175 patients' samples screened for macroprolactinaemia, 149 had monomeric prolactin concentrations (median monomeric prolactin=1035 mIU/L; median recovery=83%) above the gender-specific reference range. Monomeric prolactin concentrations (median monomeric prolactin=162 mIU/L; median recovery=20%) in the remaining 26 were within the reference ranges. One patient classified as macroprolactin positive and another classified as macroprolactin negative would not have been identified as such using the previous recovery-based approach. The use of post-PEG monomeric reference ranges not only identifies hyperprolactinaemia due solely to macroprolactinaemia but has the added advantage of identifying patients who have simultaneous true monomeric hyperprolactinaemia and elevated concentrations of macroprolactin. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions

  11. Analytical evaluation of the automated galectin-3 assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT immunoassay instruments.

    PubMed

    Gaze, David C; Prante, Christian; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Collet, Corinne; Launay, Jean-Marie; Franekova, Janka; Jabor, Antonin; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Shih, Jessie; del Rey, Jose Manuel; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario; Collinson, Paul O

    2014-06-01

    Galectin-3 is secreted from macrophages and binds and activates fibroblasts forming collagen. Tissue fibrosis is central to the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). We performed a European multicentered evaluation of the analytical performance of the two-step routine and Short Turn-Around-Time (STAT) galectin-3 immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i1000SR, i2000SR, and i4000SR (Abbott Laboratories). We evaluated the assay precision and dilution linearity for both routine and STAT assays and compared serum and plasma, and fresh vs. frozen samples. The reference interval and biological variability were also assessed. Measurable samples were compared between ARCHITECT instruments and between the routine and STAT assays and also to a galectin-3 ELISA (BG Medicine). The total assay coefficient of variation (CV%) was 2.3%-6.2% and 1.7%-7.4% for the routine and STAT assays, respectively. Both assays demonstrated linearity up to 120 ng/mL. Galectin-3 concentrations were higher in plasma samples than in serum samples and correlated well between fresh and frozen samples (R=0.997), between the routine and STAT assays, between the ARCHITECT i1000 and i2000 instruments and with the galectin-3 ELISA. The reference interval on 627 apparently healthy individuals (53% male) yielded upper 95th and 97.5th percentiles of 25.2 and 28.4 ng/mL, respectively. Values were significantly lower in subjects younger than 50 years. The galectin-3 routine and STAT assays on the Abbott ARCHITECT instruments demonstrated good analytical performance. Further clinical studies are required to demonstrate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of this novel marker in patients with CHF.

  12. Use of the Abbott Architect HIV antigen/antibody assay in a low incidence population.

    PubMed

    Dubravac, Terry; Gahan, Thomas F; Pentella, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    With the availability of 4th generation HIV diagnostic tests which are capable of detecting acute infection, Iowa evaluated the 3rd and 4th generation HIV test and compared the performance of these products in a low incidence population. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody combination (4th generation) assay compared to an EIA 3rd generation assay. Over a 4 month period, 2037 specimens submitted for HIV screening were tested by Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA and the Abbott Architect i1000SR HIV Ag/Ab Combo. The performance characteristics of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined. Of the 2037 specimens tested, there were 13 (0.64%) true positives detected. None of the positive specimens were from patients in the acute phase of infection. The Abbott antigen/antibody combo assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 99.85%, 81.25%, and 100% respectively. The Bio-Rad EIA assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 99.80%, 76.47% and 100%, respectively. The EIA had four false positive results which tested negative by the antigen/antibody assay and western blot. In a low-incidence state where early infections are less commonly encountered, the EIA assay and the antigen/antibody assay performed with near equivalency. The antigen/antibody assay had one less false positive result. While no patients were detected in the acute stage of infection, the use of the antigen/antibody assay presents the opportunity to detect an infected patient sooner and prevent transmission to others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis B surface antigen levels during natural history of chronic hepatitis B: a Chinese perspective study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin-Yan; Lian, Jiang-Shan; Chen, Jian-Yang; Jia, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yi-Min; Xiang, Dai-Rong; Yu, Liang; Hu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Ying-Feng; Zheng, Lin; Li, Lan-Juan; Yang, Yi-Da

    2014-07-21

    To determine the baseline hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels during the different phases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China. Six hundred and twenty-three hepatitis B virus or un-infected patients not receiving antiviral therapy were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. The CHB patients were classified into five phases: immune-tolerant (IT, n = 108), immune-clearance (IC, n = 161), hepatitis B e antigen negative hepatitis (ENH, n = 149), low-replicative (LR, n = 135), and liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 70). HBsAg was quantified (Abbott ARCHITECT assay) and correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, and serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in each phase of CHB was also determined. Median HBsAg titers were different in each phase of CHB (P < 0.001): IT (4.85 log10 IU/mL), IC (4.36 log10 IU/mL), ENH (2.95 log10 IU/mL), LR (3.18 log10 IU/mL) and LC (2.69 log10 IU/mL). HBsAg titers were highest in the IT phase and lowest in the LC phase. Serum HBsAg titers showed a strong correlation with HBV viral load in the IC phase (r = 0.683, P < 0.001). No correlation between serum HBsAg level and ALT/AST was observed. The mean baseline HBsAg levels differ significantly during the five phases of CHB, providing evidence on the natural history of HBV infection. HBsAg quantification may predict the effects of immune-modulator or oral nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy.

  14. Performance evaluation of new automated hepatitis B viral markers in the clinical laboratory: two quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen assays and an HBV core-related antigen assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongjung; Hong, Duck Jin; Shin, Saeam; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) assays and a hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. A total of 529 serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were tested. HBsAg levels were determined by using the Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and Architect (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) qHBsAg assays. HBcrAg was measured by using Lumipulse HBcrAg assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). Serum aminotransferases and HBV DNA were respectively quantified by using the Hitachi 7600 analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan) and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test (Roche). Precision of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays was assessed, and linearity of the qHBsAg assays was verified. All assays showed good precision performance with coefficients of variation between 4.5% and 5.3% except for some levels. Both qHBsAg assays showed linearity from 0.1 to 12,000.0 IU/mL and correlated well (r = 0.9934). HBsAg levels correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.3373) and with HBcrAg (r = 0.5164), and HBcrAg also correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.5198; P < .0001). This observation could provide impetus for further research to elucidate the clinical usefulness of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays.

  15. Hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McCord, Kelly W; Webb, Craig B

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the common pathophysiology that constitutes hepatic dysfunction, regardless of the inciting cause. The systemic consequences of liver failure and the impact of this condition on other organ systems are highlighted. The diagnostic tests available for determining the cause and extent of liver dysfunction are outlined, treatment strategies aimed at supporting hepatic health and recovery are discussed, and prognosis is briefly covered. The article emphasizes the fact that because of the central role of the liver in maintaining normal systemic homeostasis, hepatic dysfunction cannot be effectively addressed as an isolated entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Contribution to determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Black Sea region: data from single high volume center in Zonguldak, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Akar, Tarık; Aynıoğlu, Aynur; Dındar, Gökhan; Babür, Taner

    2014-07-01

    We've read with great interest the article entitled "Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey" by Buruk et al. published in Mikrobiyol Bul 2013; 47(4): 650-7. In that study, the authors described the determination and distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Eastern Black Sea Region comprehensively. According to the current information, the determination of HCV genotypes is the most important factor for the management of therapy and virus-related complications, such as chirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies geographically throughout the world. Therefore every country and even each region within the country should know the distribution of HCV genotypes to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Herein we would like to contribute the data about distribution of HCV genotypes in whole Black Sea Region by presenting our current results obtained from Zonguldak province, where maximum number of chronic hepatit C patients have already been identified in Eastern Black Sea Region. A total of 53 chronic hepatitis C patients (26 female, 27 male; mean age: 57.1 ± 14.3, age range: 21-82 years) who were admitted to Zonguldak Ataturk State Hospital between January 2012-December 2013 were evaluated. Genotype analysis was performed by RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular, ABD) system. Genotype-1 was found to be the most frequently detected type with a rate of 96.2% (51/53). The prevalences of genotype-2 (1/53) and genotype-4 (1/53) were same, with a rate of 1.9%, in our study. Subtyping of genotype-1 strains yielded 52.9% (27/51) genotype-1b, 3.9% genotype-1a (2/51) and 47% untypeable genotype-1 (24/51). The present study was the second study from the Western Black Sea Region in our country, regarding HCV genotypes. In conclusion, considering entire Black Sea Region, genotype-1 is the most common genotype (96.2%), and 1b (52.9%) is the most common

  17. Development and clinical validation of the Genedrive point-of-care test for qualitative detection of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Llibre, Alba; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Mottez, Estelle; Ainsworth, Shaun; Buivan, Tan-Phuc; Firth, Rick; Harrison, Elliott; Rosenberg, Arielle R; Meritet, Jean-François; Fontanet, Arnaud; Castan, Pablo; Madejón, Antonio; Laverick, Mark; Glass, Allison; Viana, Raquel; Pol, Stanislas; McClure, C Patrick; Irving, William Lucien; Miele, Gino; Albert, Matthew L; Duffy, Darragh

    2018-04-03

    Recently approved direct acting antivirals provide transformative therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The major clinical challenge remains to identify the undiagnosed patients worldwide, many of whom live in low-income and middle-income countries, where access to nucleic acid testing remains limited. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a point-of-care (PoC) assay for the qualitative detection of HCV RNA. We developed a PoC assay for the qualitative detection of HCV RNA on the PCR Genedrive instrument. We validated the Genedrive HCV assay through a case-control study comparing results with those obtained with the Abbott RealTi m e HCV test. The PoC assay identified all major HCV genotypes, with a limit of detection of 2362 IU/mL (95% CI 1966 to 2788). Using 422 patients chronically infected with HCV and 503 controls negative for anti-HCV and HCV RNA, the Genedrive HCV assay showed 98.6% sensitivity (95% CI 96.9% to 99.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI 99.3% to 100%) to detect HCV. In addition, melting peak ratiometric analysis demonstrated proof-of-principle for semiquantification of HCV. The test was further validated in a real clinical setting in a resource-limited country. We report a rapid, simple, portable and accurate PoC molecular test for HCV, with sensitivity and specificity that fulfils the recent FIND/WHO Target Product Profile for HCV decentralised testing in low-income and middle-income countries. This Genedrive HCV assay may positively impact the continuum of HCV care from screening to cure by supporting real-time treatment decisions. NCT02992184. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  19. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 hours after birth, followed by a second shot 1 month later, and the third shot 5 months ... the hepatitis B virus should get the first shot within 1 to 2 months after birth, the second shot ...

  20. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been available since the 1980s. A three-shot series will protect and contribute to the elimination of this highly infectious disease. Up to 1.4 million Americans have chronic HBV infection. Hepatitis ...

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system is believed to orchestrate an immune attack onto the liver cell. Current knowledge suggests that both T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 programmes are involved in the generation of the liver damage. Release of TH2 cytokines leads to the production of autoantibodies to the hepatocyte membrane that recruit killer cells. TH1 cytokines induce macrophage activation which contributes to hepatocyte destruction. Patients commonly possess the "autoimmune" HLA A1/B8/DR3 haplotype and a silent gene at the C4A locus with consequent partial deficiency of the complement component C4. Two main types of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised according to the presence of circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies. Patients with smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody may be adults or children, while patients with antiliver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody are usually children or very young adults. In both types there is a preponderance of females. LKM1 antibody is also present in a proportion of adult patients, mainly male, with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This observation originally led to the suggestion that hepatitis C virus may be the cause of this form of autoimmune hepatitis, but several studies have shown that the epitopes target of the LKM1 antibody in autoimmune hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C virus infection differ. Although autoimmune hepatitis responds satisfactorily to immunosuppression in the short term, progression to cirrhosis is frequent. It is hoped that ongoing research will provide a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage leading to a more effective and specific mode of treatment.

  2. Population-based pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry analytes on the Abbott Architect ci8200 instrument.

    PubMed

    Ridefelt, Peter; Aldrimer, Mattias; Rödöö, Per-Olof; Niklasson, Frank; Jansson, Leif; Gustafsson, Jan; Hellberg, Dan

    2012-02-29

    Reference intervals are crucial decision-making tools aiding clinicians in differentiating between healthy and diseased populations. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. Blood samples were obtained from 692 healthy children, aged 6 months to 18 years, recruited in daycare centers and schools. Twelve common general clinical chemistry analytes were measured on the Abbott Architect ci8200 platform; sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, albumin-adjusted calcium, phosphate, magnesium, creatinine (Jaffe and enzymatic), cystatin C, urea and uric acid. Age- and gender specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The data generated is primarily applicable to a Caucasian population when using the Abbott Architect platform, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  3. Performance evaluation of a particle-enhanced turbidimetric cystatin C assay on the Abbott ci8200 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Flodin, Mats; Larsson, Anders

    2009-06-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best overall measure of kidney function. Cystatin C is a novel endogenous GFR marker that has been shown to be superior to creatinine for estimation of GFR in several studies. There is a need for cystatin C assays adapted to routine chemistry instrument to minimize turnaround times and allowing 24 h/day availability. We have evaluated a new cystatin C assay developed for Architect cSystem (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). The cystatin C assay showed good agreement with the corresponding assay from Dade Behring (Deerfield, IL, USA). The assay has a very low total imprecision and a good linearity. The new cystatin C assay is an interesting alternative to current cystatin C assays. On an Architect cSystem the assay can be performed with the same turnaround times and availability as creatinine.

  4. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  5. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  6. Glucose meters: evaluation of the new formulation measuring strips from Roche (Accu-Chek) and Abbott (MediSense).

    PubMed

    Dimeski, G; Jones, B W; Tilley, V; Greenslade, M N; Russell, A W

    2010-07-01

    Both Roche and Abbott have released new glucose meter strips. They supply the entire Australian hospital market. The present study compared the performance of the new strips utilizing various specimen types (capillary, venous lithium heparin whole blood, venous lithium heparin plasma and serum) and evaluated how well they comply with the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15197 criteria. The study included imprecision, patient comparison and interference studies. Participants with and without diabetes were recruited to evaluate the performance of various specimen types against the Beckman DxC800 glucose method. The strips were tested for different interferences: galactose, maltose, lactose, Icodextrin, Intragam, paracetamol, sodium, ascorbic acid, variable strip storage temperature, haematocrit, haemolysis and lipaemia. The imprecision of the two strips was approximately 5% or less, except for the Abbott strip at very low values (1.4 mmol/L), approximately 7%. In total, 78% and 84%, respectively, of the results from the finger prick capillary specimens with the Roche (Accu-Chek Performa meter) and Abbott (Optium Xceed meter) strips, not 95% or greater as recommended by the ISO guideline, were within the recommended limits compared with reference plasma estimation on laboratory analysers. Galactose, ascorbic acid, haematocrit and sodium on the Roche and ascorbic acid and haematocrit on the Abbott strip continue to interfere to a variable degree with the glucose measurement. Analytically small differences exist between the glucose meter strips. The most significant analytical difference with the strips was at low glucose levels when compared with laboratory analyses and this may be of clinical importance. The impact of some of the interferences is variable between the two strips. Individuals, health-care professionals and health-care institutions should consider these data when selecting glucose meters for the management of people with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Performance characteristics of the new Abbott Real Time MTB assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Navarro, David; Poujois, Sandrine; Zaragoza, Susana; Borrás, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The performance of the Abbott Real Time MTB assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens was evaluated using a standard culture as the reference. The overall concordance between both methods was 0.95. The assay displayed an excellent sensitivity (100% for smear-positive/92.3% for smear-negative specimens) and specificity (100%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  9. The distribution of Abbott high-sensitivity troponin I levels in Korean patients with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Lee, Soo-Youn; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Park, Hyung-Doo

    2015-01-01

    Troponin is considered a primary biomarker for coronary heart disease. We investigated the clinical utility of the Abbott high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TnI) assay in patients with various cardiac problems. Precision was investigated by ten levels of pooled sera and three levels of control materials. We determined Abbott hs-TnI levels in a total of 3314 Korean patients with chest pain, including acute myocardial infarction (n=381), unstable angina (n=327), stable angina (n=1361), variant angina (n=189), non-coronary artery diseases (n=236), and nonspecific chest pain (n=820). The 99(th) percentile cutoff was established by the plasma from the cardio-healthy subgroup and validated by 118 healthy individuals. The total coefficient of variation in patient pooled sera and controls ranged from 3.93-6.35% and 4.81-9.73%, respectively. There was a significant difference in hs-TnI among various cardiac problems: subjects with non-cardiac chest pain (median 1.7 pg/mL, 25%/75% quartile 1.1/2.8 pg/mL), variant angina (2.4 pg/mL,1.4/5.6 pg/mL), stable angina (3.7 pg/mL, 2.1/8.9 pg/mL), unstable angina (10.7 pg/mL, 3.7/61.7 pg/mL), and non-coronary artery diseases (9.3 pg/mL, 4.3/37.4 pg/mL). However, the median levels of hs-TnI were not statistically different (p=0.921) between unstable angina and non-coronary artery diseases. The overall 99(th) percentile cutoff was 19.3 pg/mL (range 0.2-30.6 pg/mL). This new hs-TnI assay may be helpful in determining a differential diagnosis in patients with chest pain. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  10. Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real - time operating system , real-time programming language, real-time system, soft real-time system.

  11. Evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by Abbott m2000 system on samples collected by FTA Elute™ Card in a Chinese HIV-1 positive population.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Zhang, Hongyun; Marlowe, Natalia; Fei, Mandong; Yu, Judy; Lei, Xiaoqin; Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Di; Ma, Li; Chen, Wen

    2016-12-01

    HIV+/AIDS women have an increased risk of developing into CIN and cervical cancer compared to the general population. Limited medical resource and the lack of AIDS relevant knowledge impair the coverage and efficiency of cervical cancer screening. To compare the clinical performance of self-collected dry storage medium (FTA Elute card) and physician-collected PreservCyt medium in detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) among HIV-1 positive population. Three hundred HIV-1 positive women (aged 25-65) were recruited from Yunnan infectious hospital. Two cervicovaginal samples were collected from each participant: one was collected by the women themselves and applied on a FTA Elute card; the other one was collected by a physician and stored in PreservCyt solution. All the samples were tested for 14 HR HPV using Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay. Biopsies were taken for histological diagnosis if any abnormal impression was noticed under colposcopy. 291 (97.0%) of participants were eligible for this study. 101 (34.70%) participants were found HR HPV positive in both FTA card and PreservCyt samples, and 19 (6.53%) women were diagnosed as CIN2+. The HR HPV positive rate on samples collected by FTA Elute card and PreservCyt solution was 42.61% and 39.86%, respectively. The overall agreement was 87% (kappa=0.731) between FTA card and PreservCyt. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of FTA card and PreservCyt were 100%, 61.39% and 100%, 64.33%, respectively. In this study, FTA Elute card demonstrated a good performance on self-collected sample for HR HPV detection in HIV-1 positive population. For the women from low-resource area with HIV-1 infection, FTA Elute card could be an attractive sample collection method for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis Testing Day ... Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People with HIV infection in the ...

  14. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C ... Project Princeton Workshop Public Health and International Programs Liver Cancer Connect Coalition Against Hepatitis for People of African ...

  15. Analytical and Clinical Performance Evaluation of the Abbott Architect PIVKA Assay.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Ji-Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyoun Chan

    2018-01-01

    Protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA) is measured using various assays and is used to help diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the recently released Abbott Architect PIVKA assay. Precision, linearity, and correlation tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standardization Institute guidelines. Sample type suitability was assessed using serum and plasma samples from the same patients, and the reference interval was established using sera from 204 healthy individuals. The assay had coefficients of variation of 3.2-3.5% and intra-laboratory variation of 3.6-5.5%. Linearity was confirmed across the entire measurable range. The Architect PIVKA assay was comparable to the Lumipulse PIVKA assay, and the plasma and serum samples provided similar results. The lower reference limit was 13.0 mAU/mL and the upper reference limit was 37.4 mAU/mL. The ability of the Architect PIVKA assay to detect hepatocellular carcinoma was comparable to that of the alpha-fetoprotein test and the Lumipulse PIVKA assay. The Architect PIVKA assay provides excellent analytical and clinical performance, is simple for clinical laboratories to adopt, and has improved sample type suitability that could broaden the assay's utility. © 2018 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  16. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  17. Serum TSH reference interval in healthy Finnish adults using the Abbott Architect 2000i Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Tanner, Pirjo; Välimäki, Matti J; Hämäläinen, Esa

    2011-07-01

    Current serum TSH reference intervals have been criticized as they were established from unselected background populations. A special concern is that the upper limit, which defines subclinical hypothyroidism, is too high. The objective was to redefine the TSH reference interval in the adult Finnish population. The current reference interval for the widely used Abbott Architect method in Finland is 0.4-4.0 mU/L. Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations were derived from 606 healthy, non-pregnant, 18-91-year-old Finns from the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP) and the possible effects of age, sex and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status were evaluated. After excluding TPOAb-positive subjects and outliers, a reference population of 511 subjects was obtained. In the reference population, no statistically significant gender- or age-specific differences in mean TSH (1.55 ± 3.30 mU/L) or TSH reference intervals were observed. The new reference interval was 0.5-3.6 mU/L (2.5th-97.5th percentiles). The current upper TSH reference limit is 10% too high. A TSH > 3.6 mU/L, confirmed with a repeat TSH sampling, may indicate subclinical hypothyroidism. Differences in ethnicity, regional iodine-intake and analytical methods underline the need for redefining the TSH reference interval in central laboratories in different countries.

  18. Mistletoe hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J; Colin-Jones, D G

    1981-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with nausea, general malaise, and a dull ache in the right hypochondrium. Liver biopsy showed slight inflammatory-cell infiltration, and results of liver function tests suggested hepatitis. Hepatitis B surface antigen was not detected, and a cholecystogram was normal. Two years later she presented with similar symptoms, and both illnesses were found to have occurred after ingestion of a herbal remedy containing kelp, motherwort, skullcap, and mistletoe. A challenge test established this to be the cause of the illness. Mistletoe is the only constituent of the tablets known to contain any potential toxin and thus was probably the cause of the illness. Mistletoe is widely used in herbal remedies, whose ingestion may therefore cause hepatitis. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6779941

  19. Hepatitis C Core Antigen Testing for Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Freiman, J Morgan; Tran, Trang M; Schumacher, Samuel G; White, Laura F; Ongarello, Stefano; Cohn, Jennifer; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Linas, Benjamin P; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2016-09-06

    Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires both a positive HCV antibody screen and confirmatory nucleic acid testing (NAT). Testing for hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcAg) is a potential alternative to NAT. To evaluate the accuracy of diagnosis of active HCV infection among adults and children for 5 HCVcAg tests compared with NAT. EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 31 March 2016. Case-control, cross-sectional, cohort, or randomized trials that compared any of 5 HCVcAg tests with an NAT reference standard. 2 independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality using an adapted QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2) tool. 44 studies evaluated 5 index tests. Studies for the Abbott ARCHITECT HCV Ag assay had the highest quality, whereas those for the Ortho HCV Ag enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) had the lowest quality. From bivariate analyses, the sensitivity and specificity of the assays were as follows: Abbott ARCHITECT, 93.4% (95% CI, 90.1% to 96.4%) and 98.8% (CI, 97.4% to 99.5%); Ortho ELISA, 93.2% (CI, 81.6% to 97.7%) and 99.2% (CI, 87.9% to 100%); and Hunan Jynda Bioengineering Group HCV Ag ELISA, 59.5% (CI, 46.0% to 71.7%) and 82.9% (CI, 58.6% to 94.3%). Insufficient data were available for a meta-analysis about the Fujirebio Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag and Eiken Lumispot HCV Ag assays. In 3 quantitative studies using Abbott ARCHITECT, HCVcAg correlated closely with HCV RNA levels greater than 3000 IU/mL. Insufficient data were available on covariates, such as HIV or hepatitis B virus status, for subgroup analyses. Few studies reported genotypes of isolates, and data for genotypes 4, 5, and 6 were scant. Most studies were conducted in high-resource settings and reference laboratories. The HCVcAg assays with signal amplification have high sensitivity, high specificity, and good correlation with HCV RNA levels greater than 3000 IU/mL and

  20. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. In: Goldman L, ... Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. ... Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically given in two shots. The first one is followed by a booster shot six months later. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a hepatitis A vaccine for the following people: All children at age 1, or older children who didn't receive the ...

  3. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  4. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... will discuss other treatment options with you. For example, if 1 round of treatment did not decrease your viral ... Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: hepatitis, Infectious Disease September 1, ... ContentAllergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?Read Article >>Allergy ...

  5. Hepatic rupture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Wan, DaLong; Zhang, LeLe; Xu, ShiGuo; Xie, HaiYang; Lin, ShengZhang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Currently, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is regarded as the first-line treatment modality of pyogenic liver abscess. Severe complications associated with PCD were uncommon. Hepatic rupture is an uncommon but life-threatening liver trauma with high mortality. Its management is challenging because a delay in the diagnosis may lead to fatal hemorrhagic shock. To our knowledge, PCD-associated hepatic rupture has never been reported. Patient concerns: We report herein a rare case of PCD-associated hepatic rupture. Its clinical courses and our therapeutic approaches are presented. Moreover, the clinical significance, underlying causes, and current views on severe liver trauma management will be discussed briefly. Diagnoses: A diabetic patient suffering from fever and malaise was diagnosed with a pyogenic liver abscess. PCD was performed because intravenous antibiotics were ineffective. The patient developed a liver rupture following PCD, with clinical and imaging confirmation but without further progression. Interventions: Surgical repair and vascular intervention were both inappropriate. As a result, medical treatments with supportive care were adopted and were found to be effective. Outcomes: The patient's condition improved gradually, with stabilized imaging and laboratory performance. He recovered uneventfully during follow-ups. Lessons: Hepatic rupture should be listed as an extremely rare but severe complication of PCD. Immediate suspicion and effective intervention may avoid an unfavorable consequence. PMID:29480839

  6. Deceased tissue donor serology and molecular testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a lack of cadaveric validated tests.

    PubMed

    Victer, Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca; Dos Santos, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues; Báo, Sônia Nair; Sampaio, Thatiane Lima

    2016-12-01

    Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies. In this review, six ELISA (Wama ® , Bio-Rad ® , Biomerieux ® , DiaSorin ® , Acon Biotech ® and Biokit ® ), three CLIA (Abbott ® , Siemens ® , Diasorin ® ) and one ECLIA (Roche ® ) were utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of those serological tests for deceased donors in Brazil according to manufacturer's guidelines. NAT for HIV, HCV and HBV can assist with detection of pre-seroconversion for those infections, and only Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX ® test, the Tigris System ® Procleix Ultrio Assay ® and the Bio-Manguinhos ® HIV/HCV/HBV NAT are commercially available. Between all the tests, only the manufacturer Abbott ® and Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX ® test are currently validated for cadaver samples.

  7. Multilaboratory comparison of hepatitis C virus viral load assays.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, A M; Valsamakis, A; Zhou, Y; Yen-Lieberman, B; Andersen, J; Young, S; Ferreira-Gonzalez, A; Tsongalis, G J; Pyles, R; Bremer, J W; Lurain, N S

    2006-05-01

    We report a multilaboratory evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load assays to determine their linear range, reproducibility, subtype detection, and agreement. A panel of HCV RNA samples ranging in nominal concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 log10 IU/ml was constructed by diluting a clinical specimen (genotype 1b). Replicates of the panel were tested in multiple laboratories using the Abbott TaqMan analyte-specific reagent (Abbott reverse transcription-PCR [RT-PCR]), Roche TaqMan RUO (Roche RT-PCR), Roche Amplicor Monitor HCV 2.0 (Roche Monitor), and Bayer VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0 (Bayer bDNA) assays. Bayer bDNA-negative specimens were tested reflexively using the Bayer VERSANT HCV RNA qualitative assay (Bayer TMA). Abbott RT-PCR and Roche RT-PCR detected all 28 replicates with a concentration of 1.0 log10 IU/ml and were linear to 7.0 log10 IU/ml. Roche Monitor and Bayer bDNA detected 27 out of 28 and 13 out of 28 replicates, respectively, of 3.0 log10 IU/ml. Bayer TMA detected all seven replicates with 1.0 log10 IU/ml. Bayer bDNA was the most reproducible of the four assays. The mean viral load values for panel members in the linear ranges of the assays were within 0.5 log10 for the different tests. Eighty-nine clinical specimens of various genotypes (1 through 4) were tested in the Bayer bDNA, Abbott RT-PCR, and Roche RT-PCR assays. For Abbott RT-PCR, mean viral load values were 0.61 to 0.96 log10 greater than the values for Bayer bDNA assay for samples with genotype 1, 2, or 3 samples and 0.08 log10 greater for genotype 4 specimens. The Roche RT-PCR assay gave mean viral load values that were 0.28 to 0.82 log10 greater than those obtained with the Bayer bDNA assay for genotype 1, 2, and 3 samples. However, for genotype 4 samples the mean viral load value obtained with the Roche RT-PCR assay was, on average, 0.15 log10 lower than that of the Bayer bDNA. Based on these data, we conclude that the sensitivity and linear range of the Abbott and Roche RT-PCR assays

  8. Multi-site analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT tacrolimus assay.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Goffinet, Jean-Sebastien; O'Morchoe, Susan; Rosiere, Thomas; Maine, Gregory T; Labalette, Myriam; Aimo, Giuseppe; Dickson, Diana; Schmidt, Ed; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Schmid, Rainer W

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay. Proficiency panels and specimens from a population of organ transplant recipients were analyzed in 6 clinical laboratories in Europe and the United States, and the results were compared with other methods. The ARCHITECT assay requires a whole blood specimen pretreatment step with methanol/zinc sulfate to precipitate protein and extract the drug, followed by a 30-minute immunoassay using anti-tacrolimus antibody-coated paramagnetic microparticles and an acridinium-tacrolimus tracer. The assay was free from hematocrit interference in the range 25%-55% and from interference by extremes of cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, total protein, and uric acid. The total percent of coefficient of variations of the assay were 4.9%-7.6% at 3 ng/mL, 2.9%-4.6% at 8.6 ng/mL, and 3.1%-8.2% at 15.5 ng/mL. Limit of detection was < or =0.5 ng/mL and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.69 to 1.07 ng/mL across the 6 sites (based on the upper 95% confidence interval concentrations). The 2007 European Consensus Conference on Tacrolimus Optimization recommended the use of assay methods with an LOQ around 1 ng/mL, based upon the need to measure trough tacrolimus blood concentrations precisely down to 3 ng/mL during low-dose tacrolimus regimens. Tacrolimus International Proficiency Testing Scheme samples were measured by the ARCHITECT immunoassay at 5 sites and showed an average bias of -0.28 to +0.85 ng/mL versus IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay historical values and -0.21 to +0.68 ng/mL versus liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) Tacrolimus historical values. Method comparison studies were performed with the ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay on patient specimens with the following results: ARCHITECT Tacrolimus assay versus the Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay (4 sites) yielded average biases between -0.94 and +0.26 ng/mL; ARCHITECT assay

  9. A multicenter nationwide reference intervals study for common biochemical analytes in Turkey using Abbott analyzers.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Aslan, Diler; Aybek, Hulya; Ari, Zeki; Taneli, Fatma; Coker, Canan; Akan, Pinar; Sisman, Ali Riza; Bahceci, Onur; Sezgin, Nurzen; Demir, Meltem; Yucel, Gultekin; Akbas, Halide; Ozdem, Sebahat; Polat, Gurbuz; Erbagci, Ayse Binnur; Orkmez, Mustafa; Mete, Nuriye; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Kiyici, Aysel; Vatansev, Husamettin; Ozturk, Bahadir; Yucel, Dogan; Kayaalp, Damla; Dogan, Kubra; Pinar, Asli; Gurbilek, Mehmet; Cetinkaya, Cigdem Damla; Akin, Okhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Kurt, Ismail; Erdinc, Selda; Kadicesme, Ozgur; Ilhan, Necip; Atali, Dilek Sadak; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Noyan, Tevfik; Can, Murat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Okuyucu, Ali; Deger, Orhan; Agac, Suret; Ademoglu, Evin; Kaya, Ayşem; Nogay, Turkan; Eren, Nezaket; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, GulOzlem; Aykus, Mehmet; Gunes, Yeliz; Ozmen, Sevda Unalli; Kawano, Reo; Tezcan, Sehavet; Demirpence, Ozlem; Degirmen, Elif

    2014-12-01

    A nationwide multicenter study was organized to establish reference intervals (RIs) in the Turkish population for 25 commonly tested biochemical analytes and to explore sources of variation in reference values, including regionality. Blood samples were collected nationwide in 28 laboratories from the seven regions (≥400 samples/region, 3066 in all). The sera were collectively analyzed in Uludag University in Bursa using Abbott reagents and analyzer. Reference materials were used for standardization of test results. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, RIs were derived by a parametric method employing the modified Box-Cox formula and compared with the RIs by the non-parametric method. Three-level nested ANOVA was used to evaluate variations among sexes, ages and regions. Associations between test results and age, body mass index (BMI) and region were determined by multiple regression analysis (MRA). By ANOVA, differences of reference values among seven regions were significant in none of the 25 analytes. Significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed for 10 and seven analytes, respectively. MRA revealed BMI-related changes in results for uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Their RIs were thus derived by applying stricter criteria excluding individuals with BMI >28 kg/m2. Ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than those by parametric method especially for those analytes affected by BMI. With the lack of regional differences and the well-standardized status of test results, the RIs derived from this nationwide study can be used for the entire Turkish population.

  10. Enlightenment about the new Architect-i2000 estradiol (Abbott Laboratories) immunoassay during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Taieb, Joëlle; Mendez Lozano, Daniel H; Benattar, Clarisse; Messaoudi, Chérif; Poüs, Christian

    2007-12-01

    We assessed a new estradiol (E2) immunoassay on the Architect-i2000 (Abbott Laboratories) for monitoring ovulation stimulation for IVF-ET and re-establishing clinical cut-off points. The method has been modified to improve E2 measurements especially at normal and low concentrations. E2 was determined for 552 samples, from 83 women, presenting normal follicular status and undergoing 100 cycles of IVF treatment. We assessed the value of this assay for down-regulation of E2 concentration limit using gonadoliberin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), and monitoring of the ovarian hyperstimulation, expected range of E2 per mature follicle prior to the administration of exogenous hCG and day 3 concentration limit. We compared results with our routine method (E2-6II Advia-Centaur; Siemens-Diagnostics) for which decision-making values were known. Considering E2 concentrations obtained with the new Architect-i2000 assay for patients treated with GnRHa for 2 weeks, the cutoff-point for ovarian down-regulation should be set down at 110 pmol/L to maintain 100% of sensitivity. Considering day 3 concentration limit determination, results were not significantly different from those obtained with our routine method. The mean E2 values per mature follicle fell into the range generally expected. E2 determination with the new E2 Architect-i2000 assay could be used to monitor ovulation, in patients undergoing IVF-ET, in combination with transvaginal ultrasound.

  11. Random uncertainty of photometric determination of hemolysis index on the Abbott Architect c16000 platform.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Elena; Carnevale, Assunta; Pasqualetti, Sara; Birindelli, Sarah; Dolci, Alberto; Panteghini, Mauro

    2018-01-16

    Automatic photometric determination of the hemolysis index (HI) on serum and plasma samples is central to detect potential interferences of in vitro hemolysis on laboratory tests. When HI is above an established cut-off for interference, results may suffer from a significant bias and undermine clinical reliability of the test. Despite its undeniable importance for patient safety, the analytical performance of HI estimation is not usually checked in laboratories. Here we evaluated for the first time the random source of measurement uncertainty of HI determination on the two Abbott Architect c16000 platforms in use in our laboratory. From January 2016 to September 2017, we collected data from daily photometric determination of HI on a fresh-frozen serum pool with a predetermined HI value of ~100 (corresponding to ~1g/L of free hemoglobin). Monthly and cumulative CVs were calculated. During 21months, 442 and 451 measurements were performed on the two platforms, respectively. Monthly CVs ranged from 0.7% to 2.7% on c16000-1 and from 0.8% to 2.5% on c16000-2, with a between-platform cumulative CV of 1.82% (corresponding to an expanded uncertainty of 3.64%). Mean HI values on the two platforms were just slightly biased (101.3 vs. 103.1, 1.76%), but, due to the high precision of measurements, this difference assumed statistical significance (p<0.0001). Even though no quality specifications are available to date, our study shows that the HI measurement on Architect c16000 platform has nice reproducibility that could be considered in establishing the state of the art of the measurement. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Active B12: a rapid, automated assay for holotranscobalamin on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jeff; Wilson, Lesley; McGregor, Lynda; Valente, Edward; Orning, Lars

    2008-03-01

    Conventional tests for vitamin B(12) deficiency measure total serum vitamin B12, whereas only that portion of vitamin B12 carried by transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin) is metabolically active. Measurement of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) may be more diagnostically accurate for detecting B(12) deficiency that requires therapy. We developed an automated assay for holoTC that can be used on the Abbott AxSYM immunoassay analyzer. AxSYM Active B12 is a 2-step sandwich microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In step 1, a holoTC-specific antibody immobilized onto latex microparticles captures holoTC in samples of serum or plasma. In step 2, the captured holoTC is detected with a conjugate of alkaline phosphatase and antiTC antibody. Neither apoTC nor haptocorrin exhibited detectable cross-reactivity. The detection limit was < or = 0.1 pmol/L. Within-run and total imprecision (CV ranges) were 3.4%-5.1% and 6.3%-8.5%, respectively. Assay CVs were < 20% from at least 3 pmol/L to 107 pmol/L. With diluted serum samples, measured concentrations were 104%-114% of the expected values in the working range of the assay. No interference from bilirubin, hemoglobin, triglycerides, erythrocytes, rheumatoid factor, or total protein was detected at expected (abnormal) concentrations. A comparison of the AxSYM Active B12 assay with a commercial RIA for holoTC yielded the regression equation: AxSYM = 0.98RIA + 4.7 pmol/L (S(y x), 11.4 pmol/L; n = 204). Assay throughput was 45 tests/h. A 95% reference interval of 19-134 pmol/L holoTC was established with samples from 292 healthy individuals. The AxSYM Active B12 assay allows rapid, precise, sensitive, specific, and automated measurement of human holoTC in serum and plasma.

  13. Key Performance Indicators to Measure Improvement After Implementation of Total Laboratory Automation Abbott Accelerator a3600.

    PubMed

    Miler, Marijana; Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Dukic, Lora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-12-27

    The aim of the study was to estimate improvement of work efficiency in the laboratory after implementation of total laboratory automation (TLA) by Abbott Accelerator a3600 in the laboratory with measuring different key performance indicators (KPIs) before and after TLA implementation. The objective was also to recommend steps for defining KPIs in other laboratories. For evaluation of improvement 10 organizational and/or technical KPIs were defined for all phases of laboratory work and measured before (November 2013) and after (from 2015 to 2017) TLA implementation. Out of 10 defined KPIs, 9 were successfully measured and significantly improved. Waiting time for registration of samples in the LIS was significantly reduced from 16 (9-28) to 9 (6-16) minutes after TLA (P < 0.001). After TLA all tests were performed at core biochemistry analyzers which significantly reduced walking distance for sample management (for more than 800 m per worker) and number of tube touches (for almost 50%). Analyzers downtime and engagement time for analyzers maintenance was reduced for 50 h and 28 h per month, respectively. TLA eliminated manual dilution of samples with extreme results with sigma values increment from 3.4 to >6 after TLA. Although median turnaround time TAT for potassium and troponin was higher (for approximately 20 min), number of outliers with TAT >60 min expressed as sigma values were satisfying (>3). Implementation of the TLA improved the most of the processes in our laboratory with 9 out of 10 properly defined and measured KPIs. With proper planning and defining of KPIs, every laboratory could measure changes in daily workflow.

  14. Harmonization of the Bayer ADVIA Centaur and Abbott AxSYM automated B-type natriuretic peptide assay in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Barak, Mira; Weinberger, Ronit; Marcusohn, Jerom; Froom, Paul

    2005-01-01

    There are two fully automated high-throughput clinical instruments for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) assays, the Bayer ADVIA Centaur assay, and the Abbott AxSYM assay. Although both recommend a cut-off value of 100 pg/mL, we are unaware of previous studies that have compared the unadjusted results of the two methods, required for proper evaluation of patients undergoing this test on different platforms. From 43 hemodialysis patients, 80 paired samples were collected by venipuncture into plastic evacuated tubes containing EDTA. The Bayer assay yielded lower values than the Abbott assay, with linear regression of 0.53 x Abbott assay (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.56) being forced through 0, demonstrating an r(2)-value of 0.954. Regression for the Abbott assay was 1.79 x Bayer assay (95% CI, 1.69-1.89). The cut-off values for abnormal BNP results analyzed on the Abbott system are not identical to those on the Bayer system, and this needs to be taken into account when comparing studies on the clinical utility of these systems.

  15. Evaluation of a novel semi-automated HPLC procedure for whole blood cyclosporin A confirms equivalence to adjusted monoclonal values from Abbott TDx.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Norman B; Dutton, John; Higgins, Gerald; Allars, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    The problem in the measurement of cyclosporin (CyA) is that the widely used immuno-based assays suffer from interference by metabolites present in unpredictable excess. To resolve this, the consensus view has been to develop more specific and robust procedures for the measurement of CyA alone in order to give values similar to those obtained by HPLC. We developed an alternative strategy based on Abbott poly- and monoclonal assays to derive an adjusted monoclonal value as an equivalent measurement to HPLC. We have now evaluated a recently developed semi-automated HPLC procedure and used it to test the validity of the adjusted monoclonal value. The automated HPLC procedure with online clean-up was optimised for the separation of CyA and internal standard CyD. The assay was simple to use, precise and gave good recovery of cyclosporin from whole blood. Comparisons with the more specific immunoassays Abbott AxSym and EMIT showed close agreement, whereas Abbott monoclonal values indicated up to 20% positive bias. In contrast, the adjusted monoclonal values gave good agreement with HPLC. Data obtained from HPLC linked to tandem mass spectrometry (MS) indicated closer agreement with Abbott monoclonal values than expected, suggesting some positive bias with MS. The benefit of using an adjusted monoclonal value is that a result equivalent to HPLC is obtained, as well as an indication of the concentration of metabolites from the Abbott polyclonal measurement.

  16. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  18. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  19. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  20. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  1. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  2. [Evaluation on the effect of immunization and safety of live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-shu; An, Jing

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of both domestic live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccines, and to provide reference for emergent vaccination after hepatitis A outbreaks. 493 children aged 6 - 9 with negative antibody to HAV (produced by Abbott) were randomly divided into four groups as vaccinated with domestic live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (Group A), domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Group B), imported inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Group C) and hepatitis B vaccine (Group D) respectively. Adverse events following the immunization were observed 30 minutes, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the vaccination, under double-blind method. The main AEFIs were: fever, local pain and scleroma but no other severe AEFIs were observed. The rates of AEFIs were 13.95% in Group A, 15.25% in group B, 16.80% in group C and 25.62% in group D, with no statistical differences between these groups (χ(2) = 6.953, P > 0.05). 2 weeks after the vaccination, the positive conversion rates of domestic live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine and domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine were 85.0% and 94.59% respectively. The rate of domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine reached 100% at 4 weeks after the vaccination. The antibody levels of HAV-IgG of Group A and B in 2, 4 and 12 weeks of vaccination and of Group C were higher than that of Group D. After 12 weeks of vaccination, the antibody level of group B became higher than it was Group C. There were no differences on safety among domestic live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine, domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine or imported inactivated hepatitis A vaccine under routine or emergency vaccination. All the vaccines showed satisfactory effects.

  3. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  4. Hook effect in Abbott i-STAT β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) point of care assay.

    PubMed

    Wilgen, Urs; Pretorius, Carel J; Gous, Rehna S; Martin, Cameron; Hale, Vincent J; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2014-09-01

    Point-of-care testing for β-hCG has been widely advocated to allow rapid diagnosis/exclusion of pregnancy in the emergency department. A quantitative blood β-hCG assay has the additional benefit of being able to monitor the viability of pregnancy, using serial measurements, to determine the appropriate expected increase in β-hCG levels over time (e.g. ectopic pregnancy), and aiding in determining if an intrauterine gestational sac should be visible on sonographic imaging. Evaluation of the newly released Abbott i-STAT β-hCG point-of-care assay with the Beckman Coulter β-hCG laboratory assay in use. Whole blood, plasma and serum samples with a wide range of β-hCG concentrations were analysed by both methods. The Abbott I-STAT β-hCG compares favourably, can be performed on heparinised whole blood, plasma and serum, and shows acceptable accuracy and precision. However a hook effect at elevated β-hCG was shown in gestational trophoblastic disease as well as normal pregnancies. The i-STAT β-hCG performs acceptably in its intended use in the early detection of pregnancy, but results should always be interpreted within the clinical context, as a hook effect may occur. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical laboratory investigation of the Sanofi ACCESS CK-MB procedure and comparison to electrophoresis and Abbott IMx.

    PubMed

    Mao, G D; Adeli, K; Eisenbrey, A B; Artiss, J D

    1996-07-01

    This evaluation was undertaken to verify the application protocol for the CK-MB assay on the ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Chaska, MN). The results show that the ACCESS CK-MB assay total imprecision was 6.8% to 9.1%. Analytical linearity of the ACCESS CK-MB assay was excellent in the range of < 1-214 micrograms/L. A comparison of the ACCESS CK-MB assay with the IMx (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) method shows good correlation r = 0.990 (n = 108). Linear regression analysis yielded Y = 1.36X-0.3, Sx/y = 7.2. ACCESS CK-MB values also correlated well with CK-MB by electrophoresis with r = 0.968 (n = 132). The linear regression equation for this comparison was Y = 1.08X + 1.4, Sx/y = 14.1. The expected non-myocardial infarction range of CK-MB determined by the ACCESS system was 1.3-9.4 micrograms/L (mean = 4.0, n = 58). The ACCESS CK-MB assay would appear to be rapid, precise and clinically useful.

  6. Performance evaluation of the Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby and the Sysmex XT-2000i haematology analysers.

    PubMed

    Leers, M P G; Goertz, H; Feller, A; Hoffmann, J J M L

    2011-02-01

    Two mid-range haematology analysers (Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby and Sysmex XT-2000i) were evaluated to determine their analytical performance and workflow efficiency in the haematology laboratory. In total 418 samples were processed for determining equivalence of complete blood count (CBC) measurements, and 100 for reticulocyte comparison. Blood smears served for assessing the agreement of the differential counts. Inter-instrument agreement for most parameters was good although small numbers of discrepancies were observed. Systematic biases were found for mean cell volume, reticulocytes, platelets and mean platelet volume. CELL-DYN Ruby WBC differentials were obtained with all samples while the XT-2000i suppressed differentials partially or completely in 13 samples (3.1%). WBC subpopulation counts were otherwise in good agreement with no major outliers. Following first-pass CBC/differential analysis, 88 (21%) of XT-2000i samples required further analyser processing compared to 18 (4.3%) for the CELL-DYN Ruby. Smear referrals for suspected WBC/nucleated red blood cells and platelet abnormalities were indicated for 106 (25.4%) and 95 (22.7%) of the XT-2000i and CELL-DYN Ruby samples respectively. Flagging efficiencies for both analysers were found to be similar. The Sysmex XT-2000i and Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby analysers have broadly comparable analytical performance, but the CELL-DYN Ruby showed superior first-pass efficiency. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Hepatic artery bridging lessens temporary ischemic injury to bile canaliculi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Zhong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jin-Long; Lu, Le; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Hong-Wei; Li, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study whether transfer of blood between the right gastroepiploic artery and gastroduodenal artery could lessens the damage to bile canaliculi. METHODS: Forty male Bama miniature pigs were divided into four groups as follows: a control group, two hepatic artery ischemia groups (1 h and 2 h), and a hepatic artery bridging group. The hemodynamics of the hepatic artery in the hepatic artery bridging group was measured using color Doppler ultrasound. Morphological changes in the bile canaliculus were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cofilin, heat shock protein 27 and F-actin expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling method was used to evaluate liver injury. RESULTS: The hemodynamics was not changed in the hepatic artery bridging group. The microvilli in the bile canaliculus were impaired in the two hepatic artery ischemia groups. The down-regulation of cofilin and F-actin and up-regulation of heat shock protein 27 were observed in the two hepatic artery ischemia groups, while there were no significant differences between the control group and hepatic artery bridging group. CONCLUSION: Hepatic artery ischemia aggravates damage to bile canaliculi, and this damage can be diminished by a hepatic artery bridging duct. PMID:26401076

  8. Comparison of Perceptions of "Preparedness" of John Abbott C.E.G.E.P. Nursing Graduates: Prior to Graduation and After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iton, Carmen; Sabiston, Judy

    A study of John Abbott College's nursing graduates was conducted to determine how well prepared for their professional responsibilities the graduates saw themselves just prior to graduation and later after working in the nursing field. A sample of 98 nursing students who graduated between 1986 and 1988 was surveyed, with 93% responding to the…

  9. Assessing matrix, interferences and comparability between the Abbott Diagnostics and the Beckman Coulter high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assays.

    PubMed

    Kavsak, Peter A; Malinowski, Paul; Roy, Chantele; Clark, Lorna; Lamers, Shana

    2018-03-13

    Analytical evaluation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays, with particular attention to imprecision, interferences and matrix effects, at normal cTn concentrations, is of utmost importance as many different clinical algorithms use concentration cutoffs <10 ng/L for decision-making. The objective for the present analytical study was to compare the new Beckman Coulter hs-cTnI assay (Access hsTnI) to Abbott's hs-cTnI assay in different matrices and for different interferences, with a focus on concentrations <10 ng/L. The limit of blank (LoB) and the limit of detection (LoD) were determined in different matrices for the Beckman hs-cTnI assay. Passing-Bablok regression and difference plots were determined for 200 matched lithium heparin and EDTA plasma samples for the Beckman assay and 200 lithium heparin samples for the Abbott assay. Both EDTA and heparin plasma samples were also evaluated for stability under refrigerated conditions, for endogenous alkaline phosphatase interference and for hemolysis and icterus. The Beckman hs-cTnI assay LoB was 0.5 ng/L with the following range of LoDs=0.8-1.2 ng/L, with EDTA plasma yielding lower concentrations as compared to lithium heparin plasma (mean difference=-14.9%; 95% CI=-16.9 to 12.9). Below 10 ng/L, lithium heparin cTnI results from the Beckman assay were on average 1.1 ng/L (95% CI=0.7 to 1.5) higher than the Abbott results, with no difference between the methods when using EDTA plasma (mean difference =-0.1 ng/L; 95% CI=-0.3 to 0.2). Low cTnI concentrations were less effected by interferences in EDTA plasma. The Access hsTnI method can reliably detect normal cTnI concentrations with both lithium heparin and EDTA plasma being suitable matrices.

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome of impaired brain function occurring in patients with advanced liver diseases. The precise pathophysiology of HE is still under discussion; the leading hypothesis focus on the role of neurotoxins, impaired neurotransmission due to metabolic changes in liver failure, changes in brain energy metabolism, systemic inflammatory response and alterations of the blood brain barrier. HE produces a wide spectrum of nonspecific neurological and psychiatric manifestations. Minimal HE is diagnosed by abnormal psychometric tests. Clinically overt HE includes personality changes, alterations in consciousness progressive disorientation in time and space, somnolence, stupor and, finally, coma. Except for clinical studies, no specific tests are required for diagnosis. HE is classified according to the underlying disease, the severity of manifestations, its time course and the existence of precipitating factors. Treatment of overt HE includes supportive therapies, treatment of precipitating factors, lactulose and/or rifaximin. Routine treatment for minimal HE is only recommended for selected patients. PMID:28533911

  11. Field evaluation of Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative test for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots samples in comparison to Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joy; Omuomo, Kenneth; Anyango, Emily; Kingwara, Leonard; Basiye, Frank; Morwabe, Alex; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Nguyen, Shon; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zeh, Clement; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of infants infected with HIV are critical for reducing infant mortality. High-throughput automated diagnostic tests like Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual Test (Roche CAPCTM Qual) and the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative (Abbott Qualitative) can be used to rapidly expand early infant diagnosis testing services. In this study, the performance characteristics of the Abbott Qualitative were evaluated using two hundred dried blood spots (DBS) samples (100 HIV-1 positive and 100 HIV-1 negative) collected from infants attending the antenatal facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. The Abbott Qualitative results were compared to the diagnostic testing completed using the Roche CAPCTM Qual in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott Qualitative were 99.0% (95% CI: 95.0-100.0) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.0-100.0), respectively, and the overall reproducibility was 98.0% (95% CI: 86.0-100.0). The limits of detection for the Abbott Qualitative and Roche CAPCTM Qual were 56.5 and 6.9copies/mL at 95% CIs (p=0.005), respectively. The study findings demonstrate that the Abbott Qualitative test is a practical option for timely diagnosis of HIV in infants. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Field evaluation of Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative test for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots samples in comparison to Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual Test in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joy; Omuomo, Kenneth; Anyango, Emily; Kingwara, Leonard; Basiye, Frank; Morwabe, Alex; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Nguyen, Shon; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zeh, Clement; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of infants infected with HIV are critical for reducing infant mortality. High-throughput automated diagnostic tests like Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual Test (Roche CAPCTM Qual) and the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative (Abbott Qualitative) can be used to rapidly expand early infant diagnosis testing services. In this study, the performance characteristics of the Abbott Qualitative were evaluated using two hundred dried blood spots (DBS) samples (100 HIV-1 positive and 100 HIV-1 negative) collected from infants attending the antenatal facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. The Abbott Qualitative results were compared to the diagnostic testing completed using the Roche CAPCTM Qual in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott Qualitative were 99.0% (95% CI: 95.0–100.0) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.0–100.0), respectively, and the overall reproducibility was 98.0% (95% CI: 86.0–100.0). The limits of detection for the Abbott Qualitative and Roche CAPCTM Qual were 56.5 and 6.9 copies/mL at 95% CIs (p = 0.005), respectively. The study findings demonstrate that the Abbott Qualitative test is a practical option for timely diagnosis of HIV in infants. PMID:24726703

  13. Occurrence of nonspecific reactions among stool specimens tested by the Abbott TestPack rotavirus enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S M; Leonardi, G P; Salo, R J; Schutzbank, T E; Kaplan, M H

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-five stool specimens obtained from children suffering from gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of antigen to rotavirus by the Abbott TestPack Rotavirus (TestPack) enzyme immunoassay kit. The Kallestad Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immune electron microscopy, and virus isolation were utilized as reference assays. Fifty-four specimens were in accord by TestPack and Kallestad Pathfinder. Among 11 discordant specimens positive with TestPack but negative by Kallestad Pathfinder, rotavirus was not identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immune electron microscopy, or isolation in primary African green monkey kidney cell cultures. TestPack displayed a performance specificity of 83%. The inordinately high number of stool specimens reported as false-positive by TestPack precludes the incorporation of this antigen detection kit into our routine regimen of diagnostic virologic testing. Images PMID:2166074

  14. The Abbott Architect c8000: analytical performance and productivity characteristics of a new analyzer applied to general chemistry testing.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Daniela; Seyfarth, Michael; Dibbelt, Leif

    2005-01-01

    Applying basic potentiometric and photometric assays, we evaluated the fully automated random access chemistry analyzer Architect c8000, a new member of the Abbott Architect system family, with respect to both its analytical and operational performance and compared it to an established high-throughput chemistry platform, the Abbott Aeroset. Our results demonstrate that intra- and inter-assay imprecision, inaccuracy, lower limit of detection and linear range of the c8000 generally meet actual requirements of laboratory diagnosis; there were only rare exceptions, e.g. assays for plasma lipase or urine uric acid which apparently need to be improved by additional rinsing of reagent pipettors. Even with plasma exhibiting CK activities as high as 40.000 U/l, sample carryover by the c8000 could not be detected. Comparison of methods run on the c8000 and the Aeroset revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98-1.00; if identical chemistries were applied on both analyzers, slopes of regression lines approached unity. With typical laboratory workloads including 10-20% STAT samples and up to 10% samples with high analyte concentrations demanding dilutional reruns, steady-state throughput numbers of 700 to 800 tests per hour were obtained with the c8000. The system generally responded to STAT orders within 2 minutes yielding analytical STAT order completion times of 5 to 15 minutes depending on the type and number of assays requested per sample. Due to its extended test and sample processing capabilities and highly comfortable software, the c8000 may meet the varying needs of clinical laboratories rather well.

  15. Measurement of immature platelets with Abbott CD-Sapphire and Sysmex XE-5000 in haematology and oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Meintker, Lisa; Haimerl, Maria; Ringwald, Jürgen; Krause, Stefan W

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of immature platelets was introduced into routine diagnostics by Sysmex as immature platelet fraction (IPF) some years ago and recently by Abbott as reticulated platelet fraction (rPT). Here, we compare both methods. We evaluated the precision and agreement of these parameters between Sysmex XE-5000 and Abbott CD-Sapphire in three distinct thrombocytopaenic cohorts: 30 patients with beginning thrombocytopaenia and 64 patients with recovering platelets (PLT) after chemotherapy, 16 patients with immune thrombocytopaenia (ITP) or heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia type 2 (HIT) and 110 additional normal controls. Furthermore, we analysed, how IPF/rPT differed between these thrombocytopaenic cohorts and controls. Both analysers demonstrated acceptable overall precision (repeatability) of IPF/rPT with lower precision at low PLT counts. IPF/rPT artificially increased during storage of blood samples overnight. Inter-instrument comparison showed a moderate correlation (Pearson r²=0.38) and a systematic bias of 1.04 towards higher IPF-values with the XE-5000. IPF/rPT was highest in recovering thrombopoesis after chemotherapy and moderately increased in ITP/HIT. The normal range deduced from control samples was much narrower with CD-Sapphire (1.0%-3.8%, established here for the first time) in comparison to XE-5000 (0.8%-7.9%) leading to a smaller overlap of samples with increased PLT turnover and normal controls. IPF and rPT both give useful information on PLT turnover, although the two analysers only show a moderate inter-instrument correlation and have different reference ranges. A better separation of patient groups with high PLT turnover like ITP/HIT from normal controls is obtained by CD-Sapphire.

  16. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  17. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  18. Diagnostic discordance for hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Miller, Loren G; Daar, Eric S

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similar changes are seen in maintenance hemodialysis patients with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome (MICS), which is associated with poor clinical outcomes in this population. We hypothesized that HCV transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), a sensitive qualitative molecular test for HCV RNA, may identify maintenance hemodialysis patients with HCV infection not detected by means of antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA), particularly in those with MICS. We evaluated HCV status in 314 maintenance hemodialysis patients by using HCV antibody EIA (version 2.0; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and HCV TMA (Bayer Diagnostics Laboratories, Berkeley, CA). Twenty-five patients (8%) were EIA positive (EIA+)/TMA+; 4 patients (1%), EIA+/TMA negative (TMA-), and 22 patients (7%), EIA-/TMA+. In the 47 TMA+ patients, the sensitivity of EIA for HCV infection was only 53%. TMA+ patients had lower albumin levels and higher tumor necrosis factor alpha and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels than TMA- patients. EIA+/TMA+ patients were more likely than EIA-/TMA+ or EIA-/TMA- patients to have hypoalbuminemia and higher iron and transaminase levels. Of all TMA+ patients, EIA- patients were more likely to have diabetes, be on dialysis therapy longer, and have lower liver enzyme levels and higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Maintenance hemodialysis patients infected with HCV according to TMA have clinical features suggestive of MICS. In this population, HCV EIA appears to have a low sensitivity for the identification of HCV infection, which may be caused by the confounding effect of MICS or other demographic or clinical factors. These apparently false-negative HCV antibody test results are seen in persons with a longer time on hemodialysis therapy, mirroring observations in other populations with serious

  19. Clinical implications of hepatitis B surface antigen quantitation in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhaoxia; Li, Maoshi; Kuang, Xuemei; Tang, Yu; Fan, Yi; Deng, Guohong; Wang, Yuming; He, Dengming

    2014-04-01

    HBsAg quantitation may be useful for managing patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We explored the clinical implications of HBsAg quantitation for patients with HBsAg levels >250IU/ml (Abbott Diagnostics). Two hundred and thirty-three HBV-infected patients comprising 29 immune tolerance cases, 49 treatment-naïve HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cases, 91 inactive HBV carrier cases, and 64 treatment-naïve HBeAg-negative CHB cases were analyzed. HBsAg was quantified by the Architect HBsAg assay (Abbott Diagnostics) after a 1:500 automated dilution. HBsAg (log10IU/ml) was established for immune tolerance (4.50±0.43), HBeAg-positive CHB (4.17±0.66), inactive HBV carrier (3.32±0.44), and HBeAg-negative CHB (3.23±0.40); (p=4.92×10(-35)). No significant difference was observed between inactive HBV carrier and HBeAg-negative CHB (p=0.247). The proportions of HBsAg <2000IU/ml for inactive HBV carrier and HBeAg-negative CHB were 51.6% and 59.3%, respectively (p=0.341). Positive correlations between HBsAg and HBV DNA were observed for immune tolerance (p=1.23×10(-4)) and HBeAg-positive CHB (p=0.003), but not for HBeAg-negative CHB (p=0.432). A negative correlation between HBsAg and age was observed for immune tolerance (p=0.030), HBeAg-positive CHB (p=0.016), and inactive HBV carrier (p=0.001), but not in HBeAg-negative CHB (p=0.249). No significant differences between HBsAg and ALT for HBeAg-positive (p=0.338) or HBeAg-negative CHB (p=0.564) were observed. For patients with HBsAg quantitation >250IU/ml, HBsAg may reflect HBV DNA replication for HBeAg-positive cases. HBsAg is not a suitable marker for evaluating hepatitis activity and distinguishing between cases of HBeAg-negative CHB and inactive HBV carrier state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  1. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  2. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  3. Application of a Newly Developed High-Sensitivity HBsAg Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Patients with HBsAg Seroclearance

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  4. Application of a newly developed high-sensitivity HBsAg chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B patients with HBsAg seroclearance.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring.

  5. Hepatitis A viral load in relation to severity of the infection.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; Kojima, Hiroshige; Yasui, Shin; Okitsu, Koichiro; Yonemitsu, Yutaka; Omata, Masao; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2011-02-01

    A correlation between hepatitis A virus (HAV) genomes and the clinical severity of hepatitis A has not been established. The viral load in sera of hepatitis A patients was examined to determine the possible association between hepatitis A severity and HAV replication. One hundred sixty-four serum samples from 91 Japanese patients with sporadic hepatitis A, comprising 11 patients with fulminant hepatitis, 10 with severe acute hepatitis, and 70 with self-limited acute hepatitis, were tested for HAV RNA. The sera included 83 serial samples from 20 patients. Viral load was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The detection rates of HAV RNA from fulminant, severe acute, and acute hepatitis were 10/11 (91%), 10/10 (100%), and 55/70 (79%), respectively. Mean values of HAV RNA at admission were 3.48 ± 1.30 logcopies/ml in fulminant, 4.19 ± 1.03 in severe acute, and 2.65 ± 1.64 in acute hepatitis. Patients with severe infection such as fulminant hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis had higher initial viral load than patients with less severe infection (P < 0.001). Viremia persisted for 14.2 ± 5.8 days in patients with severe infection and 21.4 ± 10.6 days in those with acute hepatitis after clinical onset (P = 0.19). HAV RNA was detectable quantitatively in the majority of the sera of hepatitis A cases during the early convalescent phase by real-time PCR. Higher initial viral replication was found in severely infected patients. An excessive host immune response might follow, reducing the viral load rapidly as a result of the destruction of large numbers of HAV-infected hepatocytes, and in turn severe disease might be induced. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  7. Update on occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays. However, real-time PCR is a more reliable method than PCR. OBI is a great issue for the public health problem and a challenge for the clinical entity worldwide. The persistence of OBI may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With regard to OBI complications, the screening of HBV DNA by the highly sensitive molecular means should be implemented for: (1) patients with a previous history of chronic or acute HBV infection; (2) patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy; (4) recipients of organ transplant; (5) blood donors; (6) organ transplant donors; (7) thalassemia and hemophilia patients; (8) health care workers; (9) patients with liver related disease (cryptogenic); (10) hemodialysis patients; (11) patients undergoing lamivudine or interferon therapy; and (12) children in time of HBV vaccination especially in highly endemic areas of HBV. Active HBV vaccination should be implemented for the close relatives of patients who are negative for OBI markers. Thus, the goal of this review is to evaluate the rate of OBI with a focus on status of high risk groups in different regions of the world. PMID:27818588

  8. Heterophilic interference in specimens yielding false-reactive results on the Abbott 4th generation ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, S; Caswell, D; Gill, M J; Kadkhoda, K; Charlton, C L; Levett, P N; Hatchette, T; Garceau, R; Maregmen, J; Mazzulli, T; Needle, R; Kadivar, K; Kim, J

    2018-07-01

    False-reactivity in HIV-negative specimens has been detected in HIV fourth-generation antigen/antibody or 'combo' assays which are able to detect both anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen. We sought to characterize these specimens and determine the effect of heterophilic interference. Specimens previously testing as false-reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay and re-tested on a different (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab) assay. A subset of these specimens were also pre-treated with heterophilic blocking agents and re-tested on the Abbott assay. Here we report that 95% (252/264) of clinical specimens that were repeatedly reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay (S/Co range, 0.94-678) were negative when re-tested on a different fourth generation HIV combo assay (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab). All 264 samples were subsequently confirmed to be HIV negative. On a small subset (57) of specimens with available volume, pre-treatment with two different reagents (HBT; Heterophilic Blocking Tube, NABT; Non-Specific Blocking Tube) designed to block heterophilic antibody interference either eliminated (HBT) or reduced (NABT) the false reactivity when re-tested on the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay. Our results suggest that the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay can be prone to heterophilic antibody interference. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  10. Evaluation of dried blood spot as an alternative sample collection method for hepatitis C virus RNA quantitation and genotyping using a commercial system.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Supriya; Choudhary, Manish Chandra; Kumar, Guresh; Gupta, Ekta

    2018-06-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) is a minimally invasive sampling method suitable for sample collection, storage and transportation in resource limited areas. Aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic utility of DBS with plasma sample for HCV RNA quantitation and genotyping using commercial systems. Plasma and DBS card spotted samples were collected from 95 HCV seropositive patients. Both types of samples were subjected to HCV RNA by real-time PCR (Abbott m2000rt, USA). Genotyping was performed using Abbott HCV genotype II kit (Abbott diagnostics, USA) in samples with viral load > 3 log 10  IU/ml. In both plasma and DBS, 14 (14.7%) samples were negative and 81 (85.3%) were positive for HCV RNA. Median viral load in plasma (3.78; range 0-7.43) log 10  IU/ml was comparable to DBS (3.93; range 0-7.24) log 10  IU/ml. DBS demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 97.5 and 85.7% respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.5% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 85.7%. DBS showed good correlation (r 2  = 0.866) and agreement (93.5%) with plasma. Genotyping in 20 patients showed 100% concordance between DBS and plasma samples. DBS showed good sensitivity and specificity as a sampling method for HCV RNA quantitation and genotyping.

  11. Variations of ultrasonic anatomy of the hepatic veins within the human liver.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, I; Bilić, A; Ljubicić, N; Bakula, B

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various physiological variations of the hepatic veins within the liver of the 60 healthy subjects. All participants required physical examinations, different laboratory tests and upper abdominal ultrasonogram--all completely normal. Demonstration of the hepatic veins have been performed on sector real-time systems. The results clearly demonstrated that the physiological variations of the hepatic veins are very common. Ultrasonography obviously represents a diagnostic method of choice in the evaluation of anatomy of the hepatic venous system.

  12. [Differential chronic hepatitis diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis comprises a group of disorders of the liver exhibiting a chronic necroinflammatory process that differs in etiology, clinical course and treatment strategies. A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is usually made when inflammation and liver cell necrosis persist for longer than 6 months. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic patients to those with advanced hepatic failure. Both sexes and all age groups are affected. Chronic hepatitis may emerge as a sequelae of hepatitis C and less often after hepatitis B. Both diseases are treatable and require rapid and exact diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must exclude autoimmune hepatitis, chronic steatohepatitis, congenital metabolic hepatopathies and drug-induced hepatopathies. Laboratory tests, histologic investigations and clinical differential diagnosis must exclude other causes of chronic liver disease.

  13. Comparison of Enzymatic Assay for HBA1C Measurement (Abbott Architect) With Capillary Electrophoresis (Sebia Minicap Flex Piercing Analyser).

    PubMed

    Tesija Kuna, Andrea; Dukic, Kristina; Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Miler, Marijana; Vukasovic, Ines; Langer, Sanja; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Vrkic, Nada

    2018-03-08

    To compare the analytical performances of the enzymatic method (EM) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement. Imprecision, carryover, stability, linearity, method comparison, and interferences were evaluated for HbA1c via EM (Abbott Laboratories, Inc) and CE (Sebia). Both methods have shown overall within-laboratory imprecision of less than 3% for International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) units (<2% National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program [NGSP] units). Carryover effects were within acceptable criteria. The linearity of both methods has proven to be excellent (R2 = 0.999). Significant proportional and constant difference were found for EM, compared with CE, but were not clinically relevant (<5 mmol/mol; NGSP <0.5%). At the clinically relevant HbA1c concentration, stability observed with both methods was acceptable (bias, <3%). Triglyceride levels of 8.11 mmol per L or greater showed to interfere with EM and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) of 10.6% or greater with CE. The enzymatic method proved to be comparable to the CE method in analytical performances; however, certain interferences can influence the measurements of each method.

  14. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV–HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016–2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Recent findings Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Summary Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for

  15. Study on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatitis B virus carrier state in children at two Mobil Oil Indonesia locations in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lubis, C P; Judin, A

    1990-01-01

    Between May and July 1985, a cross-sectional study on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatitis B virus carrier state was conducted in children at two locations of Mobil Oil Indonesia i.e. Jakarta and Medan. Two main groups of Mobil Oil Indonesia population namely "employees" and "dependents" were also included in this study. From each subject, 10 ml of venous blood was taken and the sera separated and kept in a freezer at the temperature of -20 degrees C before sending them to the laboratories and tested with reagents produced by the Abbott Laboratory for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by radioimmunoassay (AUSRIA II-125, AVSAB and CORAB respectively). The test of blood samples from Jakarta population was done by the "the PRODIA LABORATORY" in Jakarta, while the test of blood samples from Medan was conducted by "the PATH LABORATORY" in Singapore which is nearer from Medan than Jakarta. The result of HBV markers test from 197 children were as follows: Incubation period of carrier state (HBsAg+) 1%; acute hepatitis B or persistent carrier state (HBsAg + and anti-HBc +) 0.5%; recovery/immune (anti-HBs + and anti-HBc +) 3.5%; immunization without infection or recovery with loss of detectable anti-HBc (anti-HBs +) 2% and acute hepatitis B (Window period) or recovery with loss of detectable antiHBs (anti-HBc +) 5%. The conclusion is that hepatitis B virus infection in a low percentage was found in children of Mobil Oil Indonesia population.

  16. Performance evaluation of LUMIPULSE G1200 autoimmunoanalyzer for the detection of serum hepatitis B virus markers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Jun; Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated recently introduced automated immunoassay analyzer LUMIPULSE G1200 (Fujirebio, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) for detecting serologic hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers by comparison with the results by ARCHITECT i4000SR (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL). Precision performance was evaluated over 20 days. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe), and antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) in a total of 1,000 serum samples were assessed by the two analyzers. Discrepant results were retested by COBAS e411 (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). LUMIPULSE showed excellent precision performance of total imprecision less than 3.5% coefficient of variation. The qualitative results between the two analyzers were agreed with each other in 92.0-99.8% of the specimens according to the different HBV markers. The degrees of reactions for HBeAg were moderately correlated between the two analyzers (r = 0.60), and those of other HBV markers were well correlated (r = 0.80 or greater). However, there were 183 discrepancies among 1,000 cases, and most of them showed degree of reaction around the cutoff values. LUMIPULSE G1200 showed well-concordant results with ARCITHECT for hepatitis B serologic tests. However, results near the cutoff values would need to be retested with other immunoassay or molecular methods, when the serological profiles of HBV markers are unusual or are not correlated to the clinical conditions of the patient, due to discrepancies between the immunoassay analyzers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in patients suffering from acute and chronic liver disease in three public hospitals in Durango, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Arellano-Santos, Claudia Verónica; Salazar-Arana, José Luis; Mercado-Suárez, Miguel Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We carried out an observational, descriptive, and retrospective epidemiological study in order to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) in patients with acute and chronic liver disease in three public hospitals of Durango, Mexico. Sixty five adult patients were included in the study. Fifty eight (89%) were inpatients and 7 were outpatients. Twenty three patients suffered from acute hepatitis, 10 chronic hepatitis, 29 liver cirrhosis, 2 hepatocellular carcinoma, and I fulminant hepatitis. A questionnaire was administered to all participants that included sociodemographic and epidemiological data. In addition, serum samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by an immunoassay (A UZYME Monoclonal), manufactured by ABBOTT Diagnostics (North Chicago, IL, USA). Out of the 65 patients, 2 (3%) were positive for HBsAg. Of the two positive cases, one had chronic hepatitis and other liver cirrhosis. Both positive cases had histories of blood transfusion, surgery, and alcohol abuse. In addition, one of them had a history of acupuncture. Previous traveling (within Mexico, abroad or both) was more frequently observed in HBsAg positive patients than in HBsAg negative patients (p <0.05). We concluded that the prevalence of HBV infection in patients with liver disease in the city of Durango is low. This prevalence is comparable or lower than the one reported in other Mexican cities, and lower than other countries.

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Tujioka, Hiroto; Ueda, Hiroki; Hamagami, Hiroko; Kida, Youhei; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2005-10-14

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003. Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (X320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized, so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy, levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized. The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  19. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  1. Seroprevalence of occult hepatitis B among Egyptian paediatric hepatitis C cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Raouf, H E; Yassin, A S; Megahed, S A; Ashour, M S; Mansour, T M

    2015-02-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Egypt is among the highest in the world. In this study, we aim at analysing the rates of occult HBV infections among HCV paediatric cancer patients in Egypt. The prevalence of occult HBV was assessed in two groups of paediatric cancer patients (HCV positive and HCV negative), in addition to a third group of paediatric noncancer patients, which was used as a general control. All groups were negative for HBsAg and positive for HCV antibody. HBV DNA was detected by nested PCR and real-time PCR. HCV was detected by real-time PCR. Sequencing was carried out in order to determine HBV genotypes to all HBV patients as well as to detect any mutation that might be responsible for the occult phenotype. Occult hepatitis B infection was observed in neither the non-HCV paediatric cancer patients nor the paediatric noncancer patients but was found in 31% of the HCV-positive paediatric cancer patients. All the detected HBV patients belonged to HBV genotype D, and mutations were found in the surface genome of HBV leading to occult HBV. Occult HBV infection seems to be relatively frequent in HCV-positive paediatric cancer patients, indicating that HBsAg negativity is not sufficient to completely exclude HBV infection. These findings emphasize the importance of considering occult HBV infection in HCV-positive paediatric cancer patients especially in endemic areas as Egypt. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparison of Abbott AxSYM and Roche Elecsys 2010 for measurement of BNP and NT-proBNP.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tzu-I; Chen, Hui-Hou; Kao, Jau-Tsuen

    2006-07-15

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are small cardiac hormones released from the heart. They can be used as an important aid to diagnose congestive heart failure (CHF). We compared the performances of the Abbott AxSYM and Roche Elecsys 2010 for the measurement of BNP and NT-proBNP. The first method uses a microparticle enzyme-linked immunoassay, whereas the other uses chemiluminescent immunometric assay. The CVs using pooled sera ranged from 3.7% to 12.7% for the AxSYM and 0.9% to 2.2% for the Elecsys 2010. The Passing and Bablok regression was Elecsys 2010 NT-proBNP=7.23xAxSYM BNP+2.53. The BNP in EDTA plasma was more stable than in serum. The immunoreactivity difference of NT-proBNP in serum or EDTA plasma was within 10% when stored at 4 degrees Celsius or 25 degrees Celsius for 72 h. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were different for both assays, and the areas under the curves were 0.704 and 0.841 for the AxSYM and Elecsys 2010 method, respectively. Both assays were not entirely specific for heart failure. The precision and stability for NT-proBNP was better than for BNP in serum. It is important to use method-appropriate reference ranges (or cutoff) for the BNP and NT-proBNP, respectively, in the assessment of CHF.

  3. Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Jakob; Abbott, Max W.; Sjöberg, Anders; Carlbring, Per

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS), was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality) and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with ‘Over consumption,’ ‘Gambling fallacies,’ and ‘Reinforcers’ as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases) at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed. PMID:29085320

  4. Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jakob; Abbott, Max W; Sjöberg, Anders; Carlbring, Per

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS), was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality) and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with 'Over consumption,' 'Gambling fallacies,' and 'Reinforcers' as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases) at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed.

  5. Immunocytometric quantitation of foeto-maternal haemorrhage with the Abbott Cell-Dyn CD4000 haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Little, B H; Robson, R; Roemer, B; Scott, C S

    2005-02-01

    This study evaluated the extended use of a haematology analyser (Abbott Cell-Dyn CD4000) for the immunofluorescent enumeration of foeto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH) with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled monoclonal anti-RhD. Method performance was assessed with artificial FMH standards, and a series of 44 clinical samples. Within run precision was <15% (coefficient of variation, CV) for FMH volumes of 3 ml and above, 18.8% at an FMH volume of 2 ml and 31.7% at an FMH volume of 1 ml. Linearity analysis showed excellent agreement (observed FMH% = 0.98x expected FMH% + 0.02), and a close relationship (R(2) = 0.99) between observed and expected FMH percentages. The lower limit of quantification of the CD4000 (SRP-Ret) method with a maximum CV of 15% was 1.6 ml, and the limit of detection was <1 ml. Parallel Kleihauer-Betke test (KBT) assessments of FMH standards showed an overall trend for higher KBT values (observed = 1.25x expected - 0.38). At an FMH level of 4 ml, KBT observer estimates ranged from 0.57 to 11.94 ml with a mean inter-observer CV of 63%. For 44 clinical samples, there was decision point agreement between KBT and SRP-Ret results for 42 samples with an FMH of <2 ml. Analysis in the low FMH range (<1 ml) showed that small volume foetal leaks could be detected with the SRP-Ret method in most of 23 samples with negative KBT results. CD4000 SRP-Ret method performance for FMH determination was similar to that reported for flow cytometry.

  6. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study.

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control.

  7. Premarket evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay.

    PubMed

    Stellrecht, K A; Espino, A A; Maceira, V P; Nattanmai, S M; Butt, S A; Wroblewski, D; Hannett, G E; Musser, K A

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories.

  8. Clinical evaluation of the branched DNA assay for hepatitis B virus DNA detection in patients with chronic hepatitis B lacking hepatitis B e antigen and treated with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Habersetzer, F; Zoulim, F; Jusot, J F; Zhang, X; Trabaud, M A; Chevallier, P; Chevallier, M; Ahmed, S N; Sepetjan, M; Comanor, L; Minor, J; Trépo, C

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Chiron branched DNA (bDNA) assay for detection of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B lacking hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and undergoing interferon (IFN) therapy. Results obtained with the bDNA assay were compared with those obtained using the Abbott liquid hybridization (LH) assay and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serial samples (274) from 34 patients were analysed. Analysis of variance results indicated that bDNA values were more significantly correlated than LH values with both PCR positive/negative results (probability of artifact (Prob > F) = 0.7 and 0.09 for LH and bDNA assays, respectively) and presence/absence of precore mutations (Prob > F = 0.21 and 0.001 for LH and bDNA assays, respectively). Both bDNA and LH results correlated highly with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values (both had Prob > F values of 0.0) while PCR was not correlated with ALT (Prob > F = 0.05). In 26 evaluable patients, a model based on a generalized Knodell score was used to predict response to IFN therapy, as defined by normalization of ALT values during therapy. This model discriminated well between non-responders and responders. The bDNA results correlated well with the generalized Knodell score, while the LH results did not (Prob > F = 0.04 and 0.19 for the bDNA and LH assays, respectively). In conclusion, the bDNA assay appears to be useful for quantification of HBV DNA levels in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis as it correlates with biochemical and histological indications of disease severity as well as with response to IFN therapy.

  9. Hepatitis B -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... kissing, coughing, or sneezing. Breast-feeding by a mother with hepatitis B is safe if the child is treated properly at the time of birth. Teenagers who are not vaccinated can get HBV during unprotected sex or drug use. Symptoms Most children with hepatitis ...

  10. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of immune globulin instead of the vaccine for post-exposure protection. Although hepatitis A IgM antibodies are considered diagnostic for acute infection with hepatitis A, there has been increasing use of the test in people who do not have signs and ...

  11. The hepatic bridge.

    PubMed

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. [History of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  13. Feline hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Dimski, D S

    1997-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis occurs when lipid mobilized to the liver exceeds lipid leaving the liver via formation of very-low-density lipoproteins or by oxidation. Hepatic lipidosis in cats is associated with overt liver dysfunction. In affected cats, excess lipid is mobilized to the liver because of starvation. Removal of hepatic lipid may be impaired because of protein malnutrition, a relative carnitine deficiency, or oxidative damage to peroxisomes and other hepatic organelles. Hepatic lipidosis occurs in adult cats, and is manifest by signs of weight loss, depression, vomiting, and icterus. Diagnosis is achieved by evaluating laboratory and diagnostic imaging data, in conjunction with a liver biopsy. Aggressive tube feeding is the treatment of choice. With this treatment, survival rates are 60% to 80%.

  14. Comparative evaluation of three automated systems for DNA extraction in conjunction with three commercially available real-time PCR assays for quantitation of plasma Cytomegalovirus DNAemia in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Dayana; Clari, María Ángeles; Costa, Elisa; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Solano, Carlos; José Remigia, María; Navarro, David

    2011-08-01

    Limited data are available on the performance of different automated extraction platforms and commercially available quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) methods for the quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma. We compared the performance characteristics of the Abbott mSample preparation system DNA kit on the m24 SP instrument (Abbott), the High Pure viral nucleic acid kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep system (Roche), and the EZ1 Virus 2.0 kit on the BioRobot EZ1 extraction platform (Qiagen) coupled with the Abbott CMV PCR kit, the LightCycler CMV Quant kit (Roche), and the Q-CMV complete kit (Nanogen), for both plasma specimens from allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients (n = 42) and the OptiQuant CMV DNA panel (AcroMetrix). The EZ1 system displayed the highest extraction efficiency over a wide range of CMV plasma DNA loads, followed by the m24 and the AmpliPrep methods. The Nanogen PCR assay yielded higher mean CMV plasma DNA values than the Abbott and the Roche PCR assays, regardless of the platform used for DNA extraction. Overall, the effects of the extraction method and the QRT-PCR used on CMV plasma DNA load measurements were less pronounced for specimens with high CMV DNA content (>10,000 copies/ml). The performance characteristics of the extraction methods and QRT-PCR assays evaluated herein for clinical samples were extensible at cell-based standards from AcroMetrix. In conclusion, different automated systems are not equally efficient for CMV DNA extraction from plasma specimens, and the plasma CMV DNA loads measured by commercially available QRT-PCRs can differ significantly. The above findings should be taken into consideration for the establishment of cutoff values for the initiation or cessation of preemptive antiviral therapies and for the interpretation of data from clinical studies in the Allo-SCT setting.

  15. A Single Lineage of Hepatitis E Virus Causes both Outbreaks and Sporadic Hepatitis in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elduma, Adel Hussein; Zein, Mai Mohammed Adam; Karlsson, Marie; Elkhidir, Isam M.E.; Norder, Heléne

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non-outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients involved in smaller outbreaks of hepatitis in the neighbouring Darfur. HEV infection was diagnosed in 147 (25%) patients: 98 from Kordofan and 49 from Darfur. The mortality was 10%; six of the patients who died from the infection were pregnant women. HEV RNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 38 (26%) patients: 22 from Kordofan and 16 from Darfur. Partial open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were sequenced from HEV from nine and three patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sudanese strains belonged to genotype 1 (HEV1), and confirmed the segregation of African HEV1 strains into one branch divergent from Asian HEV1. It also revealed that the Sudanese strains from this study and from an outbreak in 2004 formed a separate clade with a common ancestor, distinct from strains from the neighbouring Chad and Egypt. This HEV strain has thus spread in a large area of Sudan, where it has caused both sporadic hepatitis E and outbreaks from at least 2004 and onwards. These data demonstrate that hepatitis E is a constant, on-going public health problem in Sudan and that there is a need for hepatitis E surveillance, outbreak preparedness, and general improvements of the sanitation in these remote areas of the country. PMID:27782061

  16. Real-Time CORBA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    control systems and prototyped the approach by porting the ILU ORB from Xerox to the Lynx real - time operating system . They then provided a distributed...compliant real - time operating system , a real-time ORB, and an ODMG-compliant real-time ODBMS [12]. The MITRE system is an infrastructure for...the server’s local operating system can handle. For instance, on a node controlled by the VXWorks real - time operating system with 256 local

  17. Hepatitis A - prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-12-01

    Hepatitis A is the second most common vaccine preventable infection in travellers. Highly effective vaccines exist for its prevention for travellers from 12 months of age, including last minute travellers and those in special risk groups. Information about hepatitis A infection, its epidemiology and existing vaccine options is presented for use in travel related consultations in general practice. Most travellers at risk of hepatitis A should be vaccinated, as the vaccine is a safe and effective means of prevention. Combination vaccines - hepatitis A/hepatitis B and hepatitis A/typhoid - aim to facilitate the vaccination process for travellers, who are often also at risk of exposure to hepatitis B and typhoid fever.

  18. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Roche Immunoturbidimetric Albumin Method on Cobas c 501 Gives Higher Values Than the Abbott and Roche BCP Methods When Analyzing Patient Plasma Samples.

    PubMed

    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Flodin, Mats; Havelka, Aleksandra Mandic; Xu, Xiao Yan; Larsson, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Serum/plasma albumin is an important and widely used laboratory marker and it is important that we measure albumin correctly without bias. We had indications that the immunoturbidimetric method on Cobas c 501 and the bromocresol purple (BCP) method on Architect 16000 differed, so we decided to study these methods more closely. A total of 1,951 patient requests with albumin measured with both the Architect BCP and Cobas immunoturbidimetric methods were extracted from the laboratory system. A comparison with fresh plasma samples was also performed that included immunoturbidimetric and BCP methods on Cobas c 501 and analysis of the international protein calibrator ERM-DA470k/IFCC. The median difference between the Abbott BCP and Roche immunoturbidimetric methods was 3.3 g/l and the Roche method overestimated ERM-DA470k/IFCC by 2.2 g/l. The Roche immunoturbidimetric method gave higher values than the Roche BCP method: y = 1.111x - 0.739, R² = 0.971. The Roche immunoturbidimetric albumin method gives clearly higher values than the Abbott and Roche BCP methods when analyzing fresh patient samples. The differences between the two methods were similar at normal and low albumin levels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  1. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are a common cause of liver injury, particularly ... problem. However, if you took high doses of acetaminophen , treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  2. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Know More Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer and even death. In fact, Hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver cancer and the #1 cause of liver transplants. Many people can get lifesaving care and treatment. ...

  4. HIV and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  5. HIV and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: June 25, 2018 ...

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  7. Protocol for the use of light upon extension real-time PCR for the determination of viral load in HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Guimin; Li, Wangfeng; Liu, Lixia

    2012-01-01

    Real-time PCR has engendered wide acceptance for quantitation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the blood due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and reduced contamination. Here we describe a cost-effective and highly sensitive HBV real-time quantitative assay based on the light upon extension real-time PCR platform and a simple and reliable HBV DNA preparation method using silica-coated magnetic beads.

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  9. [The prevalence of hepatitis A in the Guadalajara province. Is Spain a country with low endemia?].

    PubMed

    González-Praetorius, A; Rodríguez-Avial, C; Fernández, C; Teresa Pérez-Pomata Mf, M; Gimeno, C; Bisquert, J

    2001-11-01

    Spain, together with the other southern European countries, was considered to be an area with a moderate degree of endemia. This fact has consequences for tourists that visit these areas and for vaccination strategies. A prevalence study was proposed in order to get to know the situation of this infection in the Guadalajara province. 284 specimens of serum were taken from patients who were classified according to their age, sex and place of residence (with more or less than 10.000 inhabitants). In these specimens the presence of hepatitis A antibodies were studied, using a Microparticule Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA) (Abbott). An increase in the prevalence was observed in older people, there is a low prevalence population (80%) in adults aged between 30 and 74 years. No differences were observed related to sex. In the stratified analysis according to age, differences were observed between the groups from rural and urban origins. The low prevalence of hepatitis A was found among the younger population, as seen in other studies carried out on a national level, and this together with a decrease in the frequency, means that Spain is included among the countries with low endemia. This fact has consequences for tourists who visit our country and for vaccination strategies, due to the increase in the number of adults who are susceptible to the infection.

  10. Surface antibody and cytokine response to recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO) hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Lili; Lin, Changying; Wang, Huai; Pang, Xinghuo; Li, Liqiu; Gao, Pei; Lin, Hui; Gong, Xiaohong; Tang, Yaqing; Ma, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Chen; Yang, Peng; Li, Hui; Sun, Meiping; He, Xiong

    2011-08-26

    To compare the immune responses of the 10 μg and 20 μg doses of CHO hepatitis B vaccine on adults. Adults aged 18-45 years who gave a history of never having received hepatitis B vaccine and lacked serologic evidence of infection to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or previous vaccination were enrolled into the study. A total of 642 eligible participants were randomized to receive 3 doses of either the 10 μg or the 20 μg formulation of CHO hepatitis B vaccine in a 0-1-6 month schedule. Each study subject had a serologic specimen collected one month following the third vaccine dose that was tested for markers of HBV infection and anti-HBs by Abbott I2000. Persons who tested negative for anti-HBs negative persons were tested for HBV DNA. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with antibody response. Among the participants, 153 subjects had their lymphocytes cultivated and tested for cytokine production. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) was used to test spot numbers of IL-4, IFN-γ which produced by lymphocyte. The anti-HBs seroconversion rate was 88.8% (95% CI: 85.4-92.2%) and 95.3% (95% CI: 93.0-97.6%), respectively in 10 μg and 20 μg group. Geometric mean titers (GMT) were 173.42 mIU/ml and 585.51 mIU/ml, respectively in 10 μg and 20 μg groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that diabetes, spouse is hepatitis B virus infector, older age and receipt of the 10 μg dose were all negatively associated with antibody response (P<.05). Cellular immunity results showed: IL-4 immunity spot numbers in 20 μg group was higher than 10 μg group. With anti-HBs increased, the IL-4 immunity spot numbers increased significantly which had significant positive correlation (Spearman coefficient=0.538, P<0.0001). IFN-γ spot numbers had no statistical significant between the two groups. The humoral immunity and cytokines response among the group that received the 20 μg CHO hepatitis B vaccine dose was superior compared to the group that received

  11. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  13. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment ...

  15. High frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in swine from South Brazil and close similarity to human HEV isolates.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandes

    Hepatitis E virus is responsible for acute and chronic liver infections worldwide. Swine hepatitis E virus has been isolated in Brazil, and a probable zoonotic transmission has been described, although data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs from a small-scale farm in the rural area of Paraná State, South Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 170 pigs and screened for hepatitis E virus RNA using a duplex real-time RT-PCR targeting a highly conserved 70nt long sequence within overlapping parts of ORF2 and ORF3 as well as a 113nt sequence of ORF2. Positive samples with high viral loads were subjected to direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. hepatitis E virus RNA was detected in 34 (20.0%) of the 170 pigs following positive results in at least one set of screening real-time RT-PCR primers and probes. The swine hepatitis E virus strains clustered with the genotype hepatitis E virus-3b reference sequences in the phylogenetic analysis and showed close similarity to human hepatitis E virus isolates previously reported in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute hepatic failure in children.

    PubMed Central

    Riely, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6433587

  17. Assessment of hydrologic and water quality data collected in Abbotts Lagoon watershed, Point Reyes National Seashore, California, during water years 1999 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Saleh, Dina K.; Zamora, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Abbotts Lagoon is part of Point Reyes National Seashore, located about 40 miles northwest of San Francisco and about 20 miles south of Bodega Bay. Water-quality samples were collected quarterly during water year 1999 at a site in each of three connected lagoons that make up Abbotts Lagoon and at a site in its most significant tributary. The quarterly samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a. A bed-sediment sample was collected in each lagoon during August 1999 and was analyzed for organic carbon, iron, and total phosphorus. Seven tributaries were sampled during a February 1999 storm and four during an April 1999 storm. These samples were analyzed only for nutrients. One storm sample collected in April 1999 from a tributary downstream of the I Ranch dairy was analyzed for a suite of 47 compounds indicative of wastewater. Continuous water-level recorders were installed in the most significant tributary and the two largest lagoons for portions of the study. A water budget analysis for an April 2000 storm indicated that the main tributary accounted for 85 percent of surface inflows to Abbotts Lagoon. The portion of the surface inflow from the main tributary was lower in the February 1999 storms and is a function of upstream storage and vegetative growth in the tributary basins. Another water budget analysis for a period of no surface inflow (June and July 2000) indicated that the net ground-water contribution was an outflow (seepage) from Abbotts Lagoon of about 0.3 ft3/s. Salinity increased and nutrient concentrations decreased from upstream to downstream in the chain of lagoons. The lower lagoon, nearest the ocean, had less organic carbon and total phosphorus in the bed sediment than the upper lagoons. The two tributaries originating in the I Ranch dairy had the highest concentrations of nutrients in storm runoff, and the highest loading rates and yields of ammonia and phosphorus. These tributaries account for only 10.3 percent of the area

  18. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  19. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C.

  20. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  1. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  2. Precision, accuracy, cross reactivity and comparability of serum indices measurement on Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 and Roche Cobas 6000 c501 clinical chemistry analyzers.

    PubMed

    Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Miler, Marijana; Vrtarić, Alen; Hemar, Marina; Filipi, Petra; Kocijančić, Marija; Šupak Smolčić, Vesna; Ćelap, Ivana; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2018-04-25

    The aim of our study was to perform verification of serum indices on three clinical chemistry platforms. This study was done on three analyzers: Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 (BC) and Roche Cobas 6000 c501. The following analytical specifications were verified: precision (two patient samples), accuracy (sample with the highest concentration of interferent was serially diluted and measured values compared to theoretical values), comparability (120 patients samples) and cross reactivity (samples with increasing concentrations of interferent were divided in two aliquots and remaining interferents were added in each aliquot. Measurements were done before and after adding interferents). Best results for precision were obtained for the H index (0.72%-2.08%). Accuracy for the H index was acceptable for Cobas and BC, while on Architect, deviations in the high concentration range were observed (y=0.02 [0.01-0.07]+1.07 [1.06-1.08]x). All three analyzers showed acceptable results in evaluating accuracy of L index and unacceptable results for I index. The H index was comparable between BC and both, Architect (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.795 [0.692-0.898]) and Roche (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.825 [0.729-0.922]), while Roche and Architect were not comparable. The I index was not comparable between all analyzer combinations, while the L index was only comparable between Abbott and BC. Cross reactivity analysis mostly showed that serum indices measurement is affected when a combination of interferences is present. There is heterogeneity between analyzers in the hemolysis, icteria, lipemia (HIL) quality performance. Verification of serum indices in routine work is necessary to establish analytical specifications.

  3. Comparison of cardiac TnI outliers using a contemporary and a high-sensitivity assay on the Abbott Architect platform.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J B; Southby, S J; Stuart, L A; Mackay, R; Florkowski, C M; George, P M

    2014-07-01

    Assays for cardiac troponin (cTn) have undergone improvements in sensitivity and precision in recent years. Increased rates of outliers, however, have been reported on various cTn platforms, typically giving irreproducible, falsely higher results. We aimed to evaluate the outlier rate occurring in patients with elevated cTnI using a contemporary and high-sensitivity assay. All patients with elevated cTnI (up to 300 ng/L) performed over a 21-month period were assayed in duplicate. A contemporary assay (Abbott STAT Troponin-I) was used for the first part of the study and subsequently a high-sensitivity assay (Abbott STAT High-Sensitive Troponin-I) was used. Outliers exceeded a calculated critical difference (CD) (CD = z × √2 × SDAnalytical) where z = 3.5 (for probability of 0.0005) and critical outliers also were on a different side of the decision level. The respective outlier and critical outlier rates were 0.22% and 0.10% for the contemporary assay (n = 4009) and 0.18% and 0.13% for the high-sensitivity assay (n = 3878). There was no significant reduction in outlier rate between the two assays (χ(2) = 0.034, P = 0.854). Fifty-six percent of outliers occurred in samples where cTn was an 'add-on' test (and was stored and refrigerated prior to assay). Despite recent improvements in cTn methods, outliers (including critical outliers) still occur at a low rate in both a contemporary and high-sensitivity cTnI assay. Laboratory and clinical staff should be aware of this potential analytical error, particularly in samples with suboptimal sample handling such as add-on tests. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Accuracy and precision of four value-added blood glucose meters: the Abbott Optium, the DDI Prodigy, the HDI True Track, and the HypoGuard Assure Pro.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Catherine A; Kane, Michael P; Bakst, Gary; Busch, Robert S; Abelseth, Jill M; Hamilton, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the accuracy and precision of four value-added glucose meters. Finger stick glucose measurements in diabetes patients were performed using the Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Optium, Diagnostic Devices, Inc. (Miami, FL) DDI Prodigy, Home Diagnostics, Inc. (Fort Lauderdale, FL) HDI True Track Smart System, and Arkray, USA (Minneapolis, MN) HypoGuard Assure Pro. Finger glucose measurements were compared with laboratory reference results. Accuracy was assessed by a Clarke error grid analysis (EGA), a Parkes EGA, and within 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the laboratory value criteria (chi2 analysis). Meter precision was determined by calculating absolute mean differences in glucose values between duplicate samples (Kruskal-Wallis test). Finger sticks were obtained from 125 diabetes patients, of which 90.4% were Caucasian, 51.2% were female, 83.2% had type 2 diabetes, and average age of 59 years (SD 14 years). Mean venipuncture blood glucose was 151 mg/dL (SD +/-65 mg/dL; range, 58-474 mg/dL). Clinical accuracy by Clarke EGA was demonstrated in 94% of Optium, 82% of Prodigy, 61% of True Track, and 77% of the Assure Pro samples (P < 0.05 for Optium and True Track compared to all others). By Parkes EGA, the True Track was significantly less accurate than the other meters. Within 5% accuracy was achieved in 34%, 24%, 29%, and 13%, respectively (P < 0.05 for Optium, Prodigy, and Assure Pro compared to True Track). Within 10% accuracy was significantly greater for the Optium, Prodigy, and Assure Pro compared to True Track. Significantly more Optium results demonstrated within 15% and 20% accuracy compared to the other meter systems. The HDI True Track was significantly less precise than the other meter systems. The Abbott Optium was significantly more accurate than the other meter systems, whereas the HDI True Track was significantly less accurate and less precise compared to the other meter systems.

  5. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, G.; Chattree, A.; Jalan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease. PMID:21994873

  6. Hepatitis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Viral Hepatitis - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Viral ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Viral ...

  7. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syringes for injecting drugs transmission from HBV-infected mothers to their newborn babies Who Is at Risk for Hepatitis B? In the United States, the most common way people get infected with HBV is through unprotected sex with someone who has the disease. People who ...

  8. Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... gaw Karen) Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ) Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) Korean (한국어) Marshallese (Ebon) Nepali (नेपाली) Oromo ( ... PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) Expand Section Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Hepatitis A ...

  9. [Hepatitis C in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2002-10-01

    There are at least five Mexican studies which analyze HCV prevalence. As far as seroprevalence is concerned, it's clear that it's closely related to transfusion history and sexual promiscuity. Based on data provided by the censuses and previous prevalence studies, it has been inferred that today there are nearly 1.2 million Mexicans infected with hepatitis C virus.

  10. Unexplained hepatitis following halothane.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, B; Simpson, B R; Strunin, L; Doniach, D; Perrin, J; Appleyard, A J

    1976-01-01

    Full clinical and laboratory details of 203 patients with postoperative jaundice were submitted to a panel of hepatologists. All patients whose jaundice may have had an identifiable cause were excluded, which left 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anaesthesia (UHFH). Hepatitis in 95% of these cases followed multiple exposure to halothane, with repeated exposure within four weeks in 55% of cases. Twenty-nine patients were obese, 52 were aged 41-70, and 53 were women. Thirteen patients died in acute hepatic failure. Rapid onset of jaundice after anaesthesia, male sex, and obesity in either sex were poor prognostic signs. Of the clinical stigmata of hypersensitivity, only eosinophilia was impressive. The UHFH group had a much greater incidence of liver kidney microsomal (LKM) and thyroid antibodies and autoimmune complement fixation than those patients whose jaundice related to identifiable factors. Thirteen of the 19 patients with LKM antibodies also had thyroid antibodies. In six patients retested two to three years later LKM antibodies had disappeared, although thyroid antibodies persisted. Rapidly repeated exposure to halothane may cause hepatitis, but such a complication is probably rare. Possibly obese women with a tendency to organ-specific autoimmunity may be more at risk. Nevertheless, the comparative risks of rapidly repeated halothane or non-halothane anaesthesia cannot be determined from the present data. If alternative satisfactory agents are available halothane should be avoided in patients with unexplained hepatitis after previous exposure, although in three to five patients with UHFH who were re-exposed to halothane jaundice did not recur. PMID:1268612

  11. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  12. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  13. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  14. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  15. Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Dimski, D S; Taboada, J

    1995-03-01

    Feline IHL is a severe hepatopathy that can be treated by aggressive nutritional support. Until the underlying mechanisms of protein and lipid metabolism are understood in both healthy and ill cats, dietary therapy remains supportive. It is likely that the pathogenesis of IHL in cats is multifactorial, involving both increased fatty acid mobilization to the liver and a defect in oxidation of fatty acids or removal of VLDL. It is also possible that individual variation may play a role in the development of this disease in cats undergoing starvation. Continued studies will focus on the unique pathways of hepatic metabolism in the cat, and how these pathways are altered, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and clinical disease. Hopefully, these studies can be applied to the prevention or treatment of IHL in cats.

  16. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  17. Investigation of occult hepatitis B virus infection in anti-hbc positive patients from a liver clinic.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmela; Kok, Chee Choy; Baleriola, Cristina; Robertson, Peter; Rawlinson, William D

    2015-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is manifested by presence of very low levels (<200IU/mL) of Hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) in the blood and the liver while exhibiting undetectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). The molecular mechanisms underlying this occurrence are still not completely understood. This study investigated the prevalence of OBI in a high-risk Australian population and compared the HBV S gene sequences of our cohort with reference sequences. Serum from HBV DNA positive, HBsAg negative, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive patients (study cohort) were obtained from samples tested at SEALS Serology Laboratory using the Abbott Architect, as part of screening and diagnostic testing. From a total of 228,108 samples reviewed, 1,451 patients were tested for all three OBI markers. Only 10 patients (0.69%) out of the 1,451 patients were found to fit the selection criteria for OBI. Sequence analysis of the HBV S gene from 5 suspected OBI infected patients showed increased sequence variability in the 'a' epitope of the major hydrophilic region compared to reference sequences. In addition, a total of eight consistent nucleotide substitutions resulting in seven amino acid changes were observed, and three patients had truncated S gene sequence. These mutations appeared to be stable and may result in alterations in HBsAg conformation. These may negatively impact the affinity of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and may explain the false negative results in serological HBV diagnosis. These changes may also enable the virus to persist in the liver by evading immune surveillance. Further studies on a bigger cohort are required to determine whether these amino acid variations have been acquired in the process of immune escape and serve as markers of OBI.

  18. Comparison of the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 and Abbott HIV-1 qualitative assays with the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA assay for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Julie A E; Hawkins, J Tyler; Schanz, Maria; Mollan, Katie; Miller, Melissa B; Schmitz, John L; Fiscus, Susan A

    2014-08-01

    The current gold standard for infant diagnosis of HIV-1 is the Roche Amplicor Qualitative DNA assay, but it is being phased out. Compare the Abbott qualitative assay and the Gen-Probe Aptima assay to the gold standard Roche DNA assay using dried blood spots (DBS). The Gen-Probe Aptima and Abbott qualitative HIV-1 assays were compared to the Roche DNA assay for early infant diagnosis. Specificity and sensitivity were determined for the three assays using DBS from 50 HIV-exposed uninfected infants and 269 HIV-1 infected adults from North Carolina, respectively. All of the negative and 151 of the positive DBS had valid results on the 3 different assays, and an additional 118 positive DBS had valid results on the Roche DNA and Aptima assays. All three assays were very specific. The Roche DNA assay was the most sensitive (96.7%) over a wide range of HIV PVL, including samples with PVL<400 copies/ml. Restricted to samples with PVL>400 copies/ml, the Gen-Probe Aptima assay had sensitivity (96.5%) comparable to the Roche DNA assay (98.8%). The Abbott Qualitative assay was the least sensitive and only had sensitivity above 95% among samples with PVL over 1000 copies/ml. The Abbott HIV-1 Qualitative assay was not as sensitive as the comparator assays, so it would not be a useful replacement assay, especially for infants taking antiretroviral prophylaxis. The Gen-Probe Aptima assay is an adequate replacement option for infant diagnosis using DBS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Large Pilot Scale Testing of Linde/BASF Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Technology at the Abbott Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Kevin C.

    The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO 2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO 2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact atmore » the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO 2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together with Linde, has completed a

  20. Evaluation of the new restandardized Abbott Architect 25-OH Vitamin D assay in vitamin D-insufficient and vitamin D-supplemented individuals.

    PubMed

    Annema, Wijtske; Nowak, Albina; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Saleh, Lanja

    2017-09-19

    Recently, Abbott Diagnostics has restandardized the Architect 25(OH)D assay against the NIST SRM 2972. We have evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of the restandardized Architect 25(OH)D assay and compared its performance with a NIST-traceable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and the Roche total 25(OH)D assay in vitamin D-insufficient individuals before and after vitamin D 3 supplementation. Frozen serum samples were obtained from 88 healthy subjects with self-perceived fatigue and vitamin D-insufficiency <50 nmol L -1 who were randomized to receive a single 100 000 IU dose of vitamin D 3 (n = 48) or placebo (n = 40). Total 25(OH)D concentrations were measured before and 4 weeks after supplementation by the restandardized Architect 25(OH)D assay, LC-MS/MS, and Roche assay. The Architect 25(OH)D assay showed an intra- and inter-assay imprecision of <5%. Comparison of the Architect assay with the LC-MS/MS method showed a good correlation in both vitamin D-insufficient and vitamin D-supplemented subjects, however, with a negative mean bias of 17.4% and 8.9%, respectively. As compared to the Roche assay, the Abbott assay underestimated 25(OH)D results in insufficient subjects (<50 nmol L -1 ) with a mean negative bias of 17.1%, this negative bias turned into a positive bias in supplemented subjects. Overall there was a moderate agreement in classification of vitamin D-insufficient and -supplemented individuals into different vitamin D states between the Architect 25(OH)D method and LC-MS/MS. The routine use of the restandardized Architect 25(OH)D results in a slight underestimation of circulating total 25(OH)D levels at lower concentrations and thus potential misclassification of vitamin D status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Acute hepatic vascular complications].

    PubMed

    Ochs, A

    2011-07-01

    Acute hepatic vascular complications are rare. Acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BSC) are the leading causes. Coagulopathy and local factors are present in up to 80% of cases. Diagnosis is established by colour-coded Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute PVT present with abdominal pain and disturbed intestinal motility. In the absence of cirrhosis anticoagulation with heparin is established followed by oral anticoagulation. In severe cases, surgical thrombectomy or transjugular thrombolysis with stent shunt may be necessary. Acute or fulminant BCS may require emergency liver transplantation or a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt, if patients present with acute liver failure. Milder cases receive anticoagulation for thrombolysis of occluded hepatic veins. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is diagnosed after total body irradiation or chemotherapy, the term SOS replacing the former veno-occlusive disease. The treatment of congenital vascular malformations, complications in the setting of OLTX as well as patients with hepatic involvement of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia requires significant expertise in a multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hepatic fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions Congenital hepatic fibrosis Congenital hepatic fibrosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the liver that is ...

  4. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... URL - Redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & ...

  5. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felicidade Mota; Zarife, Maria Alice Sant'ana; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; G Reis, Mitermayer

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA) were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany), the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA) and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA) genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102) were positive, 57.8% (59/102) were negative and 3.9% (4/102) were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102) of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43), negative in 9.3% (4/43) and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43) of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23), 3 (17.4%, 4/23) and 2 (4.3%, 1/23). All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL). Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14) were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10) of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10) were negative. In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  6. Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. infections in forest rangers from a single forest district in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Bura, Maciej; Bukowska, Alicja; Michalak, Michał; Bura, Aleksandra; Nawrocki, Mariusz J; Karczewski, Marek; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2018-03-13

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HEV exposure markers in FRs from a single forest district in Greater Poland in relation to anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) IgG, and anti-Borrelia spp. IgM and IgG antibodies. In total, 138 participants (48 FRs and 90 blood donors - BDs) were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck, Germany) and 96 individuals (48 FRs and 48 BDs) were tested for anti-HAV IgG (ARCHITECT immunoassays, Abbott Laboratories, Wiesbaden, Germany); anti-Borrelia IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN kits) were assessed in FRs only. Anti-HEV markers were detected in 3 participants (2.2%; IgM in 1 FR, IgG in 2 BDs), less frequently than anti-HAV (16 out of 96 individuals, about 17%; FRs 19% vs BDs 15%) or anti-Borrelia antibodies (18 out of 48 individuals, 37.5%) (p < 0.0001 for both). Older study participants (≥45 years of age) were more frequently HAV-seropositive (29% vs 4% of the younger individuals; p = 0.0012). We failed to unequivocally prove HEV exposure in FRs. The HAV seroprevalence in this study paralleled the situation in the general population. Exposure to Borrelia spp. in FRs was common.

  7. Viral hepatitis in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S K; Madan, Kaushal; Dattagupta, S; Panda, S K

    2006-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a

  8. Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Coryphaeus Software, founded in 1989 by former NASA electronic engineer Steve Lakowske, creates real-time 3D software. Designer's Workbench, the company flagship product, is a modeling and simulation tool for the development of both static and dynamic 3D databases. Other products soon followed. Activation, specifically designed for game developers, allows developers to play and test the 3D games before they commit to a target platform. Game publishers can shorten development time and prove the "playability" of the title, maximizing their chances of introducing a smash hit. Another product, EasyT, lets users create massive, realistic representation of Earth terrains that can be viewed and traversed in real time. Finally, EasyScene software control the actions among interactive objects within a virtual world. Coryphaeus products are used on Silican Graphics workstation and supercomputers to simulate real-world performance in synthetic environments. Customers include aerospace, aviation, architectural and engineering firms, game developers, and the entertainment industry.

  9. Noether and Abbott-Deser-Tekin conserved quantities in scalar-tensor theory of gravity both in Jordan and Einstein frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Krishnakanta; Das, Ashmita; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    We revisit the thermodynamic aspects of the scalar-tensor theory of gravity in the Jordan and in the Einstein frame. Examining the missing links of this theory carefully, we establish the thermodynamic descriptions from the conserved currents and potentials by following both the Noether and the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism. With the help of conserved Noether current and potential, we define the thermodynamic quantities, which we show to be conformally invariant. Moreover, the defined quantities are shown to fit nicely in the laws of (the first and the second) black hole thermodynamics formulated by the Wald's method. We stretch the study of the conformal equivalence of the physical quantities in these two frames by following the ADT formalism. Our further study reveals that there is a connection between the ADT and the Noether conserved quantities, which signifies that the ADT approach provide the equivalent thermodynamic description in the two frames as obtained in Noether prescription. Our whole analysis is very general as the conserved Noether and ADT currents and potentials are formulated off-shell and the analysis is exempted from any prior assumption or boundary condition.

  10. Measurement Differences Between Two Immunoassay Systems for LH and FSH: A Comparison of Roche Cobas e601 vs. Abbott Architect i2000sr.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lianli; Tang, Yinghua; Chen, Xiang; Sun, Yifan

    2018-03-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) regulate the growth and reproductive activity of gonadal tissue and determine the concentration of LH is essential for the prediction of ovulation. Collectively, FSH and LH are important measurements to ascertain the causes of infertility as well as diagnosing disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and pituitary and gonadal dysfunction. This study compares the correlation between LH and FSH measurements during examination with two different systems, Architect i2000sr (Abbott Laboratories; Lake Bluff, IL, USA) and Cobas e601 (Roche; Geneva, Switzerland), and assesses the differences between these systems. Serum analysis was performed for 95 patients using both the Cobas e601 and Architect i2000sr systems. The method used to compare the systems was Passing-Bablok regression analysis with a Bland-Altman agreement plot. Inter-rater agreement was analyzed using a concordance correlation coefficient. Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 have strong correlations in their LH and FSH results. However, the Bland-Altman plot shows that LH and FSH measurements in Cobas e601 are about 1.31 times and 1.26 times higher than those in Architect i2000sr, respectively. Passing-Bablok regression analysis also shows significant proportional deviation between them. The difference between the test results for LH and FSH in Cobas e601 and Architect i2000sr indicate that the results from one system cannot be directly used to evaluate the other system.

  11. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2006-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system. From 20 volunteers (age 20-36 years) with normal cycles and no use of oral contraceptives, samples were taken every day during their cycle. Volunteers received three vaginal ultrasound examinations (days 10 and 13, and 1 or 2 days after ovulation) to measure follicular and corpus luteum development. Hormone levels were measured using the corresponding ARCHITECT assay and were synchronized to the LH peak. Median, and 5th and 95th percentile values were determined for each day of the cycle, as well as for early follicular (days -15 to -6), late follicular (days -5 to -1), LH peak (day 0), early luteal (+1 to +4), mid-luteal (days +5 to +9), and late luteal (days +10 to +14) phases of the cycle. Based on our data, we were able to establish detailed reference values for LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone, which should aid in the interpretation of results for these reproductive hormones in a variety of circumstances.

  12. Automated quantification of apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: a prognostic variable obtained with the Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott) automated hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fumi, M; Martins, D; Pancione, Y; Sale, S; Rocco, V

    2014-12-01

    B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL, a neoplastic clonal disorder with monomorphous small B lymphocytes with scanty cytoplasm and clumped chromatin, can be morphologically differentiated in typical and atypical forms with different prognosis: Smudge cells (Gumprecht's shadows) are one of the well-known features of the typical CLL and are much less inconsistent in other different types CLPD. Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire uses the fluorescence after staining with the DNA fluorochrome propidium iodide for the measurement of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) and nonviable cells (FL3+ cell fraction): We have studied the possible correlation between presence and number of morphologically identifiable smudge cells on smears and the percentage of nonviable cells produced by Cell-Dyn Sapphire. 305 blood samples from 224 patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and 40 healthy blood donors were analyzed by CBC performed by Cell-Dyn Sapphire, peripheral blood smear, and immunophenotype characterization. FL3+ fraction in CLPD directly correlated with the percentage of smudge cells and is significantly increased in patients with typical B-CLL. This phenomenon is much less evident in patients with atypical/mixed B-CLL and B-NHL. In small laboratories without FCM and cytogenetic, smudge cells%, can be utilized as a preliminary diagnostic and prognostic tool in differential diagnosis of CLPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Easy fix for clinical laboratories for the false-positive defect with the Abbott AxSym total beta-hCG test.

    PubMed

    Cole, Laurence A; Khanlian, Sarah A

    2004-05-01

    False-positive hCG results can lead to erroneous diagnoses and needless chemotherapy and surgery. In the last 2 years, eight publications described cases involving false-positive hCG tests; all eight involved the AxSym test. We investigated the source of this abundance of cases and a simple fix that may be used by clinical laboratories. False-positive hCG was primarily identified by absence of hCG in urine and varying or negative hCG results in alternative tests. Seventeen false-positive serum samples in the AxSym test were evaluated undiluted and at twofold dilution with diluent containing excess goat serum or immunoglobulin. We identified 58 patients with false-positive hCG, 47 of 58 due to the Abbott AxSym total hCGbeta test (81%). Sixteen of 17 of these "false-positive" results (mean 100 mIU/ml) became undetectable when tested again after twofold dilution. A simple twofold dilution with this diluent containing excess goat serum or immunoglobulin completely protected 16 of 17 samples from patients having false-positive results. It is recommended that laboratories using this test use twofold dilution as a minimum to prevent false-positive results.

  14. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  15. Comparison of Abbott Architect®, Siemens Immulite®, and Diasorin Liaison® for determination of Epstein-Barr virus serological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    François, Catherine; Segard, Christine; Bouvier, Maryline; Stefanski, Martine; Pannier, Christine; Zawadzki, Patricia; Roussel, Catherine; Hecquet, Denise; Duverlie, Gilles; Brochot, Etienne; Castelain, Sandrine

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the performance of 3 automated immunoassays, Architect ® (Abbott), Immulite ® (Siemens) and Liaison ® (Diasorin), for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology. Ninety-one serum samples collected in Amiens University Hospital were analyzed for the presence of Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) IgG. The agreement between the 3 assays was calculated for each marker individually and for determination of the EBV profile, based on interpretation of the combination of these 3 EBV markers. Although similar results were obtained with Architect ® and Liaison ® , several discordant results were observed with Immulite ® , particularly for EBNA IgG. A large number of EBNA IgG-positive results were observed, which interfered with interpretation of the EBV profile. In contrast, Immulite ® performed similarly to the 2 other assays for detection of VCA IgM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hepatitis A vaccine can be given any time prior to travel. The second dose should be given at least ... disease or other chronic medical conditions planning to travel in 2 weeks or less ... and IG at the same time. The second dose of the 2-dose hepatitis ...

  17. Evaluation of the performance of Abbott m2000 and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman assays for HIV-1 viral load determination using dried blood spots and dried plasma spots in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Clement; Ndiege, Kenneth; Inzaule, Seth; Achieng, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Chih-Wei Chang, Joy; Ellenberger, Dennis; Nkengasong, John

    2017-01-01

    Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya. Matched plasma DBS and DPS were obtained from 200 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients attending patient support centers in Western Kenya. Standard quantitative assay performance parameters with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed at the assays lower detection limit (400cps/ml for CAP/CTM and 550cps/ml for Abbott) using SAS version 9.2. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were further used to assess viral-load thresholds with best assay performance (reference assay CAP/CTM plasma). Using the Abbott test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for DPS were (97.3%, [95%CI: 93.2-99.2] and 98.1% [95%CI: 89.7-100]) and those for DBS (93.9% [95%CI: 88.8-97.2] and 88.0% [95%CI: 82.2-92.4]). The correlation and agreement using paired plasma and DPS/DBS were strong, with r2 = 90.5 and rc = 68.1. The Bland-Altman relative percent change was 95.3 for DPS, (95%CI: 90.4-97.7) and 73.6 (95%CI: 51.6-86.5) for DBS. Using the CAP/CTM assay, the sensitivity for DBS was significantly higher compared to DPS (100.0% [95% CI: 97.6-100.0] vs. 94.7% [95%CI: 89.8-97.7]), while the specificity for DBS was lower: 4%, [95% CI: 0.4-13.7] compared to DPS: 94.0%, [95% CI: 83.5-98.7]. When compared under different clinical relevant thresholds, the accuracy for the Abbott assay was 95% at the 1000cps/ml cut-off with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% [95% CI 91.8-98.7] and 90

  18. Evaluation of the performance of Abbott m2000 and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman assays for HIV-1 viral load determination using dried blood spots and dried plasma spots in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ndiege, Kenneth; Inzaule, Seth; Achieng, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Chih-Wei Chang, Joy; Ellenberger, Dennis; Nkengasong, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya. Methods Matched plasma DBS and DPS were obtained from 200 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients attending patient support centers in Western Kenya. Standard quantitative assay performance parameters with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed at the assays lower detection limit (400cps/ml for CAP/CTM and 550cps/ml for Abbott) using SAS version 9.2. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were further used to assess viral-load thresholds with best assay performance (reference assay CAP/CTM plasma). Results Using the Abbott test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for DPS were (97.3%, [95%CI: 93.2–99.2] and 98.1% [95%CI: 89.7–100]) and those for DBS (93.9% [95%CI: 88.8–97.2] and 88.0% [95%CI: 82.2–92.4]). The correlation and agreement using paired plasma and DPS/DBS were strong, with r2 = 90.5 and rc = 68.1. The Bland-Altman relative percent change was 95.3 for DPS, (95%CI: 90.4–97.7) and 73.6 (95%CI: 51.6–86.5) for DBS. Using the CAP/CTM assay, the sensitivity for DBS was significantly higher compared to DPS (100.0% [95% CI: 97.6–100.0] vs. 94.7% [95%CI: 89.8–97.7]), while the specificity for DBS was lower: 4%, [95% CI: 0.4–13.7] compared to DPS: 94.0%, [95% CI: 83.5–98.7]. When compared under different clinical relevant thresholds, the accuracy for the Abbott assay was 95% at the 1000cps/ml cut-off with a sensitivity and

  19. Distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection performed while monitoring hepatic arterial flow by using a transonic flowmeter during operation.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Masahiro; Ito, Masahiro; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Miyakawa, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic body cancer often involves the common hepatic artery and/or the celiac axis, and is regarded as an unresectable disease. Hepatic blood flow must be monitored while performing distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) for managing the progression of pancreatic body cancer. We first confirmed a safe level of blood flow by monitoring hepatic venous oxygen saturation (ShvO2) to prevent hepatic ischemia caused by occlusion of the common hepatic artery. However, this method is technically difficult and a long period of time is required to insert the catheter. Thus, we monitored hepatic arterial flow by using a transonic flowmeter in the hepatic artery during operation. Between April 1992 and January 2011, 14 patients underwent DP-CAR. In 6 of these 14 patients we measured ShvO2. In 2 of the 14 patients, a transonic flowmeter was used for determining the hepatic arterial flow during operation. There were no complications during this operation. Operation time when the blood flow was monitored using a transonic flowmeter was less than that when ShvO2 was measured. Monitoring the transonic flowmeter hepatic artery is a useful and quick method for real-time evaluation of hepatic circulation during operation.

  20. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  1. [Repeat hepatic resections].

    PubMed

    Popescu, I; Ciurea, S; Braşoveanu, V; Pietrăreanu, D; Tulbure, D; Georgescu, S; Stănescu, D; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of iterative liver resections are presented, out of a total of 150 hepatectomies performed between 1.01.1995-1.01.1998. The resections were carried out for recurrent adenoma (one case), cholangiocarcinoma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (one case), colo-rectal cancer metastasis (one case). Only cases with at least one major hepatic resection were included. Re-resections were more difficult than the primary resection due, first of all, to the modified vascular anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound permitted localization of intrahepatic recurrences. Iterative liver resection appears to be the best therapeutical choice for patients with recurrent liver tumors.

  2. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Acute hepatitis in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Podymova, S D

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G are the most common causes of acute hepatitis, however, there are many infectious diseases affecting liver and with fever, early diagnostics of which is very important for the clinic of internal diseases. This review presents infections, causing fever and hepatitis, but not necessarily accompanied by jaundice. Leptospirosis, yellow fever have been considered, in which liver damage determines the clinic and the prognosis of the disease. In other cases, such as infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus and herpetic hepatitis, typho-para-typhoid infections, typhoid, pneumonia, some viral diseases, malaria, Legionnaire's disease, hepatitis do not have their independent status and represent one of the important syndromes of a common disease. Modern methods of diagnostics and treatment of these diseases have been described.

  4. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Hepatitis Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis... about strategies for staying healthy. On World Hepatitis Day, let each of us lend our support to those...

  5. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Proclamation Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths... save lives and prevent the spread of viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and.... While we have come far, work still needs to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis...

  6. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor); Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  7. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  8. Identification of early HIV infections using the fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CIA) in San Diego County.

    PubMed

    Manlutac, Anna Liza M; Giesick, Jill S; McVay, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    HIV screening assays have gone through several generations of development in an effort to narrow the "window period" of detection. Utilizing a fourth generation HIV screening assay has the potential to detect earlier HIV infection, thus reducing HIV-1 transmission. To identify acute infections to decrease HIV transmission in San Diego County. Serum specimens were collected from clients seen by multiple submitters in San Diego County. All acceptable specimens were screened using the 4th Gen Combo Assay. Initially reactive specimens were repeated in duplicate and if repeatedly reactive, were confirmed by HIV-1 Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay (IFA). IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were sent for HIV-1 NAT and HIV-2 antibody testing to referral laboratories. BioRad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test was also performed on a subset of specimens. Of 14,559 specimens received in 20 months, 14,517 specimens were tested. Of the 14,517 specimens that were tested, a total of 279 (1.9%) specimens were CIA repeatedly reactive and 240 of the 279 confirmed by HIV-1 IFA. Thirty-nine gave IFA negative/inconclusive result and 30 were further tested for HIV-1 NAT and 36 for HIV-2 antibody. Thirteen specimens were considered false positives by CIA and 17 specimens were classified as acute infections. Eleven of 39 IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were further tested by Multispot. Five of the 11 were positive by Multispot. The fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay identified 17 patients who may have been missed by the prior HIV-1 screening assay used at San Diego County Public Health Laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com; Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com; Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are themore » foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.« less

  10. Dengue fever with hepatitis E and hepatitis A infection.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Siddiqui, Shaheer; Riaz, Mehmood

    2009-03-01

    Infection with dengue viruses produces a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal haemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors include the strain and serotype of the infecting virus, as well as the age, immune status, and genetic predisposition of the patient. The teaching point in this case study was Dengue fever which occurred concomitantly with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus infection.

  11. Hepatitis A vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, Hans Dieter

    2008-07-01

    The global disease burden associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) is expected to increase in the coming years due to a shift in the epidemiological pattern of the disease. A decrease in the prevalence of natural immunity is leading to an increased number of adolescents and adults susceptible to a disease that is associated with greater morbidity, mortality and treatment costs in older-age groups. Current HAV vaccines have been shown to be safe, highly immunogenic and confer long-lasting protection against HAV disease. Vaccine-induced antibodies persist for more than 12 years in vaccinated adults and mathematical modeling predicts antibody persistence for more than 25 years in over 95% of vaccine recipients. However, the cost of HAV vaccines has been prohibitive for some countries. Recent studies in countries with transitioning HAV endemicity indicate that the cost-benefit ratio of mass vaccination against HAV would be similar to other routine childhood vaccinations.

  12. Autoimmune hepatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2002-08-01

    AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus in bivalve molluscs sold in Granada (Spain) fish markets.

    PubMed

    Moreno Roldán, Elena; Espigares Rodríguez, Elena; Espigares García, Miguel; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Milagros

    2013-06-01

    Viruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of raw or slightly cooked contaminated shellfish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis A virus in molluscs. Standard and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction procedures were used to monitor bivalve molluscs from the Granada fish markets (southern Spain) for this human enteric virus. Between February 2009 and October 2010, we collected a total of 329 samples of different types of bivalve molluscs (mussels, smooth clams, striped venus, and grooved clams). The results showed the presence of hepatitis A virus in 8.5% of the 329 samples analyzed. We can therefore confirm that conventional fecal indicators are unreliable for demonstrating the presence or absence of viruses. The presence of hepatitis A virus in molluscs destined for human consumption is a potential health risk in southern Spain.

  14. Korean pine nut oil replacement decreases intestinal lipid uptake while improves hepatic lipid metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shuang; Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Consumption of pine nut oil (PNO) was shown to reduce weight gain and attenuate hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PNO on both intestinal and hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed control or HFD. MATERIALS/METHODS Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets containing 10% energy fat from either Soybean Oil (SBO) or PNO, or HFD containing 15% energy fat from lard and 30% energy fat from SBO or PNO for 12 weeks. Expression of genes related to intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and channeling (Cd36, Fatp4, Acsl5, Acbp), intestinal chylomicron synthesis (Mtp, ApoB48, ApoA4), hepatic lipid uptake and channeling (Lrp1, Fatp5, Acsl1, Acbp), hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolysis and FA oxidation (Atgl, Cpt1a, Acadl, Ehhadh, Acaa1), as well as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly (ApoB100) were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS In intestine, significantly lower Cd36 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) and a tendency of lower ApoA4 mRNA levels (P = 0.07) was observed in PNO-fed mice, indicating that PNO consumption may decrease intestinal FA uptake and chylomicron assembly. PNO consumption tended to result in higher hepatic mRNA levels of Atgl (P = 0.08) and Cpt1a (P = 0.05). Significantly higher hepatic mRNA levels of Acadl and ApoB100 were detected in mice fed PNO diet (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PNO could increase hepatic TAG metabolism; mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and VLDL assembly. CONCLUSIONS PNO replacement in the diet might function in prevention of excessive lipid uptake by intestine and improve hepatic lipid metabolism in both control diet and HFD fed mice. PMID:27698954

  15. Fulminant hepatitis failure in adults and children from a Public Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Damião Carlos Moraes dos; Martinho, José Manoel da Silva Gomes; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio Filgueiras; Araújo, Cristina Carvalho Viana de; Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzebio Pereira Dias de; Lago, Barbara Vieira; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2009-10-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is characterized by massive hepatocellular injury, whose physiopathology is still unclear. Hepatitis B (HBV) is probably the most common viral cause of FHF, while hepatitis A (HAV) virus seem occurs less frequently. However, the host and viral factors that determine the outcome of these infections are poorly understood. In the present study, viral load and genotyping determining regions of HAV and HBV genomes were sequenced. Eight FHF patients and one patient with severe acute hepatitis (SAH) were included. Liver and blood samples were collected during liver transplantation or necropsy procedures. HAV-RNA and HBV-DNA were extracted from serum, biopsy and paraffin liver. Nucleotide sequencing of HAV-RNA was performed from VP1/2A and HBV-DNA from PreS/S region. The amplified samples were quantified by Real-Time PCR. The cases of HAV infection were due to subgenotype IA. The cases of HBV infection were due to genotype A2 and D4. The case of HAV/HBV coinfection was infected by genotype IA and D3. Hepatitis A and B infection were associated with genotypes most prevalent in Brazil. In hepatitis A infection the mean of period evolution was 13 days. In hepatitis B, FHF patients infected by genotype D have a shorter period of evolution than FHF patients infected by genotype A (mean 15 v. 53 days). There was no association with genotype-determining region with the severity of hepatitis, however nucleotide differences and high viral load could be observed among FHF.

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis unmasked by nimesulide

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Margarida; Brandão, Ilídio; Caridade, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented at the emergency department, with acute hepatic failure, 2 weeks after taking nimesulide. Presenting with a MELD score of 25.0, the patient was transferred to a specialised liver transplant unit, with the probable diagnosis of toxic hepatitis. After a clinical improvement with supportive care and acetylcysteine, a liver biopsy was executed. The histology revealed micronodular cirrhosis associated with acute hepatitis, with features suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis. The patient was then started on azathioprine 50 mg/day and prednisolone 30 mg/day, and tapering of prednisolone was carried out in the following months. Twenty eight months after treatment, another liver biopsy was performed, showing almost full remission of the disease, with only mild fibrosis and no significant inflammatory infiltrate. PMID:26791119

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis unmasked by nimesulide.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rita; Fonseca, Margarida; Brandão, Ilídio; Caridade, Sofia

    2016-01-20

    A 49-year-old woman presented at the emergency department, with acute hepatic failure, 2 weeks after taking nimesulide. Presenting with a MELD score of 25.0, the patient was transferred to a specialised liver transplant unit, with the probable diagnosis of toxic hepatitis. After a clinical improvement with supportive care and acetylcysteine, a liver biopsy was executed. The histology revealed micronodular cirrhosis associated with acute hepatitis, with features suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis. The patient was then started on azathioprine 50 mg/day and prednisolone 30 mg/day, and tapering of prednisolone was carried out in the following months. Twenty eight months after treatment, another liver biopsy was performed, showing almost full remission of the disease, with only mild fibrosis and no significant inflammatory infiltrate. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Acute hepatitis after amiodarone infusion.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Paulo; Dias, Adelaide; Gonçalves, Helena; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Gama, Vasco

    2015-10-16

    Acute hepatitis is a very rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of intravenous amiodarone. We present a case of an 88-year-old man with history of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and severely depressed left ventricular function that was admitted to our coronary care unit with diagnosis of decompensated heart failure and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. A few hours after the beginning of intravenous amiodarone he developed an acute hepatitis. There was a completely recovery within the next days after amiodarone withdrawn and other causes of acute hepatitis have been ruled out. This case highlights the need for close monitoring of hepatic function during amiodarone infusion in order to identify any potential hepatotoxicity and prevent a fatal outcome. Oral amiodarone is, apparently, a safe option in these patients.

  19. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  20. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:26833263

  1. Viral Hepatitis in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Alastal, Yaseen; Khan, Zubair; Darr, Umar

    2017-01-01

    In South Korea (S. Korea), viral hepatitis is a major public health burden. Advances in healthcare policy, evidence-based medicine, and therapeutic strategies in S. Korea have brought a rapid change in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of viral hepatitis. This review discusses the innovative approaches that S. Korea has taken to curb the epidemic of viral hepatitis. In addition, the efficacy of various preventive and therapeutic modalities is discussed. This review aims to provide a brief overview to guide future research direction and healthcare policy changes. How to cite this article: Pak SC, Alastal Y, Khan Z, Darr U. Viral Hepatitis in South Korea. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(2):163-165. PMID:29201801

  2. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  3. Effects of Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharide and its phosphate on anti-duck hepatitis a virus and alleviating hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Yang, Jingjing; Yao, Fangke; Du, Hongu; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Jingying; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Wu, Yi

    2017-09-01

    To explore new effective anti-duck hepatitis A virus drugs, Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharide (CIPS) was phosphorylation modified using STMP-STPP method, and phosphorylated Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharide (pCIPS) was obtained. Characteristic absorption peaks were observed in pCIPS using IR spectrum, suggested that CIPS was successfully modified. In addition, field emission scanning electron micro-scope (FE-SEM) was used to observe the polysaccharides' surface features. In vitro, we found that the survival rate of DHAV-infected hepatocytes increased after the two drugs treatment, indicated that the two drugs possess good anti-DHAV activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that pCIPS inhibited the virus gene replication more effectively than CIPS. Reed-Muench assay was used to observe the changes of the virulence, and the expression level of IFN-β was observed to verify the changes of virulence. In vivo experiment, the blood virus content reduced after CIPS and pCIPS treatment. To evaluate the ducklings' hepatic injury, the serum ALT, AST, TP and ALB levels were detected. Results showed that both CIPS and pCIPS could alleviate the hepatic injury of ducklings infected DHAV, especially for pCIPS. All the results above mentioned demonstrated that the anti-DHAV activity of CIPS was enhanced after phosphorylation modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a hepatitis B virus endemic area: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunil; Jin, Young-Joo; Yoon, Chang Hwi; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is a type of acute or chronic autoimmune disease that involves subepidermal skin lesions with bulla formation. Although viral infections, such as, human herpes virus (HHV), human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-6, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), are known factors of bullous pemphigoid, HCV infection has only been rarely associated factor, especially in HBV endemic area. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to erythematous bulla of onset 3 months before presentation affecting his entire body. Pathologic findings, that is, subepidermal bullae containing eosinophils and neutrophils with superficial perivascular lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration, were consistent with bullous pemphigoid. Anti-HCV was positive and HCV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.25 x 10 IU/mL. HCV genotype was 2a. After a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection was reached, he was treated with oral methylprednisolone for bullous pemphigoid, and his skin lesions improved. Oral direct-acting antiviral agents (sofosbuvir plus ribavirin) were prescribed for chronic hepatitis C, and sustained viral response was achieved. The authors report a rare case of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection in a HBV endemic area and advise that HCV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of factors precipitating bullous pemphigoid, even in HBV endemic areas.

  5. Anatomy of Hepatic Resectional Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael C; D'Angelica, Michael I

    2016-04-01

    Liver anatomy can be variable, and understanding of anatomic variations is crucial to performing hepatic resections, particularly parenchymal-sparing resections. Anatomic knowledge is a critical prerequisite for effective hepatic resection with minimal blood loss, parenchymal preservation, and optimal oncologic outcome. Each anatomic resection has pitfalls, about which the operating surgeon should be aware and comfortable managing intraoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    PubMed

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], <8.5 μmol/l), direct bilirubin (MV, 20 μmol/l; RR, <3.4 μmol/l), increased activity of gamma glutamyl transferase (MV, 162 U/l; RR, <36 U/l) and glutamate dehydrogenase (MV, 420 U/l; RR, <16 U/l). In addition, activity of glutathione peroxidase was decreased in all tested ( n = 5) animals (MV, 61 U/g hemoglobin [Hb]; RR, >250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  7. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  8. Hepatic Complications of Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elissa; Bakshi, Neeru; Watters, Ashlie; Rosen, Hugo R; Mehler, Philip S

    2017-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography. Individuals with AN and starvation-induced hepatitis are at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to depleted glycogen stores and impaired gluconeogenesis. Gastroenterology and hepatology consultations are often requested when patients with AN and signs of hepatitis are hospitalized. It should be noted that additional laboratory testing, imaging, or liver biopsy all have low diagnostic yield, are costly, and potentially invasive, therefore, not generally recommended for diagnostic purposes. While the hepatitis of AN can reach severe levels, a supervised increase in caloric intake and a return to a healthy body weight often quickly lead to normalization of elevated aminotransferases caused by starvation.

  9. Inactivating hepatic follistatin alleviates hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rongya; Wang, Caixia; Stöhr, Oliver; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Yue; Miao, Ji; Dong, X Charlie; Leng, Sining; Stefater, Margaret; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Lin, Lin; Copps, Kyle D; White, Morris F

    2018-06-04

    Unsuppressed hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes substantially to glucose intolerance and diabetes, which can be modeled by the genetic inactivation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) and Irs2 (LDKO mice). We previously showed that glucose intolerance in LDKO mice is resolved by hepatic inactivation of the transcription factor FoxO1 (that is, LTKO mice)-even though the liver remains insensitive to insulin. Here, we report that insulin sensitivity in the white adipose tissue of LDKO mice is also impaired but is restored in LTKO mice in conjunction with normal suppression of HGP by insulin. To establish the mechanism by which white adipose tissue insulin signaling and HGP was regulated by hepatic FoxO1, we identified putative hepatokines-including excess follistatin (Fst)-that were dysregulated in LDKO mice but normalized in LTKO mice. Knockdown of hepatic Fst in the LDKO mouse liver restored glucose tolerance, white adipose tissue insulin signaling and the suppression of HGP by insulin; however, the expression of Fst in the liver of healthy LTKO mice had the opposite effect. Of potential clinical significance, knockdown of Fst also improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed obese mice, and the level of serum Fst was reduced in parallel with glycated hemoglobin in obese individuals with diabetes who underwent therapeutic gastric bypass surgery. We conclude that Fst is a pathological hepatokine that might be targeted for diabetes therapy during hepatic insulin resistance.

  10. Risk Assessment in Shellfish-Borne Outbreaks of Hepatitis A▿

    PubMed Central

    Pintó, Rosa M.; Costafreda, M. Isabel; Bosch, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we aimed at determining the relationship between the hepatitis A virus (HAV) numbers in imported frozen coquina clams involved in two hepatitis outbreaks, as well as the risk for human health. Due to HAV unculturability, a standardized TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR controlling the virus/nucleic acid extraction and enzyme efficiencies was employed to figure the exposure dose for clams responsible for hepatitis cases. HAV numbers were then employed to figure the risk of infection based on a dose-response model for echovirus 12. The estimated risk of infection after consumption of lightly cooked clams matched actual attack rates. Our data show that prospective monitoring of bivalve samples may fail to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks, since HAV was detected in 44% of samples directly associated with cases but was undetectable in samples that were randomly collected from the importers and belonged to the same batches. A correlation was nevertheless observed between the prevalence of hepatitis A cases in the harvesting areas and positive HAV isolation in clams, which points to the need to identify and prevent hazards rather than relying on random sampling of finished products to ensure safety. However, when evidence shows that a critical limit of viral contamination has been exceeded in the potential sources of contamination discharging into the shellfish-growing beds, quantitative virological analysis addressing quality assurance and quality control requirements should be performed with the bivalves. This work provides the first evidence of accurate HAV levels in shellfish involved in outbreaks that could be of use for risk assessment purposes. PMID:19820160

  11. Hepatic TRAF2 Regulates Glucose Metabolism Through Enhancing Glucagon Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng; Sheng, Liang; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Yujun; Wang, Shaomeng; Brink, Robert; Rui, Liangyou

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with intrahepatic inflammation that promotes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor (TRAF)2 is a key adaptor molecule that is known to mediate proinflammatory cytokine signaling in immune cells; however, its metabolic function remains unclear. We examined the role of hepatic TRAF2 in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. TRAF2 was deleted specifically in hepatocytes using the Cre/loxP system. The mutant mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was examined using pyruvate tolerance tests, 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and in vitro HGP assays. The expression of gluconeogenic genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Insulin sensitivity was analyzed using insulin tolerance tests and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptors and Akt. Glucagon action was examined using glucagon tolerance tests and glucagon-stimulated HGP, cAMP-responsive element–binding (CREB) phosphorylation, and expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and primary hepatocytes. Hepatocyte-specific TRAF2 knockout (HKO) mice exhibited normal body weight, blood glucose levels, and insulin sensitivity. Under HFD conditions, blood glucose levels were significantly lower (by >30%) in HKO than in control mice. Both insulin signaling and the hypoglycemic response to insulin were similar between HKO and control mice. In contrast, glucagon signaling and the hyperglycemic response to glucagon were severely impaired in HKO mice. In addition, TRAF2 overexpression significantly increased the ability of glucagon or a cAMP analog to stimulate CREB phosphorylation, gluconeogenic gene expression, and HGP in primary hepatocytes. These results suggest that the hepatic TRAF2 cell autonomously promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis by enhancing the hyperglycemic response to glucagon and other factors that increase c

  12. Acute hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Osborn, Melissa K; Radziewicz, Henry; Grakoui, Arash; Workowski, Kimberly

    2009-12-01

    Hepatitis C is a common infection worldwide, but acute infection is often asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose. People coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C might progress to chronic liver disease more quickly. We present a case of a man infected with HIV with sexually acquired acute hepatitis C and discuss the immunology, natural history, and epidemiology of acute hepatitis C and coinfection with HIV. Several recent reports have documented acute hepatitis C among men who have sex with men who engage in high risk sexual practices and often have concomitant genital ulcer disease. We review treatment options for the medical management of acute hepatitis C and coinfection with HIV.

  13. Grand Rounds: Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashwani K; Louvet, Alexandre; Shah, Vijay H; Kamath, Patrick S

    2018-06-13

    A 33-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to hospital with recent onset of jaundice of 2-3 weeks duration. He reported heavy use of alcohol for the last 10 years with the last drink a day prior to the onset of symptoms. At admission, he was alert and oriented to time, place, and person, and was deeply jaundiced. His laboratory profile can be summarised as follows: haemoglobin 12.1 g/dl, white blood cell count 18,700 with 81% neutrophils, serum bilirubin 33 (direct 22) mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 147 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 62 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 117 IU/L, serum albumin 2.8 gm/dl, serum creatinine 0.6 mg/dl, prothrombin time 18.3 (control 14.5) seconds, and international normalized ratio 1.48. He was diagnosed with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey discriminant function score of 50) and treated with prednisolone for 28 days with symptomatic and biochemical improvement. His Lille score at seven days was 0.4, and his serum bilirubin had decreased to 3.5 mg/dl at the end of treatment. He was also seen by the addiction team during hospitalisation; he agreed to follow through on recommendations. He was dismissed after completing a three-week inpatient rehabilitation programme but relapsed to alcohol use three months later, and was readmitted with alcohol withdrawal. He was readmitted two months later (about six months from the first episode) for a second episode of severe alcoholic hepatitis. At admission, his model for end-stage liver disease score was 32 and he was treated again with corticosteroids. His Lille score at seven days was 0.6 and steroids were discontinued. The hospital course was complicated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia with development of acute kidney injury. He continued to worsen, developing multiorgan failure. After a course of one month, the family's preference was for him to receive comfort measures. This scenario raises several questions. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the

  14. HEVC real-time decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Benjamin; Alvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; George, Valeri; Chi, Chi Ching; Mayer, Tobias; Juurlink, Ben; Schierl, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The new High Efficiency Video Coding Standard (HEVC) was finalized in January 2013. Compared to its predecessor H.264 / MPEG4-AVC, this new international standard is able to reduce the bitrate by 50% for the same subjective video quality. This paper investigates decoder optimizations that are needed to achieve HEVC real-time software decoding on a mobile processor. It is shown that HEVC real-time decoding up to high definition video is feasible using instruction extensions of the processor while decoding 4K ultra high definition video in real-time requires additional parallel processing. For parallel processing, a picture-level parallel approach has been chosen because it is generic and does not require bitstreams with special indication.

  15. User satisfaction with realtime teleneurology.

    PubMed

    Craig, J; Russell, C; Patterson, V; Wootton, R

    1999-01-01

    User satisfaction (i.e. that of patients, medical staff at a remote hospital and medical staff at a neurological centre) with realtime teleneurology consultations was studied prospectively. Twenty-five patients with neurological problems admitted to a hospital without permanent neurological cover were assessed from a neurological centre by specialist neurologists using realtime video-links transmitting at 384 kbit/s. All users reported high levels of satisfaction with the technical aspects of the consultations. Patients, almost universally, reported confidence in teleneurology as a means of dealing with their presenting complaints. Similarly, medical staff at either site felt confident in managing patients using teleneurology and almost always felt that a telephone consultation would not have achieved as good an outcome. No major organizational problems were identified. These findings suggest overall user satisfaction with realtime teleneurology for managing patients with neurological problems admitted to hospitals that do not have resident neurologists.

  16. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Real-Time Network Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Report No. WH97JR00-A002 Sponsored by REAL-TIME NETWORK MANAGEMENT FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT K CD July 1998 CO CO O W O Defense Advanced...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. t^GquALmmsPEami Report No. WH97JR00-A002 REAL-TIME NETWORK MANAGEMENT Synectics Corporation...2.1.2.1 WAN-class Networks 12 2.1.2.2 IEEE 802.3-class Networks 13 2.2 Task 2 - Object Modeling for Architecture 14 2.2.1 Managed Objects 14 2.2.2

  18. Hepatitis B Among the Khmer

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J Carey; Rhodes, Lorna A; Inui, Thomas S; Buchwald, Dedra

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the comprehensibility of hepatitis B translations for Cambodian refugees, to identify Cambodian illnesses that include the symptoms of hepatitis, and to combine these observations with critical theoretical perspectives of language to reflect on the challenges of medical translation generally. DESIGN Open-ended, semistructured interviews, and participant-observation of a refugee community in Seattle, Washington. SETTING Homes of Cambodian residents of inner-city neighborhoods. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-four adult Cambodian refugees who had each been educated about hepatitis B through public health outreach. RESULTS Medical interpreters translated hepatitis B as rauk tlaam, literally “liver disease.” Unfortunately, while everyone knew of the liver (tlaam), rauk tlaam was a meaningless term to 28 (82%) of 34 respondents and conveyed none of the chronicity and communicability intended by refugee health workers for 34 (100%) of the respondents. In contrast, all respondents knew illnesses named after symptom complexes that include the symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis, but do not refer to diseased organs. The Cambodian words chosen to translate hepatitis B reflect the medical thinking and medical authority that can unintentionally overwhelm attempts at meaningful communication with non–English-speaking patients. CONCLUSIONS To improve comprehension of hepatitis B translations for the Khmer, translators must choose between medical terminology focused on the liver and Khmer terminology which identifies recognizable experiences, but represents important Khmer health concepts. A critical linguistic view of this situation suggests that for these translations to be meaningful clinicians and health educators must first analyze and then monitor the contextual significance of medical language. In cross-cultural settings, this means a partnership with medical interpreters to pay close attention to the expe-rience of illness and social context of the

  19. Hepatitis C and autoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Francesco B; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Ferri, Silvia; Muratori, Luigi

    2007-09-01

    After the discovery of HCV in 1989 a great amount of data has been produced in order to identify a possible aetiology for a number of idiopathic diseases, especially those with a suspected immune origin. Many associations have not been confirmed by prospective studies (as in the case of autoimmune hepatitis); other immune abnormalities, such as the emergence of non organ-specific autoantibodies and cryoglobulins, have been reported by many specific studies. To date, the link between HCV and autoreactivity is tentatively explained on the basis of sequence homologies shared by the HCV polyprotein and "self" proteins (such as CYP 2D6, target of anti-LKM1) (molecular mimicry mechanism); a second interpretation relies on the demonstration that the HCV - B lymphocyte interaction is able to induce a polyclonal B cell activation, an important cofactor for the development of clinically relevant B-lymphocyte autoimmune disorders. In this review we will focus on the major aspects of the autoimmune phenomena in HCV-infected patients, their clinical and therapeutical implications.

  20. Hepatic metabolism of neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Brook, C W; Shulkes, A; Sewell, R B; Smallwood, R A

    1987-04-01

    Neurotensin is released from the intestinal mucosa into the portal circulation and, to exert a systemic effect, it must traverse the liver intact. We examined the potential role of the liver in neurotensin clearance using the isolated perfused rat liver model. With N-terminal and C-terminal directed RIAs and HPLC, we demonstrated rapid metabolism of intact neurotensin to inactive N-terminal fragments in the isolated rat liver system. The disappearance half-lives of C-terminal and N-terminal immunoreactivity were 20.4 +/- 6.0 min and 82.7 +/- 7.7 min, respectively, (P less than 0.002). To assess whether this neurotensin disappearance might be due to metabolism within the perfusate itself by a peptidase released from liver, we further incubated neurotensin in perfusate previously circulated through liver. A rapid and progressive breakdown of intact neurotensin to N-terminal fragments was again shown. These data demonstrate that a substantial proportion of the hepatic clearance of neurotensin is attributable to release of a peptidase by the liver into the circulation.

  1. Hepatitis B virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Juergen; Nassal, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA, ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones; moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids. This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV), now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cell-free systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately, not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the ε RNA element such information is emerging, raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal, will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development. PMID:17206754

  2. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    PubMed

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  3. Hepatic SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis and controls energy balance in mice by inducing fibroblast growth factor 21.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wong, Kimberly; Giles, Amber; Jiang, Jianwei; Lee, Jong Woo; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Yang, Qin; Gao, Bin; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2014-02-01

    The hepatocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like regulator of metabolism. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulates fatty acid metabolism through multiple nutrient sensors. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 reduces steatosis and glucose intolerance in obese mice. We investigated mechanisms by which SIRT1 controls hepatic steatosis in mice. Liver-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 LKO) mice and their wild-type littermates (controls) were divided into groups that were placed on a normal chow diet, fasted for 24 hours, or fasted for 24 hours and then fed for 6 hours. Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by histologic examination, gene expression profiling, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Human HepG2 cells were incubated with pharmacologic activators of SIRT1 (resveratrol or SRT1720) and mitochondrion oxidation consumption rate and immunoblot analyses were performed. FGF21 was overexpressed in SIRT1 LKO mice using an adenoviral vector. Energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Prolonged fasting induced lipid deposition in livers of control mice, but severe hepatic steatosis in SIRT1 LKO mice. Gene expression analysis showed that fasting up-regulated FGF21 in livers of control mice but not in SIRT1 LKO mice. Decreased hepatic and circulating levels of FGF21 in fasted SIRT1 LKO mice were associated with reduced hepatic expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, and increased expression of genes that control lipogenesis, compared with fasted control mice. Resveratrol or SRT1720 each increased the transcriptional activity of the FGF21 promoter (-2070/+117) and levels of FGF21 messenger RNA and protein in HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, SIRT1 LKO mice developed late-onset obesity with impaired whole-body energy expenditure. Hepatic overexpression of FGF21 in SIRT1 LKO mice increased the expression of genes that regulate fatty acid oxidation, decreased

  4. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Masaru; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi

    2014-09-14

    Infection with hepatitis B virus is an important health problem worldwide: it affects more than 350 million people and is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity, accounting for 1 million deaths annually. Hepatic fibrosis is a consequence of the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in the liver. An accurate diagnosis of liver fibrosis is essential for the management of chronic liver disease. Liver biopsy has been considered the gold standard for diagnosing disease, grading necroinflammatory activity, and staging fibrosis. However, liver biopsy is unsuitable for repeated evaluations because it is invasive and can cause major complications, including death. Several noninvasive evaluations have been introduced for the assessment of liver fibrosis: serum biomarkers, combined indices or scores, and imaging techniques including transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse, real-time tissue elastography, and magnetic resonance elastography. Here, we review the recent progress of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Most noninvasive evaluations for liver fibrosis have been validated first in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and later in those with chronic hepatitis B. The establishment of a noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis is urgently needed to aid in the management of this leading cause of chronic liver disease.

  5. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S.; Evans, Tim J.; Rucker, Ed

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured usingmore » real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.« less

  6. Hepatic chemerin mRNA in morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kajor, Maciej; Kukla, Michał; Waluga, Marek; Liszka, Łukasz; Dyaczyński, Michał; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Żądło, Dominika; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Chapuła, Mateusz; Kostrząb-Zdebel, Anna; Bułdak, Rafał J; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Hartleb, Marek

    The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic chemerin mRNA, serum chemerin concentration, and immunohistochemical staining for chemerin and and chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1) in hepatic tissue in 56 morbidly obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to search for a relationship with metabolic and histopathological features. Chemerin mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, chemerin, and CMKLR1 immunohistochemical expression with specific antibodies, while serum chemerin concentration was assessed with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum chemerin concentration reached 874.1 ±234.6 ng/ml. There was no difference in serum chemerin levels between patients with BMI < 40 kg/m2 and ≥ 40 kg/m2. Serum chemerin concentration tended to be higher in patients with hepatocyte ballooning, greater extent of steatosis, and definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver chemerin mRNA was observed in all included patients and was markedly, but insignificantly, higher in those with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, hepatocyte ballooning, greater extent of steatosis, and definite NASH. Hepatic chemerin mRNA might be a predictor of hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and NAFLD activity score (NAS) but seemed not to be a primary driver regulating liver necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis. The lack of association between serum chemerin and hepatic chemerin mRNA may suggest that adipose tissue but not the liver is the main source of chemerin in morbidly obese women.

  7. Evaluation of Gentian cystatin C reagent on Abbott Ci8200 and calculation of glomerular filtration rate expressed in mL/min/1.73 m(2) from the cystatin C values in mg/L.

    PubMed

    Flodin, M; Jonsson, A-S; Hansson, L-O; Danielsson, L-A; Larsson, A

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential when evaluating patients with kidney disease and treating patients with drugs eliminated from the circulation by the kidneys. Cystatin C has been shown in several studies to be superior to creatinine in the estimation of GFR. At our hospitals, there is an increasing demand for cystatin C and at present we perform approximately 1500 cystatin C analyses a month. We thus need the assay available 24 h/day and to have it on our routine chemistry instrument to minimize handling time per test and time to reported test results. We have evaluated a new cystatin C immunoassay from Gentian (Gentian, Moss, Norway) on Architect ci8200 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill., USA). A prerequisite at our hospital is that cystatin C results are reported as a calculated GFR in mL/min/1.73 m(2), so we also made a comparison with iohexol clearance. The Gentian cystatin C assay showed good agreement with the corresponding assay from Dade Behring (Deerfield, Ill., USA) and good inter-laboratory concordance. The assay has very low total imprecision, good linearity and strong correlation with iohexol clearance (R (2) = 0.956). The equation for the correlation curve is: y = 79.901x(-1.4389). There was low inter-laboratory variation between the three laboratories involved in the cystatin C evaluation, and thus all three laboratories can use the same equation for calculating the estimated GFR.

  8. Comparison of BioStar Strep A OIA optical immune assay, Abbott TestPack Plus Strep A, and culture with selective media for diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, M; Kishiyama, C; Davidson, K; Schaefer, L; Todd, J

    1995-01-01

    We directly compared three techniques for the diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in 500 symptomatic children seen in the Emergency Department or Child Care Clinic of The Children's Hospital of Denver. Throats were vigorously swabbed with two rayon swabs, which were transported immediately to the Microbiology Laboratory. Each swab was cultured aerobically on Strep A Isolation Agar (Remel) and then tested for antigen-one swab by the Strep A OIA optical immune assay (BioStar) and the other by the TestPack Plus Strep A (Abbott) technique. Each test was performed blind to the others. The refrigerated pledget was cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth if an antigen test was positive and both direct plate cultures were negative (the "gold standard" was any culture positive). All isolates were serologically grouped. Of 500 complete patient cultures, 151 (30%) were positive for group A streptococcal growth. The two antigen tests gave comparable results with an average sensitivity of 83%. Each was significantly (P < 0.02) less sensitive than its corresponding culture. The BioStar Strep A OIA optical immune assay produced significantly (P < 0.003) more false-positive results than did the Abbott test. Rapid antigen testing is not sensitive enough to eliminate the need for backup cultures. PMID:7650184

  9. Osthole ameliorates hepatic fibrosis and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Wei; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Fu, Shu-Ling; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process which ultimately leads to cirrhosis in almost patients with chronic hepatic injury. However, progressive fibrosis is a reversible scarring response. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the prevailing process during hepatic fibrosis. Osthole is an active component majorly contained in the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. This present study investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole on rat liver fibrosis and HSC activation. We established the thioacetamide (TAA)-model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce hepatic fibrosis. Rats were divided into three groups: control, TAA, and TAA + osthole (10 mg/kg). In vivo, osthole significantly reduced liver injury by diminishing levels of plasma AST and ALT, improving histological architecture, decreasing collagen and α-SMA accumulation, and improving hepatic fibrosis scores. Additionally, osthole reduced the expression of fibrosis-related genes significantly. Osthole also suppressed the production of fibrosis-related cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly suppressed in osthole-treated liver. Osthole also ameliorated TAA-induced injury through reducing cellular oxidation. Osthole showed inhibitory effects in inflammation-related genes and chemokines production as well. In vitro, we assessed osthole effects in activated HSCs (HSC-T6 and LX-2). Osthole attenuated TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion in HSCs. Furthermore, osthole decreased TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activities significantly. Besides, osthole alleviated TGF-β1- or ET-1-induced HSCs contractility. Our study demonstrated that osthole improved TAA-caused liver injury, fibrogenesis and inflammation in rats. In addition, osthole suppressed HSCs activation in vitro significantly.

  10. Hepatitis C: progress and problems.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, J A

    1994-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. HCV isolates differ in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Nucleotide changes are concentrated in hypervariable regions and may be related to immune selection. In most immunocompetent persons, HCV infection is diagnosed serologically, using antigens from conserved regions. Amplification of RNA may be necessary to detect infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transmission by known parenteral routes is frequent; other means of spread are less common and may represent inapparent, percutaneous dissemination. Infection can lead to classical acute hepatitis, but most infected persons have no history of acute disease. Once infected, most individuals apparently remain carriers of the virus, with varying degrees of hepatocyte damage and fibrosis ensuing. Chronic hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, disease progression varies widely, from less than 2 years to cirrhosis in some patients to more than 30 years with only chronic hepatitis in others. Determinants important in deciding outcome are unknown. Alpha interferon, which results in sustained remission in selected patients, is the only available therapy. Long-term benefits from such therapy have not been demonstrated. Prevention of HCV infection by vaccination is likely to be challenging if ongoing viral mutation results in escape from neutralization and clearance. PMID:7834603

  11. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  12. Hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Da; Wang, Jianmin; Tian, Yuepeng; Li, Qiuguo; Yan, Haixiong; Wang, Biao; Xiong, Li; Li, Qinglong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rational: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which expresses both myogenic and melanocytic markers. PEComas are found in a variety locations in the body, but up to now only approximately 30 cases about hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor are reported in English language worldwide. Patient concerns: A 32-year-old woman was admitted in our hospital with intermittent right upper quadrant pain for 1 month and recent (1 day) progressive deterioration. Diagnoses: Based on the results of the laboratory examinations and the findings of the computed tomography, the diagnosis of hepatic hamartoma or the hepatocecullar carcinoma with hemorrhage was made. Interventions: The patient underwent a segmentectomy of the liver, and the finally diagnosis of hepatic PEComa was made with immunohistochemical confirmation with HMB-45 and SMA. Outcomes: There is no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence 9 months after surgery. Lessons: This kind of tumor is extremely rare and the natural history of PEComa is uncertain, as the treatment protocol for hepatic PEComa has not reached a consensus. But the main treatment of the disease may be surgical resection. Only after long term follow-up can we know whether the tumor is benign or malignant. It appears that longer clinical follow-up is necessary in all patients with hepatic PEComas. PMID:28002331

  13. Emerging concepts in alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Phoenix; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Severe alcoholic hepatitis is implicated as a costly, worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. The one-month survival for severe alcoholic hepatitis is low with mortality rates high as 30%-50%. Abstinence from alcohol is the recommended first-line treatment. Although corticosteroids remain as the current evidence based option for selected patients with discriminant function > 32, improvement of short-term survival rate may be the only benefit. Identification of individuals with risk factors for the development of severe alcoholic hepatitis may provide insight to the diverse clinical spectrum and prognosis of the disease. The understanding of the complex pathophysiologic processes of alcoholic hepatitis is the key to elucidating new therapeutic treatments. Newer research describes the use of gut microbiota modification, immune modulation, stimulation of liver regeneration, caspase inhibitors, farnesoid X receptors, and the extracorporeal liver assist device to aid in hepatocellular recovery. Liver transplantation can be considered as the last medical option for patients failing conventional medical interventions. Although the preliminary data is promising in patients with low risk of recividism, controversy remains due to organ scarcity. This review article comprehensively summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and prognostic indicators of severe alcoholic hepatitis with a focus on the current and emerging therapeutics. PMID:28515843

  14. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Awards Hepatitis B Foundation 5-Year Cooperative Agreement It Takes a Coalition to Fight Hepatitis B ... Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg HBF Awarded 3-Year Cooperative Agreement from CDC About "A Nobel Challenge" Cure Agenda ...

  15. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? Hepatitis A (HepA) Yes! Your chronic liver disease puts you ... serious complications if you get infected with the hepatitis A virus. If you’ve never been vaccinated against ...

  16. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Table 3.3 Number of newly reported case-reports* of confirmed chronic hepatitis B submitted by states ... Table 4.3 Number of newly reported case-reports* of confirmed past or present hepatitis C infection ...

  17. Screening for Hepatitis C Infections in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Hepatitis C ...

  18. Hepatitis delta virus infection in a large cohort of chronic hepatitis B patients in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aberra, Hanna; Gordien, Emmanuel; Desalegn, Hailemichael; Berhe, Nega; Medhin, Girmay; Mekasha, Bitsatab; Gundersen, Svein G; Gerber, Athenaïs; Stene-Johansen, Kathrine; Øverbø, Joakim; Johannessen, Asgeir

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is associated with a more severe outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, little is known about the presence of HDV in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HDV infection, as well as its clinical, biological and virological characteristics, in a large CHB cohort in Ethiopia. In total, 1267 HIV-negative CHB patients at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa were screened for anti-HDV antibodies using ELISA assays. Confirmed positive samples were further tested for HDV RNA using a consensus commercial real-time RT-PCR assay. HDV genotypes were also determined for RNA-positive samples by nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses. Demographical, clinical and biological data from patients were recorded and compared based on HDV RNA results. Most patients (n = 748, 59.0%) were men, and the median age was 31 years (interquartile range 26-40). Anti-HDV antibodies were detected in 19 individuals (1.5%), 12 of whom were HDV RNA-positive with a viral load ranging from <2 to >8 log 10 IU/mL. All strains were genotype 1. HDV RNA-positive patients were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis (63.6% vs 24.7%, P = .007) and cirrhosis (45.5% vs 16.4%, P = .024). HDV infection is rare in Ethiopia but is associated with more advanced liver fibrosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C among hemodialysis patients in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mhalla, S; Hammoud, R; Frih, A; Kadri, Y; El Argoubi, A; Elmay, M; Mastouri, M

    2018-05-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at increased risk of infection by hepatitis C and B viruses, which are significant causes of mortality and morbidity. Prevention of their transmission in hemodialysis units remains a challenge worldwide. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these two infections and to explore major risk factors among patients on chronic hemodialysis. We performed a cross-sectional study of 109 hemodialysis patients (mean duration of hemodialysis of seven years) between 2012 and 2014 in a Teaching Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia. Hepatitis B and C serological markers were searched for using a chemiluminescent assay. Genome detection was performed using a commercially available quantitative real-time PCR test. A total of 109 hemodialysis patients were enrolled (75 males and 34 females). Ages ranged from 21 to 81 years. Six (5.5%) of these 109 patients had HBV infection defined by a positive HBsAg in four (3.7%) patients and by a detectable DNA associated with an "isolated anti-HBc" profile in the remaining two patients. Hepatitis C was observed in eight patients (7.3%) and five of them had detectable RNA. Hemodialysis duration ˃5years was the main risk factor for hepatitis C infection (P=0.01; OR: 3.11; 95% CI [1.57-13.71]). Our findings confirm the downward trend of the prevalence of both hepatitis B and C infections among Tunisian hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis duration remains the main risk factor for hepatitis C infection. Occult hepatitis B infection should be suspected and investigated, especially among patients with an "isolated anti-HBc" profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Klar, E; Kraus, T; Bleyl, J; Newman, W H; Bowman, H F; Hofmann, W J; Kummer, R; Bredt, M; Herfarth, C

    1999-09-01

    Hepatic microcirculation is a main determinant of reperfusion injury and graft quality in liver transplantation. Methods available for the quantification of hepatic microcirculation are indirect, are invasive, or preclude postoperative application. The aim of this study was the validation of thermodiffusion in a new modification allowing long-term use in the clinical setting. In six pigs Doppler flowmeters were positioned around the hepatic artery and portal vein for the measurement of total liver blood flow. Liver perfusion was quantified by thermodiffusion and compared to H(2) clearance as an established technique under baseline conditions, during different degrees of portal venous obstruction and during occlusion of the hepatic artery. Thermodiffusion measurements were recorded for five days postoperatively followed by histological evaluation of the hepatic puncture site. Perfusion data obtained by thermodiffusion were significantly correlated to H(2) clearance (r = 0.94, P < 0. 001) and to liver blood flow (r = 0.9, P < 0.05). The agreement between thermodiffusion and H(2) clearance was excellent (mean difference -2.1 ml/100 g/min; limits of agreement -12.5 and 8.3 ml/100 g/min). Occlusion of the portal vein or hepatic artery was immediately detected by thermodiffusion, indicating a decrease of perfusion by 64 +/- 7% or 27 +/- 5% of baseline, respectively. Perfusion values at baseline and during vascular occlusion were reproducible during the entire observation period. Histological changes of the liver tissue adjacent to the thermodiffusion probes were minute and did not influence long-term measurements. In vivo validation proved that enhanced thermodiffusion is a minimally invasive technique for the continuous, real-time quantification of hepatic microcirculation. Changes in liver perfusion can be safely detected over several days postoperatively. The implication for liver transplantation has led to the clinical application of thermodiffusion. Copyright 1999

  2. Hepatitis C Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rochlani, Maya; Lewis, Jessica H.; Ramsey, Glenn E.; Bontempo, Franklin A.; Shah, Gunjan; Bowman, Rebecca A.; van Thiel, David H.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma samples from 1,182 patients undergoing primary liver transplantation were tested for anti-hepatitis C (HCV) virus by two methods: Ortho HCV ELISA Test System (EIA) and Chiron RIBA HCV Test System (RIBA II). The EIA results, 0 or +, were recorded first, followed by RIBA results, N = negative, P = positive, or I = indeterminate. Concordant results—0N, + P, + I—were found in 1,076 (91%), and discordant results were found in 106 (9%). The EIA optical density did not relate to concordant or discordant results. Band patterns were described by stating the band position (1, 2, 3, or 4) and insetting a dash (−) if no band was visualized. Most + P samples fell into two patterns: 47% showed all four bands, pattern 1234, and 15% showed the two-band pattern, 34. When the EIA was negative, 0P, the opposite was seen: 8% showed the 1234 pattern and 81% showed the 34 pattern. There were 226 samples that formed bands (+ P, 149; 0P, 31; + I, 15; 0I, 31). The frequency of bands was as follows: 4, 32%; 3, 31%; 2, 19%; and 1, 18%. Band 2 and the EIA test detected antibodies to the same c100-3 fragment and showed 74% concordance. No explanation is apparent for the lower concordance rate here than that between the EIA test and bands 3 = 96% or 4 = 88%. The EIA and RIBA II tests, together with positive liver function tests and abnormal tissue pathologic findings, provide a basis for the diagnosis of HCV. PMID:1377442

  3. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  4. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  5. Spontaneous hepatic rupture in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E W; Archibald, L; Albo, D

    1977-12-01

    Hepatic rupture as a late complication of toxemic pregnancy is a rare yet lethal condition requiring rapid recognition and surgical management. The clinical triad of toxemia, right upper quadrant pain, and sudden hypotension is the diagnostic hallmark of presentation. Most patients present near the time of delivery and are found to have subcapsular hematomas of the right hepatic lobe with free rupture into the peritoneal cavity and resultant exsanguinating hemorrhage. The association of toxemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation with secondary microembolic damage to the liver and other organs has been discussed. Basic surgical principles in the managment of hepatic subcapsular hematomas, and the prolonged postoperative course and frequent complications in these patients have been stressed.

  6. Hepatitis E in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Hannah C; Boisson, Sophie; Ijaz, Samreen; Hewitt, Kirsten; Ngui, Siew Lin; Boxall, Elizabeth; Teo, Chong Gee; Morgan, Dilys

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 329 cases of hepatitis E virus infection were confirmed in England and Wales; 33 were confirmed indigenous infections, and a further 67 were estimated to be indigenous infections. Hepatitis E should be considered in the investigation of patients with hepatitis even if they have no history of travel.

  7. Hepatitis E in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah C.; Boisson, Sophie; Ijaz, Samreen; Hewitt, Kirsten; Ngui, Siew Lin; Boxall, Elizabeth; Teo, Chong Gee

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 329 cases of hepatitis E virus infection were confirmed in England and Wales; 33 were confirmed indigenous infections, and a further 67 were estimated to be indigenous infections. Hepatitis E should be considered in the investigation of patients with hepatitis even if they have no history of travel. PMID:18258100

  8. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... the virus from: Birth (spread from an infected mother to her baby during birth) Sex with an infected partner Sharing needles, syringes, or ... hepatitis B virus. This includes: Infants born to mothers with hepatitis B Health Care ... patients Sex partners of someone with hepatitis B Any other ...

  9. Hepatitis B reactivation and timing for prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    It is known that immunotherapy and cancer chemotherapy may cause hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers and inactive chronic hepatitis B patients. Guidelines recommend antiviral prophylaxis regardless of HBV DNA levels to prevent reactivation. We read from the article written by Liu et al that Lamivudine was given inadequate time for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:25717269

  10. Hepatic vascular shunts: embryology and imaging appearances

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, P; Vaidya, S; Kolokythas, O; Katz, D S; Dighe, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to understand the embryological basis of the development of congenital hepatic vascular shunts and to review the multimodality imaging appearances of congenital and acquired hepatic vascular shunts. Hepatic vascular shunts are commonly seen in imaging. Familiarity with their characteristic appearances is important in order to accurately characterise these shunts and diagnose the underlying disorders. PMID:22101582

  11. Abbott Preschool: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Laura Fasbach

    2009-01-01

    When New Jersey set out to level the educational playing field between the state's poorest and wealthiest school districts a decade ago, one of the mission's most important components was ensuring teacher quality met the same high standards regardless of zip code. Research shows, a teacher's own education and training in early childhood education…

  12. Abbott, Francis (1799-1883)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Watchmaker, born in Derby, England, convict, transported to Tasmania in 1845. He made astronomical observations at the Rossbank Observatory after the end of his sentence until its closure in 1854 and in his private laboratory in Hobart....

  13. Epitope-based recombinant diagnostic antigen to distinguish natural infection from vaccination with hepatitis A virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiudong; Guo, Minzhuo; Jia, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Feng; Lu, Xuexin; Gao, Yan; Meng, Qingling; Tian, Ruiguang; Bi, Shengli; Yi, Yao

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection can stimulate the production of antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. However, vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine produces antibodies mainly against structural proteins, whereas no or very limited antibodies are produced against the non-structural proteins. Current diagnostic assays to determine exposure to HAV, such as the Abbott HAV AB test, detect antibodies only to the structural proteins and so are not able to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated virus. Here, we constructed a recombinant tandem multi-epitope diagnostic antigen (designated 'H1') based on the immune-dominant epitopes of the non-structural proteins of HAV to distinguish the two situations. H1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity and anion exchange chromatography was applied in a double-antigen sandwich ELISA for the detection of anti-non-structural HAV proteins, which was confirmed to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of Association between Hepatitis C Virus core Gene Variation 70/91aa and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Scalioni, Letícia de Paula; da Silva, Allan Peres; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; Espírito Santo, Márcia Paschoal do; Marques, Vanessa Alves; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-07-21

    The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in insulin resistance (IR) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the core region of HCV according to IR and to identify clinical and laboratory associations. Ninety-two treatment-naive HCV patients were recruited to determine laboratory data and blood cell count. IR was determined using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index where IR was defined as HOMA ≥2. HCV RNA load and genotype were determined by Abbott Real time HCV. HCV core region was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Bivariate analysis was conducted using HOMA IR ≥2 as a dependent factor. IR prevalence was 43.5% ( n = 40), vitamin D sufficiency was found in 76.1% ( n = 70) and 72.8% ( n = 67) had advanced liver fibrosis. In the bivariate analyses, elevated values of γGT ( p = 0.024) and fibrosis staging ( p = 0.004) were associated with IR, but IR was not related to core mutations. The presence of glutamine in position 70 was associated with low vitamin D concentration ( p = 0.005). In the multivariate analysis, no variable was independently associated with HOMA-IR. In conclusion, lack of association between IR and HCV core mutations in positions 70 and 91 suggests that genetic variability of this region has little impact on IR.

  15. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin®. PMID:26355220

  16. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  17. Performance of a Highly Sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Setting: a Prospective Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Borrás, Rafael; Briones, María Luisa; Clari, María Ángeles; Cresencio, Vicenta; Giménez, Estela; Muñoz, Carmen; Oltra, Rosa; Servera, Emilio; Scheelje, Talia; Tornero, Carlos; Navarro, David

    2018-05-01

    The potential impact of routine real-time PCR testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis in terms of diagnostic accuracy and time to tuberculosis treatment inception in low-prevalence settings remains largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective intervention cohort study. Respiratory specimens from 1,020 patients were examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, tested by a real-time Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex PCR assay (Abbott RealTi me MTB PCR), and cultured in mycobacterial media. Seventeen patients tested positive by PCR (5 were acid-fast bacillus smear positive and 12 acid-fast bacillus smear negative), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was recovered from cultures for 12 of them. Patients testing positive by PCR and negative by culture ( n = 5) were treated and deemed to have responded to antituberculosis therapy. There were no PCR-negative/culture-positive cases, and none of the patients testing positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria ( n = 20) yielded a positive PCR result. The data indicated that routine testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis by the RealTi me MTB PCR assay improves the tuberculosis diagnostic yield and may reduce the time to antituberculosis treatment initiation. On the basis of our data, we propose a novel mycobacterial laboratory algorithm for tuberculosis diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. [Acute hepatitis following amiodarone administration].

    PubMed

    Tagliamonte, E; Cice, G; Ducceschi, V; Mayer, M S; Iacono, A

    1997-09-01

    A 61 year old man, treated with amiodarone since 1993 for resistant supraventricular arrhythmias, developed acute hepatitis after an intravenous amiodarone administration. Kidney and liver function tests were performed and pointed out abnormal results. Symptoms ascribable to hepatotoxicity were absent. These changes returned to normal levels within 20 days from withdrawal of the drug. Amiodarone hepatotoxicity can be related to prolonged therapy with a high dose. Intravenous amiodarone may cause acute hepatic disease, but it is suggested that polysorbate 80, a solvent added to the intravenous infusion, is a more likely cause of this complication.

  19. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert S.

    2005-08-01

    Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

  20. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  1. Clinical and virological improvement of hepatitis B virus-related or hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis with concomitant hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pisapia, Raffaella; Onofrio, Mirella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Catuogno, Antonio; Scolastico, Carlo; Piccinino, Felice; Filippini, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and virological characteristics of hepatitis A virus infection in persons concomitantly infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We enrolled 21 patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis with no sign of liver cirrhosis, 13 patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (case B group), 8 patients who were anti-HCV positive (case C group), and 21 patients with acute hepatitis A without a preexisting liver disease (control A group). Two control groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (control B group) or C (control C group) were also chosen. All control groups were pair-matched by age and sex with the corresponding case group. Fulminant hepatitis A was never observed, and hepatitis A had a severe course in 1 patient in the case B group and in 1 patient in the control A group. Both patients recovered. On admission, HBV DNA was detected in 1 patient in the case B group (7.7%) and in 13 patients (50%) in the control B group; HCV RNA was found in no patient in the case C group and in 16 patients (81.2%) in the control C group. Of 9 patients in the case B group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, 2 remained positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and negative for HBV DNA, and 4 became positive for HBV DNA with a low viral load [corrected] Of 6 patients in the case C group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 remained negative for HCV RNA, and 3 had persistently low viral loads. Concomitant hepatitis A was always self-limited, associated with a marked inhibition of HBV and HCV genomes, and possibly had a good prognosis for the underlying chronic hepatitis.

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Abou Kheir, Selim; Saba, Jowana; Ammar, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex. This national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests. Of 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6-1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16-0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%). The prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Deformation-based augmented reality for hepatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Haouchine, Nazim; Dequidt, Jérémie; Berger, Marie-Odile; Cotin, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a method for augmenting the laparoscopic view during hepatic tumor resection. Using augmented reality techniques, vessels, tumors and cutting planes computed from pre-operative data can be overlaid onto the laparoscopic video. Compared to current techniques, which are limited to a rigid registration of the pre-operative liver anatomy with the intra-operative image, we propose a real-time, physics-based, non-rigid registration. The main strength of our approach is that the deformable model can also be used to regularize the data extracted from the computer vision algorithms. We show preliminary results on a video sequence which clearly highlights the interest of using physics-based model for elastic registration.

  4. [Analysis of related factors for primary hepatic carcinoma caused by chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Nie, L; Wang, X C; Niu, J Q; Shang, J; Han, Y; Xin, G J; Jia, G; Li, J L; Ding, G W; Liu, Z F

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To explore the related factors for primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) caused by chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatitis C (CHC). Methods: According to the principle of cross-sectional study, a cluster random sample method was used, a total of 366 chronic hepatitis patients in hospitals were recruited from three provincial tertiary hospitals in Shanxi, Henan and Jilin between July 2016 and October 2016, respectively. Using a self-designed unified questionnaire, face-to-face interviews was conducted on subjects, including sex, age, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, green tea consumption, fish consumption, smoking, HBV/HCV diagnosis and treatment, diabetes mellitus, family history of PHC (whether PHC in first-degree relatives), etc . Multivariate unconditional logistic regression were performed to identify the related factors for PHC with CHB and CHC. According to the clinical diagnosis the patients were divided into a chronic hepatitis group (not developing to PHC) and a PHC group. Results: Among 366 cases patients, 287 (78.4%) cases were male, 79 cases were female (21.6%), average age was (52.7±9.3) years. 202 cases were chronic hepatitis group, 164 cases were PHC group. Multivariate unconditional logistics regression analysis indicated that alcohol consumption (odds ratio ( OR )=2.11, 95 %CI: 1.18-3.75), family history of PHC ( OR= 5.12, 95 %CI: 2.60-10.08) were positively correlated with the development of PHC in chronic b, green tea consumption ( OR= 0.45, 95 %CI: 0.23-0.88), antiviral treatment ( OR= 0.19, 95 %CI: 0.11-0.32) were negatively correlated. Alcohol consumption ( OR= 3.98, 95 %CI: 1.14-13.85) was positively correlated with the development of PHC in chronic c, antiviral treatment ( OR= 0.14, 95 %CI: 0.04-0.50) was negatively correlated. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption, family history of PHC, green tea consumption and antiviral treatment were the related factors for the development of PHC in chronic hepatitis b. Alcohol consumption and

  5. Mercury contamination from mine and natural sources in Harley Gulch, downstream from the Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury Mines, Lake County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hothem, R. L.; Rytuba, J. J.; Goldstein, D.; Brussee, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Abbott and Turkey Run Mercury (Hg) mine area in central California has released Hg tailings into the Harley Gulch watershed since 1862. Harley Gulch flows into Cache Creek which is a significant source of Hg into San Francisco Bay Delta. Thermal mine water effluent emanating from the Turkey Run adit flows into the upper part of the watershed. Despite remediation efforts, Hg tailings and enriched sediment remain in the Harley Gulch wetlands and in the creek downstream from the mine area. Water, sediment, and biota have been sampled from below the mine area to 15 km downstream to the confluence with Cache Creek in order to assess the impact of Hg on water quality and biota. Two previously unrecognized natural sources of Hg in the watershed are connate groundwater with elevated levels of Hg, and biogenic sediment composed of phytoplankton that accumulates in the upper part of the watershed during the dry season. The connate groundwater source contains isotopically-heavy Mg-Ca-Cl-CO3-SO4 water that has elevated concentrations of Ba, W, Ti, and Hg. This water first enters Harley Gulch in the central part of the wetland immediately downstream from the mine area and continues to contribute water downstream for a distance of 1.5 km. It is both chemically and isotopically distinct from the thermal mine water effluent from the Turkey Run adit. The biogenic source consists of blooms of phytoplankton that accumulate to a thickness of up to 0.2 m. Phytoplankton have a large bioaccumulation factor of Hg and monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) that results in a high concentrations of Hg and MMeHg (Hg: 5-25 μg/g, MMeHg 5.2 ng/g) in the biogenic sediment. The tan biogenic sediment at the surface consists of living diatoms and below it is a layer of black reduced biogenic sediment consisting of diatom fragments with micron- to submicron-sized FeS, HgS, and barite grains. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate to sulfide in the pore waters of the biogenic sediment that reacts with

  6. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Recombinant-Antigen-Based Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Automated Immunoassay Using the Abbott AxSYM Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Maine, G. T.; Stricker, R.; Schuler, M.; Spesard, J.; Brojanac, S.; Iriarte, B.; Herwig, K.; Gramins, T.; Combs, B.; Wise, J.; Simmons, H.; Gram, T.; Lonze, J.; Ruzicki, D.; Byrne, B.; Clifton, J. D.; Chovan, L. E.; Wachta, D.; Holas, C.; Wang, D.; Wilson, T.; Tomazic-Allen, S.; Clements, M. A.; Wright, G. L.; Lazzarotto, T.; Ripalti, A.; Landini, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    A new microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) test, was developed on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer. This test uses recombinant CMV antigens derived from portions of four structural and nonstructural proteins of CMV: pUL32 (pp150), pUL44 (pp52), pUL83 (pp65), and pUL80a (pp38). A total of 1,608 specimens from random volunteer blood donors (n = 300), pregnant women (n = 1,118), transplant recipients (n = 6), and patients with various clinical conditions and disease states (n = 184) were tested during development and evaluation of this new assay. In a preliminary clinical evaluation we tested specimens collected prospectively from pregnant women (n = 799) and selected CMV IgM-positive archived specimens from pregnant women (n = 39). The results from the new CMV IgM immunoassay were compared to the results of a consensus interpretation of the results obtained with three commercial CMV IgM immunoassays. The results for specimens with discordant results were resolved by a CMV IgM immunoblot assay. The relative sensitivity, specificity, and agreement for the AxSYM CMV IgM assay were 94.29, 96.28, and 96.19%, respectively, and the resolved sensitivity, specificity, and agreement were 95.83, 97.47, and 97.37%, respectively. We also tested serial specimens from women who experienced seroconversion or a recent CMV infection during gestation (n = 17) and potentially cross-reactive specimens negative for CMV IgM antibody by the consensus tests (n = 184). The AxSYM CMV IgM assay was very sensitive for the detection of CMV IgM during primary CMV infection, as shown by the detection of CMV IgM at the same time as or just prior to the detection of CMV IgG. Specimens from individuals with lupus (n = 16) or parvovirus B19 infection (n = 6) or specimens containing hyper IgM (n = 9), hyper IgG (n = 8), or rheumatoid factor (n = 55) did not cross-react with the AxSYM assay. One specimen each from individuals infected with Epstein-Barr virus

  7. Management of adult blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Kozar, Rosemary A; McNutt, Michelle K

    2010-12-01

    To review the nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury in the adult trauma population. Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to a patient at increased risk of hepatic complications following nonoperative management. Blunt hepatic injury remains a frequent intraabdominal injury in the adult trauma population. The management of blunt hepatic injury has undergone a major paradigm shift from mandatory operative exploration to nonoperative management. Hemodynamic instability with a positive focused abdominal sonography for trauma and peritonitis are indications for emergent operative intervention. Although surgical intervention for blunt hepatic trauma is not as common as in years past, it is imperative that the current trauma surgeon be familiar with the surgical skill set to manage complex hepatic injuries. This study represents a review of both nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury.

  8. Sinusoidal portal hypertension in hepatic amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bion, E; Brenard, R; Pariente, E A; Lebrec, D; Degott, C; Maitre, F; Benhamou, J P

    1991-01-01

    Hepatic venous catheterisation and transvenous liver biopsy were performed in five patients with hepatic amyloidosis. In three patients, hepatic venous pressures were normal and histological examination of the liver biopsy specimen showed discrete and sparse perisinusoidal amyloid deposits. In the other two, however, the gradient between wedged and free hepatic venous pressures was increased (12 and 16 mmHg; normal 1-4 mmHg) and amyloid deposits were abundant and diffuse in the Disse's space. This study shows that portal hypertension in patients with hepatic amyloidosis is of the sinusoidal type and is related to the reduction of vascular space of hepatic sinusoids by massive perisinusoidal amyloid deposits. Furthermore, portal hypertension is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatic amyloidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1864548

  9. Chronic urticaria following acute hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Paul M; Kevat, Dev A S; McCarthy, James S; Woods, Marion L

    2012-09-18

    Urticaria has a documented association with the prodromal phases of hepatitis A, B and, although still contentious, likely hepatitis C. Despite the documented association there are few actual reported cases of urticaria occurring with hepatitis A infection and in all of the cases reported so far the urticaria preceded the diagnosis of hepatitis A and was acute rather than chronic. We describe a case of urticaria occurring following acute infection with hepatitis A, which persisted beyond 6 weeks and therefore was by definition chronic. Although chronic urticaria has been reported to be associated with other forms of viral hepatitis, to the best of our knowledge this has not been reported previously with hepatitis A.

  10. [Hepatitis: a longstanding companion in human history].

    PubMed

    Craxi, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis has gone along with human history since its origins, due to its prompt identifiability linked to jaundice as a symptom. Written evidence of outbreaks of epidemic jaundice can be tracked back a few millenniums before Christ. Unavoidable confusion arises due to the overlap of different sources possibly linked to different aetiologies, identified over time as epidemic jaundice (HAV or HEV hepatitis?) and serum hepatitis (HBV or HCV hepatitis?). The journey that brought to recognize viruses as the main cause of jaundice was long and started midway during the last century, when the infectious hypothesis, which had taken place step by step, was finally confirmed by epidemiological investigations of an outbreak occurring in the US army in 1942, after a yellow fever immunization campaign. Further research identified two clinically different types of hepatitis, called for the first time hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

  11. Sarcoidosis onset simulating a unique hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Diéguez Castillo, Carmelo; Martín-Lagos Maldonado, Alicia; Ríos Pelegrina, Rosa María; Díaz Alcázar, María Del Mar; Roa Colomo, Amparo; Ruiz Escolano, Elena

    2018-06-22

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease with an uncertain etiology, characterized by the production of non-necrotizing granulomas. The most frequent presentation is pulmonary and mediastinal, although it might affect any other organ. Hepatic alterations occur in 50 to 65% of the cases. Nevertheless, it is commonly subclinical or detected during a study of the alteration of liver enzymes. It is very unusual that disease onset occurs as an isolated hepatic tumor. A hepatic biopsy is usually required to confirm the diagnosis. A differential diagnosis must be established via any hepatic granulomatous disease, infectious or autoimmune disease as well as the exclusion of malignancy. We present a clinical case of a female diagnosed with an isolated hepatic sarcoidosis that simulated a unique hepatic metastatic lesion. The hepatic biopsy was diagnostic.

  12. Angioblastic meningioma with hepatic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Petito, Carol K.; Porro, Robert S.

    1971-01-01

    Infrequently, intracranial neoplasms metastasize to extracranial sites. In 1963, Glasauer and Yuan reviewed the 88 reported cases of metastatic intracranial tumours of which approximately two-fifths were meningiomas. This report concerns an angioblastic meningioma with a large hepatic metastasis. Cushing's original classification of angioblastic meningiomas and the differential diagnosis between these tumours and the haemangiopericytoma and cerebellar haemangioblastoma are discussed. Images PMID:5166210

  13. Access to hepatitis C medicines

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Delphi GM; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines. PMID:26549908

  14. HETEROGENETIC ANTIBODIES IN ACUTE HEPATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Monroe D.; Murphy, William D.; Hanford, V. Lee

    1944-01-01

    A heterogenetic antibody showing fixation of complement with human liver and agglutination of sheep erythrocytes was found in certain cases of acute infective hepatitis. The antigen concerned in these reactions was apparently heat stable and alcohol soluble. Differences from other heterogenetic antigen-antibody systems have been noted. The possible relation of the heterogenetic antibody to liver damage was considered. PMID:19871386

  15. Ketoconazole-induced fulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bercoff, E; Bernuau, J; Degott, C; Kalis, B; Lemaire, A; Tilly, H; Rueff, B; Benhamou, J P

    1985-01-01

    We report the cases of two adult patients in whom fulminant hepatitis developed after 17 and 103 days of ketoconazole administration. Histologic administration showed massive, predominantly centrilobular necrosis. Clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity and eosinophilia were absent in both patients, which suggests that ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is not mediated through an immunoallergic mechanism. Images Fig. 2 PMID:4007605

  16. [Laparoscopic treatment of hepatic cysts].

    PubMed

    Gaspari, A L; Di Lorenzo, N; Sica, G; De Ascentis, G; Rossi, M; Ferranti, F

    1995-03-01

    Laparoscopic treatment of simple hepatic cysts is reported. Recent indications to conservative surgical treatment for this benign disease are considered and different therapeutic options are analyzed. Surgical technique adopted in two cases observed is illustrated. In conclusion, the Authors consider laparoscopic treatment as an effective method for a mini-invasive surgical approach.

  17. Access to hepatitis C medicines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Danny J; Coppens, Delphi Gm; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines.

  18. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Natural history of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Rachel H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    There has long been evidence that hepatitis C can lead to persistent infection in a high proportion of infected individuals, and can progress to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The transition from acute to chronic hepatitis C is usually sub-clinical. Accurate studies of the time course for clearance of acute hepatitis C are difficult to carry out because of the silent onset of the acute disease. The likelihood of spontaneous HCV resolution is associated with several genetic factors, including IL28B inheritance and the DQB1*0301 allele of the major histocompatibility complex class II. Most data suggest that resolution in the acute phase without progression to chronic disease is not accompanied by significant disease, but minor histological lesions have been observed in anti-HCV positive, HCV RNA negative individuals. The risk of reinfection remains a possibility after clearance of acute hepatitis C. High rates of sexually-transmitted infection are being reported in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Chronic infection with HCV is the leading cause of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver related death in the Western world. The natural history of the chronic disease remains incompletely defined. It is generally a slowly progressive disease characterized by persistent hepatic inflammation, leading to the development of cirrhosis in approximately 10-20% of patients over 20-30 years of HCV infection. However, the published data indicate varying progression rates to cirrhosis. Overall, once cirrhosis has developed there is a 1-5% annual risk of HCC and a 3-6% annual risk of hepatic decompensation. Following an episode of decompensation the risk of death in the following year is between 15% and 20%. The high number of chronically infected individuals, the burden of disease, and the absence of a vaccine indicates that treatment will form part of the disease control but the impact, effectiveness and

  20. Hepatitis A: Old and New

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, and most residents are exposed in childhood. In contrast, the adult population in developed countries demonstrates falling rates of exposure with improvements in hygiene and sanitation. The export of food that cannot be sterilized, from countries of high endemicity to areas with low rates of infection, is a potentially important source of infection. After ingestion and uptake from the gastrointestinal tract, the virus replicates in the liver and is excreted into the bile. Cellular immune responses to the virus lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes with consequent development of symptoms and signs of disease. Humoral immune responses are the basis for diagnostic serologic assays. Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical variants include prolonged, relapsing, and cholestatic forms. Management of the acute illness is supportive, and complete recovery without sequelae is the usual outcome. Research efforts during World War II led to the development of passive immunoprophylaxis. Pooled immune serum globulin is efficacious in the prevention and attenuation of disease in exposed individuals. More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated. PMID:11148002

  1. Pharmacotherapy for hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Phongsamran, Paula V; Kim, Jiwon W; Cupo Abbott, Jennifer; Rosenblatt, Angela

    2010-06-18

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a challenging clinical complication of liver dysfunction with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities that range from mild disturbances in cognitive function and consciousness to coma and death. The pathogenesis of HE in cirrhosis is complex and multifactorial, but a key role is thought to be played by circulating gut-derived toxins of the nitrogenous compounds, most notably ammonia. Therapeutic treatment options for HE are currently limited and have appreciable risks and benefits associated with their use. Management of HE primarily involves avoidance of precipitating factors, limitation of dietary protein intake, and administration of various ammonia-lowering therapies such as non-absorbable disaccharides and select antimicrobial agents. Non-absorbable disaccharides, such as lactulose, have traditionally been regarded as first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with HE. However, multiple adverse events have been associated with their use. In addition, recent literature has questioned the true efficacy of the disaccharides for this indication. Neomycin, metronidazole and vancomycin may be used as alternative treatments for patients intolerant or unresponsive to non-absorbable disaccharides. Antimicrobials reduce bacterial production of ammonia and other bacteria-derived toxins through suppression of intestinal flora. Neomycin has been reported to be as effective as lactulose, and similar efficacy has been reported with vancomycin and metronidazole for the management of HE. However, the adverse effects frequently associated with these antimicrobials limit their use as first-line pharmacological agents. Neomycin is the most commonly used antimicrobial for HE and, although poorly absorbed, systemic exposure to the drug in sufficient amounts causes hearing loss and renal toxicity. Long-term neomycin therapy requires annual auditory testing and continuous monitoring of renal function. Long-term use of metronidazole has been

  2. Hepatitis A and parvovirus B19 infections in an infant with fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Ozçay, Figen; Bikmaz, Y Emre; Canan, Oğuz; Ozbek, Namik

    2006-06-01

    Acute viral hepatitis with hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses in the etiology of fulminant hepatic failure either single or in combinations has been described. Parvovirus B19 is also an etiologic agent of acute liver failure and hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia. We present a patient diagnosed with fulminant hepatitis A referred for liver transplantation. Parvovirus B19 superinfection was detected when the patient developed anemia during the course of the disease. We discuss possible roles of both viruses in fulminant hepatitis and pure red cell aplasia.

  3. [A case of fulminant hepatic failure secondary to hepatic metastasis of small cell lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Tae; Shin, Jung Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Hwang, Dae Sung; Eum, Jun Bum; Choi, Hye Jeong; Park, Neung Hwa

    2007-12-01

    Although liver metastasis is commonly found in cancer patients, fulminant hepatic failure secondary to diffuse cancer infiltration into the liver is rare. Liver metastasis-induced fulminant hepatic failure has been reported in patients with primary cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, breast and uroepithelium, and in patients with melanoma and hematologic malignancy. Small cell lung cancer is so highly invasive that hepatic metastasis is common, but rapid progression to fulminant hepatic failure is extremely rare. We report here on a case of a patient who died because of rapid progression to fulminant hepatic failure as a result of hepatic metastasis of small cell lung carcinoma.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Moumita; Bose, Sujoy; Saikia, Anjan; Medhi, Subhash; Deka, Manab

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to screen the molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Northeast India (NEI) who are ethnically distinct, tribal dominated and of lower socio-economic status with almost no information available from NEI on these aspects. Briefly, 3 ml blood was collected from 324 random liver disease cases with jaundice, receiving care at Central Hospital, N.F. Railway, Guwahati, Assam with informed consent. The patients detected with HAV-IgM positive status were included and were stratified as acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FHF) based on clinical profile. Viral RNA was isolated and HAV-RNA was detected by Real-time PCR using primers for the VP3-VP1 region. HAV genotyping was studied by PCR-direct sequencing-phylogenetic analysis approach using the VP1/2A region of HAV isolates. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS13.0 software. A total of 69 cases were HAV infected with two HBV co-infected cases (n = 69 + 2 = 71), 62 cases and two co-infected cases were AVH and others were FHF cases. HAV infection was predominant in especially in the young and adult age group. HAV-RNA was detected in 28 cases, out of which 19 cases could be genotyped (12 AVH, 7 FHF); which showed the prevalence of genotype IIIA or IA only. Although HAV genotype IIIA was the major genotype in both the AVH (10/12, 83.33%) and FHF (5/7, 71.43%) group, but the difference in distribution of genotypes in AVH and FHF cases was statistically non-significant (P = 0.550). HAV genotype IIIA is associated with the majority of HAV infected cases and severity in NEI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Efficient generation of hepatic cells from mesenchymal stromal cells by an innovative bio-microfluidic cell culture device.

    PubMed

    Yen, Meng-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Yi; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Rimando, Marilyn; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng

    2016-08-19

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and have great potential in cell therapy. Previously we reported the differentiation potential of human MSCs into hepatocytes in vitro and that these cells can rescue fulminant hepatic failure. However, the conventional static culture method neither maintains growth factors at an optimal level constantly nor removes cellular waste efficiently. In addition, not only is the duration of differentiating hepatocyte lineage cells from MSCs required to improve, but also the need for a large number of hepatocytes for cell therapy has not to date been addressed fully. The purpose of this study is to design and develop an innovative microfluidic device to overcome these shortcomings. We designed and fabricated a microfluidic device and a culture system for hepatic differentiation of MSCs using our protocol reported previously. The microfluidic device contains a large culture chamber with a stable uniform flow to allow homogeneous distribution and expansion as well as efficient induction of hepatic differentiation for MSCs. The device enables real-time observation under light microscopy and exhibits a better differentiation efficiency for MSCs compared with conventional static culture. MSCs grown in the microfluidic device showed a higher level of hepatocyte marker gene expression under hepatic induction. Functional analysis of hepatic differentiation demonstrated significantly higher urea production in the microfluidic device after 21 days of hepatic differentiation. The microfluidic device allows the generation of a large number of MSCs and induces hepatic differentiation of MSCs efficiently. The device can be adapted for scale-up production of hepatic cells from MSCs for cellular therapy.

  6. Hepatic inclusions during interferon therapy in chronic viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Z; Hoofnagle, J H; Grimley, P M

    1986-01-01

    Two types of cytomembranous abnormalities were identified for the first time in liver biopsies from patients with chronic active type B hepatitis during treatment with recombinant alpha-interferon. Tubuloreticular inclusions were present in the hepatic endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and perisinusoidal cells of liver biopsies from both patients, and they were absent in liver biopsies obtained before treatment. Cylindrical confronting lamellae, having "test tube" or "ring-shape" forms were observed in the cytoplasm both of Kupffer cells and macrophages in the second liver biopsy of one of the patients. The findings suggest that interferon can be involved in the pathogenesis of both cytomembranous abnormalities, but that additional biological factors may play a role in formation of the cylindrical confronting lamellae.

  7. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called the ...

  8. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  9. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  10. Hepatitis B antigen and viral hepatitis type B in India*

    PubMed Central

    John, T. Jacob; Carman, Robert H.; Hill, Peter G.

    1974-01-01

    Surveys were conducted to determine the occurrence of overt hepatitis manifested by jaundice in groups of hospital patients who had survived their initial illness. Of those who had been given blood that had not been screened for the presence of hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) 9.4% reported that they had had jaundice during the 6 months following transfusion. During a similar period jaundice was reported by only 1.1% of those who had received blood found to be negative for HB Ag by the cross-over electrophoresis test. This difference is highly significant. Jaundice was reported by 25.5% of recipients of HB Ag-positive blood. Of a control population of hospitalized but non-transfused patients 2.2% reported jaundice within 6 months of hospitalization. The risk of overt hepatitis from HB Ag in transfused blood is high in southern India and is similar to that in temperate countries where the occurrence of antigen carriers, and presumably of immune status, are lower than in the tropics. PMID:4549611

  11. [Hepatitis E: a Third World's hepatitis found in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Seivert, M; Belaiche, J; Delwaide, J

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus is the second cause of acute viral hepatitis of oral-fecal origin in the world. This virus has a vast distribution throughout the world and manifests itself either in epidemic or endemic-sporadic form in many developing countries. Usually, the cases of HEV infection in industrialized countries are observed after a history of travel in an endemic area. However, an increasing number of cases have been attributed to a HEV zoonotic form transmitted by swine. HEV infection can lead to deadly fulminant hepatic failure in 1-4% in the common population, but the mortality incidence reaches 20% in case of third trimester pregnant women infection. The diagnosis of HEV infection can be made using serological tests but today, RT-PCR is considered as the gold standard test. Unfortunately, this technique is not widely available in Belgium yet. There is no treatment for HEV infection, only prophylactic measures as hygiene and sewage treatment can stop epidemics. Recently, a new vaccine, still in research phase, has showed promising outcomes.

  12. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  13. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.

  14. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  15. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  16. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for individuals with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Chapko, Michael K; Yee, Helen S; Monto, Alexander; Dominitz, Jason A

    2010-02-17

    The incidence of hepatitis A infection in the United States has decreased dramatically in recent years because of childhood immunization programs. A decision analysis of the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for adults with hepatitis C was conducted. No vaccination strategy is cost-effective for adults with hepatitis C using the recent lower anticipated hepatitis A incidence, private sector costs, and a cost-effectiveness criterion of $100,000/QALY. Vaccination is cost-effective only for individuals who have cleared the hepatitis C virus when Department of Veterans Affairs costs are used. The recommendation to vaccinate adults with hepatitis C against hepatitis A should be reconsidered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  18. Hepatitis A Incidence and Hepatitis A Vaccination Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990–2001

    PubMed Central

    Bialek, Stephanie R.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.; Hu, Diana; Simard, Edgar P.; Chattin, Jody; Cheek, Jim; Bell, Beth P.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effect on trends in hepatitis A incidence of the 1996 recommendation for routine hepatitis A vaccination of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) children. Methods. We examined trends in hepatitis A incidence among AIAN peoples during 1990–2001 and vaccination coverage levels among children on the largest American Indian reservation. Results. Hepatitis A rates among AIANs declined 20-fold during 1997–2001. Declines in hepatitis A incidence occurred among AIANs in reservation and metropolitan areas. Among 1956 children living on the Navajo Nation whose medical records were reviewed, 1508 (77.1%) had received at least one dose of hepatitis A vaccine, and 1020 (52.1%) had completed the vaccine series. Conclusions. Hepatitis A rates among AIAN peoples have declined dramatically coincident with implementation of routine hepatitis A vaccination of AIAN children. PMID:15249305

  19. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy. PMID:24884719

  20. Origin of hepatitis δ virus

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John; Pelchat, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis δ virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids – a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants. PMID:20210550